draft-ietf-oauth-v2-10.txt   draft-ietf-oauth-v2-11.txt 
Network Working Group E. Hammer-Lahav, Ed. Network Working Group E. Hammer-Lahav, Ed.
Internet-Draft Yahoo! Internet-Draft Yahoo!
Obsoletes: 5849 (if approved) D. Recordon Obsoletes: 5849 (if approved) D. Recordon
Intended status: Standards Track Facebook Intended status: Standards Track Facebook
Expires: January 12, 2011 D. Hardt Expires: June 4, 2011 D. Hardt
Microsoft Microsoft
July 11, 2010 December 1, 2010
The OAuth 2.0 Protocol The OAuth 2.0 Protocol Framework
draft-ietf-oauth-v2-10 draft-ietf-oauth-v2-11
Abstract Abstract
This specification describes the OAuth 2.0 protocol. This specification describes the OAuth 2.0 protocol framework.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 12, 2011. This Internet-Draft will expire on June 4, 2011.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 11 skipping to change at page 2, line 11
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4. Client Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4. Access Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4.1. Web Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4.1. Authorization Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4.2. User-Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4.2. Resource Owner Password Credentials . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4.3. Native Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.3. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4.4. Autonomous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4.4. Refresh Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4.5. Assertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.1. Client Password Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2. Client Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3. Obtaining End-User Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.1. Web Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1. Authorization Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2. User-Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.2. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.3. Native Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.2.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.4. Autonomous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4. Obtaining an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.1. Access Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.1. Client Password Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.1.1. Authorization Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.2. Client Assertion Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.1.2. Resource Owner Password Credentials . . . . . . . . . 24 4. Obtaining End-User Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.1.3. Assertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.1. Authorization Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.1.4. Refresh Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.2. Authorization Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.2. Access Token Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.3. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.3. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.3.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.3.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5. Obtaining an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5. Accessing a Protected Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.1. Access Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.1. Authenticated Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.1.1. Authorization Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.1.1. The Authorization Request Header Field . . . . . . . . 30 5.1.2. Resource Owner Password Credentials . . . . . . . . . 27
5.1.2. URI Query Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.1.3. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.1.3. Form-Encoded Body Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.1.4. Refresh Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.2. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header Field . . . . . . . . 32 5.1.5. Assertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.2.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5.2. Access Token Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6. Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.3. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6.1. Defining New Client Credentials Types . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.3.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 6. Accessing a Protected Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.3. Defining New Header Field Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.1. Access Token Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.4. Defining New Access Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.2. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header Field . . . . . . . . 33
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.2.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7. Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8.1. The OAuth Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7.1. Defining New Client Credentials Types . . . . . . . . . . 36
8.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8.1.2. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7.3. Defining New Header Field Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Appendix A. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 7.4. Defining New Access Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Appendix B. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 9.1. The OAuth Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 9.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 9.1.2. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix A. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix B. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
With the increasing use of distributed web services and cloud With the increasing use of distributed web services and cloud
computing, third-party applications require access to server-hosted computing, third-party applications require access to server-hosted
resources. These resources are usually protected and require resources. These resources are usually protected and require
authentication using the resource owner's credentials (typically a authentication using the resource owner's credentials (typically a
username and password). username and password).
In the traditional client-server authentication model, the client In the traditional client-server authentication model, the client
accesses a protected resource on the server by authenticating with accesses a protected resource on the server by authenticating with
the server using the resource owner's credentials. In order to the server using the resource owner's credentials. In order to
provide third-party applications access to protected resources, the provide third-party applications access to protected resources, the
resource owner shares its credentials with the third-party. This resource owner shares its credentials with the third-party. This
creates several problems and limitations: creates several problems and limitations:
o Third-party applications are required to store the resource- o Third-party applications are required to store the resource-
owner's credentials for future use, typically a password in clear- owner's credentials for future use, typically a password in clear-
text. text.
o Servers are required to support password (symmetric) o Servers are required to support password authentication, despite
authentication, despite the security weaknesses created by the security weaknesses created by passwords.
passwords.
o Third-party applications gain overly broad access to the resource- o Third-party applications gain overly broad access to the resource-
owner's protected resources, leaving resource owners without any owner's protected resources, leaving resource owners without any
ability to restrict access to a limited subset of resources, to ability to restrict access to a limited subset of resources, to
limit access duration, or to limit access to the methods supported limit access duration, or to limit access to the methods supported
by these resources. by these resources.
o Resource owners cannot revoke access to an individual third-party o Resource owners cannot revoke access to an individual third-party
without revoking access to all third-parties, and must do so by without revoking access to all third-parties, and must do so by
changing their password. changing their password.
OAuth address these issues by separating the role of the client from OAuth addresses these issues by separating the role of the client
that of the resource owner. In OAuth, the client (which is usually from that of the resource owner. In OAuth, the client (which is
not the resource owner, but is acting on the resource owner's behalf) usually not the resource owner, but is acting on the resource owner's
requests access to resources controlled by the resource owner and behalf) requests access to resources controlled by the resource owner
hosted by the resource server, and is issued a different set of and hosted by the resource server, and is issued a different set of
credentials than those of the resource owner. credentials than those of the resource owner.
Instead of using the resource owner's credentials to access protected Instead of using the resource owner's credentials to access protected
resources, clients obtain an access token (a string which denotes a resources, the client obtains an access token - a string which
specific scope, duration, and other attributes). The format and denotes a specific scope, duration, and other attributes. Access
structure of access tokens is beyond the scope of this specification. tokens are issued to third-party clients by an authorization server
Tokens are issued to third-party clients by an authorization server
with the approval of the resource owner. The client uses the access with the approval of the resource owner. The client uses the access
token to access the protected resources hosted by the resource token to access the protected resources hosted by the resource
server. The interaction between the authorization server and server.
resource server is beyond the scope of this specification.
For example, a web user (resource owner) can grant a printing service For example, a web user (resource owner) can grant a printing service
(client) access to her protected photos stored at a photo sharing (client) access to her protected photos stored at a photo sharing
service (resource server), without sharing her username and password service (resource server), without sharing her username and password
with the printing service. Instead, she authenticates directly with with the printing service. Instead, she authenticates directly with
an authentication service trusted by the photo sharing service an authentication service trusted by the photo sharing service
(authorization server) which issues the printing service delegation- (authorization server) which issues the printing service delegation-
specific credentials (token). specific credentials (token).
This specification defines the use of OAuth over HTTP [RFC2616] (or Access tokens can have different formats, structures, and methods of
HTTP over TLS as defined by [RFC2818]). Other specifications may utilization (e.g. cryptographic properties), based on the resource
extend it for use with other transport protocols. server security requirements. Access token attributes and the
methods used to access protected resources are beyond the scope of
this specification and are defined by companion specifications. The
interaction between the authorization server and resource server is
beyond the scope of this specification.
1.1. Notational Conventions 1.1. Notational Conventions
The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL NOT', The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL NOT',
'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
This document uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of This document uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation of
[I-D.ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging]. Additionally, the following rules [I-D.ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging]. Additionally, the following rules
are included from [RFC2617]: realm, auth-param; from [RFC3986]: URI- are included from [RFC3986]: URI-reference; and from
Reference; and from [I-D.ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging]: OWS, RWS, and [I-D.ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging]: OWS, RWS, and quoted-string.
quoted-string.
Unless otherwise noted, all the protocol parameter names and values Unless otherwise noted, all the protocol parameter names and values
are case sensitive. are case sensitive.
1.2. Terminology 1.2. Terminology
protected resource protected resource
An access-restricted resource which can be obtained using an An access-restricted resource which can be obtained using an
OAuth-authenticated request. OAuth-authenticated request.
skipping to change at page 6, line 29 skipping to change at page 6, line 29
token. token.
access token access token
A token used by the client to make authenticated requests on A token used by the client to make authenticated requests on
behalf of the resource owner. behalf of the resource owner.
refresh token refresh token
A token used by the client to obtain a new access token without A token used by the client to obtain a new access token without
having to involve the resource owner. having to involve the resource owner.
authorization code A short-lived token representing the access grant authorization code A short-lived token representing the
provided by the end-user. The authorization code is used to authorization provided by the end-user. The authorization code
obtain an access token and a refresh token. is used to obtain an access token and a refresh token.
access grant A general term used to describe the intermediate
credentials (such as an end-user password or authorization
code) representing the resource owner authorization. Access
grants are used by the client to obtain an access token. By
exchanging access grants of different types for an access
token, the resource server is only required to support a single
authentication scheme.
authorization server authorization server
A server capable of issuing tokens after successfully A server capable of issuing tokens after successfully
authenticating the resource owner and obtaining authorization. authenticating the resource owner and obtaining authorization.
The authorization server may be the same server as the resource The authorization server may be the same server as the resource
server, or a separate entity. server, or a separate entity. A single authorization server
may issue tokens for multiple resource servers.
end-user authorization endpoint end-user authorization endpoint
The authorization server's HTTP endpoint capable of The authorization server's HTTP endpoint capable of
authenticating the end-user and obtaining authorization. The authenticating the end-user and obtaining authorization. The
end-user authorization endpoint is described in Section 3. end-user authorization endpoint is described in Section 4.
token endpoint token endpoint
The authorization server's HTTP endpoint capable of issuing The authorization server's HTTP endpoint capable of issuing
tokens and refreshing expired tokens. The token endpoint is tokens and refreshing expired tokens. The token endpoint is
described in Section 4. described in Section 5.
client identifier client identifier
A unique identifier issued to the client to identify itself to A unique identifier issued to the client to identify itself to
the authorization server. Client identifiers may have a the authorization server. Client identifiers may have a
matching secret. The client identifier is described in matching secret. The client identifier is described in
Section 2. Section 3.
1.3. Overview 1.3. Overview
OAuth provides a method for clients to access a protected resource on OAuth provides a method for clients to access a protected resource on
behalf of a resource owner. Before a client can access a protected behalf of a resource owner. Before a client can access a protected
resource, it must first obtain authorization from the resource owner, resource, it must first obtain authorization (access grant) from the
then exchange the access grant for an access token (representing the resource owner, then exchange the access grant for an access token
grant's scope, duration, and other attributes). The client accesses (representing the grant's scope, duration, and other attributes).
the protected resource by presenting the access token to the resource The client accesses the protected resource by presenting the access
server. token to the resource server.
+--------+ +---------------+ The access token provides an abstraction layer, replacing different
| |--(A)-- Authorization Request --->| Resource | authorization constructs (e.g. username and password, assertion) for
| | | Owner | a single token understood by the resource server. This abstraction
| |<-(B)------ Access Grant ---------| | enables issuing access tokens valid for a short time period, as well
| | +---------------+ as removing the resource server's need to understand a wide range of
authentication schemes.
+--------+ +---------------+
| |--(A)- Authorization Request ->| Resource |
| | | Owner |
| |<-(B)----- Access Grant -------| |
| | +---------------+
| | | |
| | Client Credentials & +---------------+ | | Access Grant & +---------------+
| |--(C)------ Access Grant -------->| Authorization | | |--(C)--- Client Credentials -->| Authorization |
| Client | | Server | | Client | | Server |
| |<-(D)------ Access Token ---------| | | |<-(D)----- Access Token -------| |
| | (w/ Optional Refresh Token) +---------------+ | | +---------------+
| | | |
| | +---------------+ | | +---------------+
| |--(E)------ Access Token -------->| Resource | | |--(E)----- Access Token ------>| Resource |
| | | Server | | | | Server |
| |<-(F)---- Protected Resource -----| | | |<-(F)--- Protected Resource ---| |
+--------+ +---------------+ +--------+ +---------------+
Figure 1: Abstract Protocol Flow Figure 1: Abstract Protocol Flow
The abstract flow illustrated in Figure 1 includes the following The abstract flow illustrated in Figure 1 describes the overall
steps: protocol architecture and includes the following steps:
(A) The client requests authorization from the resource owner. The (A) The client requests authorization from the resource owner. The
client should not request the resource owner's credentials authorization request can be made directly to the resource
directly. Instead, it should request authorization via an owner, or preferably indirectly via an intermediary such as an
authorization server or other entities. For example, the client authorization server.
directs the resource owner to the authorization server which in
turn issues it an access grant. When unavoidable, the client
interacts directly with the end-user, asking for the end-user's
username and password. If the client is acting autonomously,
the authorization request is beyond the scope of this
specification.
(B) The client is issued an access grant which represents the
authorization provided by the resource owner. The access grant
can be expressed as:
* Authorization code - an access grant obtained via an
authorization server. Section 3 describes how to obtain an
authorization code when the end-user is present and using a
user-agent.
* Assertion - an access grant obtained using a different trust
framework. Assertions enable the client to utilize existing
trust relationships to obtain an access token. They provide
a bridge between OAuth and other trust frameworks. The
access grant represented by an assertion depends on the
assertion type, its content, and how it was issued, which are
beyond the scope of this specification.
* Resource owner password credentials - obtained when (B) The client receives an access grant which represents the
interacting directly with a resource-owner. Resource owner authorization provided by the resource owner.
password credentials (i.e. a username and password) should
only be used when there is a high degree of trust between the
resource owner and the client (e.g. its computer operating
system or a highly privileged application). However, unlike
the HTTP Basic authentication scheme defined in [RFC2617],
the resource owner's credentials are used for a single
request and are exchanged for an access token and refresh
token. This eliminates the need for the client to store the
resource-owner's credentials for future use.
(C) The client requests an access token by authenticating with the (C) The client requests an access token by authenticating with the
authorization server, and presenting the access grant. The authorization server using its client credentials, and
token request is described in Section 4. presenting the access grant.
(D) The authorization server validates the client credentials and (D) The authorization server validates the client credentials and
the access grant, and issues an access token with an optional the access grant, and if valid issues an access token.
refresh token. Access tokens usually have a shorter lifetime
than the access grant. Refresh tokens usually have a lifetime
equal to the duration of the access grant. When an access token
expires, the refresh token is used to obtain a new access token
without having to request another access grant from the resource
owner.
(E) The client makes a protected resource request to the resource (E) The client makes a protected resource request to the resource
server, and presents the access token in order to gain access. server by presenting the access token.
Accessing a protected resource is described in Section 5.
(F) The resource server validates the access token, and if valid, (F) The resource server validates the access token, and if valid,
serves the request. serves the request.
When the client is acting on its own behalf (the client is also the 1.4. Access Grants
resource owner), the client does not obtain an access grant. The
simplified protocol flow is illustrated in Figure 2:
+--------+ +---------------+ The access grant represents the authorization provided by the
| |--(C)--- Client Credentials ----->| Authorization | resource owner. The access grant type depends on the method used by
| | | Server | the client and supported by the authorization server to obtain it.
| |<-(D)------ Access Token ---------| |
| | +---------------+
| Client |
| | +---------------+
| |--(E)------ Access Token -------->| Resource |
| | | Server |
| |<-(F)---- Protected Resource -----| |
+--------+ +---------------+
Figure 2: Protocol Flow for Client Acting On Its Own Behalf 1.4.1. Authorization Code
When the client uses the user-agent profile (described in The authorization code is an access grant obtained by directing the
Section 1.4.2), the authorization request results in an access token, end-user to an authorization server. The authorization server
as illustrated in Figure 3: authenticates the end-user, obtains authorization, and issues the an
authorization code to the client. Because the end-user only
authenticates with the authorization server, the end-user's password
is never shared with the client.
+--------+ +----------+ +---------------+ The authorization code access grant is suitable when the client is
| |--(A)-- Authorization --+- -+-->| | interacting with an end-user via a user-agent.
| | Request | Resource | | Authorization |
| | | Owner | | Server |
| |<-(D)-- Access Token ---+- -+---| |
| | +----------+ +---------------+
| Client |
| | +---------------+
| |--(E)-------- Access Token ----------->| Resource |
| | | Server |
| |<-(F)------ Protected Resource --------| |
+--------+ +---------------+
Figure 3: Indirect Access Grant Protocol Flow +----------+
| |
| End-User |
| |
+----------+
^
|
(B)
+----|-----+ Client Identifier +---------------+
| -+--(A)--- & Redirect URI ----->| |
| User- | | Authorization |
| Agent -|--(B)-- User authenticates -->| Server |
| | | |
| -+--(C)-- Authorization Code --<| |
+-|----|---+ +---------------+
(A) (C)
| |
^ v
+---------+
| |
| Client |
| |
+---------+
1.4. Client Profiles Figure 2: Obtaining an Authorization Code
OAuth supports a wide range of client types by providing a rich and The authorization code flow illustrated in Figure 2 includes the
extensible framework for establishing authorization and exchanging it following steps:
for an access token. The methods detailed in this specification were
designed to accommodate four client types: web servers, user-agents,
native applications, and autonomous clients. Additional
authorization flows and client profiles may be defined by other
specifications to cover additional scenarios and client types.
1.4.1. Web Server (A) The client initiates the flow by directing the end-user's user-
agent to the authorization server's end-user authorization
endpoint. The client includes its client identifier, requested
scope, local state, and a redirection URI (to which the
authorization server will send the user-agent back once access
is granted or denied).
(B) The authorization server authenticates the end-user (via the
user-agent) and establishes whether the end-user grants or
denies the client's access request.
(C) If access is granted, the authorization server directs the user-
agent back to the client using the redirection URI provided.
The authorization server includes an authorization code for the
client to use to obtain an access token.
Once the client obtains an authorization code, it requests an access
token by authenticating with the authorization server (using its
client credentials) and presenting the authorization code (access
grant).
In cases where the client is incapable of maintaining its client
credentials secret (such as native applications or an application
implemented as a user-agent script), the authorization server issues
an access token directly to the client in step (C), instead of
issuing an authorization code.
Obtaining an authorization code is described in Section 4.
1.4.2. Resource Owner Password Credentials
The resource owner password credentials (e.g. a username and
password) can be used directly as an access grant to obtain an access
token. The credentials should only be used when there is a high
degree of trust between the resource owner and the client (e.g. its
computer operating system or a highly privileged application), and
when other access grant types are not available (such as an
authorization code).
Even though this grant type requires direct client access to the
resource owner's credentials, the resource owner's credentials are
used for a single request and are exchanged for an access token.
Unlike the HTTP Basic authentication scheme defined in [RFC2617],
this grant type eliminates the need for the client to store the
resource-owner's credentials for future use.
In Figure 3, the client requests authorization from the resource
owner directly. When the resource owner is an end-user, the client
typically prompts the end-user for the username and password.
+--------+ +----------+
| |--(A)- Authorization Request ->| Resource |
| Client | | Owner |
| |<-(B)-- Username & Password ---| |
+--------+ +----------+
Figure 3: Obtaining Resource Owner Password Credentials
1.4.3. Client Credentials
The client credentials can be used as an access grant when the
authorization scope is limited to the protected resources under the
control of the client, or other protected resources previously
arranged with the authorization server. Client credentials are used
as an access grant typically when the client is acting on its own
behalf (the client is also the resource owner).
1.4.4. Refresh Token
Access tokens usually have a shorter lifetime than authorized by the
resource owner. When issuing an access token, the authorization
server can include a refresh token which is used by the client to
obtain a new access token when the current access token expires.
When requesting a new access token, the refresh token acts as an
access grant. Using a refresh token removes the need to interact
with the resource owner again, or to store the original access grant
used to obtain the access token and refresh token.
+--------+ Access Grant & +---------------+
| |--(A)-- Client Credentials -->| Authorization |
| | | Server |
| |<-(B)---- Access Token -------| |
| | & Refresh Token +---------------+
| |
| | +---------------+
| |--(C)----- Access Token ----->| |
| | | |
| |<-(D)-- Protected Resource ---| Resource |
| Client | | Server |
| |--(E)----- Access Token ----->| |
| | | |
| |<-(F)-- Invalid Token Error --| |
| | +---------------+
| |
| | Refresh Token & +---------------+
| |--(G)-- Client Credentials -->| Authorization |
| | | Server |
| |<-(H)----- Access Token ------| |
+--------+ & Optional Refresh Token +---------------+
Figure 4: Refreshing an Access Token
The refresh token flow illustrated in Figure 4 includes the following
steps:
(A) The client requests an access token by authenticating with the
authorization server using its client credentials, and
presenting an access grant.
(B) The authorization server validates the client credentials and
the access grant, and if valid issues an access token and a
refresh token.
(C) The client makes a protected resource requests to the resource
server by presenting the access token.
(D) The resource server validates the access token, and if valid,
serves the request.
(E) Steps (C) and (D) repeat until the access token expires. If the
client does not know the access token expired, it makes another
protected resource request. Otherwise, it skips to step (G).
(F) Since the access token is invalid (expired), the resource server
returns an invalid token error.
(G) The client requests a new access token by authenticating with
the authorization server using its client credentials, and
presenting the refresh token (as the access grant).
(H) The authorization server validates the client credentials and
the refresh token, and if valid issues a new access token (and
optionally, a new refresh token).
1.4.5. Assertion
Assertions provide a bridge between OAuth and other trust frameworks.
They enable the client to utilize existing trust relationships in
order to obtain an access token. The access grant represented by an
assertion depends on the assertion type, its content, and how it was
issued, which are beyond the scope of this specification.
Assertions are used as part of the protocol extensibility model,
providing a way for authorization servers to support additional
access grant types.
2. Client Profiles
[[ add intro and find new names for the profiles. this section will
have normative language in future drafts, similar to -05 and earlier.
]]
2.1. Web Server
The web server profile is suitable for clients capable of interacting The web server profile is suitable for clients capable of interacting
with the end-user's user-agent (typically a web browser) and capable with the end-user's user-agent (typically a web browser) and capable
of receiving incoming requests from the authorization server (capable of receiving incoming requests (via redirection) from the
of acting as an HTTP server). authorization server (capable of acting as an HTTP server).
+----------+ Client Identifier +---------------+ +----------+ Client Identifier +---------------+
| -+----(A)--- & Redirect URI ------>| | | -+----(A)--- & Redirect URI ------>| |
| End-user | | Authorization | | End-user | | Authorization |
| at |<---(B)-- User authenticates --->| Server | | at |<---(B)-- User authenticates --->| Server |
| Browser | | | | Browser | | |
| -+----(C)-- Authorization Code ---<| | | -+----(C)-- Authorization Code ---<| |
+-|----|---+ +---------------+ +-|----|---+ +---------------+
| | ^ v | | ^ v
(A) (C) | | (A) (C) | |
| | | | | | | |
^ v | | ^ v | |
+---------+ | | +---------+ | |
| |>---(D)-- Client Credentials, --------' | | |>---(D)-- Client Credentials, --------' |
| Web | Authorization Code, | | Server | Authorization Code, |
| Client | & Redirect URI | | -Based | & Redirect URI |
| | | | Client | |
| |<---(E)----- Access Token -------------------' | |<---(E)----- Access Token -------------------'
+---------+ (w/ Optional Refresh Token) +---------+ (w/ Optional Refresh Token)
Figure 4: Web Server Flow Figure 5: Web Server Flow
The web server flow illustrated in Figure 4 includes the following The web server flow illustrated in Figure 5 includes the following
steps: steps:
(A) The web client initiates the flow by redirecting the end-user's (A) The web client initiates the flow by redirecting the end-user's
user-agent to the end-user authorization endpoint as described user-agent to the end-user authorization endpoint as described
in Section 3. The client includes its client identifier, in Section 4. The client includes its client identifier,
requested scope, local state, and a redirect URI to which the requested scope, local state, and a redirect URI to which the
authorization server will send the end-user back once access is authorization server will send the end-user back once access is
granted (or denied). granted (or denied).
(B) The authorization server authenticates the end-user (via the (B) The authorization server authenticates the end-user (via the
user-agent) and establishes whether the end-user grants or user-agent) and establishes whether the end-user grants or
denies the client's access request. denies the client's access request.
(C) Assuming the end-user granted access, the authorization server (C) Assuming the end-user granted access, the authorization server
redirects the user-agent back to the client to the redirection redirects the user-agent back to the client to the redirection
URI provided earlier. The authorization includes an URI provided earlier. The authorization includes an
authorization code for the client to use to obtain an access authorization code for the client to use to obtain an access
token. token.
(D) The client requests an access token from the authorization (D) The client requests an access token from the authorization
server by authenticating and including the authorization code server by authenticating and including the authorization code
received in the previous step as described in Section 4. received in the previous step as described in Section 5.
(E) The authorization server validates the client credentials and (E) The authorization server validates the client credentials and
the authorization code and responds back with the access token. the authorization code and responds back with the access token.
1.4.2. User-Agent 2.2. User-Agent
The user-agent profile is suitable for client applications residing The user-agent profile is suitable for client applications residing
in a user-agent, typically implemented in a browser using a scripting in a user-agent, typically implemented in a browser using a scripting
language such as JavaScript. These clients cannot keep client language such as JavaScript. These clients cannot keep client
secrets confidential and the authentication of the client is based on secrets confidential and the authentication of the client is based on
the user-agent's same-origin policy. the user-agent's same-origin policy.
Unlike other profiles in which the client makes separate requests for Unlike other profiles in which the client makes separate requests for
end-user authorization and access token, the client receives the end-user authorization and access token, the client receives the
access token as a result of the end-user authorization request in the access token as a result of the end-user authorization request in the
skipping to change at page 12, line 22 skipping to change at page 15, line 4
| in | in Fragment +----------------+ | in | in Fragment +----------------+
| Browser | | Browser |
| | +----------------+ | | +----------------+
| |>---(D)--- Redirect URI ------->| | | |>---(D)--- Redirect URI ------->| |
| | without Fragment | Web Server | | | without Fragment | Web Server |
| | | with Client | | | | with Client |
| (F) |<---(E)--- Web Page with ------<| Resource | | (F) |<---(E)--- Web Page with ------<| Resource |
| Access | Script | | | Access | Script | |
| Token | +----------------+ | Token | +----------------+
+----------+ +----------+
Figure 6: User-Agent Flow
Figure 5: User-Agent Flow The user-agent flow illustrated in Figure 6 includes the following
The user-agent flow illustrated in Figure 5 includes the following
steps: steps:
(A) The client sends the user-agent to the end-user authorization (A) The client sends the user-agent to the end-user authorization
endpoint as described in Section 3. The client includes its endpoint as described in Section 4. The client includes its
client identifier, requested scope, local state, and a redirect client identifier, requested scope, local state, and a redirect
URI to which the authorization server will send the end-user URI to which the authorization server will send the end-user
back once authorization is granted (or denied). back once authorization is granted (or denied).
(B) The authorization server authenticates the end-user (via the (B) The authorization server authenticates the end-user (via the
user-agent) and establishes whether the end-user grants or user-agent) and establishes whether the end-user grants or
denies the client's access request. denies the client's access request.
(C) If the end-user granted access, the authorization server (C) If the end-user granted access, the authorization server
redirects the user-agent to the redirection URI provided redirects the user-agent to the redirection URI provided
skipping to change at page 13, line 9 skipping to change at page 15, line 38
(E) The web server returns a web page (typically an HTML page with (E) The web server returns a web page (typically an HTML page with
an embedded script) capable of accessing the full redirection an embedded script) capable of accessing the full redirection
URI including the fragment retained by the user-agent, and URI including the fragment retained by the user-agent, and
extracting the access token (and other parameters) contained in extracting the access token (and other parameters) contained in
the fragment. the fragment.
(F) The user-agent executes the script provided by the web server (F) The user-agent executes the script provided by the web server
locally, which extracts the access token and passes it to the locally, which extracts the access token and passes it to the
client. client.
1.4.3. Native Application 2.3. Native Application
Native application are clients running as native code on the end- Native applications are clients running as native code on the end-
user's computer or device (i.e. executing outside a user-agent or as user's computer or device (i.e. executing outside a user-agent or as
a desktop program). These clients are often capable of interacting a desktop program). These clients are often capable of interacting
with (or embedding) the end-user's user-agent but are limited in how with (or embedding) the end-user's user-agent but are limited in how
such interaction affects their end-user experience. In many cases, such interaction affects their end-user experience. In many cases,
native applications are incapable of receiving direct callback native applications are incapable of receiving direct callback
requests from the server (e.g. firewall, operating system requests from the server (e.g. firewall, operating system
restrictions). restrictions).
Native application clients can be implemented in different ways based Native application clients can be implemented in different ways based
on their requirements and desired end-user experience. Native on their requirements and desired end-user experience. Native
application clients can: application clients can:
o Utilize the end-user authorization endpoint as described in o Utilize the end-user authorization endpoint as described in
Section 3 by launching an external user-agent. The client can Section 4 by launching an external user-agent. The client can
capture the response by providing a redirection URI with a custom capture the response by providing a redirection URI with a custom
URI scheme (registered with the operating system to invoke the URI scheme (registered with the operating system to invoke the
client application), or by providing a redirection URI pointing to client application), or by providing a redirection URI pointing to
a server-hosted resource under the client's control which makes a server-hosted resource under the client's control which makes
the response available to the client (e.g. using the window title the response available to the client (e.g. using the window title
or other locations accessible from outside the user-agent). or other locations accessible from outside the user-agent).
o Utilize the end-user authorization endpoint as described in o Utilize the end-user authorization endpoint as described in
Section 3 by using an embedded user-agent. The client obtains the Section 4 by using an embedded user-agent. The client obtains the
response by directly communicating with the embedded user-agent. response by directly communicating with the embedded user-agent.
o Prompt end-users for their password and use them directly to o Prompt end-users for their password and use them directly to
obtain an access token. This is generally discouraged, as it obtain an access token. This is generally discouraged, as it
hands the end-user's password directly to the third-party client hands the end-user's password directly to the third-party client
which in turn has to store it in clear-text. It also requires the which in turn has to store it in clear-text. It also requires the
server to support password-based authentication. server to support password-based authentication.
When choosing between launching an external browser and an embedded When choosing between launching an external browser and an embedded
user-agent, developers should consider the following: user-agent, developers should consider the following:
skipping to change at page 14, line 9 skipping to change at page 16, line 37
o External user-agents may improve completion rate as the end-user o External user-agents may improve completion rate as the end-user
may already be logged-in and not have to re-authenticate. may already be logged-in and not have to re-authenticate.
o Embedded user-agents often offer a better end-user flow, as they o Embedded user-agents often offer a better end-user flow, as they
remove the need to switch context and open new windows. remove the need to switch context and open new windows.
o Embedded user-agents pose a security challenge because users are o Embedded user-agents pose a security challenge because users are
authenticating in an unidentified window without access to the authenticating in an unidentified window without access to the
visual protections offered by many user-agents. visual protections offered by many user-agents.
1.4.4. Autonomous 2.4. Autonomous
Autonomous clients utilize an existing trust relationship or Autonomous clients utilize an existing trust relationship or
framework to establish authorization. Autonomous clients can be framework to establish authorization. Autonomous clients can be
implemented in different ways based on their requirements and the implemented in different ways based on their requirements and the
existing trust framework they rely upon. Autonomous clients can: existing trust framework they rely upon. Autonomous clients can:
o Obtain an access token by authenticating with the authorization o Obtain an access token by authenticating with the authorization
server using their client credentials. The scope of the access server using their client credentials. The scope of the access
token is limited to the protected resources under the control of token is limited to the protected resources under the control of
the client, or that of another resource owner previously arranged the client, or that of another resource owner previously arranged
with the authorization server. with the authorization server.
o Use an existing access grant expressed as an assertion using an o Use an existing access grant expressed as an assertion using an
assertion format supported by the authorization server. Using assertion format supported by the authorization server. Using
assertions requires the client to obtain a assertion (such as a assertions requires the client to obtain an assertion (such as a
SAML [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] assertion) from an assertion issuer SAML [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] assertion) from an assertion issuer
or to self-issue an assertion. The assertion format, the process or to self-issue an assertion. The assertion format, the process
by which the assertion is obtained, and the method of validating by which the assertion is obtained, and the method of validating
the assertion are defined by the assertion issuer and the the assertion are defined by the assertion issuer and the
authorization server, and are beyond the scope of this authorization server, and are beyond the scope of this
specification. specification.
2. Client Credentials 3. Client Credentials
When interacting with the authorization server, the client identifies When interacting with the authorization server, the client identifies
itself using a client identifier and authenticates using a set of itself using a set of client credentials which include a client
client credentials. This specification provides one mechanism for identifier and other properties for client authentication. The means
authenticating the client using password credentials. through which the client obtains its credentials are beyond the scope
of this specification, but typically involve registration with the
The means through which the client obtains its credentials are beyond authorization server.
the scope of this specification, but usually involve registration
with the authorization server. [[ OAuth Discovery provides one way of
obtaining a client password ]]
Due to the nature of some clients, authorization servers SHOULD NOT Due to the nature of some clients, authorization servers SHOULD NOT
make assumptions about the confidentiality of client secrets without make assumptions about the confidentiality of client secrets without
establishing trust with the client operator. Authorization servers establishing trust with the client. Authorization servers SHOULD NOT
SHOULD NOT issue client secrets to clients incapable of keeping their issue client secrets to clients incapable of keeping their secrets
secrets confidential. confidential.
The authorization server MAY authenticate the client using any The authorization server MAY authenticate the client using any
appropriate set of credentials and authentication scheme. The client appropriate set of credentials and authentication schemes. The
MUST NOT utilize more than one set of credentials or authentication client MUST NOT include more than one set of credentials or
mechanism with each request. authentication mechanism with each request.
2.1. Client Password Credentials 3.1. Client Password Credentials
The client password credentials use a shared symmetric secret to The client password credentials use a shared symmetric secret to
authenticate the client. The client identifier and password are authenticate the client. The client identifier and password are
included in the request using the HTTP Basic authentication scheme as included in the request using the HTTP Basic authentication scheme as
defined in [RFC2617] by including the client identifier as the defined in [RFC2617] by including the client identifier as the
username and client password as the password. username and client password as the password.
For example (line breaks are for display purposes only): For example (line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Authorization: Basic czZCaGRSa3F0MzpnWDFmQmF0M2JW Authorization: Basic czZCaGRSa3F0MzpnWDFmQmF0M2JW
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&code=i1WsRn1uB1& grant_type=authorization_code&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
Alternatively, the client MAY include the password in the request Alternatively, the client MAY include the password in the request
body using the following parameter: body using the following parameters:
client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier.
client_secret REQUIRED. The client password. client_secret REQUIRED. The client password.
For example (line breaks are for display purposes only): For example (line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1& client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
The authorization server MUST accept the client credentials using The authorization server MUST accept the client credentials using
both the request parameter, and the HTTP Basic authentication scheme. both the request parameter, and the HTTP Basic authentication scheme.
The authorization server MAY support additional authentication The authorization server MAY support additional authentication
schemes suitable for the transmission of a password. schemes suitable for the transmission of password credentials.
3. Obtaining End-User Authorization 3.2. Client Assertion Credentials
When the client interacts with an end-user, the end-user MUST first The client assertion credentials are used in cases where a password
grant the client authorization to access its protected resources. (clear-text shared symmetric secret) is unsuitable or does not
Once obtained, the end-user access grant is expressed as an provide sufficient security for client authentication. In such cases
authorization code which the client uses to obtain an access token. it is common to use other mechanisms such as HMAC or digital
To obtain an end-user authorization, the client sends the end-user to signatures that do not require sending clear-text secrets. The
the end-user authorization endpoint. client assertion credentials provide an extensible mechanism to use
an assertion format supported by the authorization server for
authentication the client.
Using assertions requires the client to obtain an assertion (such as
a SAML [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] assertion) from an assertion issuer
or to self-issue an assertion. The assertion format, the process by
which the assertion is obtained, and the method of validating the
assertion are defined by the assertion issuer and the authorization
server, and are beyond the scope of this specification.
When using a client assertion, the client includes the following
parameters:
client_assertion_type REQUIRED. The format of the assertion as
defined by the authorization server. The value MUST be an
absolute URI.
client_assertion REQUIRED. The client assertion.
For example, the client sends the following access token request
using a SAML 2.0 assertion to authenticate itself (line breaks are
for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization_code&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
client_assertion=PHNhbWxwOl[...omitted for brevity...]ZT4%3D&
client_assertion_type=
urn%3Aoasis%3Anames%sAtc%3ASAML%3A2.0%3Aassertion&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
When obtaining an access token using a client assertion together with
an authorization code (as described in Section 5.1.1), a mechanism is
needed to map between the value of "client_id" parameter used to
obtain the authorization code, and the client assertion. Such
mechanism is beyond the out of scope for this specification, but MUST
be specified for any client assertion type used in combination with
an authorization code.
The authorization server MUST reject access token requests using
client assertion credentials that do not contain HMAC or signed
values that:
o State the assertion was specifically issued to be consumed by the
receiving endpoint (typically via an audience or recipient value
containing the receiving endpoint's identifier).
o Identify the entity that issued the assertion (typically via an
issuer value).
o Identify when the assertion expires as an absolute time (typically
via an expiration value containing a UTC date/time value). The
authorization server MUST reject expired assertions.
4. Obtaining End-User Authorization
Before the client can access a protect resource, it MUST first obtain
authorization from the end-user. To obtain an end-user
authorization, the client sends the end-user to the end-user
authorization endpoint. Once obtained, the end-user access grant is
expressed as an authorization code which the client uses to obtain an
access token.
At the end-user authorization endpoint, the end-user first At the end-user authorization endpoint, the end-user first
authenticates with the authorization server, and then grants or authenticates with the authorization server, and then grants or
denies the access request. The way in which the authorization server denies the access request. The way in which the authorization server
authenticates the end-user (e.g. username and password login, OpenID, authenticates the end-user (e.g. username and password login, OpenID,
session cookies) and in which the authorization server obtains the session cookies) and in which the authorization server obtains the
end-user's authorization, including whether it uses a secure channel end-user's authorization, including whether it uses a secure channel
such as TLS, is beyond the scope of this specification. However, the such as TLS, is beyond the scope of this specification. However, the
authorization server MUST first verify the identity of the end-user. authorization server MUST first verify the identity of the end-user.
The location of the end-user authorization endpoint can be found in The location of the end-user authorization endpoint can be found in
the service documentation, or can be obtained by using [[ OAuth the service documentation. The end-user authorization endpoint URI
Discovery ]]. The end-user authorization endpoint URI MAY include a MAY include a query component as defined by [RFC3986] section 3,
query component as defined by [RFC3986] section 3, which must be which must be retained when adding additional query parameters.
retained when adding additional query parameters.
Since requests to the end-user authorization endpoint result in user Since requests to the end-user authorization endpoint result in user
authentication and the transmission of sensitive information, the authentication and the transmission of sensitive information, the
authorization server SHOULD require the use of a transport-layer authorization server SHOULD require the use of a transport-layer
security mechanism such as TLS when sending requests to the end-user security mechanism such as TLS when sending requests to the end-user
authorization endpoint. authorization endpoint.
4.1. Authorization Request
In order to direct the end-user's user-agent to the authorization In order to direct the end-user's user-agent to the authorization
server, the client constructs the request URI by adding the following server, the client constructs the request URI by adding the following
parameters to the end-user authorization endpoint URI query component parameters to the end-user authorization endpoint URI query component
using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224]: [W3C.REC-html401-19991224]:
response_type response_type
REQUIRED. The requested response: an access token, an REQUIRED. The requested response: an access token, an
authorization code, or both. The parameter value MUST be set authorization code, or both. The parameter value MUST be set
to "token" for requesting an access token, "code" for to "token" for requesting an access token, "code" for
requesting an authorization code, or "code_and_token" to requesting an authorization code, or "code_and_token" to
request both. The authorization server MAY decline to provide request both. The authorization server MAY decline to provide
one or more of these response types. [[ The 'code_and_token' one or more of these response types.
type is pending use cases and may be removed for the
specification ]]
client_id client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 2. REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.
redirect_uri redirect_uri
REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between
the client and authorization server via other means. An the client and authorization server via other means. An
absolute URI to which the authorization server will redirect absolute URI to which the authorization server will redirect
the user-agent to when the end-user authorization step is the user-agent to when the end-user authorization step is
completed. The authorization server SHOULD require the client completed. The authorization server SHOULD require the client
to pre-register their redirection URI. to pre-register their redirection URI.
scope scope
skipping to change at page 17, line 47 skipping to change at page 21, line 47
following HTTP request using transport-layer security (line breaks following HTTP request using transport-layer security (line breaks
are for display purposes only): are for display purposes only):
GET /authorize?response_type=code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& GET /authorize?response_type=code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb HTTP/1.1 redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
If the client has previously registered a redirection URI with the If the client has previously registered a redirection URI with the
authorization server, the authorization server MUST verify that the authorization server, the authorization server MUST verify that the
redirection URI received matches the registered URI associated with redirection URI received matches the registered URI associated with
the client identifier. [[ provide guidance on how to perform matching the client identifier. The authorization server SHOULD NOT redirect
]] the user-agent to unregistered or untrusted URIs to prevent the
endpoint from being used as an open redirector. If no valid
redirection URI is available, the authorization server SHOULD inform
the end-user of the error occured. [[ provide guidance on how to
perform matching ]]
Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were
omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore
unrecognized request parameters. unrecognized request parameters.
The authorization server validates the request to ensure all required The authorization server validates the request to ensure all required
parameters are present and valid. If the request is invalid, the parameters are present and valid. If the request is invalid, the
authorization server immediately redirects the user-agent back to the authorization server redirects the user-agent back to the client
client using the redirection URI provided with the appropriate error using the redirection URI provided with the appropriate error code as
code as described in Section 3.2. described in Section 4.3.
The authorization server authenticates the end-user and obtains an The authorization server authenticates the end-user and obtains an
authorization decision (by asking the end-user or by establishing authorization decision (by asking the end-user or by establishing
approval via other means). When a decision has been established, the approval via other means). When a decision has been established, the
authorization server directs the end-user's user-agent to the authorization server directs the end-user's user-agent to the
provided client redirection URI using an HTTP redirection response, provided client redirection URI using an HTTP redirection response,
or by other means available to it via the end-user's user-agent. or by other means available to it via the end-user's user-agent.
3.1. Authorization Response 4.2. Authorization Response
If the end-user grants the access request, the authorization server If the end-user grants the access request, the authorization server
issues an access token, an authorization code, or both, and delivers issues an access token, an authorization code, or both, and delivers
them to the client by adding the following parameters to the them to the client by adding the following parameters to the
redirection URI (as described below): redirection URI (as described below):
code code
REQUIRED if the response type is "code" or "code_and_token", REQUIRED if the response type is "code" or "code_and_token",
otherwise MUST NOT be included. The authorization code otherwise MUST NOT be included. The authorization code
generated by the authorization server. The authorization code generated by the authorization server. The authorization code
SHOULD expire shortly after it is issued. The authorization SHOULD expire shortly after it is issued to minimize the risk
server MUST invalidate the authorization code after a single of leaks. The client MUST NOT reuse the authorization code.
usage. The authorization code is bound to the client If an authorization code is used more than once, the
identifier and redirection URI. authorization server MAY revoke all tokens previously issued
based on that authorization code. The authorization code is
bound to the client identifier and redirection URI.
access_token access_token
REQUIRED if the response type is "token" or "code_and_token", REQUIRED if the response type is "token" or "code_and_token",
otherwise MUST NOT be included. The access token issued by the otherwise MUST NOT be included. The access token issued by the
authorization server. The access token string MUST comply with authorization server.
the access-token rule defined in Section 5.1.1.
token_type
REQUIRED if the response includes an access token. The type of
the token issued. The token type informs the client how the
access token is to be used when accessing a protected resource
as described in Section 6.1.
expires_in expires_in
OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token lifetime OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token lifetime
if an access token is included. For example, the value "3600" if an access token is included. For example, the value "3600"
denotes that the access token will expire in one hour from the denotes that the access token will expire in one hour from the
time the response was generated by the authorization server. time the response was generated by the authorization server.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access token as a list of space- OPTIONAL. The scope of the access token as a list of space-
delimited strings if an access token is included. The value of delimited strings if an access token is included. The value of
skipping to change at page 19, line 32 skipping to change at page 23, line 42
parameters to the redirection URI query component using the parameters to the redirection URI query component using the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224]. [W3C.REC-html401-19991224].
For example, the authorization server redirects the end-user's user- For example, the authorization server redirects the end-user's user-
agent by sending the following HTTP response: agent by sending the following HTTP response:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: https://client.example.com/cb?code=i1WsRn1uB1 Location: https://client.example.com/cb?code=i1WsRn1uB1
If the response type is "token", the authorization server adds the If the response type is "token" or "code_and_token", the
parameters to the redirection URI fragment component using the authorization server adds the parameters to the redirection URI
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by fragment component using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224]. format as defined by [W3C.REC-html401-19991224].
For example, the authorization server redirects the end-user's user-
agent by sending the following HTTP response:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: http://example.com/rd#access_token=FJQbwq9&expires_in=3600
If the response type is "code_and_token", the authorization server
adds the "code" and "state" parameters to the redirection URI query
component and the "access_token", "scope", and "expires_in" to the
redirection URI fragment using the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224].
For example, the authorization server redirects the end-user's user- For example, the authorization server redirects the end-user's user-
agent by sending the following HTTP response (line breaks are for agent by sending the following HTTP response (URI line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: http://example.com/rd?code=i1WsRn1uB1 Location: http://example.com/rd#access_token=FJQbwq9&
#access_token=FJQbwq9&expires_in=3600 token_type=example&expires_in=3600
Clients SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The sizes of Clients SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The sizes of
tokens and other values received from the authorization server, are tokens and other values received from the authorization server, are
left undefined by this specification. Clients should avoid making left undefined by this specification. Clients should avoid making
assumptions about value sizes. Servers should document the expected assumptions about value sizes. Servers should document the expected
size of any value they issue. size of any value they issue.
3.2. Error Response 4.3. Error Response
If the end-user denies the access request or if the request is If the end-user denies the access request or if the request fails for
invalid, the authorization server informs the client by adding the reasons other than a missing or invalid redirection URI, the
following parameters to the redirection URI query component using the authorization server informs the client by adding the following
parameters to the redirection URI query component using the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224]: [W3C.REC-html401-19991224]:
error error
REQUIRED. A single error code as described in Section 3.2.1. REQUIRED. A single error code as described in Section 4.3.1.
error_description OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing error_description OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing
additional information, used to assist in the understanding and additional information, used to assist in the understanding and
resolution of the error occurred. resolution of the error occurred.
error_uri OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page error_uri OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page
with information about the error, used to provide the end-user with information about the error, used to provide the end-user
with additional information about the error. with additional information about the error.
state state
REQUIRED if the "state" parameter was present in the client REQUIRED if the "state" parameter was present in the client
authorization request. Set to the exact value received from authorization request. Set to the exact value received from
the client. the client.
For example, the authorization server redirects the end-user's user- For example, the authorization server redirects the end-user's user-
agent by sending the following HTTP response: agent by sending the following HTTP response:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: https://client.example.com/cb?error=access-denied Location: https://client.example.com/cb?error=access_denied
3.2.1. Error Codes If the request fails due to a missing or invalid redirection URI, the
authorization server SHOULD inform the end-user of the error, and
MUST NOT redirect the end-user's user-agent to the invalid
redirection URI.
4.3.1. Error Codes
The authorization server includes one of the following error codes The authorization server includes one of the following error codes
with the error response: with the error response:
invalid_request invalid_request
The request is missing a required parameter, includes an The request is missing a required parameter, includes an
unsupported parameter or parameter value, or is otherwise unsupported parameter or parameter value, or is otherwise
malformed. malformed.
invalid_client invalid_client
skipping to change at page 21, line 38 skipping to change at page 25, line 43
unsupported_response_type unsupported_response_type
The requested response type is not supported by the The requested response type is not supported by the
authorization server. authorization server.
invalid_scope invalid_scope
The requested scope is invalid, unknown, or malformed. The requested scope is invalid, unknown, or malformed.
[[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]] [[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]]
4. Obtaining an Access Token 5. Obtaining an Access Token
The client obtains an access token by authenticating with the The client obtains an access token by authenticating with the
authorization server and presenting its access grant (in the form of authorization server and presenting its access grant (in the form of
an authorization code, resource owner credentials, an assertion, or a an authorization code, resource owner credentials, an assertion, or a
refresh token). refresh token).
Since requests to the token endpoint result in the transmission of Since requests to the token endpoint result in the transmission of
plain text credentials in the HTTP request and response, the clear-text credentials in the HTTP request and response, the
authorization server MUST require the use of a transport-layer authorization server MUST require the use of a transport-layer
security mechanism when sending requests to the token endpoints. security mechanism when sending requests to the token endpoints.
Servers MUST support TLS 1.2 as defined in [RFC5246], and MAY support Servers MUST support TLS 1.2 as defined in [RFC5246], and MAY support
additional transport-layer security mechanisms. additional transport-layer security mechanisms.
The client requests an access token by making an HTTP "POST" request The client requests an access token by making an HTTP "POST" request
to the token endpoint. The location of the token endpoint can be to the token endpoint. The location of the token endpoint can be
found in the service documentation, or can be obtained by using [[ found in the service documentation. The token endpoint URI MAY
OAuth Discovery ]]. The token endpoint URI MAY include a query include a query component.
component.
The client authenticates with the authorization server by adding its The client authenticates with the authorization server by adding its
client credentials to the request as described in Section 2. The client credentials to the request as described in Section 3. The
authorization server MAY allow unauthenticated access token requests authorization server MAY allow unauthenticated access token requests
when the client identity does not matter (e.g. anonymous client) or when the client identity does not matter (e.g. anonymous client) or
when the client identity is established via other means (e.g. using when the client identity is established via other means (e.g. using
an assertion access grant). an assertion access grant).
The client constructs the request by including the following The client constructs the request by including the following
parameters using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format in parameters using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format in
the HTTP request entity-body: the HTTP request entity-body:
grant_type grant_type
REQUIRED. The access grant type included in the request. REQUIRED. The access grant type included in the request.
Value MUST be one of "authorization_code", "password", Value MUST be one of "authorization_code", "password",
"assertion", "refresh_token", or "none". "refresh_token", "client_credentials", or an absolute URI
identifying an assertion format supported by the authorization
client_id server.
REQUIRED, unless the client identity can be establish via other
means (e.g. assertion). The client identifier as described in
Section 2.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter
is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter, multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
and each string adds an additional access range to the and each string adds an additional access range to the
requested scope. If the access grant being used already requested scope. If the access grant being used already
represents an approved scope (e.g. authorization code, represents an approved scope (e.g. authorization code,
assertion), the requested scope MUST be equal or lesser than assertion), the requested scope MUST be equal or lesser than
the scope previously granted. the scope previously granted, and if omitted is treated as
equal to the previously approved scope.
In addition, the client MUST include the appropriate parameters In addition, the client MUST include the appropriate parameters
listed for the selected access grant type as described in listed for the selected access grant type as described in
Section 4.1. Section 5.1.
Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were
omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore
unrecognized request parameters. unrecognized request parameters.
4.1. Access Grant Types 5.1. Access Grant Types
The client requests an access token using one of the four types of
access grants: authorization code, password credentials, assertion,
or refresh token.
When requesting an access token using the "none" access grant type The client requests an access token using an authorization code,
(no access grant is included), the client is requesting access to the resource owner password credentials, client credentials, refresh
protected resources under its control, or those of another resource token, or assertion.
owner which has been previously arranged with the authorization
server (the method of which is beyond the scope of this
specification).
4.1.1. Authorization Code 5.1.1. Authorization Code
The client includes the authorization code using the The client includes the authorization code using the
"authorization_code" access grant type and the following parameters: "authorization_code" access grant type and the following parameters:
code code
REQUIRED. The authorization code received from the REQUIRED. The authorization code received from the
authorization server. authorization server.
redirect_uri redirect_uri
REQUIRED. The redirection URI used in the initial request. REQUIRED. The redirection URI used in the initial request.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
its client credentials via the "client_secret" parameter described in its client credentials via the "client_secret" parameter described in
Section 2 and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for Section 3 and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1& client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
The authorization server MUST: The authorization server MUST:
o Validate the client credentials (if present) and ensure they match o Validate the client credentials (if present) and ensure they match
the authorization code. the authorization code.
o Verify that the authorization code and redirection URI are all o Verify that the authorization code and redirection URI are all
valid and match its stored association. valid and match its stored association.
If the request is valid, the authorization server issues a successful If the request is valid, the authorization server issues a successful
response as described in Section 4.2. response as described in Section 5.2.
4.1.2. Resource Owner Password Credentials 5.1.2. Resource Owner Password Credentials
The client includes the resource owner credentials using the The client includes the resource owner credentials using the
"password" access grant type and the following parameters: [[ add "password" access grant type and the following parameters: [[ add
internationalization consideration for username and password ]] internationalization consideration for username and password ]]
username username
REQUIRED. The resource owner's username. REQUIRED. The resource owner's username.
password password
REQUIRED. The resource owner's password. REQUIRED. The resource owner's password.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
its client credentials via the "client_secret" parameter described in its client credentials via the "client_secret" parameter described in
Section 2 and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for Section 3 and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=password&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=password&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=47HDu8s&username=johndoe&password=A3ddj3w client_secret=47HDu8s&username=johndoe&password=A3ddj3w
The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials (if The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials (if
present) and end-user credentials and if valid issue an access token present) and end-user credentials and if valid issue an access token
response as described in Section 4.2. response as described in Section 5.2.
4.1.3. Assertion
The client includes the assertion using the "assertion" access grant
type and the following parameters:
assertion_type
REQUIRED. The format of the assertion as defined by the
authorization server. The value MUST be an absolute URI.
assertion
REQUIRED. The assertion.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using
transport-layer security, and client authentication is achieved via
the assertion (line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=assertion&
assertion_type=urn%3Aoasis%3Anames%3Atc%3ASAML%3A2.0%3Aassertion&
assertion=PHNhbWxwOl...[omitted for brevity]...ZT4%3D
The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials (if 5.1.3. Client Credentials
present) and the assertion and if valid issues an access token
response as described in Section 4.2. The authorization server
SHOULD NOT issue a refresh token (instead, require the client to use
the same or new assertion).
Authorization servers SHOULD issue access tokens with a limited The client can request an access token using only its client
lifetime and require clients to refresh them by requesting a new credentials using the "client_credentials" access grant type. When
access token using the same assertion if it is still valid. omitting an explicit access grant, the client is requesting access to
Otherwise the client MUST obtain a new valid assertion. the protected resources under its control, or those of another
resource owner which has been previously arranged with the
authorization server (the method of which is beyond the scope of this
specification).
4.1.4. Refresh Token 5.1.4. Refresh Token
The client includes the refresh token using the "refresh_token" The client includes the refresh token using the "refresh_token"
access grant type and the following parameter: access grant type and the following parameter:
refresh_token refresh_token
REQUIRED. The refresh token associated with the access token REQUIRED. The refresh token associated with the access token
to be refreshed. to be refreshed.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
its client credentials via the "client_secret" parameter described in its client credentials via the "client_secret" parameter described in
Section 2 and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for Section 3 and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=refresh_token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=refresh_token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=8eSEIpnqmM&refresh_token=n4E9O119d client_secret=8eSEIpnqmM&refresh_token=n4E9O119d
The authorization server MUST verify the client credentials (if The authorization server MUST verify the client credentials (if
present), the validity of the refresh token, and that the resource present), the validity of the refresh token, and that the resource
owner's authorization is still valid. If the request is valid, the owner's authorization is still valid. If the request is valid, the
authorization server issues an access token response as described in authorization server issues an access token response as described in
Section 4.2. The authorization server MAY issue a new refresh token. Section 5.2. The authorization server MAY issue a new refresh token,
in which case, the client MUST discard the old refresh token and
replace it with the new refresh token.
4.2. Access Token Response 5.1.5. Assertion
The client includes an assertion by specifying the assertion format
using an absolute URI (as defined by the authorization server) as the
value of the "grant_type" parameter and by adding the following
parameter:
assertion
REQUIRED. The assertion.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using
transport-layer security, and client authentication is achieved via
the assertion (line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=urn%3Aoasis%3Anames%3Atc%3ASAML%3A2.0%3Aassertion&
assertion=PHNhbWxwOl[...omitted for brevity...]ZT4%3D
The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials (if
present) and the assertion and if valid issues an access token
response as described in Section 5.2. The authorization server
SHOULD NOT issue a refresh token (instead, it should require the
client to use the same or new assertion).
Authorization servers SHOULD issue access tokens with a limited
lifetime and require clients to refresh them by requesting a new
access token using the same assertion if it is still valid.
Otherwise the client MUST obtain a new valid assertion.
5.2. Access Token Response
After receiving and verifying a valid and authorized access token After receiving and verifying a valid and authorized access token
request from the client, the authorization server issues the access request from the client, the authorization server issues the access
token and optional refresh token, and constructs the response by token and optional refresh token, and constructs the response by
adding the following parameters to the entity body of the HTTP adding the following parameters to the entity body of the HTTP
response with a 200 (OK) status code: response with a 200 (OK) status code:
The token response contains the following parameters: The token response contains the following parameters:
access_token access_token
REQUIRED. The access token issued by the authorization server. REQUIRED. The access token issued by the authorization server.
The access token string MUST comply with the access-token rule
defined in Section 5.1.1. token_type
REQUIRED. The type of the token issued. The token type
informs the client how the access token is to be used when
accessing a protected resource as described in Section 6.1.
expires_in expires_in
OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token
lifetime. For example, the value "3600" denotes that the lifetime. For example, the value "3600" denotes that the
access token will expire in one hour from the time the response access token will expire in one hour from the time the response
was generated by the authorization server. was generated by the authorization server.
refresh_token refresh_token
OPTIONAL. The refresh token used to obtain new access tokens OPTIONAL. The refresh token used to obtain new access tokens
using the same end-user access grant as described in using the same end-user access grant as described in
Section 4.1.4. The authorization server SHOULD NOT issue a Section 5.1.4. The authorization server SHOULD NOT issue a
refresh token when the access grant type is set to "none". refresh token when the access grant type is an assertion or a
set of client credentials.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access token as a list of space- OPTIONAL. The scope of the access token as a list of space-
delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter is delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter is
defined by the authorization server. If the value contains defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter, multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
and each string adds an additional access range to the and each string adds an additional access range to the
requested scope. The authorization server SHOULD include the requested scope. The authorization server SHOULD include the
parameter if the requested scope is different from the one parameter if the requested scope is different from the one
requested by the client. requested by the client.
skipping to change at page 27, line 18 skipping to change at page 31, line 24
containing tokens, secrets, or other sensitive information. containing tokens, secrets, or other sensitive information.
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{ {
"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG", "access_token":"SlAV32hkKG",
"token_type":"example",
"expires_in":3600, "expires_in":3600,
"refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8" "refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8"
} }
Clients SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The sizes of Clients SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The sizes of
tokens and other values received from the authorization server, are tokens and other values received from the authorization server, are
left undefined by this specification. Clients should avoid making left undefined by this specification. Clients should avoid making
assumptions about value sizes. Servers should document the expected assumptions about value sizes. Servers should document the expected
size of any value they issue. size of any value they issue.
4.3. Error Response 5.3. Error Response
If the token request is invalid or unauthorized, the authorization If the token request is invalid or unauthorized, the authorization
server constructs the response by adding the following parameter to server constructs the response by adding the following parameter to
the entity body of the HTTP response using the "application/json" the entity body of the HTTP response using the "application/json"
media type: media type:
error error
REQUIRED. A single error code as described in Section 4.3.1. REQUIRED. A single error code as described in Section 5.3.1.
error_description OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing error_description OPTIONAL. A human-readable text providing
additional information, used to assist in the understanding and additional information, used to assist in the understanding and
resolution of the error occurred. resolution of the error occurred.
error_uri OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page error_uri OPTIONAL. A URI identifying a human-readable web page
with information about the error, used to provide the end-user with information about the error, used to provide the end-user
with additional information about the error. with additional information about the error.
For example: For example:
skipping to change at page 28, line 21 skipping to change at page 32, line 25
{ {
"error":"invalid_request" "error":"invalid_request"
} }
If the client provided invalid credentials using an HTTP If the client provided invalid credentials using an HTTP
authentication scheme via the "Authorization" request header field, authentication scheme via the "Authorization" request header field,
the authorization server MUST respond with the HTTP 401 the authorization server MUST respond with the HTTP 401
(Unauthorized) status code. Otherwise, the authorization server (Unauthorized) status code. Otherwise, the authorization server
SHALL respond with the HTTP 400 (Bad Request) status code. SHALL respond with the HTTP 400 (Bad Request) status code.
4.3.1. Error Codes 5.3.1. Error Codes
The authorization server includes one of the following error codes The authorization server includes one of the following error codes
with the error response: with the error response:
invalid_request invalid_request
The request is missing a required parameter, includes an The request is missing a required parameter, includes an
unsupported parameter or parameter value, repeats a parameter, unsupported parameter or parameter value, repeats a parameter,
includes multiple credentials, utilizes more than one mechanism includes multiple credentials, utilizes more than one mechanism
for authenticating the client, or is otherwise malformed. for authenticating the client, or is otherwise malformed.
skipping to change at page 29, line 15 skipping to change at page 33, line 15
unsupported_grant_type unsupported_grant_type
The access grant included - its type or another attribute - is The access grant included - its type or another attribute - is
not supported by the authorization server. not supported by the authorization server.
invalid_scope invalid_scope
The requested scope is invalid, unknown, malformed, or exceeds The requested scope is invalid, unknown, malformed, or exceeds
the previously granted scope. the previously granted scope.
[[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]] [[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]]
5. Accessing a Protected Resource 6. Accessing a Protected Resource
Clients access protected resources by presenting an access token to Clients access protected resources by presenting an access token to
the resource server. Access tokens act as bearer tokens, where the the resource server. The resource server MUST validate the access
token string acts as a shared symmetric secret. This requires token and ensure it has not expired and that its scope covers the
treating the access token with the same care as other secrets (e.g. requested resource. The methods used by the resource server to
end-user passwords). Access tokens SHOULD NOT be sent in the clear validate the access token are beyond the scope of this specification,
over an insecure channel. but generally involve an interaction or coordination between the
resource server and authorization server.
However, when it is necessary to transmit access tokens in the clear
without a secure channel, authorization servers SHOULD issue access
tokens with limited scope and lifetime to reduce the potential risk
from a compromised access token.
Clients MUST NOT make authenticated requests with an access token to
unfamiliar resource servers, regardless of the presence of a secure
channel.
The resource server MUST validate the access token and ensure it has
not expired and that its scope covers the requested resource. The
methods used by the resource server to validate the access token are
beyond the scope of this specification, but generally involve an
interaction or coordination between the resource server and
authorization server.
5.1. Authenticated Requests
Clients make authenticated token requests using the "Authorization"
request header field. Resource servers MUST accept authenticated
requests using the "OAuth" HTTP authentication scheme as described in
Section 5.1.1, and MAY support additional methods.
Alternatively, clients MAY attempt to include the access token using
the HTTP request URI in the query component as described in
Section 5.1.2, or in the HTTP body when using the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" content type as described in
Section 5.1.3. Resource server MAY support these alternative
methods.
Clients SHOULD only use the request URI or body when the
"Authorization" request header field is not available, and MUST NOT
use more than one method in each request.
5.1.1. The Authorization Request Header Field
The "Authorization" request header field is used by clients to make
authenticated token requests. The client uses the "OAuth"
authentication scheme to include the access token in the request.
For example:
GET /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com
Authorization: OAuth vF9dft4qmT
The "Authorization" header field uses the framework defined by
[RFC2617] as follows:
credentials = "OAuth" RWS access-token [ CS 1#auth-param ]
access-token = 1*( quoted-char / <"> )
CS = OWS "," OWS
quoted-char = "!" / "#" / "$" / "%" / "&" / "'" / "("
/ ")" / "*" / "+" / "-" / "." / "/" / DIGIT
/ ":" / "<" / "=" / ">" / "?" / "@" / ALPHA
/ "[" / "]" / "^" / "_" / "`" / "{" / "|"
/ "}" / "~" / "\" / "," / ";"
NOTE: [RFC5849] defines a different format for the "OAuth"
authentication scheme. Resource servers can differentiate between
the two protocol versions based on the presence of the
"oauth_signature_method" which is REQUIRED in the previous version
and is not supported by this specification.
5.1.2. URI Query Parameter
When including the access token in the HTTP request URI, the client
adds the access token to the request URI query component as defined
by [RFC3986] using the "oauth_token" parameter.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using
transport-layer security:
GET /resource?oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com
The HTTP request URI query can include other request-specific
parameters, in which case, the "oauth_token" parameters SHOULD be
appended following the request-specific parameters, properly
separated by an "&" character (ASCII code 38).
For example:
http://example.com/resource?x=y&oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT
NOTE: The "oauth_token" parameter is used by the previous version
of the OAuth protocol as described in [RFC5849]. Resource servers
can differentiate between the two protocol versions based on the
presence of the "oauth_signature_method" which is REQUIRED in the
previous version and is not supported by this specification.
5.1.3. Form-Encoded Body Parameter
When including the access token in the HTTP request entity-body, the
client adds the access token to the request body using the
"oauth_token" parameter. The client can use this method only if the
following REQUIRED conditions are met:
o The entity-body is single-part.
o The entity-body follows the encoding requirements of the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" content-type as defined by
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224].
o The HTTP request entity-header includes the "Content-Type" header
field set to "application/x-www-form-urlencoded".
o The HTTP request method is "POST", "PUT", or "DELETE".
The entity-body can include other request-specific parameters, in The method in which the client utilized the access token to
which case, the "oauth_token" parameters SHOULD be appended following authenticate with the resource server depends on the type of access
the request-specific parameters, properly separated by an "&" token issued by the authorization server.
character (ASCII code 38).
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using 6.1. Access Token Types
transport-layer security:
POST /resource HTTP/1.1 [[ add token type explanation, maybe with links to other token specs
Host: server.example.com ]]
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT 6.2. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header Field
NOTE: The "oauth_token" parameter is used by the previous version If the protected resource request does not include authentication
of the OAuth protocol as described in [RFC5849]. Resource servers credentials, contains an invalid access token, or is malformed, the
can differentiate between the two protocol versions based on the resource server MUST include the HTTP "WWW-Authenticate" response
presence of the "oauth_signature_method" which is REQUIRED in the header field. The "WWW-Authenticate" header field uses the framework
previous version and is not supported by this specification. defined by [RFC2617] as follows:
5.2. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header Field challenge = "OAuth2" [ RWS 1#param ]
If the protected resource request contains an invalid access token or param = scope /
is malformed, the resource server MUST include the HTTP error / error-desc / error-uri /
"WWW-Authenticate" response header field. The "WWW-Authenticate" ( token "=" ( token / quoted-string ) )
header field uses the framework defined by [RFC2617] as follows:
challenge = "OAuth" RWS token-challenge scope = "scope" "=" <"> scope-v *( SP scope-v ) <">
scope-v = 1*quoted-char
token-challenge = realm quoted-char = ALPHA / DIGIT /
[ CS error ] "!" / "#" / "$" / "%" / "&" / "'" / "(" / ")" /
[ CS error-desc ] "*" / "+" / "-" / "." / "/" / ":" / "<" / "=" /
[ CS error-uri ] ">" / "?" / "@" / "[" / "]" / "^" / "_" / "`" /
[ CS scope ] "{" / "|" / "}" / "~" / "\" / "," / ";"
[ CS 1#auth-param ]
error = "error" "=" <"> token <"> error = "error" "=" quoted-string
error-desc = "error_description" "=" quoted-string error-desc = "error_description" "=" quoted-string
error-uri = "error_uri" = <"> URI-Reference <"> error-uri = "error_uri" = <"> URI-reference <">
scope = quoted-value /
<"> quoted-value *( 1*SP quoted-value ) <">
quoted-value = 1*quoted-char
For example: The "scope" attribute is a space-delimited list of scope values
indicating the required scope of the access token for accessing the
requested resource. The "scope" attribute MUST NOT appear more than
once.
HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized If the protected resource request included an access token and failed
WWW-Authenticate: OAuth realm='Example Service', error='expired-token' authentication, the resource server SHOULD include the "error"
The "realm" attribute is used to provide the protected resources attribute to provide the client with the reason why the access
partition as defined by [RFC2617]. [[ add explanation ]] request was declined. The parameter value is described in
Section 6.2.1. In addition, the resource server MAY include the
"error_description" attribute to provide a human-readable
explanation, and the "error-uri" attribute with an absolute URI
identifying a human-readable web page explaining the error. The
"error", "error_description", and "error_uri" attribute MUST NOT
appear more than once.
The "error" attribute is used to provide the client with the reason For example, in response to a protected resource request without
why the access request was declined. The parameter values are authentication:
described in Section 5.2.1.
The "error_description" attribute provides a human-readable text HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
containing additional information, used to assist in the WWW-Authenticate: OAuth2
understanding and resolution of the error occurred.
The "error_uri" attribute provides a URI identifying a human-readable And in response to a protected resource request with an
web page with information about the error, used to offer the end-user authentication attempt using an expired access token:
with additional information about the error. If the value is not an
absolute URI, it is relative to the URI of the requested protected
resource.
The "scope" attribute is a space-delimited list of scope values HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
indicating the required scope of the access token for accessing the WWW-Authenticate: OAuth2
requested resource. error="invalid_token",
error_description="The access token expired"
5.2.1. Error Codes 6.2.1. Error Codes
The authorization server includes one of the following error codes When a request fails, the resource server responds using the
with the error response: appropriate HTTP status code (typically, 400, 401, or 403), and
includes one of the following error codes in the response:
invalid_request invalid_request
The request is missing a required parameter, includes an The request is missing a required parameter, includes an
unsupported parameter or parameter value, repeats the same unsupported parameter or parameter value, repeats the same
parameter, uses more than one method for including an access parameter, uses more than one method for including an access
token, or is otherwise malformed. The resource server MUST token, or is otherwise malformed. The resource server SHOULD
respond with the HTTP 400 (Bad Request) status code. respond with the HTTP 400 (Bad Request) status code.
invalid_token invalid_token
The access token provided is invalid. Resource servers SHOULD The access token provided is expired, revoked, malformed, or
use this error code when receiving an expired token which invalid for other reasons. The resource SHOULD respond with
cannot be refreshed to indicate to the client that a new the HTTP 401 (Unauthorized) status code. The client MAY
authorization is necessary. The resource server MUST respond request a new access token and retry the protected resource
with the HTTP 401 (Unauthorized) status code. request.
expired_token
The access token provided has expired. Resource servers SHOULD
only use this error code when the client is expected to be able
to handle the response and request a new access token using the
refresh token issued with the expired access token. The
resource server MUST respond with the HTTP 401 (Unauthorized)
status code.
insufficient_scope insufficient_scope
The request requires higher privileges than provided by the The request requires higher privileges than provided by the
access token. The resource server SHOULD respond with the HTTP access token. The resource server SHOULD respond with the HTTP
403 (Forbidden) status code and MAY include the "scope" 403 (Forbidden) status code and MAY include the "scope"
attribute with the scope necessary to access the protected attribute with the scope necessary to access the protected
resource. resource.
[[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]] [[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]]
If the request lacks any authentication information (i.e. the client If the request lacks any authentication information (i.e. the client
was unaware authentication is necessary or attempted using an was unaware authentication is necessary or attempted using an
unsupported authentication method), the resource server SHOULD not unsupported authentication method), the resource server SHOULD not
include an error code or other error information. include an error code or other error information.
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
WWW-Authenticate: OAuth realm='Example Service' WWW-Authenticate: OAuth2
6. Extensibility 7. Extensibility
6.1. Defining New Client Credentials Types 7.1. Defining New Client Credentials Types
[[ TBD ]] [[ TBD ]]
6.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters 7.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters
Applications that wish to define new request or response parameters Applications that wish to define new request or response parameters
for use with the end-user authorization endpoint or the token for use with the end-user authorization endpoint or the token
endpoint SHALL do so in one of two ways: register them in the endpoint SHALL do so in one of two ways: register them in the
parameters registry (following the procedures in Section 8.1), or use parameters registry (following the procedures in Section 9.1), or use
the "x_" parameter name prefix. the "x_" parameter name prefix.
Parameters utilizing the "x_" parameter name prefix MUST be limited Parameters utilizing the "x_" parameter name prefix MUST be limited
to vendor-specific extensions that are not commonly applicable, and to vendor-specific extensions that are not commonly applicable, and
are specific to the implementation details of the authorization are specific to the implementation details of the authorization
server where they are used. All other new parameters MUST be server where they are used. All other new parameters MUST be
registered, and MUST NOT use the "x_" parameter name prefix. registered, and MUST NOT use the "x_" parameter name prefix.
Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF, and parameter Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF, and parameter
values syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference values syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference
to the syntax of an existing parameter). to the syntax of an existing parameter).
param-name = 1*name-char param-name = 1*name-char
name-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA name-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA
6.3. Defining New Header Field Parameters 7.3. Defining New Header Field Parameters
Applications that wish to define new parameters for use in the OAuth Applications that wish to define new parameters for use in the OAuth
"Authorization" or "WWW-Authenticate" header fields MUST register "WWW-Authenticate" header field MUST register them in the parameters
them in the parameters registry, following the procedures in registry, following the procedures in Section 9.1.
Section 8.1.
Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF and MUST NOT Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF and MUST NOT
begin with "x_". Parameter values MUST conform to the param-value begin with "x_". Parameter values MUST conform to the param-value
ABNF and their syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a ABNF and their syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a
reference to the syntax of an existing parameter). reference to the syntax of an existing parameter).
param-value = quoted-value | quoted-string param-value = quoted-value | quoted-string
6.4. Defining New Access Grant Types 7.4. Defining New Access Grant Types
The assertion access grant type was designed to allow the The assertion access grant type allows the authorization server to
authorization server to accept additional access grants not accept additional access grants not specified. Applications that
specified. Applications that wish to define additional access grant wish to define additional access grant types can do so by utilizing a
types can do so by utilizing a new or existing assertion type and new or existing assertion type and format.
format.
7. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
[[ TBD ]] [[ TBD ]]
8. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
8.1. The OAuth Parameters Registry 9.1. The OAuth Parameters Registry
This document establishes the OAuth parameters registry. This document establishes the OAuth parameters registry.
Additional parameters to be use in the end-user authorization Additional parameters to be use in the end-user authorization
endpoint request, the end-user authorization endpoint response, the endpoint request, the end-user authorization endpoint response, the
token endpoint request, the token endpoint response, the token endpoint request, the token endpoint response, or the
"Authorization" header field, or the "WWW-Authenticate" header field, "WWW-Authenticate" header field, are registered on the advice of one
are registered on the advice of one or more Designated Experts or more Designated Experts (appointed by the IESG or their delegate),
(appointed by the IESG or their delegate), with a Specification with a Specification Required (using terminology from [RFC5226]).
Required (using terminology from [RFC5226]). However, to allow for However, to allow for the allocation of values prior to publication,
the allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated the Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once they are
Expert(s) may approve registration once they are satisfied that such satisfied that such a specification will be published.
a specification will be published.
Registration requests should be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing Registration requests should be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing
list for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., list for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g.,
"Request for parameter: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The name of "Request for parameter: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The name of
the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the IESG the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the IESG
and IANA. Suggested name: oauth-ext-review. ]] and IANA. Suggested name: oauth-ext-review. ]]
Before a period of 14 days has passed, the Designated Expert(s) will Before a period of 14 days has passed, the Designated Expert(s) will
either approve or deny the registration request, communicating this either approve or deny the registration request, communicating this
decision both to the review list and to IANA. Denials should include decision both to the review list and to IANA. Denials should include
an explanation and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the an explanation and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the
request successful. Registration requests that are undetermined for request successful. Registration requests that are undetermined for
a period longer than 21 days can be brought to the IESG's attention a period longer than 21 days can be brought to the IESG's attention
(using the iesg@iesg.org mailing list) for resolution. (using the iesg@iesg.org mailing list) for resolution.
8.1.1. Registration Template 9.1.1. Registration Template
Parameter name: The name requested (e.g., "example"). Parameter name: The name requested (e.g., "example").
Parameter usage location: The location(s) where parameter can be Parameter usage location: The location(s) where parameter can be
used. The possible locations are: the end-user authorization used. The possible locations are: the end-user authorization
endpoint request, the end-user authorization endpoint response, endpoint request, the end-user authorization endpoint response,
the token endpoint request, the token endpoint response, the the token endpoint request, the token endpoint response, the or
"Authorization" header field, or the "WWW-Authenticate" header the "WWW-Authenticate" header field.
field.
Change controller: For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For Change controller: For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For
others, give the name of the responsible party. Other details others, give the name of the responsible party. Other details
(e.g., postal address, e-mail address, home page URI) may also be (e.g., postal address, e-mail address, home page URI) may also be
included. included.
Specification document(s): Reference to document that specifies the Specification document(s): Reference to document that specifies the
parameter, preferably including a URI that can be used to retrieve parameter, preferably including a URI that can be used to retrieve
a copy of the document. An indication of the relevant sections a copy of the document. An indication of the relevant sections
may also be included, but is not required. may also be included, but is not required.
Related information: Optionally, citations to additional documents Related information: Optionally, citations to additional documents
containing further relevant information. containing further relevant information.
8.1.2. Example 9.1.2. Example
The following is the parameter registration request for the "scope" The following is the parameter registration request for the "scope"
parameter as defined in this specification: parameter as defined in this specification:
Parameter name: scope Parameter name: scope
Parameter usage location: The end-user authorization endpoint Parameter usage location: The end-user authorization endpoint
request, the end-user authorization endpoint response, the token request, the end-user authorization endpoint response, the token
endpoint request, the token endpoint response, and the endpoint request, the token endpoint response, and the
"WWW-Authenticate" header field. "WWW-Authenticate" header field.
skipping to change at page 37, line 37 skipping to change at page 39, line 16
Luke Shepard (Facebook), and Allen Tom (Yahoo!). The content and Luke Shepard (Facebook), and Allen Tom (Yahoo!). The content and
concepts within are a product of the OAuth community, WRAP community, concepts within are a product of the OAuth community, WRAP community,
and the OAuth Working Group. and the OAuth Working Group.
The OAuth Working Group has dozens of very active contributors who The OAuth Working Group has dozens of very active contributors who
proposed ideas and wording for this document, including: [[ If your proposed ideas and wording for this document, including: [[ If your
name is missing or you think someone should be added here, please name is missing or you think someone should be added here, please
send Eran a note - don't be shy ]] send Eran a note - don't be shy ]]
Michael Adams, Andrew Arnott, Dirk Balfanz, Brian Campbell, Leah Michael Adams, Andrew Arnott, Dirk Balfanz, Brian Campbell, Leah
Culver, Brian Ellin, Igor Faynberg, George Fletcher, Evan Gilbert, Culver, Bill de hOra, Brian Ellin, Igor Faynberg, George Fletcher,
Justin Hart, John Kemp, Chasen Le Hara, Torsten Lodderstedt, Eve Tim Freeman, Evan Gilbert, Kristoffer Gronowski, Justin Hart, Mike
Maler, James Manger, Laurence Miao, Chuck Mortimore, Justin Richer, Jones, John Kemp, Chasen Le Hara, Torsten Lodderstedt, Alastair Mair,
Peter Saint-Andre, Nat Sakimura, Rob Sayre, Marius Scurtescu, Justin Eve Maler, James Manger, Laurence Miao, Chuck Mortimore, Justin
Smith, Jeremy Suriel, and Franklin Tse. Richer, Peter Saint-Andre, Nat Sakimura, Rob Sayre, Marius Scurtescu,
Naitik Shah, Justin Smith, Jeremy Suriel, Christian Stuebner, Paul
Tarjan, Franklin Tse, and Nick Walker.
Appendix C. Acknowledgements Appendix C. Acknowledgements
[[ Add OAuth 1.0a authors + WG contributors ]] [[ Add OAuth 1.0a authors + WG contributors ]]
Appendix D. Document History Appendix D. Document History
[[ to be removed by RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-11
o Many editorial changes. Fixed user authorization section
structure. Removed unused normative references. Adjusted
language regarding single use of authorization codes.
o Fixed header ABNF.
o Change access token description from shared symmetric secret to
password.
o Moved access grant 'none' to a separate section, renamed to
'client_credentials'.
o Demoted the HTTP status code requirement from MUST to SHOULD in
protected resource response error.
o Removed 'expired_token' error code.
o Moved all the 'code_and_token' parameter to the fragment (from
code being in the query).
o Removed 'assertion_type' parameter (moved to 'grant_type').
o Added note about redirecting to invalid redirection URIs (open
redirectors).
o Removed bearer token section, added new required 'token_type'
parameter with extensibility.
o 'error-uri' parameter value changed to absolute URI.
o OAuth 2.0 HTTP authentication scheme name changed to 'OAuth2'.
o Dropped the 'WWW-Authenticate' header field 'realm' parameter.
o Removed definition of access token characters.
o Added instructions for dealing with error and an invalid
redirection URI.
-10 -10
o Fixed typos. Many editorial changes. Rewrote introduction. o Fixed typos. Many editorial changes. