draft-ietf-oauth-v2-12.txt   draft-ietf-oauth-v2-13.txt 
Network Working Group E. Hammer-Lahav, Ed. Network Working Group E. Hammer-Lahav, Ed.
Internet-Draft Yahoo! Internet-Draft Yahoo!
Obsoletes: 5849 (if approved) D. Recordon Obsoletes: 5849 (if approved) D. Recordon
Intended status: Standards Track Facebook Intended status: Standards Track Facebook
Expires: July 25, 2011 D. Hardt Expires: August 20, 2011 D. Hardt
Microsoft Microsoft
January 21, 2011 February 16, 2011
The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Protocol The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Protocol
draft-ietf-oauth-v2-12 draft-ietf-oauth-v2-13
Abstract Abstract
This specification describes the OAuth 2.0 authorization protocol. This specification describes the OAuth 2.0 authorization protocol.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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This Internet-Draft will expire on July 25, 2011. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 20, 2011.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2. Protocol Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3. Authorization Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3. Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4. Refresh Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4. Authorization Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.5. Refresh Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2. Client Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.6. Document Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.1. Client Password Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.7. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2. Other Client Authentication Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2. Protocol Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3. Protocol Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1. Authorization Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.1. Authorization Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2. Token Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2. Token Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3. Client Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4. Requesting an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.1. Client Password Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.1. Authorization Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2. Other Client Authentication Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.2. Implicit Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4. Obtaining Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.3. Resource Owner Password Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.1. Authorization Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.4. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2. Implicit Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.5. Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.3. Resource Owner Password Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5. Issuing an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.4. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.1. Successful Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.5. Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.2. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5. Issuing an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6. Refreshing an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.1. Successful Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7. Accessing Protected Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.2. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.1. Access Token Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6. Refreshing an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
8. Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 7. Accessing Protected Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
8.1. Defining Access Token Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 7.1. Access Token Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8.3. Defining New Authorization Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.1. Defining Access Token Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8.3. Defining New Authorization Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . 36
10.1. The OAuth Access Token Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 35 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
10.2. The OAuth Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Appendix A. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 10.1. The OAuth Access Token Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Appendix B. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 10.2. The OAuth Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Appendix A. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Appendix B. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix C. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
In the traditional client-server authentication model, the client In the traditional client-server authentication model, the client
accesses a protected resource on the server by authenticating with accesses a protected resource on the server by authenticating with
the server using the resource owner's credentials. In order to the server using the resource owner's credentials. In order to
provide third-party applications access to protected resources, the provide third-party applications access to protected resources, the
resource owner shares its credentials with the third-party. This resource owner shares its credentials with the third-party. This
creates several problems and limitations: creates several problems and limitations:
skipping to change at page 4, line 26 skipping to change at page 4, line 26
authorization server authorization server
The server issuing access tokens to the client after successfully The server issuing access tokens to the client after successfully
authenticating the resource owner and obtaining authorization. authenticating the resource owner and obtaining authorization.
The interaction between the authorization server and resource server The interaction between the authorization server and resource server
is beyond the scope of this specification. The authorization server is beyond the scope of this specification. The authorization server
may be the same server as the resource server or a separate entity. may be the same server as the resource server or a separate entity.
A single authorization server may issue access tokens accepted by A single authorization server may issue access tokens accepted by
multiple resource servers. multiple resource servers.
1.2. Protocol Flow
When interacting with the authorization server, the client identifies When interacting with the authorization server, the client identifies
itself using a set of client credentials which include a client itself using a set of client credentials which include a client
identifier and other authentication attributes. The means through identifier and other authentication attributes. The means through
which the client obtains its credentials are beyond the scope of this which the client obtains its credentials are beyond the scope of this
specification, but typically involve registration with the specification, but typically involve registration with the
authorization server. authorization server.
+--------+ +---------------+ +--------+ +---------------+
| |--(A)- Authorization Request ->| Resource | | |--(A)- Authorization Request ->| Resource |
| | | Owner | | | | Owner |
skipping to change at page 5, line 28 skipping to change at page 5, line 47
authorization server using its client credentials (prearranged authorization server using its client credentials (prearranged
between the client and authorization server) and presenting the between the client and authorization server) and presenting the
authorization grant. authorization grant.
(D) The authorization server validates the client credentials and (D) The authorization server validates the client credentials and
the authorization grant, and if valid issues an access token. the authorization grant, and if valid issues an access token.
(E) The client requests the protected resource from the resource (E) The client requests the protected resource from the resource
server and authenticates by presenting the access token. server and authenticates by presenting the access token.
(F) The resource server validates the access token, and if valid, (F) The resource server validates the access token, and if valid,
serves the request. serves the request.
1.2. Access Token 1.3. Access Token
An access token is a string representing an authorization issued to An access token is a string representing an authorization issued to
the client. The string is usually opaque to the client. Tokens the client. The string is usually opaque to the client. Tokens
represent specific scopes and durations of access, granted by the represent specific scopes and durations of access, granted by the
resource owner, and enforced by the resource server and authorization resource owner, and enforced by the resource server and authorization
server. server.
The token may denote an identifier used to retrieve the authorization The token may denote an identifier used to retrieve the authorization
information, or self-contain the authorization information in a information, or self-contain the authorization information in a
verifiable manner (i.e. a token string consisting of some data and a verifiable manner (i.e. a token string consisting of some data and a
signature). Tokens may be pure capabilities. Additional signature). Additional authentication credentials may be required in
authentication credentials may be required in order for the client to order for the client to use a token.
use a token.
The access token provides an abstraction layer, replacing different The access token provides an abstraction layer, replacing different
authorization constructs (e.g. username and password) with a single authorization constructs (e.g. username and password) with a single
token understood by the resource server. This abstraction enables token understood by the resource server. This abstraction enables
issuing access tokens more restrictive than the authorization grant issuing access tokens more restrictive than the authorization grant
used to obtain them, as well as removing the resource server's need used to obtain them, as well as removing the resource server's need
to understand a wide range of authentication methods. to understand a wide range of authentication methods.
Access tokens can have different formats, structures, and methods of Access tokens can have different formats, structures, and methods of
utilization (e.g. cryptographic properties) based on the resource utilization (e.g. cryptographic properties) based on the resource
server security requirements. Access token attributes and the server security requirements. Access token attributes and the
methods used to access protected resources are beyond the scope of methods used to access protected resources are beyond the scope of
this specification and are defined by companion specifications. this specification and are defined by companion specifications.
1.3. Authorization Grant 1.4. Authorization Grant
An authorization grant is a general term used to describe the An authorization grant is a general term used to describe the
intermediate credentials representing the resource owner intermediate credentials representing the resource owner
authorization, and serves as an abstraction layer. An authorization authorization, and serves as an abstraction layer. An authorization
grant is used by the client to obtain an access token. grant is used by the client to obtain an access token.
1.3.1. Authorization Code 1.4.1. Authorization Code
The authorization code is obtained by using an authorization server The authorization code is obtained by using an authorization server
as an intermediary between the client and resource owner. Instead of as an intermediary between the client and resource owner. Instead of
requesting authorization directly from the resource owner, the client requesting authorization directly from the resource owner, the client
directs the resource owner to an authorization server (via its user- directs the resource owner to an authorization server (via its user-
agent), which in turns directs the resource owner back to the client agent), which in turns directs the resource owner back to the client
with the authorization code. with the authorization code.
Before directing the resource owner back to the client with the Before directing the resource owner back to the client with the
authorization code, the authorization server authenticates the authorization code, the authorization server authenticates the
resource owner and obtains authorization. Because the resource owner resource owner and obtains authorization. Because the resource owner
only authenticates with the authorization server, the resource only authenticates with the authorization server, the resource
owner's credentials are never shared with the client. owner's credentials are never shared with the client.
The authorization code provides a few important security benefits The authorization code provides a few important security benefits
such as the ability to authenticate the client and issuing the access such as the ability to authenticate the client and issuing the access
token directly to the client without potentially exposing it to token directly to the client without potentially exposing it to
others, including the resource owner. others, including the resource owner.
