draft-ietf-oauth-v2-13.txt   draft-ietf-oauth-v2-14.txt 
Network Working Group E. Hammer-Lahav, Ed. Network Working Group E. Hammer-Lahav, Ed.
Internet-Draft Yahoo! Internet-Draft Yahoo!
Obsoletes: 5849 (if approved) D. Recordon Obsoletes: 5849 (if approved) D. Recordon
Intended status: Standards Track Facebook Intended status: Standards Track Facebook
Expires: August 20, 2011 D. Hardt Expires: October 8, 2011 D. Hardt
Microsoft Microsoft
February 16, 2011 April 6, 2011
The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Protocol The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Protocol
draft-ietf-oauth-v2-13 draft-ietf-oauth-v2-14
Abstract Abstract
This specification describes the OAuth 2.0 authorization protocol. The OAuth 2.0 authorization protocol enables granting third-party
applications limited access to HTTP service on behalf of an end-user
by orchestrating an approval interaction between the end-user and the
HTTP service.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 20, 2011. This Internet-Draft will expire on October 8, 2011.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2. Protocol Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Protocol Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3. Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3. Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4. Authorization Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.4. Authorization Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5. Refresh Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.5. Refresh Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.6. Document Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.6. Document Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.7. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.7. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2. Protocol Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2. Protocol Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.1. Authorization Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1. Authorization Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2. Token Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2. Token Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3. Client Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3. Client Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1. Client Password Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.1. Client Password Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.2. Other Client Authentication Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2. Other Client Authentication Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4. Obtaining Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4. Obtaining Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1. Authorization Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.1. Authorization Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2. Implicit Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.2. Implicit Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.3. Resource Owner Password Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.3. Resource Owner Password Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.4. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.4. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.5. Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.5. Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5. Issuing an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5. Issuing an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.1. Successful Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.1. Successful Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.2. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.2. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6. Refreshing an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6. Refreshing an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7. Accessing Protected Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7. Accessing Protected Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.1. Access Token Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7.1. Access Token Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8. Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8.1. Defining Access Token Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8.1. Defining Access Token Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8.3. Defining New Authorization Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . 36 8.3. Defining New Authorization Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . 38
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 8.4. Defining Additional Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
10.1. The OAuth Access Token Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 37 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
10.2. The OAuth Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 10.1. The OAuth Access Token Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Appendix A. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 10.2. The OAuth Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Appendix B. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 10.3. The OAuth Extensions Error Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Appendix C. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Appendix A. Editor's Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
In the traditional client-server authentication model, the client In the traditional client-server authentication model, the client
accesses a protected resource on the server by authenticating with accesses a protected resource on the server by authenticating with
the server using the resource owner's credentials. In order to the server using the resource owner's credentials. In order to
provide third-party applications access to protected resources, the provide third-party applications access to protected resources, the
resource owner shares its credentials with the third-party. This resource owner shares its credentials with the third-party. This
creates several problems and limitations: creates several problems and limitations:
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issued a different set of credentials than those of the resource issued a different set of credentials than those of the resource
owner. owner.
Instead of using the resource owner's credentials to access protected Instead of using the resource owner's credentials to access protected
resources, the client obtains an access token - a string denoting a resources, the client obtains an access token - a string denoting a
specific scope, duration, and other access attributes. Access tokens specific scope, duration, and other access attributes. Access tokens
are issued to third-party clients by an authorization server with the are issued to third-party clients by an authorization server with the
approval of the resource owner. The client uses the access token to approval of the resource owner. The client uses the access token to
access the protected resources hosted by the resource server. access the protected resources hosted by the resource server.
For example, a web user (resource owner) can grant a printing service For example, a web end-user (resource owner) can grant a printing
(client) access to her protected photos stored at a photo sharing service (client) access to her protected photos stored at a photo
service (resource server), without sharing her username and password sharing service (resource server), without sharing her username and
with the printing service. Instead, she authenticates directly with password with the printing service. Instead, she authenticates
a server trusted by the photo sharing service (authorization server) directly with a server trusted by the photo sharing service
which issues the printing service delegation-specific credentials (authorization server) which issues the printing service delegation-
(access token). specific credentials (access token).
This specification is designed for use with HTTP [RFC2616]. The use
of OAuth with any transport protocol other than HTTP is undefined.
1.1. Roles 1.1. Roles
OAuth includes four roles working together to grant and provide OAuth includes four roles working together to grant and provide
access to protected resources - access restricted resources which access to protected resources - access restricted resources which
require authentication to access: require authentication to access:
resource owner resource owner
An entity capable of granting access to a protected resource. An entity capable of granting access to a protected resource.
When the resource owner is a person, it is referred to as an end- When the resource owner is a person, it is referred to as an end-
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Access tokens can have different formats, structures, and methods of Access tokens can have different formats, structures, and methods of
utilization (e.g. cryptographic properties) based on the resource utilization (e.g. cryptographic properties) based on the resource
server security requirements. Access token attributes and the server security requirements. Access token attributes and the
methods used to access protected resources are beyond the scope of methods used to access protected resources are beyond the scope of
this specification and are defined by companion specifications. this specification and are defined by companion specifications.
1.4. Authorization Grant 1.4. Authorization Grant
An authorization grant is a general term used to describe the An authorization grant is a general term used to describe the
intermediate credentials representing the resource owner intermediate credentials representing the resource owner
authorization, and serves as an abstraction layer. An authorization authorization (to access its protected resources), and serves as an
grant is used by the client to obtain an access token. abstraction layer. An authorization grant is used by the client to
obtain an access token.
This specification defines four grant types: authorization code,
implicit, resource owner password credentials, and client
credentials, as well as an extensibility mechanism for defining
additional types.
1.4.1. Authorization Code 1.4.1. Authorization Code
The authorization code is obtained by using an authorization server The authorization code is obtained by using an authorization server
as an intermediary between the client and resource owner. Instead of as an intermediary between the client and resource owner. Instead of
requesting authorization directly from the resource owner, the client requesting authorization directly from the resource owner, the client
directs the resource owner to an authorization server (via its user- directs the resource owner to an authorization server (via its user-
agent), which in turns directs the resource owner back to the client agent as defined in [RFC2616]), which in turns directs the resource
with the authorization code. owner back to the client with the authorization code.
Before directing the resource owner back to the client with the Before directing the resource owner back to the client with the
authorization code, the authorization server authenticates the authorization code, the authorization server authenticates the
resource owner and obtains authorization. Because the resource owner resource owner and obtains authorization. Because the resource owner
only authenticates with the authorization server, the resource only authenticates with the authorization server, the resource
owner's credentials are never shared with the client. owner's credentials are never shared with the client.
The authorization code provides a few important security benefits The authorization code provides a few important security benefits
such as the ability to authenticate the client and issuing the access such as the ability to authenticate the client and issuing the access
token directly to the client without potentially exposing it to token directly to the client without potentially exposing it to
others, including the resource owner. others, including the resource owner.
1.4.2. Implicit 1.4.2. Implicit
An implicit grant is issued when the resource owner's authorization When an access token is issued to the client directly as the result
is expressed directly as an access token, without using an of the resource owner authorization, without an intermediary
intermediate credential. The implicit grant is issued in a similar authorization grant (such as an authorization code), the grant is
manner as an authorization code, but instead of the resource owner considered implicit.
being redirected back to the client with the authorization code, it
is redirected back with an access token and its related attributes.
When issuing an implicit grant, the authorization server cannot When issuing an implicit grant, the authorization server cannot
verify the identity of the client, and the access token may be verify the identity of the client, and the access token may be
exposed to the resource owner or other applications with access to exposed to the resource owner or other applications with access to
the resource owner's user-agent. the resource owner's user-agent.
Implicit grants improve the responsiveness and efficiency of some Implicit grants improve the responsiveness and efficiency of some
clients (such as a client implemented as an in-browser application) clients (such as a client implemented as an in-browser application)
since it reduces the number of round trips required to obtain an since it reduces the number of round trips required to obtain an
access token. access token.
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access token. The credentials should only be used when there is a access token. The credentials should only be used when there is a
high degree of trust between the resource owner and the client (e.g. high degree of trust between the resource owner and the client (e.g.
its computer operating system or a highly privileged application), its computer operating system or a highly privileged application),
and when other authorization grant types are not available (such as and when other authorization grant types are not available (such as
an authorization code). an authorization code).
Even though this grant type requires direct client access to the Even though this grant type requires direct client access to the
resource owner credentials, the resource owner credentials are used resource owner credentials, the resource owner credentials are used
for a single request and are exchanged for an access token. Unlike for a single request and are exchanged for an access token. Unlike
the HTTP Basic authentication scheme defined in [RFC2617], this grant the HTTP Basic authentication scheme defined in [RFC2617], this grant
type eliminates the need for the client to store the resource-owner type (when combined with a refresh token) eliminates the need for the
credentials for future use. client to store the resource-owner credentials for future use.
1.4.4. Client Credentials 1.4.4. Client Credentials
The client credentials can be used as an authorization grant when the The client credentials can be used as an authorization grant when the
authorization scope is limited to the protected resources under the authorization scope is limited to the protected resources under the
control of the client, or to protected resources previously arranged control of the client, or to protected resources previously arranged
with the authorization server. Client credentials are used as an with the authorization server. Client credentials are used as an
authorization grant typically when the client is acting on its own authorization grant typically when the client is acting on its own
behalf (the client is also the resource owner). behalf (the client is also the resource owner).
1.4.5. Extensions 1.4.5. Extensions
Additional grant types may be defined to provide a bridge between Additional grant types may be defined to provide a bridge between
OAuth and other trust frameworks. For example, OAuth and other protocols. For example,
[I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer] defines a SAML 2.0 [I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer] defines a SAML 2.0
[OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] bearer assertion grant type, which can be [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] bearer assertion grant type, which can be
used to obtain an access token. used to obtain an access token.
1.5. Refresh Token 1.5. Refresh Token
A refresh token is optionally issued by the authorization server to A refresh token is optionally issued by the authorization server to
the client together with an access token. The client can use the the client together with an access token. The client can use the
refresh token to request another access token based on the same refresh token to request another access token based on the same
authorization, without having to involve the resource owner again, or authorization, without having to involve the resource owner again, or
having to retain the original authorization grant used to obtain the having to retain the original authorization grant used to obtain the
initial access token. initial access token.
A refresh token is a string representing the authorization granted to A refresh token is a string representing the authorization granted to
the client by the resource owner. The string is usually opaque to the client by the resource owner. The string is usually opaque to
the client. The token may denote an identifier used to retrieve the the client. The token may denote an identifier used to retrieve the
authorization information, or self-contain the authorization authorization information, or self-contain the authorization
information in a verifiable manner. information in a verifiable manner. The refresh token is bound to
the client it was issued to, and its usage requires client
authentication.
The refresh token can be used to obtain a new access token when the The refresh token can be used to obtain a new access token when the
current access token expires (access tokens may have a shorter current access token expires (access tokens may have a shorter
lifetime than authorized by the resource owner), or to obtain lifetime than authorized by the resource owner), no longer valid, or
additional access tokens with identical or narrower scope. to obtain additional access tokens with identical or narrower scope.
+--------+ Authorization Grant & +---------------+ +--------+ Authorization Grant & +---------------+
| |--(A)-------- Client Credentials --------->| | | |--(A)-------- Client Credentials --------->| |
| | | | | | | |
| |<-(B)----------- Access Token -------------| | | |<-(B)----------- Access Token -------------| |
| | & Refresh Token | | | | & Refresh Token | |
| | | | | | | |
| | +----------+ | | | | +----------+ | |
| |--(C)---- Access Token ---->| | | | | |--(C)---- Access Token ---->| | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
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(B) The authorization server validates the client credentials and (B) The authorization server validates the client credentials and
the authorization grant, and if valid issues an access token and the authorization grant, and if valid issues an access token and
a refresh token. a refresh token.
(C) The client makes a protected resource requests to the resource (C) The client makes a protected resource requests to the resource
server by presenting the access token. server by presenting the access token.
(D) The resource server validates the access token, and if valid, (D) The resource server validates the access token, and if valid,
serves the request. serves the request.
(E) Steps (C) and (D) repeat until the access token expires. If the (E) Steps (C) and (D) repeat until the access token expires. If the
client knows the access token expired, it skips to step (G), client knows the access token expired, it skips to step (G),
otherwise it makes another protected resource request. otherwise it makes another protected resource request.
(F) Since the access token is invalid (expired), the resource server (F) Since the access token is invalid, the resource server returns
returns an invalid token error. an invalid token error.
(G) The client requests a new access token by authenticating with (G) The client requests a new access token by authenticating with
the authorization server using its client credentials, and the authorization server using its client credentials, and
presenting the refresh token. presenting the refresh token.
(H) The authorization server validates the client credentials and (H) The authorization server validates the client credentials and
the refresh token, and if valid issues a new access token (and the refresh token, and if valid issues a new access token (and
optionally, a new refresh token). optionally, a new refresh token).
1.6. Document Structure 1.6. Document Structure
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specification are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. specification are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF)
notation of [RFC5234]. notation of [RFC5234].
Unless otherwise noted, all the protocol parameter names and values Unless otherwise noted, all the protocol parameter names and values
are case sensitive. are case sensitive.
2. Protocol Endpoints 2. Protocol Endpoints
The authorization process utilizes two endpoints: The authorization process utilizes two endpoints (HTTP resources):
o Authorization endpoint - used to obtain authorization from the o Authorization endpoint - used to obtain authorization from the
resource owner via user-agent redirection. resource owner via user-agent redirection.
o Token endpoint - used to exchange an authorization grant for an o Token endpoint - used to exchange an authorization grant for an
access token, typically with client authentication. access token, typically with client authentication.
Not every authorization grant type utilizes both endpoints. Not every authorization grant type utilizes both endpoints.
Extension grant types MAY define additional endpoints as needed. Extension grant types MAY define additional endpoints as needed.
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The authorization endpoint is used to interact with the resource The authorization endpoint is used to interact with the resource
owner and obtain authorization which is expressed explicitly as an owner and obtain authorization which is expressed explicitly as an
authorization code (exchanged for an access token), or implicitly by authorization code (exchanged for an access token), or implicitly by
direct issuance of an access token. direct issuance of an access token.
The authorization server MUST first verify the identity of the The authorization server MUST first verify the identity of the
resource owner. The way in which the authorization server resource owner. The way in which the authorization server
authenticates the resource owner (e.g. username and password login, authenticates the resource owner (e.g. username and password login,
session cookies) is beyond the scope of this specification. session cookies) is beyond the scope of this specification.
The location of the authorization endpoint can be found in the The means through which the client obtains the location of the
service documentation. The endpoint URI MAY include a query authorization endpoint are beyond the scope of this specification but
component as defined by [RFC3986] section 3, which MUST be retained is typically provided in the service documentation. The endpoint URI
when adding additional query parameters. MAY include a query component as defined by [RFC3986] section 3,
which MUST be retained when adding additional query parameters.
Requests to the authorization endpoint result in user authentication Requests to the authorization endpoint result in resource owner
and the transmission of sensitive information. If the response authentication and the transmission of sensitive information. If the
includes an access token, the authorization server MUST require TLS response includes an access token, the authorization server MUST
1.2 as defined in [RFC5246] and MAY support additional transport- require TLS 1.2 as defined in [RFC5246] and MAY support additional
layer mechanisms meeting its security requirements. If the response transport-layer mechanisms meeting its security requirements. If the
does not include an access token, the authorization server SHOULD response does not include an access token, the authorization server
require TLS 1.2 and any additional transport-layer mechanism meeting SHOULD require TLS 1.2 and any additional transport-layer mechanism
its security requirements. meeting its security requirements.
The authorization server MUST support the use of the HTTP "GET" The authorization server MUST support the use of the HTTP "GET"
method for the authorization endpoint, and MAY support the use of the method [RFC2616] for the authorization endpoint, and MAY support the
"POST" method as well. use of the "POST" method as well.
The REQUIRED "response_type" request parameter is used to identify
which grant type the client is requesting: authorization code or
implicit, described in Section 4.1.1 and Section 4.2.1 respectively.
If the request is missing the "response_type" parameter, the
authorization server SHOULD return an error response as described in
Section 4.1.2.1.
Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were
omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore
unrecognized request parameters. unrecognized request parameters.
Request and response parameters MUST NOT repeat more than once,
unless noted otherwise.
2.1.1. Redirection URI 2.1.1. Redirection URI
The client directs the resource owner's user-agent to the The client directs the resource owner's user-agent to the
authorization endpoint and includes a redirection URI to which the authorization endpoint and includes a redirection URI to which the
authorization server will redirect the user-agent back once authorization server will redirect the user-agent back once
authorization has been obtained (or denied). The client MAY omit the authorization has been obtained (or denied). The client MAY omit the
redirection URI if one has been established between the client and redirection URI if one has been established between the client and
authorization server via other means, such as during the client authorization server via other means, such as during the client
registration process. registration process.
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The authorization server SHOULD NOT redirect the user-agent to The authorization server SHOULD NOT redirect the user-agent to
unregistered or untrusted URIs to prevent the endpoint from being unregistered or untrusted URIs to prevent the endpoint from being
used as an open redirector. If no valid redirection URI is used as an open redirector. If no valid redirection URI is
available, the authorization server SHOULD inform the resource owner available, the authorization server SHOULD inform the resource owner
directly of the error. directly of the error.
2.2. Token Endpoint 2.2. Token Endpoint
The token endpoint is used by the client to obtain an access token by The token endpoint is used by the client to obtain an access token by
authenticating with the authorization server and presenting its authenticating with the authorization server and presenting its
authorization grant. The token endpoint is used with every authorization grant or refresh token. The token endpoint is used
authorization grant except for the implicit grant type (since an with every authorization grant except for the implicit grant type
access token is issued directly). (since an access token is issued directly).
The location of the token endpoint can be found in the service The means through which the client obtains the location of the token
documentation. The endpoint URI MAY include a query component, which endpoint are beyond the scope of this specification but is typically
MUST be retained when adding additional query parameters. provided in the service documentation. The endpoint URI MAY include
a query component, which MUST be retained when adding additional
query parameters.
Since requests to the token endpoint result in the transmission of Since requests to the token endpoint result in the transmission of
clear-text credentials (in the HTTP request and response), the clear-text credentials (in the HTTP request and response), the
authorization server MUST require the use of a transport-layer authorization server MUST require the use of a transport-layer
security mechanism when sending requests to the token endpoints. The security mechanism when sending requests to the token endpoints. The
authorization server MUST support TLS 1.2 as defined in [RFC5246], authorization server MUST support TLS 1.2 as defined in [RFC5246],
and MAY support additional transport-layer mechanisms meeting its and MAY support additional transport-layer mechanisms meeting its
security requirements. security requirements.
The token endpoint requires client authentication as described in The token endpoint requires client authentication as described in
skipping to change at page 13, line 6 skipping to change at page 13, line 19
authentication meeting its security requirements. The client MUST authentication meeting its security requirements. The client MUST
NOT use more than one authentication method in each request. NOT use more than one authentication method in each request.
The client MUST use the HTTP "POST" method when making access token The client MUST use the HTTP "POST" method when making access token
requests. requests.
Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were
omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore
unrecognized request parameters. unrecognized request parameters.
Request and response parameters MUST NOT repeat more than once,
unless noted otherwise.
3. Client Authentication 3. Client Authentication
Client credentials are used to identify and authenticate the client. Client credentials are used to identify and authenticate the client.
The client credentials include a client identifier - a unique string The client credentials include a client identifier - a unique string
issued to the client to identify itself to the authorization server. issued to the client to identify itself to the authorization server.
The client identifier is not a secret, it is exposed to the resource
owner, and MUST NOT be used alone for client authentication. Client
authentication is accomplished via additional means such as a
matching client password.
The methods through which the client obtains its client credentials The methods through which the client obtains its client credentials
are beyond the scope of this specification. are beyond the scope of this specification. However, the client
registration process typically includes gathering relevant
information used to inform the resource owner about the client when
requesting authorization.
Due to the nature of some clients, the authorization server should Due to the nature of some clients, the authorization server should
not make assumptions about the confidentiality of client credentials not make assumptions about the confidentiality of client credentials
without establishing trust with the client. The authorization server without establishing trust with the client. The authorization server
SHOULD NOT issue client credentials to clients incapable of keeping SHOULD NOT issue client credentials to clients incapable of keeping
their secrets confidential. their credentials confidential (typically determined during the
client registration process).
In addition, the authorization server MAY allow unauthenticated
access token requests when the client identity does not matter (e.g.
anonymous client) or when the client identity is established via
other means. For readability purposes only, this specification is
written under the assumption that the authorization server requires
some form of client authentication. However, such language does not
affect the authorization server's discretion in allowing
unauthenticated client requests.
3.1. Client Password Authentication 3.1. Client Password Authentication
The client password authentication uses a shared symmetric secret to The client password authentication uses a shared symmetric secret to
authenticate the client. The client identifier and password are authenticate the client. The client identifier and password are
included in the request using the following parameters: included in the request using the following parameters:
client_id client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier. REQUIRED. The client identifier.
client_secret client_secret
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Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1& client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
3.2. Other Client Authentication Methods 3.2. Other Client Authentication Methods
In cases where client password authentication is not suitable or In cases where client password authentication is not suitable or
sufficient, the authorization server MAY support other existing HTTP sufficient, the authorization server MAY support other existing HTTP
authentication schemes or define new methods. In addition, the authentication schemes or define new methods.
authorization server MAY allow unauthenticated access token requests
when the client identity does not matter (e.g. anonymous client) or
when the client identity is established via other means.
For example, the authorization server MAY support using the HTTP For example, the authorization server MAY support using the HTTP
Basic authentication scheme as defined in [RFC2617] to include the Basic authentication scheme as defined in [RFC2617] to include the
client identifier as the username and client password as the password client identifier as the username and client password as the password
(line breaks are for display purposes only): (line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Authorization: Basic czZCaGRSa3F0MzpnWDFmQmF0M2JW Authorization: Basic czZCaGRSa3F0MzpnWDFmQmF0M2JW
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
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When using a method other than client password authentication to When using a method other than client password authentication to
exchange an authorization code grant type, the authorization server exchange an authorization code grant type, the authorization server
MUST define a method for mapping the client credentials to the client MUST define a method for mapping the client credentials to the client
identifier used to obtain the authorization code. identifier used to obtain the authorization code.
4. Obtaining Authorization 4. Obtaining Authorization
To request an access token, the client obtains authorization from the To request an access token, the client obtains authorization from the
resource owner. The authorization is expressed in the form of an resource owner. The authorization is expressed in the form of an
authorization grant which the client uses to requesting the access authorization grant which the client uses to request the access
token. OAuth defines four grant types: authorization code, implicit, token. OAuth defines four grant types: authorization code, implicit,
resource owner password credentials, and client credentials. It also resource owner password credentials, and client credentials. It also
provides an extension mechanism for defining additional grant types. provides an extension mechanism for defining additional grant types.
4.1. Authorization Code 4.1. Authorization Code
The authorization code grant type is suitable for clients capable of The authorization code grant type is suitable for clients capable of
maintaining their client credentials confidential (for authenticating maintaining their client credentials confidential (for authenticating
with the authorization server) such as a client implemented on a with the authorization server) such as a client implemented on a
secure server. As a redirection-based flow, the client must be secure server. As a redirection-based flow, the client must be
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user-agent to the authorization endpoint. The client includes user-agent to the authorization endpoint. The client includes
its client identifier, requested scope, local state, and a its client identifier, requested scope, local state, and a
redirection URI to which the authorization server will send the redirection URI to which the authorization server will send the
user-agent back once access is granted (or denied). user-agent back once access is granted (or denied).
(B) The authorization server authenticates the resource owner (via (B) The authorization server authenticates the resource owner (via
the user-agent) and establishes whether the resource owner the user-agent) and establishes whether the resource owner
grants or denies the client's access request. grants or denies the client's access request.
(C) Assuming the resource owner grants access, the authorization (C) Assuming the resource owner grants access, the authorization
server redirects the user-agent back to the client using the server redirects the user-agent back to the client using the
redirection URI provided earlier. The redirection URI includes redirection URI provided earlier. The redirection URI includes
an authorization code. an authorization code and any local state provided by the client
earlier.
(D) The client requests an access token from the authorization (D) The client requests an access token from the authorization
server's token endpoint by authenticating using its client server's token endpoint by authenticating using its client
credentials, and includes the authorization code received in the credentials, and includes the authorization code received in the
previous step. previous step. The client includes the redirection URI used to
(E) The authorization server validates the client credentials and obtain the authorization code for verification.
the authorization code and if valid, responds back with an (E) The authorization server validates the client credentials, the
access token. authorization code, and ensures the redirection URI received
matches the URI used to redirect the client in step (C). If
valid, responds back with an access token.
4.1.1. Authorization Request 4.1.1. Authorization Request
The client constructs the request URI by adding the following The client constructs the request URI by adding the following
parameters to the query component of the authorization endpoint URI parameters to the query component of the authorization endpoint URI
using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224]: [W3C.REC-html401-19991224]:
response_type response_type
REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "code". REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "code".
client_id client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3. REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.
redirect_uri redirect_uri
REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between
the client and authorization server via other means. Described the client and authorization server via other means. Described
in Section 2.1.1. in Section 2.1.1.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited, case sensitive strings. The value is
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. and each string adds an additional access range to the
requested scope.
state state
OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state
between the request and callback. The authorization server between the request and callback. The authorization server
includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the
client. client.
The client directs the resource owner to the constructed URI using an The client directs the resource owner to the constructed URI using an
HTTP redirection response, or by other means available to it via the HTTP redirection response, or by other means available to it via the
user-agent. user-agent.
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the client. the client.
For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by
sending the following HTTP response: sending the following HTTP response:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: https://client.example.com/cb?code=i1WsRn1uB1 Location: https://client.example.com/cb?code=i1WsRn1uB1
The client SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The The client SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The
authorization code string size is left undefined by this authorization code string size is left undefined by this
specification. The clients should avoid making assumptions about specification. The client should avoid making assumptions about code
code value sizes. The authorization server should document the size value sizes. The authorization server should document the size of
of any value it issues. any value it issues.
4.1.2.1. Error Response 4.1.2.1. Error Response
If the request fails due to a missing, invalid, or mismatching If the request fails due to a missing, invalid, or mismatching
redirection URI, or if the client identifier provided is invalid, the redirection URI, or if the client identifier provided is invalid, the
authorization server SHOULD inform the resource owner of the error, authorization server SHOULD inform the resource owner of the error,
and MUST NOT redirect the user-agent to the invalid redirection URI. and MUST NOT redirect the user-agent to the invalid redirection URI.
If the resource owner denies the access request or if the request If the resource owner denies the access request or if the request
fails for reasons other than a missing or invalid redirection URI, fails for reasons other than a missing or invalid redirection URI,
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The client is not authorized to request an authorization The client is not authorized to request an authorization
code using this method. code using this method.
access_denied access_denied
The resource owner or authorization server denied the The resource owner or authorization server denied the
request. request.
unsupported_response_type unsupported_response_type
The authorization server does not support obtaining an The authorization server does not support obtaining an
authorization code using this method. authorization code using this method.
invalid_scope invalid_scope
The requested scope is invalid, unknown, or malformed. The requested scope is invalid, unknown, or malformed.
a 4xx or 5xx HTTP status code (except for 400 and 401)
[[ Pending Consensus ]] The authorization server MAY set
the "error" parameter value to a numerical HTTP status
code from the 4xx or 5xx range, with the exception of the
400 (Bad Request) and 401 (Unauthorized) status codes.
For example, if the service is temporarily unavailable,
the authorization server MAY return an error response
with "error" set to "503".
error_description error_description
OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing additional OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing additional
information, used to assist in the understanding and resolution information, used to assist in the understanding and resolution
of the error occurred. of the error occurred.
error_uri error_uri
OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page with OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page with
information about the error, used to provide the resource owner information about the error, used to provide the resource owner
with additional information about the error. with additional information about the error.
state state
REQUIRED if the "state" parameter was present in the client REQUIRED if a valid "state" parameter was present in the client
authorization request. Set to the exact value received from authorization request. Set to the exact value received from
the client. the client.
For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by
sending the following HTTP response: sending the following HTTP response:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: https://client.example.com/cb?error=access_denied Location: https://client.example.com/cb?error=access_denied
4.1.3. Access Token Request 4.1.3. Access Token Request
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POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1& client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
The authorization server MUST: The authorization server MUST:
o Validate the client credentials and ensure they match the o Validate the client credentials and ensure that the authorization
authorization code. code was issued to that client.
o Verify that the authorization code is valid, and that the o Verify that the authorization code is valid, and that the
redirection URI matches the redirection URI used by the redirection URI matches the redirection URI used by the
authorization server to deliver the authorization code. authorization server to deliver the authorization code.
4.1.4. Access Token Response 4.1.4. Access Token Response
If the access token request is valid and authorized, the If the access token request is valid and authorized, the
authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh
token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client token as described in Section 5.1. If the request client
authentication or is invalid, the authorization server return an authentication failed or is invalid, the authorization server returns
error response as described in Section 5.2. an error response as described in Section 5.2.
An example successful response: An example successful response:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{ {
"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG", "access_token":"SlAV32hkKG",
"token_type":"example", "token_type":"example",
"expires_in":3600, "expires_in":3600,
"refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8", "refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8",
"example_parameter":"example-value" "example_parameter":"example_value"
} }
4.2. Implicit Grant 4.2. Implicit Grant
The implicit grant type is suitable for clients incapable of The implicit grant type is suitable for clients incapable of
maintaining their client credentials confidential (for authenticating maintaining their client credentials confidential (for authenticating
with the authorization server) such as client applications residing with the authorization server) such as client applications residing
in a user-agent, typically implemented in a browser using a scripting in a user-agent, typically implemented in a browser using a scripting
language such as JavaScript, or native applications. These clients language such as JavaScript.
cannot keep client secrets confidential and the authentication of the
client is based on the user-agent's same-origin policy.
As a redirection-based flow, the client must be capable of As a redirection-based flow, the client must be capable of
interacting with the resource owner's user-agent (typically a web interacting with the resource owner's user-agent (typically a web
browser) and capable of receiving incoming requests (via redirection) browser) and capable of receiving incoming requests (via redirection)
from the authorization server. from the authorization server.
Unlike the authorization code grant type in which the client makes Unlike the authorization code grant type in which the client makes
separate requests for authorization and access token, the client separate requests for authorization and access token, the client
receives the access token as the result of the authorization request. receives the access token as the result of the authorization request.
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4.2.1. Authorization Request 4.2.1. Authorization Request
The client constructs the request URI by adding the following The client constructs the request URI by adding the following
parameters to the query component of the authorization endpoint URI parameters to the query component of the authorization endpoint URI
using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format: using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format:
response_type response_type
REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "token". REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "token".
client_id client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3. REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.
Due to lack of client authentication, the client identifier
alone MUST NOT be relied upon for client identification.
redirect_uri redirect_uri
REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between
the client and authorization server via other means. Described the client and authorization server via other means. Described
in Section 2.1.1. in Section 2.1.1.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited, case sensitive strings. The value is
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. and each string adds an additional access range to the
requested scope.
state state
OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state
between the request and callback. The authorization server between the request and callback. The authorization server
includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the
client. client.
The client directs the resource owner to the constructed URI using an The client directs the resource owner to the constructed URI using an
HTTP redirection response, or by other means available to it via the HTTP redirection response, or by other means available to it via the
user-agent. user-agent.
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access_token access_token
REQUIRED. The access token issued by the authorization server. REQUIRED. The access token issued by the authorization server.
token_type token_type
REQUIRED. The type of the token issued as described in REQUIRED. The type of the token issued as described in
Section 7.1. Value is case insensitive. Section 7.1. Value is case insensitive.
expires_in expires_in
OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token
lifetime. For example, the value "3600" denotes that the lifetime. For example, the value "3600" denotes that the
access token will expire in one hour from the time the response access token will expire in one hour from the time the response
was generated. was generated.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited, case sensitive strings. The value is
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. The and each string adds an additional access range to the
authorization server SHOULD include the parameter if the requested scope. The authorization server SHOULD include the
requested scope is different from the one requested by the parameter if the requested scope is different from the one
client. requested by the client.
state state
REQUIRED if the "state" parameter was present in the client REQUIRED if the "state" parameter was present in the client
authorization request. Set to the exact value received from authorization request. Set to the exact value received from
the client. the client.
For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by
sending the following HTTP response (URI line breaks are for display sending the following HTTP response (URI line breaks are for display
purposes only): purposes only):
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
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invalid_request invalid_request
The request is missing a required parameter, includes an The request is missing a required parameter, includes an
unsupported parameter or parameter value, or is otherwise unsupported parameter or parameter value, or is otherwise
malformed. malformed.
unauthorized_client unauthorized_client
The client is not authorized to request an access token The client is not authorized to request an access token
using this method. using this method.
access_denied access_denied
The resource owner or authorization server denied the The resource owner or authorization server denied the
request. request.
unsupported_response_type unsupported_response_type
The authorization server does not support obtaining an The authorization server does not support obtaining an
access token using this method. access token using this method.
invalid_scope invalid_scope
The requested scope is invalid, unknown, or malformed. The requested scope is invalid, unknown, or malformed.
a 4xx or 5xx HTTP status code (except for 400 and 401)
[[ Pending Consensus ]] The authorization server MAY set
the "error" parameter value to a numerical HTTP status
code from the 4xx or 5xx range, with the exception of the
400 (Bad Request) and 401 (Unauthorized) status codes.
For example, if the service is temporarily unavailable,
the authorization server MAY return an error response
with "error" set to "503".
error_description error_description
OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing additional OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing additional
information, used to assist in the understanding and resolution information, used to assist in the understanding and resolution
of the error occurred. of the error occurred.
error_uri error_uri
OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page with OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page with
information about the error, used to provide the resource owner information about the error, used to provide the resource owner
with additional information about the error. with additional information about the error.
state state
REQUIRED if the "state" parameter was present in the client REQUIRED if a valid "state" parameter was present in the client
authorization request. Set to the exact value received from authorization request. Set to the exact value received from
the client. the client.
For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by
sending the following HTTP response: sending the following HTTP response:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: https://client.example.com/cb#error=access_denied Location: https://client.example.com/cb#error=access_denied
4.3. Resource Owner Password Credentials 4.3. Resource Owner Password Credentials
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format in the HTTP request entity-body: format in the HTTP request entity-body:
grant_type grant_type
REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "password". REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "password".
username username
REQUIRED. The resource owner username. REQUIRED. The resource owner username.
password password
REQUIRED. The resource owner password. REQUIRED. The resource owner password.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited, case sensitive strings. The value is
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. and each string adds an additional access range to the
requested scope.
The client includes its authentication credentials as described in The client includes its authentication credentials as described in
Section 3 Section 3
[[ add internationalization consideration for username and password
]]
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret" its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret"
parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=password&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=password&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
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The authorization server MUST: The authorization server MUST:
o Validate the client credentials. o Validate the client credentials.
o Validate the resource owner password credentials. o Validate the resource owner password credentials.
4.3.3. Access Token Response 4.3.3. Access Token Response
If the access token request is valid and authorized, the If the access token request is valid and authorized, the
authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh
token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client
authentication or is invalid, the authorization server return an authentication or is invalid, the authorization server returns an
error response as described in Section 5.2. error response as described in Section 5.2.
An example successful response: An example successful response:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{ {
"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG", "access_token":"SlAV32hkKG",
"token_type":"example", "token_type":"example",
"expires_in":3600, "expires_in":3600,
"refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8", "refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8",
"example_parameter":"example-value" "example_parameter":"example_value"
} }
4.4. Client Credentials 4.4. Client Credentials
The client can request an access token using only its client The client can request an access token using only its client
credentials when the client is requesting access to the protected credentials when the client is requesting access to the protected
resources under its control, or those of another resource owner which resources under its control, or those of another resource owner which
has been previously arranged with the authorization server (the has been previously arranged with the authorization server (the
method of which is beyond the scope of this specification). method of which is beyond the scope of this specification).
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4.4.2. Access Token Request 4.4.2. Access Token Request
The client makes a request to the token endpoint by adding the The client makes a request to the token endpoint by adding the
following parameter using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" following parameter using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
format in the HTTP request entity-body: format in the HTTP request entity-body:
grant_type grant_type
REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "client_credentials". REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "client_credentials".
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited, case sensitive strings. The value is
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. and each string adds an additional access range to the
requested scope.
The client includes its authentication credentials as described in The client includes its authentication credentials as described in
Section 3 Section 3
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret" its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret"
parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
skipping to change at page 29, line 42 skipping to change at page 31, line 10
grant_type=client_credentials&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=client_credentials&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=47HDu8s client_secret=47HDu8s
The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials. The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials.
4.4.3. Access Token Response 4.4.3. Access Token Response
If the access token request is valid and authorized, the If the access token request is valid and authorized, the
authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh
token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client
authentication or is invalid, the authorization server return an authentication or is invalid, the authorization server returns an
error response as described in Section 5.2. error response as described in Section 5.2.
An example successful response: An example successful response:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{ {
"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG", "access_token":"SlAV32hkKG",
"token_type":"example", "token_type":"example",
"expires_in":3600, "expires_in":3600,
"refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8", "refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8",
"example_parameter":"example-value" "example_parameter":"example_value"
} }
4.5. Extensions 4.5. Extensions
The client uses an extension grant type by specifying the grant type The client uses an extension grant type by specifying the grant type
using an absolute URI (defined by the authorization server) as the using an absolute URI (defined by the authorization server) as the
value of the "grant_type" parameter of the token endpoint, and by value of the "grant_type" parameter of the token endpoint, and by
adding any additional parameters necessary. adding any additional parameters necessary.
For example, to request an access token using a SAML 2.0 assertion For example, to request an access token using a SAML 2.0 assertion
skipping to change at page 30, line 44 skipping to change at page 32, line 10
grant_type=http%3A%2F%2Foauth.net%2Fgrant_type%2Fassertion%2F grant_type=http%3A%2F%2Foauth.net%2Fgrant_type%2Fassertion%2F
saml%2F2.0%2Fbearer&assertion=PEFzc2VydGlvbiBJc3N1ZUluc3RhbnQ saml%2F2.0%2Fbearer&assertion=PEFzc2VydGlvbiBJc3N1ZUluc3RhbnQ
[...omitted for brevity...]V0aG5TdGF0ZW1lbnQ-PC9Bc3NlcnRpb24- [...omitted for brevity...]V0aG5TdGF0ZW1lbnQ-PC9Bc3NlcnRpb24-
5. Issuing an Access Token 5. Issuing an Access Token
If the access token request is valid and authorized, the If the access token request is valid and authorized, the
authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh
token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client
authentication or is invalid, the authorization server return an authentication or is invalid, the authorization server returns an
error response as described in Section 5.2. error response as described in Section 5.2.
5.1. Successful Response 5.1. Successful Response
The authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh The authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh
token, and constructs the response by adding the following parameters token, and constructs the response by adding the following parameters
to the entity body of the HTTP response with a 200 (OK) status code: to the entity body of the HTTP response with a 200 (OK) status code:
access_token access_token
REQUIRED. The access token issued by the authorization server. REQUIRED. The access token issued by the authorization server.
skipping to change at page 31, line 27 skipping to change at page 32, line 35
OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token
lifetime. For example, the value "3600" denotes that the lifetime. For example, the value "3600" denotes that the
access token will expire in one hour from the time the response access token will expire in one hour from the time the response
was generated. was generated.
refresh_token refresh_token
OPTIONAL. The refresh token which can be used to obtain new OPTIONAL. The refresh token which can be used to obtain new
access tokens using the same authorization grant as described access tokens using the same authorization grant as described
in Section 6. in Section 6.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited, case sensitive strings. The value is
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. The and each string adds an additional access range to the
authorization server SHOULD include the parameter if the requested scope. The authorization server SHOULD include the
requested scope is different from the one requested by the parameter if the requested scope is different from the one
client. requested by the client.
The parameters are included in the entity body of the HTTP response The parameters are included in the entity body of the HTTP response
using the "application/json" media type as defined by [RFC4627]. The using the "application/json" media type as defined by [RFC4627]. The
parameters are serialized into a JSON structure by adding each parameters are serialized into a JSON structure by adding each
parameter at the highest structure level. Parameter names and string parameter at the highest structure level. Parameter names and string
values are included as JSON strings. Numerical values are included values are included as JSON strings. Numerical values are included
as JSON numbers. as JSON numbers.
The authorization server MUST include the HTTP "Cache-Control" The authorization server MUST include the HTTP "Cache-Control"
response header field with a value of "no-store" in any response response header field [RFC2616] with a value of "no-store" in any
containing tokens, secrets, or other sensitive information. response containing tokens, secrets, or other sensitive information.
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{ {
"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG", "access_token":"SlAV32hkKG",
"token_type":"example", "token_type":"example",
"expires_in":3600, "expires_in":3600,
"refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8", "refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8",
"example_parameter":"example-value" "example_parameter":"example_value"
} }
The client SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The sizes The client SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The sizes
of tokens and other values received from the authorization server are of tokens and other values received from the authorization server are
left undefined. The client should avoid making assumptions about left undefined. The client should avoid making assumptions about
value sizes. The authorization server should document the size of value sizes. The authorization server should document the size of
any value it issues. any value it issues.
5.2. Error Response 5.2. Error Response
skipping to change at page 33, line 7 skipping to change at page 34, line 7
(Unauthorized) status code to indicate which HTTP (Unauthorized) status code to indicate which HTTP
authentication schemes are supported. If the client authentication schemes are supported. If the client
attempted to authenticate via the "Authorization" request attempted to authenticate via the "Authorization" request
header field, the authorization server MUST respond with header field, the authorization server MUST respond with
an HTTP 401 (Unauthorized) status code, and include the an HTTP 401 (Unauthorized) status code, and include the
"WWW-Authenticate" response header field matching the "WWW-Authenticate" response header field matching the
authentication scheme used by the client. authentication scheme used by the client.
invalid_grant invalid_grant
The provided authorization grant is invalid, expired, The provided authorization grant is invalid, expired,
revoked, or does not match the redirection URI used in revoked, does not match the redirection URI used in the
the authorization request. authorization request, or was issued to another client.
unauthorized_client unauthorized_client
The authenticated client is not authorized to use this The authenticated client is not authorized to use this
authorization grant type. authorization grant type.
unsupported_grant_type unsupported_grant_type
The authorization grant type is not supported by the The authorization grant type is not supported by the
authorization server. authorization server.
invalid_scope invalid_scope
The requested scope is invalid, unknown, malformed, or The requested scope is invalid, unknown, malformed, or
exceeds the previously granted scope. exceeds the scope granted by the resource owner.
error_description error_description
OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing additional OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing additional
information, used to assist in the understanding and resolution information, used to assist in the understanding and resolution
of the error occurred. of the error occurred.
error_uri error_uri
OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page with OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page with
information about the error, used to provide the resource owner information about the error, used to provide the resource owner
with additional information about the error. with additional information about the error.
The parameters are included in the entity body of the HTTP response The parameters are included in the entity body of the HTTP response
skipping to change at page 33, line 44 skipping to change at page 34, line 44
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{ {
"error":"invalid_request" "error":"invalid_request"
} }
[[ Pending Consensus ]] If the authorization server encounters an
error condition other than the 400 (Bad Request) and 401
(Unauthorized) responses described above (e.g. the service is
temporarily unavailable), the authorization server SHOULD include an
error response in the entity body, and set the "error" parameter
value to the numerical HTTP status code returned.
For example:
HTTP/1.1 503 Service Unavailable
Content-Type: application/json
{
"error":"503"
}
6. Refreshing an Access Token 6. Refreshing an Access Token
The client makes a request to the token endpoint by adding the The client makes a request to the token endpoint by adding the
following parameter using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" following parameter using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
format in the HTTP request entity-body: format in the HTTP request entity-body:
grant_type grant_type
REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "refresh_token". REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "refresh_token".
refresh_token refresh_token
REQUIRED. The refresh token issued along the access token REQUIRED. The refresh token issued to the client.
being refreshed.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited, case sensitive strings. The value is
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. The and each string adds an additional access range to the
requested scope MUST be equal or lesser than the scope requested scope. The requested scope MUST be equal or lesser
originally granted by the resource owner, and if omitted is than the scope originally granted by the resource owner, and if
treated as equal to the previously approved scope. omitted is treated as equal to the scope originally granted by
the resource owner.
The client includes its authentication credentials as described in The client includes its authentication credentials as described in
Section 3 Section 3.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret" its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret"
parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=refresh_token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=refresh_token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=8eSEIpnqmM&refresh_token=n4E9O119d client_secret=8eSEIpnqmM&refresh_token=n4E9O119d
The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials, the The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials, ensure
refresh token, and verify that the resource owner's authorization is that the refresh token was issued to the authenticated client,
still valid. If valid and authorized, the authorization server validate the refresh token, and verify that the resource owner's
issues an access token as described in Section 5.1. If the request authorization is still valid. If valid and authorized, the
failed verification or is invalid, the authorization server return an authorization server issues an access token as described in
error response as described in Section 5.2. Section 5.1. If the request failed verification or is invalid, the
authorization server returns an error response as described in
Section 5.2.
The authorization server MAY issue a new refresh token, in which The authorization server MAY issue a new refresh token, in which
case, the client MUST discard the old refresh token and replace it case, the client MUST discard the old refresh token and replace it
with the new refresh token. with the new refresh token.
7. Accessing Protected Resources 7. Accessing Protected Resources
The client accesses protected resources by presenting the access The client accesses protected resources by presenting the access
token to the resource server. The resource server MUST validate the token to the resource server. The resource server MUST validate the
access token and ensure it has not expired and that its scope covers access token and ensure it has not expired and that its scope covers
the requested resource. The methods used by the resource server to the requested resource. The methods used by the resource server to
validate the access token are beyond the scope of this specification, validate the access token (as well as any error responses) are beyond
but generally involve an interaction or coordination between the the scope of this specification, but generally involve an interaction
resource server and the authorization server. or coordination between the resource server and the authorization
server.
The method in which the client utilized the access token to The method in which the client utilized the access token to
authenticate with the resource server depends on the type of access authenticate with the resource server depends on the type of access
token issued by the authorization server. Typically, it involves token issued by the authorization server. Typically, it involves
using the HTTP "Authorization" request header field with an using the HTTP "Authorization" request header field [RFC2617] with an
authentication scheme defined by the access token type specification. authentication scheme defined by the access token type specification.
7.1. Access Token Types 7.1. Access Token Types
The access token type provides the client with the information The access token type provides the client with the information
required to successfully utilize the access token to make a protected required to successfully utilize the access token to make a protected
resource request (along with type-specific attributes). resource request (along with type-specific attributes).
For example, the "bearer" token type defined in For example, the "bearer" token type defined in
[I-D.ietf-oauth-v2-bearer] is utilized by simply including the access [I-D.ietf-oauth-v2-bearer] is utilized by simply including the access
token string in the request: token string in the request:
GET /resource/1 HTTP/1.1 GET /resource/1 HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com Host: example.com
Authorization: BEARER h480djs93hd8 Authorization: Bearer h480djs93hd8
while the "mac" token type defined in [I-D.hammer-oauth-v2-mac-token] while the "mac" token type defined in [I-D.hammer-oauth-v2-mac-token]
is utilized by issuing a token secret together with the access token is utilized by issuing a token secret together with the access token
which is used to sign certain components of the HTTP requests: which is used to sign certain components of the HTTP requests:
GET /resource/1 HTTP/1.1 GET /resource/1 HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com Host: example.com
Authorization: MAC token="h480djs93hd8", Authorization: MAC token="h480djs93hd8",
timestamp="137131200", timestamp="137131200",
nonce="dj83hs9s", nonce="dj83hs9s",
skipping to change at page 36, line 32 skipping to change at page 38, line 5
type-name = 1*name-char type-name = 1*name-char
name-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA name-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA
8.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters 8.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters
New request or response parameters for use with the authorization New request or response parameters for use with the authorization
endpoint or the token endpoint are defined and registered in the endpoint or the token endpoint are defined and registered in the
parameters registry following the procedure in Section 10.2. parameters registry following the procedure in Section 10.2.
Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF, MUST NOT use the Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF and parameter
"x_" parameter name prefix, and parameter values syntax MUST be well- values syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference
defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference to the syntax of an to the syntax of an existing parameter).
existing parameter).
param-name = 1*name-char param-name = 1*name-char
name-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA name-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA
Vendor-specific parameter extensions that are not commonly Unregistered vendor-specific parameter extensions that are not
applicable, and are specific to the implementation details of the commonly applicable, and are specific to the implementation details
authorization server where they are used SHOULD utilize the "x_" of the authorization server where they are used SHOULD utilize a
parameter name prefix if they are not registered. vendor-specific prefix that is not likely to conflict with other
registered values (e.g. begin with 'companyname_').
8.3. Defining New Authorization Grant Types 8.3. Defining New Authorization Grant Types
New authorization grant types can be defined by assigning them a New authorization grant types can be defined by assigning them a
unique absolute URI for use with the "grant_type" parameter. If the unique absolute URI for use with the "grant_type" parameter. If the
extension grant type requires additional token endpoint parameters, extension grant type requires additional token endpoint parameters,
they MUST be registered in the OAuth parameters registry as described they MUST be registered in the OAuth parameters registry as described
by Section 10.2. by Section 10.2.
8.4. Defining Additional Error Codes
[[ Pending Consensus ]]
In cases where protocol extensions (i.e. access token types,
extension parameters, or extension grant types) require additional
error codes to be used with the authorization code grant error
response (Section 4.1.2.1), the implicit grant error response
(Section 4.2.2.1), or the token error response (Section 5.2), such
error codes MAY be defined.
Extension error codes MUST be registered (following the procedures in
Section 10.3) if the extension they are used in conjunction with is
registered. Additional error codes used with unregistered extensions
MAY be registered.
Error codes MUST conform to the error-code ABNF, and SHOULD be
prefixed by an identifying name when possible. For example, an error
identifying an invalid value set to the extension parameter "example"
should be named "example_invalid".
error-code = ALPHA *error-char
error-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA
9. Security Considerations 9. Security Considerations
[[ TBD ]] [[ TBD ]]
10. IANA Considerations 10. IANA Considerations
10.1. The OAuth Access Token Type Registry 10.1. The OAuth Access Token Type Registry
This specification establishes the OAuth access token type registry. This specification establishes the OAuth access token type registry.
skipping to change at page 37, line 31 skipping to change at page 39, line 28
to allow for the allocation of values prior to publication, the to allow for the allocation of values prior to publication, the
Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once they are satisfied Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once they are satisfied
that such a specification will be published. that such a specification will be published.
Registration requests should be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing Registration requests should be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing
list for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., list for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g.,
"Request for access toke type: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The "Request for access toke type: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The
name of the mailing list should be determined in consultation with name of the mailing list should be determined in consultation with
the IESG and IANA. Suggested name: oauth-ext-review. ]] the IESG and IANA. Suggested name: oauth-ext-review. ]]
Before a period of 14 days has passed, the Designated Expert(s) will Within at most 14 days of the request, the Designated Expert(s) will
either approve or deny the registration request, communicating this either approve or deny the registration request, communicating this
decision both to the review list and to IANA. Denials should include decision to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an
an explanation and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the explanation and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the
request successful. Registration requests that are undetermined for request successful.
a period longer than 21 days can be brought to the IESG's attention
(using the iesg@iesg.org mailing list) for resolution. Decisions (or lack thereof) made by the Designated Expert can be
first appealed to Application Area Directors (contactable using
app-ads@tools.ietf.org email address or directly by looking up their
email addresses on http://www.iesg.org/ website) and, if the
appellant is not satisfied with the response, to the full IESG (using
the iesg@iesg.org mailing list).
IANA should only accept registry updates from the Designated
Expert(s), and should direct all requests for registration to the
review mailing list.
10.1.1. Registration Template 10.1.1. Registration Template
Type name: Type name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). The name requested (e.g., "example").
Additional Token Endpoint Response Parameters: Additional Token Endpoint Response Parameters:
Additional response parameters returned together with the Additional response parameters returned together with the
"access_token" parameter. New parameters MUST be separately "access_token" parameter. New parameters MUST be separately
registered in the OAuth parameters registry as described by registered in the OAuth parameters registry as described by
Section 10.2. Section 10.2.
HTTP Authentication Scheme(s): HTTP Authentication Scheme(s):
The HTTP authentication scheme name(s), if any, used to The HTTP authentication scheme name(s), if any, used to
authenticate protected resources requests using access token of authenticate protected resources requests using access token of
this type. this type.
Change controller: Change controller:
For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included. e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification document(s): Specification document(s):
Reference to document that specifies the parameter, preferably Reference to document that specifies the parameter, preferably
skipping to change at page 38, line 38 skipping to change at page 40, line 43
[RFC5226]). However, to allow for the allocation of values prior to [RFC5226]). However, to allow for the allocation of values prior to
publication, the Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once publication, the Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once
they are satisfied that such a specification will be published. they are satisfied that such a specification will be published.
Registration requests should be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing Registration requests should be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing
list for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., list for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g.,
"Request for parameter: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The name of "Request for parameter: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The name of
the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the IESG the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the IESG
and IANA. Suggested name: oauth-ext-review. ]] and IANA. Suggested name: oauth-ext-review. ]]
Before a period of 14 days has passed, the Designated Expert(s) will Within at most 14 days of the request, the Designated Expert(s) will
either approve or deny the registration request, communicating this either approve or deny the registration request, communicating this
decision both to the review list and to IANA. Denials should include decision to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an
an explanation and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the explanation and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the
request successful. Registration requests that are undetermined for request successful.
a period longer than 21 days can be brought to the IESG's attention
(using the iesg@iesg.org mailing list) for resolution. Decisions (or lack thereof) made by the Designated Expert can be
first appealed to Application Area Directors (contactable using
app-ads@tools.ietf.org email address or directly by looking up their
email addresses on http://www.iesg.org/ website) and, if the
appellant is not satisfied with the response, to the full IESG (using
the iesg@iesg.org mailing list).
IANA should only accept registry updates from the Designated
Expert(s), and should direct all requests for registration to the
review mailing list.
10.2.1. Registration Template 10.2.1. Registration Template
Parameter name: Parameter name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). The name requested (e.g., "example").
Parameter usage location: Parameter usage location:
The location(s) where parameter can be used. The possible The location(s) where parameter can be used. The possible
locations are: authorization request, authorization response, locations are: authorization request, authorization response,
token request, or token response. token request, or token response.
Change controller: Change controller:
For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included. e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification document(s): Specification document(s):
Reference to document that specifies the parameter, preferably Reference to document that specifies the parameter, preferably
skipping to change at page 41, line 11 skipping to change at page 43, line 23
o Parameter name: password o Parameter name: password
o Parameter usage location: token request o Parameter usage location: token request
o Change controller: IETF o Change controller: IETF
o Specification document(s): [[ this document ]] o Specification document(s): [[ this document ]]
o Parameter name: refresh_token o Parameter name: refresh_token
o Parameter usage location: token request, token response o Parameter usage location: token request, token response
o Change controller: IETF o Change controller: IETF
o Specification document(s): [[ this document ]] o Specification document(s): [[ this document ]]
Appendix A. Contributors 10.3. The OAuth Extensions Error Registry
The following people contributed to preliminary versions of this [[ Pending Consensus ]]
document: Blaine Cook (BT), Brian Eaton (Google), Yaron Goland
(Microsoft), Brent Goldman (Facebook), Raffi Krikorian (Twitter),
Luke Shepard (Facebook), and Allen Tom (Yahoo!). The content and
concepts within are a product of the OAuth community, WRAP community,
and the OAuth Working Group.
The OAuth Working Group has dozens of very active contributors who This specification establishes the OAuth extensions error registry.
proposed ideas and wording for this document, including:
Michael Adams, Andrew Arnott, Dirk Balfanz, Brian Campbell, Leah Additional error codes used together with other protocol extensions
Culver, Bill de hOra, Brian Ellin, Igor Faynberg, George Fletcher, (i.e. extension grant types, access token types, or extension
Tim Freeman, Evan Gilbert, Kristoffer Gronowski, Justin Hart, Phil parameters) are registered on the advice of one or more Designated
Hunt, Michael B. Jones, John Kemp, Mark Kent, Chasen Le Hara, Rasmus Experts (appointed by the IESG or their delegate), with a
Lerdorf, Torsten Lodderstedt, Alastair Mair, Eve Maler, James Manger, Specification Required (using terminology from [RFC5226]). However,
Laurence Miao, Chuck Mortimore, Justin Richer, Peter Saint-Andre, Nat to allow for the allocation of values prior to publication, the
Sakimura, Rob Sayre, Marius Scurtescu, Naitik Shah, Justin Smith, Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once they are satisfied
Jeremy Suriel, Christian Stuebner, Paul Tarjan, Franklin Tse, Nick that such a specification will be published.
Walker, Skylar Woodward.
Appendix B. Acknowledgements Registration requests should be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing
list for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g.,
"Request for error code: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The name
of the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the
IESG and IANA. Suggested name: oauth-ext-review. ]]
[[ Add OAuth 1.0a authors + WG contributors ]] Within at most 14 days of the request, the Designated Expert(s) will
either approve or deny the registration request, communicating this
decision to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an
explanation and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the
request successful.
Appendix C. Document History Decisions (or lack thereof) made by the Designated Expert can be
first appealed to Application Area Directors (contactable using
app-ads@tools.ietf.org email address or directly by looking up their
email addresses on http://www.iesg.org/ website) and, if the
appellant is not satisfied with the response, to the full IESG (using
the iesg@iesg.org mailing list).
[[ to be removed by RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]] IANA should only accept registry updates from the Designated
Expert(s), and should direct all requests for registration to the
review mailing list.
-13 10.3.1. Registration Template
o Small editorial changes. Error name:
o Split introduction 'Roles' into 'Roles' and 'Protocol Flow'. The name requested (e.g., "example").
o Changes section name 'Requesting an Access Token' to 'Obtaining Error usage location:
Authorization'. The location(s) where the error can be used. The possible
locations are: authorization code grant error response
(Section 4.1.2.1), implicit grant error response
(Section 4.2.2.1), or token error response (Section 5.2).
Related protocol extension:
The name of the extension grant type, access token type, or
extension parameter, the error code is used in conjunction with.
Change controller:
For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification document(s):
Reference to document that specifies the error code, preferably
including a URI that can be used to retrieve a copy of the
document. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
included, but is not required.
o Added explicit authorization request and access token response 11. Acknowledgements
sub-sections for each grant type.
o Added document overview in the introduction.
o Reduced the use of 'x_' prefix to SHOULD.
o Removed unused references and updated others.
o Dropped 'invalid_client' error from authorization endpoint
responses.
11. References This specification is the work of the OAuth Working Group which
includes dozens of active and dedicated participants. In particular,
the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording
which shaped and formed the final specification:
11.1. Normative References Michael Adams, Andrew Arnott, Dirk Balfanz, Blaine Cook, Brian
Campbell, Leah Culver, Bill de hOra, Brian Eaton, Brian Ellin, Igor
Faynberg, George Fletcher, Tim Freeman, Evan Gilbert, Yaron Goland,
Brent Goldman, Kristoffer Gronowski, Justin Hart, Craig Heath, Phil
Hunt, Michael B. Jones, John Kemp, Mark Kent, Raffi Krikorian, Chasen
Le Hara, Rasmus Lerdorf, Torsten Lodderstedt, Hui-Lan Lu, Paul
Madsen, Alastair Mair, Eve Maler, James Manger, Laurence Miao, Chuck
Mortimore, Justin Richer, Peter Saint-Andre, Nat Sakimura, Rob Sayre,
Marius Scurtescu, Naitik Shah, Luke Shepard, Justin Smith, Jeremy
Suriel, Christian Stuebner, Paul Tarjan, Allen Tom, Franklin Tse,
Nick Walker, Skylar Woodward.
The initial OAuth 2.0 protocol specification was edited by David
Recordon, based on two previous publications: the OAuth 1.0 community
specification [RFC5849], and OAuth WRAP (OAuth Web Resource
Authorization Profiles) [I-D.draft-hardt-oauth-01].
The OAuth 1.0 community specification was edited by Eran Hammer-Lahav
and authored by Mark Atwood, Dirk Balfanz, Darren Bounds, Richard M.
Conlan, Blaine Cook, Leah Culver, Breno de Medeiros, Brian Eaton,
Kellan Elliott-McCrea, Larry Halff, Eran Hammer-Lahav, Ben Laurie,
Chris Messina, John Panzer, Sam Quigley, David Recordon, Eran
Sandler, Jonathan Sergent, Todd Sieling, Brian Slesinsky, and Andy
Smith.
The OAuth WRAP specification was edited by Dick Hardt and authored by
Brian Eaton, Yaron Goland, Dick Hardt, and Allen Tom.
Appendix A. Editor's Notes
While many people contributed to this specification throughout its
long journey, the editor would like to acknowledge and thank a few
individuals for their outstanding and invaluable efforts leading up
to the publication of this specification. It is these individuals
without whom this work would not have existed, or reached its
successful conclusion.
David Recordon for continuously being one of OAuth's most valuable
assets, bringing pragmatism and urgency to the work, and helping
shape it from its very beginning, as well as being one of the best
collaborators I had the pleasure of working with.
Mark Nottingham for introducing OAuth to the IETF and setting the
community on this course. Lisa Dusseault for her support and
guidance as the Application area director. Blaine Cook, Peter Saint-
Andre, and Hannes Tschofenig for their work as working group chairs.
James Manger for his creative ideas and always insightful feedback.
Brian Campbell, Torsten Lodderstedt, Chuck Mortimore, Justin Richer,
Marius Scurtescu, and Luke Shepard for their continued participation
and valuable feedback.
Special thanks goes to Mike Curtis and Yahoo! for their unconditional
support of this work for over three years.
12. References
12.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2616] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.
[RFC2617] Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S., [RFC2617] Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,
Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP
Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication", Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication",
RFC 2617, June 1999. RFC 2617, June 1999.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, January 2005. RFC 3986, January 2005.
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for [RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
skipping to change at page 42, line 43 skipping to change at page 46, line 39
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
[RFC5234] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax [RFC5234] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008. Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security [RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008. (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224] [W3C.REC-html401-19991224]
Hors, A., Raggett, D., and I. Jacobs, "HTML 4.01 Raggett, D., Hors, A., and I. Jacobs, "HTML 4.01
Specification", World Wide Web Consortium Specification", World Wide Web Consortium
Recommendation REC-html401-19991224, December 1999, Recommendation REC-html401-19991224, December 1999,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224>.
11.2. Informative References 12.2. Informative References
[I-D.draft-hardt-oauth-01]
Hardt, D., Ed., Tom, A., Eaton, B., and Y. Goland, "OAuth
Web Resource Authorization Profiles", January 2010.
[I-D.hammer-oauth-v2-mac-token] [I-D.hammer-oauth-v2-mac-token]
Hammer-Lahav, E., "HTTP Authentication: MAC Hammer-Lahav, E., "HTTP Authentication: MAC
Authentication", draft-hammer-oauth-v2-mac-token-02 (work Authentication", draft-hammer-oauth-v2-mac-token-02 (work
in progress), January 2011. in progress), January 2011.
[I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer] [I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer]
Campbell, B. and C. Mortimore, "SAML 2.0 Bearer Assertion Campbell, B. and C. Mortimore, "SAML 2.0 Bearer Assertion
Grant Type Profile for OAuth 2.0", Grant Type Profile for OAuth 2.0",
draft-ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer-03 (work in progress), draft-ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer-03 (work in progress),
skipping to change at page 43, line 24 skipping to change at page 47, line 23
Jones, M., Hardt, D., and D. Recordon, "The OAuth 2.0 Jones, M., Hardt, D., and D. Recordon, "The OAuth 2.0
Protocol: Bearer Tokens", draft-ietf-oauth-v2-bearer-02 Protocol: Bearer Tokens", draft-ietf-oauth-v2-bearer-02
(work in progress), January 2011. (work in progress), January 2011.
[OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os]
Cantor, S., Kemp, J., Philpott, R., and E. Maler, Cantor, S., Kemp, J., Philpott, R., and E. Maler,
"Assertions and Protocol for the OASIS Security Assertion "Assertions and Protocol for the OASIS Security Assertion
Markup Language (SAML) V2.0", OASIS Standard saml-core- Markup Language (SAML) V2.0", OASIS Standard saml-core-
2.0-os, March 2005. 2.0-os, March 2005.
[RFC5849] Hammer-Lahav, E., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol", RFC 5849,
April 2010.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Eran Hammer-Lahav (editor) Eran Hammer-Lahav (editor)
Yahoo! Yahoo!
Email: eran@hueniverse.com Email: eran@hueniverse.com
URI: http://hueniverse.com URI: http://hueniverse.com
David Recordon David Recordon
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