1.3.2. Implicit 1.4.2. Implicit
An implicit grant is issued when the resource owner's authorization An implicit grant is issued when the resource owner's authorization
is expressed directly as an access token, without using an is expressed directly as an access token, without using an
intermediate credential. The implicit grant is issued in a similar intermediate credential. The implicit grant is issued in a similar
manner as an authorization code, but instead of the resource owner manner as an authorization code, but instead of the resource owner
being redirected back to the client with the authorization code, it being redirected back to the client with the authorization code, it
is redirected back with an access token and its related attributes. is redirected back with an access token and its related attributes.
When issuing an implicit grant, the authorization server cannot When issuing an implicit grant, the authorization server cannot
verify the identity of the client, and the access token may be verify the identity of the client, and the access token may be
exposed to the resource owner or other applications with access to exposed to the resource owner or other applications with access to
the resource owner's user-agent. the resource owner's user-agent.
Implicit grants improve the responsiveness and efficiency of some Implicit grants improve the responsiveness and efficiency of some
clients (such as a client implemented as an in-browser application) clients (such as a client implemented as an in-browser application)
since it reduces the number of round trip required to obtain an since it reduces the number of round trips required to obtain an
access token. access token.
1.3.3. Resource Owner Password Credentials 1.4.3. Resource Owner Password Credentials
The resource owner password credentials (e.g. a username and The resource owner password credentials (e.g. a username and
password) can be used directly as an authorization grant to obtain an password) can be used directly as an authorization grant to obtain an
access token. The credentials should only be used when there is a access token. The credentials should only be used when there is a
high degree of trust between the resource owner and the client (e.g. high degree of trust between the resource owner and the client (e.g.
its computer operating system or a highly privileged application), its computer operating system or a highly privileged application),
and when other authorization grant types are not available (such as and when other authorization grant types are not available (such as
an authorization code). an authorization code).
Even though this grant type requires direct client access to the Even though this grant type requires direct client access to the
resource owner credentials, the resource owner credentials are used resource owner credentials, the resource owner credentials are used
for a single request and are exchanged for an access token. Unlike for a single request and are exchanged for an access token. Unlike
the HTTP Basic authentication scheme defined in [RFC2617], this grant the HTTP Basic authentication scheme defined in [RFC2617], this grant
type eliminates the need for the client to store the resource-owner type eliminates the need for the client to store the resource-owner
credentials for future use. credentials for future use.
1.3.4. Client Credentials 1.4.4. Client Credentials
The client credentials can be used as an authorization grant when the The client credentials can be used as an authorization grant when the
authorization scope is limited to the protected resources under the authorization scope is limited to the protected resources under the
control of the client, or to protected resources previously arranged control of the client, or to protected resources previously arranged
with the authorization server. Client credentials are used as an with the authorization server. Client credentials are used as an
authorization grant typically when the client is acting on its own authorization grant typically when the client is acting on its own
behalf (the client is also the resource owner). behalf (the client is also the resource owner).
1.3.5. Extensions 1.4.5. Extensions
Additional grant types may be defined to provide a bridge between Additional grant types may be defined to provide a bridge between
OAuth and other trust frameworks. For example, OAuth and other trust frameworks. For example,
[I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer] defines a SAML 2.0 [I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer] defines a SAML 2.0
[OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] bearer assertion grant type, which can be [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] bearer assertion grant type, which can be
used to obtain an access token. used to obtain an access token.
1.4. Refresh Token 1.5. Refresh Token
A refresh token is optionally issued by the authorization server to A refresh token is optionally issued by the authorization server to
the client together with an access token. The client can use the the client together with an access token. The client can use the
refresh token to request another access token based on the same refresh token to request another access token based on the same
authorization, without having to involve the resource owner again, or authorization, without having to involve the resource owner again, or
having to retain the original authorization grant used to obtain the having to retain the original authorization grant used to obtain the
initial access token. initial access token.
A refresh token is a string representing the authorization granted to A refresh token is a string representing the authorization granted to
the client by the resource owner. The string is usually opaque to the client by the resource owner. The string is usually opaque to
the client. The token may denote an identifier used to retrieve the the client. The token may denote an identifier used to retrieve the
authorization information, or self-contain the authorization authorization information, or self-contain the authorization
information in a verifiable manner. information in a verifiable manner.
The refresh token can be used to obtain a new access token when the The refresh token can be used to obtain a new access token when the
current access token expires (access tokens may have a shorter current access token expires (access tokens may have a shorter
lifetime than authorized by the resource owner), or to obtain lifetime than authorized by the resource owner), or to obtain
additional access tokens with identical or narrower scope. additional access tokens with identical or narrower scope.
+--------+ Access Grant & +---------------+ +--------+ Authorization Grant & +---------------+
| |--(A)-------- Client Credentials --------->| | | |--(A)-------- Client Credentials --------->| |
| | | | | | | |
| |<-(B)----------- Access Token -------------| | | |<-(B)----------- Access Token -------------| |
| | & Refresh Token | | | | & Refresh Token | |
| | | | | | | |
| | +----------+ | | | | +----------+ | |
| |--(C)---- Access Token ---->| | | | | |--(C)---- Access Token ---->| | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| |<-(D)- Protected Resource --| Resource | | Authorization | | |<-(D)- Protected Resource --| Resource | | Authorization |
| Client | | Server | | Server | | Client | | Server | | Server |
skipping to change at page 9, line 15 skipping to change at page 10, line 4
(D) The resource server validates the access token, and if valid, (D) The resource server validates the access token, and if valid,
serves the request. serves the request.
(E) Steps (C) and (D) repeat until the access token expires. If the (E) Steps (C) and (D) repeat until the access token expires. If the
client knows the access token expired, it skips to step (G), client knows the access token expired, it skips to step (G),
otherwise it makes another protected resource request. otherwise it makes another protected resource request.
(F) Since the access token is invalid (expired), the resource server (F) Since the access token is invalid (expired), the resource server
returns an invalid token error. returns an invalid token error.
(G) The client requests a new access token by authenticating with (G) The client requests a new access token by authenticating with
the authorization server using its client credentials, and the authorization server using its client credentials, and
presenting the refresh token. presenting the refresh token.
(H) The authorization server validates the client credentials and (H) The authorization server validates the client credentials and
the refresh token, and if valid issues a new access token (and the refresh token, and if valid issues a new access token (and
optionally, a new refresh token). optionally, a new refresh token).
1.5. Notational Conventions 1.6. Document Structure
This specification is organized into the following sections:
o Section 2 - describes the two endpoints used to obtain and utilize
the various authorization grant types.
o Section 3 - describes client identification and authentication in
general, and provides one such method for client authentication
using password credentials.
o Section 4 - describes the complete flow for each authorization
grant type, including requesting authorization, authorization
response, and requesting an access token.
o Section 5 - describes the common access token response used for
all non-implicit authorization grant types.
o Section 6 - describes the use of a refresh token to obtain
additional access tokens using the same resource owner
authorization.
o Section 7 - describes how access tokens are used to access
protected resources.
o Section 8 - describes how to extend certain elements of the
protocol.
o Section 9 - provides a security analysis of the protocol.
1.7. Notational Conventions
The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL NOT', The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL NOT',
'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this
specification are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. specification are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) This specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF)
notation of [I-D.ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging]. Additionally, the notation of [RFC5234].
following rules are included from [RFC3986]: URI-reference; and from
[I-D.ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging]: OWS, RWS, and quoted-string.
Unless otherwise noted, all the protocol parameter names and values Unless otherwise noted, all the protocol parameter names and values
are case sensitive. are case sensitive.
2. Client Authentication 2. Protocol Endpoints
Client credentials are used to identify and authenticate the client.
The client credentials include a client identified - a unique string
issued to the client to identify itself to the authorization server.
The methods through which the client obtains its client credentials
are beyond the scope of this specification.
Due to the nature of some clients, the authorization server SHOULD
NOT make assumptions about the confidentiality of client credentials
without establishing trust with the client. The authorization server
SHOULD NOT issue client credentials to clients incapable of keeping
their secrets confidential.
2.1. Client Password Authentication
The client password authentication uses a shared symmetric secret to
authenticate the client. The client identifier and password are
included in the request using the following parameters:
client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier.
client_secret
REQUIRED. The client password.
For example (line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
2.2. Other Client Authentication Methods
In cases where client password authentication is not suitable or
sufficient, the authorization server MAY support other existing HTTP
authentication schemes or define new methods. In addition, the
authorization server MAY allow unauthenticated access token requests
when the client identity does not matter (e.g. anonymous client) or
when the client identity is established via other means.
For example, the authorization server MAY support using the HTTP
Basic authentication scheme as defined in [RFC2617] to include the
client identifier as the username and client password as the password
(line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com
Authorization: Basic czZCaGRSa3F0MzpnWDFmQmF0M2JW
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization_code&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
When using a method other than client password authentication to
exchange an authorization code grant type, the authorization server
MUST define a method for mapping the client credentials to the client
identifier used to obtain the authorization code.
3. Protocol Endpoints
The authorization process utilizes two endpoints: The authorization process utilizes two endpoints:
o Authorization endpoint - used to obtain authorization from the o Authorization endpoint - used to obtain authorization from the
resource owner via user-agent redirection. resource owner via user-agent redirection.
o Token endpoint - used to exchange an authorization grant for an o Token endpoint - used to exchange an authorization grant for an
access token, typically with client authentication. access token, typically with client authentication.
Not every authorization grant flow utilizes both endpoints. Not every authorization grant type utilizes both endpoints.
Extension grant types MAY define additional endpoints as needed. Extension grant types MAY define additional endpoints as needed.
3.1. Authorization Endpoint 2.1. Authorization Endpoint
The authorization endpoint is used to interact with the resource The authorization endpoint is used to interact with the resource
owner and obtain authorization which is expressed explicitly as an owner and obtain authorization which is expressed explicitly as an
authorization code (exchanged for an access token), or implicitly by authorization code (exchanged for an access token), or implicitly by
direct issuance of an access token. direct issuance of an access token.
The authorization server MUST first verify the identity of the The authorization server MUST first verify the identity of the
resource owner. The way in which the authorization server resource owner. The way in which the authorization server
authenticates the resource owner (e.g. username and password login, authenticates the resource owner (e.g. username and password login,
session cookies) is beyond the scope of this specification. session cookies) is beyond the scope of this specification.
skipping to change at page 12, line 5 skipping to change at page 11, line 45
its security requirements. its security requirements.
The authorization server MUST support the use of the HTTP "GET" The authorization server MUST support the use of the HTTP "GET"
method for the authorization endpoint, and MAY support the use of the method for the authorization endpoint, and MAY support the use of the
"POST" method as well. "POST" method as well.
Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were
omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore
unrecognized request parameters. unrecognized request parameters.
3.1.1. Redirection URI 2.1.1. Redirection URI
The client directs the resource owner's user-agent to the The client directs the resource owner's user-agent to the
authorization endpoint and includes a redirection URI to which the authorization endpoint and includes a redirection URI to which the
authorization server will redirect the user-agent back once authorization server will redirect the user-agent back once
authorization has been obtained (or denied). The client MAY omit the authorization has been obtained (or denied). The client MAY omit the
redirection URI if one has been established between the client and redirection URI if one has been established between the client and
authorization server via other means, such as during the client authorization server via other means, such as during the client
registration process. registration process.
The redirection URI MUST be an absolute URI and MAY include a query The redirection URI MUST be an absolute URI and MAY include a query
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scheme, host, port and path. If a redirection URI was registered, scheme, host, port and path. If a redirection URI was registered,
the authorization server MUST compare any redirection URI received at the authorization server MUST compare any redirection URI received at
the authorization endpoint with the registered URI. the authorization endpoint with the registered URI.
The authorization server SHOULD NOT redirect the user-agent to The authorization server SHOULD NOT redirect the user-agent to
unregistered or untrusted URIs to prevent the endpoint from being unregistered or untrusted URIs to prevent the endpoint from being
used as an open redirector. If no valid redirection URI is used as an open redirector. If no valid redirection URI is
available, the authorization server SHOULD inform the resource owner available, the authorization server SHOULD inform the resource owner
directly of the error. directly of the error.
3.2. Token Endpoint 2.2. Token Endpoint
The token endpoint is used by the client to obtain an access token by The token endpoint is used by the client to obtain an access token by
authenticating with the authorization server and presenting its authenticating with the authorization server and presenting its
authorization grant. The token endpoint is used with every authorization grant. The token endpoint is used with every
authorization grant except for the implicit grant type (since an authorization grant except for the implicit grant type (since an
access token is issued directly). access token is issued directly).
The location of the token endpoint can be found in the service The location of the token endpoint can be found in the service
documentation. The endpoint URI MAY include a query component, which documentation. The endpoint URI MAY include a query component, which
MUST be retained when adding additional query parameters. MUST be retained when adding additional query parameters.
Since requests to the token endpoint result in the transmission of Since requests to the token endpoint result in the transmission of
clear-text credentials (in the HTTP request and response), the clear-text credentials (in the HTTP request and response), the
authorization server MUST require the use of a transport-layer authorization server MUST require the use of a transport-layer
security mechanism when sending requests to the token endpoints. The security mechanism when sending requests to the token endpoints. The
authorization server MUST support TLS 1.2 as defined in [RFC5246], authorization server MUST support TLS 1.2 as defined in [RFC5246],
and MAY support additional transport-layer mechanisms meeting its and MAY support additional transport-layer mechanisms meeting its
security requirements. security requirements.
The token endpoint requires client authentication as described in The token endpoint requires client authentication as described in
Section 2 . The authorization server MAY accept any form of client Section 3. The authorization server MAY accept any form of client
authentication meeting its security requirements. The client MUST authentication meeting its security requirements. The client MUST
NOT use more than one authentication method in each request. NOT use more than one authentication method in each request.
The client MUST use the HTTP "POST" method when making access token The client MUST use the HTTP "POST" method when making access token
requests. requests.
Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were
omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore
unrecognized request parameters. unrecognized request parameters.
4. Requesting an Access Token 3. Client Authentication
The client obtains an access token by requesting authorization from Client credentials are used to identify and authenticate the client.
the resource owner. The authorization is expressed in the form of an The client credentials include a client identifier - a unique string
authorization grant which the client exchanges for an access token. issued to the client to identify itself to the authorization server.
OAuth defines four grant types: authorization code, implicit, The methods through which the client obtains its client credentials
resource owner password credentials, and client credentials, as well are beyond the scope of this specification.
as an extension mechanism for defining additional grant types.
Due to the nature of some clients, the authorization server should
not make assumptions about the confidentiality of client credentials
without establishing trust with the client. The authorization server
SHOULD NOT issue client credentials to clients incapable of keeping
their secrets confidential.
3.1. Client Password Authentication
The client password authentication uses a shared symmetric secret to
authenticate the client. The client identifier and password are
included in the request using the following parameters:
client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier.
client_secret
REQUIRED. The client password.
For example (line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
3.2. Other Client Authentication Methods
In cases where client password authentication is not suitable or
sufficient, the authorization server MAY support other existing HTTP
authentication schemes or define new methods. In addition, the
authorization server MAY allow unauthenticated access token requests
when the client identity does not matter (e.g. anonymous client) or
when the client identity is established via other means.
For example, the authorization server MAY support using the HTTP
Basic authentication scheme as defined in [RFC2617] to include the
client identifier as the username and client password as the password
(line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com
Authorization: Basic czZCaGRSa3F0MzpnWDFmQmF0M2JW
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization_code&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
When using a method other than client password authentication to
exchange an authorization code grant type, the authorization server
MUST define a method for mapping the client credentials to the client
identifier used to obtain the authorization code.
4. Obtaining Authorization
To request an access token, the client obtains authorization from the
resource owner. The authorization is expressed in the form of an
authorization grant which the client uses to requesting the access
token. OAuth defines four grant types: authorization code, implicit,
resource owner password credentials, and client credentials. It also
provides an extension mechanism for defining additional grant types.
4.1. Authorization Code 4.1. Authorization Code
The authorization code flow is suitable for clients capable of The authorization code grant type is suitable for clients capable of
maintaining their client credentials confidential (for authenticating maintaining their client credentials confidential (for authenticating
with the authorization server) such as a client implemented on a with the authorization server) such as a client implemented on a
secure server. As a redirection-based profile, the client must be secure server. As a redirection-based flow, the client must be
capable of interacting with the resource owner's user-agent capable of interacting with the resource owner's user-agent
(typically a web browser) and capable of receiving incoming requests (typically a web browser) and capable of receiving incoming requests
(via redirection) from the authorization server. (via redirection) from the authorization server.
+----------+ +----------+
| resource | | resource |
| owner | | owner |
| | | |
+----------+ +----------+
^ ^
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4.1.1. Authorization Request 4.1.1. Authorization Request
The client constructs the request URI by adding the following The client constructs the request URI by adding the following
parameters to the query component of the authorization endpoint URI parameters to the query component of the authorization endpoint URI
using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224]: [W3C.REC-html401-19991224]:
response_type response_type
REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "code". REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "code".
client_id client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 2. REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.
redirect_uri redirect_uri
REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between
the client and authorization server via other means. Described the client and authorization server via other means. Described
in Section 3.1.1. in Section 2.1.1.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- authorization server. If the value contains multiple space-
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. adds an additional access range to the requested scope.
state state
OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state
between the request and callback. The authorization server between the request and callback. The authorization server
includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the
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For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by
sending the following HTTP response: sending the following HTTP response:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: https://client.example.com/cb?code=i1WsRn1uB1 Location: https://client.example.com/cb?code=i1WsRn1uB1
The client SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The The client SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The
authorization code string size is left undefined by this authorization code string size is left undefined by this
specification. The clients should avoid making assumptions about specification. The clients should avoid making assumptions about
code value sizes. The authorization server should document the size code value sizes. The authorization server should document the size
of any value is issues. of any value it issues.
4.1.2.1. Error Response 4.1.2.1. Error Response
If the request fails due to a missing, invalid, or mismatching If the request fails due to a missing, invalid, or mismatching
redirection URI, the authorization server SHOULD inform the resource redirection URI, or if the client identifier provided is invalid, the
owner of the error, and MUST NOT redirect the user-agent to the authorization server SHOULD inform the resource owner of the error,
invalid redirection URI. and MUST NOT redirect the user-agent to the invalid redirection URI.
If the resource owner denies the access request or if the request If the resource owner denies the access request or if the request
fails for reasons other than a missing or invalid redirection URI, fails for reasons other than a missing or invalid redirection URI,
the authorization server informs the client by adding the following the authorization server informs the client by adding the following
parameters to the query component of the redirection URI using the parameters to the query component of the redirection URI using the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format: "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format:
error error
REQUIRED. A single error code from the following: REQUIRED. A single error code from the following:
invalid_request invalid_request
The request is missing a required parameter, includes an The request is missing a required parameter, includes an
unsupported parameter or parameter value, or is otherwise unsupported parameter or parameter value, or is otherwise
malformed. malformed.
invalid_client
The client identifier provided is invalid.
unauthorized_client unauthorized_client
The client is not authorized to request an authorization The client is not authorized to request an authorization
code using this method. code using this method.
access_denied access_denied
The resource owner or authorization server denied the The resource owner or authorization server denied the
request. request.
unsupported_response_type unsupported_response_type
The authorization server does not support obtaining an The authorization server does not support obtaining an
authorization code using this method. authorization code using this method.
invalid_scope invalid_scope
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The client makes a request to the token endpoint by adding the The client makes a request to the token endpoint by adding the
following parameter using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" following parameter using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
format in the HTTP request entity-body: format in the HTTP request entity-body:
grant_type grant_type
REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "authorization_code". REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "authorization_code".
code code
REQUIRED. The authorization code received from the REQUIRED. The authorization code received from the
authorization server. authorization server.
redirect_uri redirect_uri
REQUIRED. The redirection URI used in the initial request. REQUIRED. The redirection URI used by the authorization server
to return the authorization response in the previous step.
The client includes its authentication credentials as described in The client includes its authentication credentials as described in
Section 2 Section 3
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret" its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret"
parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1& client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
The authorization server MUST: The authorization server MUST:
o Validate the client credentials and ensure they match the o Validate the client credentials and ensure they match the
authorization code. authorization code.
o Verify that the authorization code and redirection URI are valid o Verify that the authorization code is valid, and that the
and match its stored association. redirection URI matches the redirection URI used by the
authorization server to deliver the authorization code.
If the request is valid and authorized, the authorization server 4.1.4. Access Token Response
issues an access token and optional refresh token, and responds as
described in Section 5. If the access token request is valid and authorized, the
authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh
token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client
authentication or is invalid, the authorization server return an
error response as described in Section 5.2.
An example successful response:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store
{
"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG",
"token_type":"example",
"expires_in":3600,
"refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8",
"example_parameter":"example-value"
}
4.2. Implicit Grant 4.2. Implicit Grant
The implicit grant flow is suitable for clients incapable of The implicit grant type is suitable for clients incapable of
maintaining their client credentials confidential (for authenticating maintaining their client credentials confidential (for authenticating
with the authorization server) such as client applications residing with the authorization server) such as client applications residing
in a user-agent, typically implemented in a browser using a scripting in a user-agent, typically implemented in a browser using a scripting
language such as JavaScript, or native applications. These clients language such as JavaScript, or native applications. These clients
cannot keep client secrets confidential and the authentication of the cannot keep client secrets confidential and the authentication of the
client is based on the user-agent's same-origin policy. client is based on the user-agent's same-origin policy.
As a redirection-based profile, the client must be capable of As a redirection-based flow, the client must be capable of
interacting with the resource owner's user-agent (typically a web interacting with the resource owner's user-agent (typically a web
browser) and capable of receiving incoming requests (via redirection) browser) and capable of receiving incoming requests (via redirection)
from the authorization server. from the authorization server.
Unlike the authorization code flow in which the client makes separate Unlike the authorization code grant type in which the client makes
requests for authorization and access token, the client receives the separate requests for authorization and access token, the client
access token as the result of the authorization request. receives the access token as the result of the authorization request.
The implicit grant flow does not utilize the client credentials since Using the implicit grant type does not include client authentication
the client is unable to maintain their confidentiality (the client since the client is unable to maintain their credential
resides on the resource owner's computer or device which makes the confidentiality (the client resides on the resource owner's computer
client credentials accessible and exploitable). Because the access or device which makes the client credentials accessible and
token is encoded into the redirection URI, it may be exposed to the exploitable). Because the access token is encoded into the
resource owner and other applications residing on its computer or redirection URI, it may be exposed to the resource owner and other
device. applications residing on its computer or device.
+----------+ +----------+
| Resource | | Resource |
| Owner | | Owner |
| | | |
+----------+ +----------+
^ ^
| |
(B) (B)
+----|-----+ Client Identifier +---------------+ +----|-----+ Client Identifier +---------------+
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4.2.1. Authorization Request 4.2.1. Authorization Request
The client constructs the request URI by adding the following The client constructs the request URI by adding the following
parameters to the query component of the authorization endpoint URI parameters to the query component of the authorization endpoint URI
using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format: using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format:
response_type response_type
REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "token". REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "token".
client_id client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 2. REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.
Due to lack of client authentication, the client identifier Due to lack of client authentication, the client identifier
alone MUST NOT be relied upon for client identification. alone MUST NOT be relied upon for client identification.
redirect_uri redirect_uri
REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between
the client and authorization server via other means. Described the client and authorization server via other means. Described
in Section 3.1.1. in Section 2.1.1.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- authorization server. If the value contains multiple space-
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. adds an additional access range to the requested scope.
state state
OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state
between the request and callback. The authorization server between the request and callback. The authorization server
includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the
skipping to change at page 23, line 26 skipping to change at page 24, line 26
token_type=example&expires_in=3600 token_type=example&expires_in=3600
The client SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The The client SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The
access token string size is left undefined by this specification. access token string size is left undefined by this specification.
The client should avoid making assumptions about value sizes. The The client should avoid making assumptions about value sizes. The
authorization server should document the size of any value it issues. authorization server should document the size of any value it issues.
4.2.2.1. Error Response 4.2.2.1. Error Response
If the request fails due to a missing, invalid, or mismatching If the request fails due to a missing, invalid, or mismatching
redirection URI, the authorization server SHOULD inform the resource redirection URI, or if the client identifier provided is invalid, the
owner of the error, and MUST NOT redirect the user-agent to the authorization server SHOULD inform the resource owner of the error,
invalid redirection URI. and MUST NOT redirect the user-agent to the invalid redirection URI.
If the resource owner denies the access request or if the request If the resource owner denies the access request or if the request
fails for reasons other than a missing or invalid redirection URI, fails for reasons other than a missing or invalid redirection URI,
the authorization server informs the client by adding the following the authorization server informs the client by adding the following
parameters to the fragment component of the redirection URI using the parameters to the fragment component of the redirection URI using the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format: "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format:
error error
REQUIRED. A single error code from the following: REQUIRED. A single error code from the following:
invalid_request invalid_request
The request is missing a required parameter, includes an The request is missing a required parameter, includes an
unsupported parameter or parameter value, or is otherwise unsupported parameter or parameter value, or is otherwise
malformed. malformed.
invalid_client
The client identifier provided is invalid.
unauthorized_client unauthorized_client
The client is not authorized to request an access token The client is not authorized to request an access token
using this method. using this method.
access_denied access_denied
The resource owner or authorization server denied the The resource owner or authorization server denied the
request. request.
unsupported_response_type unsupported_response_type
The authorization server does not support obtaining an The authorization server does not support obtaining an
access token using this method. access token using this method.
invalid_scope invalid_scope
The requested scope is invalid, unknown, or malformed. The requested scope is invalid, unknown, or malformed.
error_description error_description
OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing additional OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing additional
information, used to assist in the understanding and resolution information, used to assist in the understanding and resolution
of the error occurred. of the error occurred.
error_uri error_uri
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the client. the client.
For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by For example, the authorization server redirects the user-agent by
sending the following HTTP response: sending the following HTTP response:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: https://client.example.com/cb#error=access_denied Location: https://client.example.com/cb#error=access_denied
4.3. Resource Owner Password Credentials 4.3. Resource Owner Password Credentials
The resource owner password credentials flow is suitable in cases The resource owner password credentials grant type is suitable in
where the resource owner has a trust relationship with the client, cases where the resource owner has a trust relationship with the
such as its computer operating system or a highly privileged client, such as its computer operating system or a highly privileged
application. The authorization server should take special care when application. The authorization server should take special care when
enabling the flow, and only when other flows are not viable. enabling the grant type, and only when other flows are not viable.
The flow is suitable for clients capable of obtaining the resource The grant type is suitable for clients capable of obtaining the
owner credentials (username and password, typically using an resource owner credentials (username and password, typically using an
interactive form). It is also used to migrate existing clients using interactive form). It is also used to migrate existing clients using
direct authentication schemes such as HTTP Basic or Digest direct authentication schemes such as HTTP Basic or Digest
authentication to OAuth by converting the stored credentials with an authentication to OAuth by converting the stored credentials with an
access token. access token.
The method through which the client obtains the resource owner
credentials is beyond the scope of this specification. The client
MUST discard the credentials once an access token has been obtained.
+----------+ +----------+
| Resource | | Resource |
| Owner | | Owner |
| | | |
+----------+ +----------+
v v
| |
(A) Password Credentials (A) Password Credentials
| |
v v
skipping to change at page 25, line 38 skipping to change at page 26, line 38
(A) The resource owner provides the client with its username and (A) The resource owner provides the client with its username and
password. password.
(B) The client requests an access token from the authorization (B) The client requests an access token from the authorization
server's token endpoint by authenticating using its client server's token endpoint by authenticating using its client
credentials, and includes the credentials received from the credentials, and includes the credentials received from the
resource owner. resource owner.
(C) The authorization server validates the resource owner (C) The authorization server validates the resource owner
credentials and the client credentials and issues an access credentials and the client credentials and issues an access
token. token.
4.3.1. Access Token Request 4.3.1. Authorization Request and Response
The method through which the client obtains the resource owner
credentials is beyond the scope of this specification. The client
MUST discard the credentials once an access token has been obtained.
4.3.2. Access Token Request
The client makes a request to the token endpoint by adding the The client makes a request to the token endpoint by adding the
following parameter using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" following parameter using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
format in the HTTP request entity-body: format in the HTTP request entity-body:
grant_type grant_type
REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "password". REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "password".
username username
REQUIRED. The resource owner username. REQUIRED. The resource owner username.
password password
REQUIRED. The resource owner password. REQUIRED. The resource owner password.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- authorization server. If the value contains multiple space-
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. adds an additional access range to the requested scope.
The client includes its authentication credentials as described in The client includes its authentication credentials as described in
skipping to change at page 26, line 15 skipping to change at page 27, line 19
password password
REQUIRED. The resource owner password. REQUIRED. The resource owner password.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- authorization server. If the value contains multiple space-
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. adds an additional access range to the requested scope.
The client includes its authentication credentials as described in The client includes its authentication credentials as described in
Section 2 Section 3
[[ add internationalization consideration for username and password [[ add internationalization consideration for username and password
]] ]]
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret" its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret"
parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
skipping to change at page 26, line 37 skipping to change at page 27, line 41
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=password&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=password&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=47HDu8s&username=johndoe&password=A3ddj3w client_secret=47HDu8s&username=johndoe&password=A3ddj3w
The authorization server MUST: The authorization server MUST:
o Validate the client credentials. o Validate the client credentials.
o Validate the resource owner password credentials. o Validate the resource owner password credentials.
If the request is valid and authorized, the authorization server 4.3.3. Access Token Response
issues an access token and optional refresh token, and responds as
described in Section 5. If the access token request is valid and authorized, the
authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh
token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client
authentication or is invalid, the authorization server return an
error response as described in Section 5.2.
An example successful response:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store
{
"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG",
"token_type":"example",
"expires_in":3600,
"refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8",
"example_parameter":"example-value"
}
4.4. Client Credentials 4.4. Client Credentials
The client can request an access token using only its client The client can request an access token using only its client
credentials when the client is requesting access to the protected credentials when the client is requesting access to the protected
resources under its control, or those of another resource owner which resources under its control, or those of another resource owner which
has been previously arranged with the authorization server (the has been previously arranged with the authorization server (the
method of which is beyond the scope of this specification). method of which is beyond the scope of this specification).
+---------+ +---------------+ +---------+ +---------------+
skipping to change at page 27, line 22 skipping to change at page 28, line 44
Figure 6: Client Credentials Flow Figure 6: Client Credentials Flow
The flow illustrated in Figure 6 includes the following steps: The flow illustrated in Figure 6 includes the following steps:
(A) The client requests an access token from the token endpoint by (A) The client requests an access token from the token endpoint by
authenticating using its client credentials. authenticating using its client credentials.
(B) The authorization server validates the client credentials and (B) The authorization server validates the client credentials and
issues an access token. issues an access token.
4.4.1. Access Token Request 4.4.1. Authorization Request and Response
Since the client credentials are used as the authorization grant, no
additional authorization request is needed as the client is already
in the possession of its client credentials.
4.4.2. Access Token Request
The client makes a request to the token endpoint by adding the The client makes a request to the token endpoint by adding the
following parameter using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" following parameter using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
format in the HTTP request entity-body: format in the HTTP request entity-body:
grant_type grant_type
REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "client_credentials". REQUIRED. Value MUST be set to "client_credentials".
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- authorization server. If the value contains multiple space-
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. adds an additional access range to the requested scope.
The client includes its authentication credentials as described in The client includes its authentication credentials as described in
Section 2 Section 3
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret" its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret"
parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=client_credentials&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=client_credentials&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=47HDu8s client_secret=47HDu8s
The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials. The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials.
If the request is valid and authorized, the authorization server 4.4.3. Access Token Response
issues an access token and optional refresh token, and responds as
described in Section 5. If the access token request is valid and authorized, the
authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh
token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client
authentication or is invalid, the authorization server return an
error response as described in Section 5.2.
An example successful response:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store
{
"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG",
"token_type":"example",
"expires_in":3600,
"refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8",
"example_parameter":"example-value"
}
4.5. Extensions 4.5. Extensions
The client uses an extension grant type by specifying the grant type The client uses an extension grant type by specifying the grant type
using an absolute URI (defined by the authorization server) as the using an absolute URI (defined by the authorization server) as the
value of the "grant_type" parameter of the token endpoint, and by value of the "grant_type" parameter of the token endpoint, and by
adding any additional parameters necessary. adding any additional parameters necessary.
For example, to request an access token using a SAML 2.0 assertion For example, to request an access token using a SAML 2.0 assertion
grant type, the client makes the following HTTP request using grant type as defined by [I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer], the client
transport-layer security (line breaks are for display purposes only): makes the following HTTP request using transport-layer security (line
breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=http%3A%2F%2Foauth.net%2Fgrant_type%2Fassertion%2F grant_type=http%3A%2F%2Foauth.net%2Fgrant_type%2Fassertion%2F
saml%2F2.0%2Fbearer&assertion=PEFzc2VydGlvbiBJc3N1ZUluc3RhbnQ saml%2F2.0%2Fbearer&assertion=PEFzc2VydGlvbiBJc3N1ZUluc3RhbnQ
[...omitted for brevity...]V0aG5TdGF0ZW1lbnQ-PC9Bc3NlcnRpb24- [...omitted for brevity...]V0aG5TdGF0ZW1lbnQ-PC9Bc3NlcnRpb24-
Client authentication and the scope of the grant are obtained via the
assertion as defined by [I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer].
5. Issuing an Access Token 5. Issuing an Access Token
If the access token request is valid and authorized, the If the access token request is valid and authorized, the
authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh authorization server issues an access token and optional refresh
token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client token as described in Section 5.1. If the request failed client
authentication or is invalid, the authorization server return an authentication or is invalid, the authorization server return an
error response as described in Section 5.2. error response as described in Section 5.2.
5.1. Successful Response 5.1. Successful Response
skipping to change at page 29, line 29 skipping to change at page 31, line 35
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- authorization server. If the value contains multiple space-
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. The adds an additional access range to the requested scope. The
authorization server SHOULD include the parameter if the authorization server SHOULD include the parameter if the
requested scope is different from the one requested by the requested scope is different from the one requested by the
client. client.
The parameters are including in the entity body of the HTTP response The parameters are included in the entity body of the HTTP response
using the "application/json" media type as defined by [RFC4627]. The using the "application/json" media type as defined by [RFC4627]. The
parameters are serialized into a JSON structure by adding each parameters are serialized into a JSON structure by adding each
parameter at the highest structure level. Parameter names and string parameter at the highest structure level. Parameter names and string
values are included as JSON strings. Numerical values are included values are included as JSON strings. Numerical values are included
as JSON numbers. as JSON numbers.
The authorization server MUST include the HTTP "Cache-Control" The authorization server MUST include the HTTP "Cache-Control"
response header field with a value of "no-store" in any response response header field with a value of "no-store" in any response
containing tokens, secrets, or other sensitive information. containing tokens, secrets, or other sensitive information.
skipping to change at page 30, line 15 skipping to change at page 32, line 27
} }
The client SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The sizes The client SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The sizes
of tokens and other values received from the authorization server are of tokens and other values received from the authorization server are
left undefined. The client should avoid making assumptions about left undefined. The client should avoid making assumptions about
value sizes. The authorization server should document the size of value sizes. The authorization server should document the size of
any value it issues. any value it issues.
5.2. Error Response 5.2. Error Response
If the client provided invalid credentials using an HTTP The authorization server responds with an HTTP 400 (Bad Request)
authentication scheme via the "Authorization" request header field, status code and includes the following parameters with the response:
the authorization server MUST respond with a HTTP 401 (Unauthorized)
status code, and include the "WWW-Authenticate" response header field
matching the authentication scheme used by the client. Otherwise,
the authorization server MUST respond with the HTTP 400 (Bad Request)
status code.
The authorization server constructs the response by adding the
following parameter to the response:
error error
REQUIRED. A single error code from the following: REQUIRED. A single error code from the following:
invalid_request invalid_request
The request is missing a required parameter, includes an The request is missing a required parameter, includes an
unsupported parameter or parameter value, repeats a unsupported parameter or parameter value, repeats a
parameter, includes multiple credentials, utilizes more parameter, includes multiple credentials, utilizes more
than one mechanism for authenticating the client, or is than one mechanism for authenticating the client, or is
otherwise malformed. otherwise malformed.
invalid_client invalid_client
Client authentication failed (e.g. unknown client, no Client authentication failed (e.g. unknown client, no
client credentials included, multiple client credentials client credentials included, multiple client credentials
included, or unsupported credentials type). included, or unsupported credentials type). The
authorization server MAY return an HTTP 401
(Unauthorized) status code to indicate which HTTP
authentication schemes are supported. If the client
attempted to authenticate via the "Authorization" request
header field, the authorization server MUST respond with
an HTTP 401 (Unauthorized) status code, and include the
"WWW-Authenticate" response header field matching the
authentication scheme used by the client.
invalid_grant invalid_grant
The provided authorization grant is invalid, expired, The provided authorization grant is invalid, expired,
revoked, or does not match the redirection URI used in revoked, or does not match the redirection URI used in
the authorization request. the authorization request.
unauthorized_client unauthorized_client
The authenticated client is not authorized to use this The authenticated client is not authorized to use this
authorization grant type. authorization grant type.
unsupported_grant_type unsupported_grant_type
The authorization grant type is not supported by the The authorization grant type is not supported by the
authorization server. authorization server.
skipping to change at page 31, line 17 skipping to change at page 33, line 27
exceeds the previously granted scope. exceeds the previously granted scope.
error_description error_description
OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing additional OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing additional
information, used to assist in the understanding and resolution information, used to assist in the understanding and resolution
of the error occurred. of the error occurred.
error_uri error_uri
OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page with OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page with
information about the error, used to provide the resource owner information about the error, used to provide the resource owner
with additional information about the error. with additional information about the error.
The parameters are including in the entity body of the HTTP response The parameters are included in the entity body of the HTTP response
using the "application/json" media type as defined by [RFC4627]. The using the "application/json" media type as defined by [RFC4627]. The
parameters are serialized into a JSON structure by adding each parameters are serialized into a JSON structure by adding each
parameter at the highest structure level. Parameter names and string parameter at the highest structure level. Parameter names and string
values are included as JSON strings. Numerical values are included values are included as JSON strings. Numerical values are included
as JSON numbers. as JSON numbers.
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
skipping to change at page 32, line 10 skipping to change at page 34, line 21
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the of space-delimited strings. The value is defined by the
authorization server. If the value contains multiple space- authorization server. If the value contains multiple space-
delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string delimited strings, their order does not matter, and each string
adds an additional access range to the requested scope. The adds an additional access range to the requested scope. The
requested scope MUST be equal or lesser than the scope requested scope MUST be equal or lesser than the scope
originally granted by the resource owner, and if omitted is originally granted by the resource owner, and if omitted is
treated as equal to the previously approved scope. treated as equal to the previously approved scope.
The client includes its authentication credentials as described in The client includes its authentication credentials as described in
Section 2 Section 3
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret" its client credentials via the "client_id" and "client_secret"
parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for parameters, and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=refresh_token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=refresh_token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=8eSEIpnqmM&refresh_token=n4E9O119d client_secret=8eSEIpnqmM&refresh_token=n4E9O119d
The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials, the The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials, the
refresh token, and verify that the resource owner's authorization is refresh token, and verify that the resource owner's authorization is
still valid. If valid, the authorization server issues an access still valid. If valid and authorized, the authorization server
token response as described in Section 5. issues an access token as described in Section 5.1. If the request
failed verification or is invalid, the authorization server return an
error response as described in Section 5.2.
The authorization server MAY issue a new refresh token, in which The authorization server MAY issue a new refresh token, in which
case, the client MUST discard the old refresh token and replace it case, the client MUST discard the old refresh token and replace it
with the new refresh token. with the new refresh token.
7. Accessing Protected Resources 7. Accessing Protected Resources
The client accesses protected resources by presenting the access The client accesses protected resources by presenting the access
token to the resource server. The resource server MUST validate the token to the resource server. The resource server MUST validate the
access token and ensure it has not expired and that its scope covers access token and ensure it has not expired and that its scope covers
skipping to change at page 33, line 41 skipping to change at page 36, line 11
(if any) sent to the client together with the "access_token" response (if any) sent to the client together with the "access_token" response
parameter. It also defines the HTTP authentication method used to parameter. It also defines the HTTP authentication method used to
include the access token when making a protected resource request. include the access token when making a protected resource request.
8. Extensibility 8. Extensibility
8.1. Defining Access Token Types 8.1. Defining Access Token Types
Access token types can be defined in one of two ways: registered in Access token types can be defined in one of two ways: registered in
the access token type registry (following the procedures in the access token type registry (following the procedures in
Section 10.1), or use the "x_" type name prefix. Section 10.1), or use a unique absolute URI as its name.
Types utilizing the "x_" name prefix MUST be limited to vendor- Types utilizing a URI name SHOULD be limited to vendor-specific
specific implementations that are not commonly applicable, and are implementations that are not commonly applicable, and are specific to
specific to the implementation details of the resource server where the implementation details of the resource server where they are
they are used. If a vendor-specific type requires additional vendor- used.
specific token response parameters, they MUST also use the "x_" name
prefix.
All other types MUST be registered, and MUST NOT use the "x_" type All other types MUST be registered. Type names MUST conform to the
name prefix. Type names MUST conform to the type-name ABNF. If the type-name ABNF. If the type definition includes a new HTTP
type definition includes a new HTTP authentication scheme, the type authentication scheme, the type name SHOULD be identical to the HTTP
name SHOULD be identical to the authentication scheme name (as authentication scheme name (as defined by [RFC2617]).
defined by [RFC2617]).
type-name = 1*name-char type-name = 1*name-char
name-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA name-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA
8.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters 8.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters
New request or response parameters for use with the authorization New request or response parameters for use with the authorization
endpoint or the token endpoint can be added in one of two ways: endpoint or the token endpoint are defined and registered in the
registered in the parameters registry (following the procedures in parameters registry following the procedure in Section 10.2.
Section 10.2), or use the "x_" parameter name prefix.
Parameters utilizing the "x_" parameter name prefix MUST be limited
to vendor-specific extensions that are not commonly applicable, and
are specific to the implementation details of the authorization
server where they are used. All other new parameters MUST be
registered, and MUST NOT use the "x_" parameter name prefix.
Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF, and parameter Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF, MUST NOT use the
values syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference "x_" parameter name prefix, and parameter values syntax MUST be well-
to the syntax of an existing parameter). defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference to the syntax of an
existing parameter).
param-name = 1*name-char param-name = 1*name-char
name-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA name-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA
Vendor-specific parameter extensions that are not commonly
applicable, and are specific to the implementation details of the
authorization server where they are used SHOULD utilize the "x_"
parameter name prefix if they are not registered.
8.3. Defining New Authorization Grant Types 8.3. Defining New Authorization Grant Types
New authorization grant types can be defined by assigning them a New authorization grant types can be defined by assigning them a
unique URI for use with the "grant_type" parameter. If the extension unique absolute URI for use with the "grant_type" parameter. If the
grant type requires additional token endpoint parameters, they MUST extension grant type requires additional token endpoint parameters,
be registered in the OAuth parameters registry as described by they MUST be registered in the OAuth parameters registry as described
Section 10.2. by Section 10.2.
9. Security Considerations 9. Security Considerations
[[ TBD ]] [[ TBD ]]
10. IANA Considerations 10. IANA Considerations
10.1. The OAuth Access Token Type Registry 10.1. The OAuth Access Token Type Registry
This specification establishes the OAuth access token type registry. This specification establishes the OAuth access token type registry.
skipping to change at page 39, line 5 skipping to change at page 41, line 11
o Parameter name: password o Parameter name: password
o Parameter usage location: token request o Parameter usage location: token request
o Change controller: IETF o Change controller: IETF
o Specification document(s): [[ this document ]] o Specification document(s): [[ this document ]]
o Parameter name: refresh_token o Parameter name: refresh_token
o Parameter usage location: token request, token response o Parameter usage location: token request, token response
o Change controller: IETF o Change controller: IETF
o Specification document(s): [[ this document ]] o Specification document(s): [[ this document ]]
Appendix A. Examples Appendix A. Contributors
[[ TBD ]]
Appendix B. Contributors
The following people contributed to preliminary versions of this The following people contributed to preliminary versions of this
document: Blaine Cook (BT), Brian Eaton (Google), Yaron Goland document: Blaine Cook (BT), Brian Eaton (Google), Yaron Goland
(Microsoft), Brent Goldman (Facebook), Raffi Krikorian (Twitter), (Microsoft), Brent Goldman (Facebook), Raffi Krikorian (Twitter),
Luke Shepard (Facebook), and Allen Tom (Yahoo!). The content and Luke Shepard (Facebook), and Allen Tom (Yahoo!). The content and
concepts within are a product of the OAuth community, WRAP community, concepts within are a product of the OAuth community, WRAP community,
and the OAuth Working Group. and the OAuth Working Group.
The OAuth Working Group has dozens of very active contributors who The OAuth Working Group has dozens of very active contributors who
proposed ideas and wording for this document, including: proposed ideas and wording for this document, including:
Michael Adams, Andrew Arnott, Dirk Balfanz, Brian Campbell, Leah Michael Adams, Andrew Arnott, Dirk Balfanz, Brian Campbell, Leah
Culver, Bill de hOra, Brian Ellin, Igor Faynberg, George Fletcher, Culver, Bill de hOra, Brian Ellin, Igor Faynberg, George Fletcher,
Tim Freeman, Evan Gilbert, Kristoffer Gronowski, Justin Hart, Phil Tim Freeman, Evan Gilbert, Kristoffer Gronowski, Justin Hart, Phil
Hunt, Mike Jones, John Kemp, Chasen Le Hara, Torsten Lodderstedt, Hunt, Michael B. Jones, John Kemp, Mark Kent, Chasen Le Hara, Rasmus
Alastair Mair, Eve Maler, James Manger, Laurence Miao, Chuck Lerdorf, Torsten Lodderstedt, Alastair Mair, Eve Maler, James Manger,
Mortimore, Justin Richer, Peter Saint-Andre, Nat Sakimura, Rob Sayre, Laurence Miao, Chuck Mortimore, Justin Richer, Peter Saint-Andre, Nat
Marius Scurtescu, Naitik Shah, Justin Smith, Jeremy Suriel, Christian Sakimura, Rob Sayre, Marius Scurtescu, Naitik Shah, Justin Smith,
Stuebner, Paul Tarjan, Franklin Tse, and Nick Walker. Jeremy Suriel, Christian Stuebner, Paul Tarjan, Franklin Tse, Nick
Walker, Skylar Woodward.
Appendix C. Acknowledgements Appendix B. Acknowledgements
[[ Add OAuth 1.0a authors + WG contributors ]] [[ Add OAuth 1.0a authors + WG contributors ]]
Appendix D. Document History Appendix C. Document History
[[ to be removed by RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-12 -13
o Complete restructure with lots of new prose.
o Removed terminology and expanded terms in overview.
o Changed assertions to extensions and added informative reference
to the SAML 2.0 extension.
o Renamed access grant to authorization grant.
o Clarified 'token_type' as case insensitive.
o Authorization endpoint requires TLS when an access token is
issued.
o Removed client assertion credentials, mandatory HTTP Basic
authentication support for client credentials, WWW-Authenticate
header, and the OAuth2 authentication scheme.
o Changed implicit grant (aka user-agent flow) error response from
query to fragment.
o Removed the 'redirect_uri_mismatch' error code since in such a
case, the authorization server must not send the error back to the
client.
o Added parameter registration for all parameters in this
specification.
o Defined access token type registry.
-11
o Many editorial changes. Fixed user authorization section
structure. Removed unused normative references. Adjusted
language regarding single use of authorization codes.
o Fixed header ABNF.
o Change access token description from shared symmetric secret to
password.
o Moved access grant 'none' to a separate section, renamed to
'client_credentials'.
o Demoted the HTTP status code requirement from MUST to SHOULD in
protected resource response error.
o Removed 'expired_token' error code.
o Moved all the 'code_and_token' parameter to the fragment (from
code being in the query).
o Removed 'assertion_type' parameter (moved to 'grant_type').
o Added note about redirecting to invalid redirection URIs (open
redirectors).
o Removed bearer token section, added new required 'token_type'
parameter with extensibility.
o 'error-uri' parameter value changed to absolute URI.
o OAuth 2.0 HTTP authentication scheme name changed to 'OAuth2'.
o Dropped the 'WWW-Authenticate' header field 'realm' parameter.
o Removed definition of access token characters.
o Added instructions for dealing with error and an invalid
redirection URI.
-10
o Fixed typos. Many editorial changes. Rewrote introduction.
removed terminology grouping.
o Allowed POST for resource owner authorization endpoint.
o Fixed token endpoint to not require client authentication.
o Made URI query and POST body 'oauth_token' parameter optional.
o Moved all parameter names and values to use underscores.
o Changed 'basic_credentials' to 'password',
'invalid_client_credentials' and 'invalid_client_id' to
'invalid_client'.
o Added note that access token requests without an access grant
should not include a refresh token.
o Changed scheme name from 'Token' to 'OAuth', simplified request
format to simple string for token instead of key=value pair (still
supported for extensions).
o Defined permitted access token string characters (suitable for
inclusion in an HTTP header).
o Added a note about conflicts with previous versions.
o Moved 'client_id' definition from client authentication to access
token endpoint.
o Added definition for 'access grant'.
-09
o Fixed typos, editorial changes.
o Added token expiration example.
o Added scope parameter to resource owner authorization endpoint
response.
o Added note about parameters with empty values (same as omitted).
o Changed parameter values to use '-' instead of '_'. Parameter
names still use '_'.
o Changed authorization endpoint client type to response type with
values: code, token, and both.
o Complete cleanup of error codes. Added support for error
description and URI.
o Add initial extensibility support.
-08
o Renamed verification code to authorization code.
o Revised terminology, structured section, added new terms.
o Changed flows to profiles and moved to introduction.
o Added support for access token rescoping.
o Cleaned up client credentials section.
o New introduction overview.
o Added error code for invalid username and password, and renamed
error code to be more consistent.
o Added access grant type parameter to token endpoint.
-07
o Major rewrite of entire document structure.
o Removed device profile.
o Added verification code support to user-agent flow.
o Removed multiple formats support, leaving JSON as the only format.
o Changed assertion "assertion_format" parameter to
"assertion_type".
o Removed "type" parameter from token endpoint.
-06
o Editorial changes, corrections, clarifications, etc.
o Removed conformance section.
o Moved authors section to contributors appendix.
o Added section on native applications.
o Changed error response to use the requested format. Added support
for HTTP "Accept" header.
o Flipped the order of the web server and user-agent flows.
o Renamed assertion flow "format" parameter name to
"assertion_format" to resolve conflict.
o Removed the term identifier from token definitions. Added a
cryptographic token definition.
o Added figure titles.
o Added server response 401 when client tried to authenticate using
multiple credentials.
o Clarified support for TLS alternatives, and added requirement for
TLS 1.2 support for token endpoint.
o Removed all signature and cryptography.
o Removed all discovery.
o Updated HTML4 reference.
-05
o Corrected device example.
o Added client credentials parameters to the assertion flow as
OPTIONAL.
o Added the ability to send client credentials using an HTTP
authentication scheme.
o Initial text for the "WWW-Authenticate" header (also added scope
support).
o Change authorization endpoint to resource owner endpoint.
o In the device flow, change the "user_uri" parameter to
"verification_uri" to avoid confusion with the resource owner
endpoint.
o Add "format" request parameter and support for XML and form-
encoded responses.
-04
o Changed all token endpoints to use "POST"
o Clarified the authorization server's ability to issue a new
refresh token when refreshing a token.
o Changed the flow categories to clarify the autonomous group.
o Changed client credentials language not to always be server-
issued.
o Added a "scope" response parameter.
o Fixed typos.
o Fixed broken document structure.
-03
o Fixed typo in JSON error examples.
o Fixed general typos.
o Moved all flows sections up one level.
-02
o Removed restriction on "redirect_uri" including a query.
o Added "scope" parameter.
o Initial proposal for a JSON-based token response format.
-01
o Editorial changes based on feedback from Brian Eaton, Bill Keenan,
and Chuck Mortimore.
o Changed device flow "type" parameter values and switch to use only
the token endpoint.
-00 o Small editorial changes.
o Split introduction 'Roles' into 'Roles' and 'Protocol Flow'.
o Changes section name 'Requesting an Access Token' to 'Obtaining
Authorization'.
o Initial draft based on a combination of WRAP and OAuth 1.0a. o Added explicit authorization request and access token response
sub-sections for each grant type.
o Added document overview in the introduction.
o Reduced the use of 'x_' prefix to SHOULD.
o Removed unused references and updated others.
o Dropped 'invalid_client' error from authorization endpoint
responses.
11. References 11. References
11.1. Normative References 11.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging]
Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Nielsen, H.,
Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., and J. Reschke,
"HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message
Parsing", draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-09 (work in
progress), March 2010.
[RFC2045] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message
Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2616] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.
[RFC2617] Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S., [RFC2617] Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,
Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP
Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication", Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication",
RFC 2617, June 1999. RFC 2617, June 1999.
[RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.
[RFC2828] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary", RFC 2828,
May 2000.
[RFC3023] Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media
Types", RFC 3023, January 2001.
[RFC3447] Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003.
[RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, January 2005. RFC 3986, January 2005.
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for [RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
[RFC5234] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security [RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008. (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.
[RFC5849] Hammer-Lahav, E., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol", RFC 5849,
April 2010.
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224] [W3C.REC-html401-19991224]
Hors, A., Raggett, D., and I. Jacobs, "HTML 4.01 Hors, A., Raggett, D., and I. Jacobs, "HTML 4.01
Specification", World Wide Web Consortium Specification", World Wide Web Consortium
Recommendation REC-html401-19991224, December 1999, Recommendation REC-html401-19991224, December 1999,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224>.
11.2. Informative References 11.2. Informative References
[I-D.hammer-oauth-v2-mac-token] [I-D.hammer-oauth-v2-mac-token]
Hammer-Lahav, E., "HTTP Authentication: MAC Hammer-Lahav, E., "HTTP Authentication: MAC
Authentication", draft-hammer-oauth-v2-mac-token-01 (work Authentication", draft-hammer-oauth-v2-mac-token-02 (work
in progress), January 2011. in progress), January 2011.
[I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer] [I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer]
Campbell, B. and C. Mortimore, "SAML 2.0 Bearer Assertion Campbell, B. and C. Mortimore, "SAML 2.0 Bearer Assertion
Grant Type Profile for OAuth 2.0", Grant Type Profile for OAuth 2.0",
draft-ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer-00 (work in progress), draft-ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer-03 (work in progress),
December 2010. February 2011.
[I-D.ietf-oauth-v2-bearer] [I-D.ietf-oauth-v2-bearer]
Jones, M., Hardt, D., and D. Recordon, "The OAuth 2.0 Jones, M., Hardt, D., and D. Recordon, "The OAuth 2.0
Protocol: Bearer Tokens", draft-ietf-oauth-v2-bearer-01 Protocol: Bearer Tokens", draft-ietf-oauth-v2-bearer-02
(work in progress), December 2010. (work in progress), January 2011.
[OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os]
Cantor, S., Kemp, J., Philpott, R., and E. Maler, Cantor, S., Kemp, J., Philpott, R., and E. Maler,
"Assertions and Protocol for the OASIS Security Assertion "Assertions and Protocol for the OASIS Security Assertion
Markup Language (SAML) V2.0", OASIS Standard saml-core- Markup Language (SAML) V2.0", OASIS Standard saml-core-
2.0-os, March 2005. 2.0-os, March 2005.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Eran Hammer-Lahav (editor) Eran Hammer-Lahav (editor)
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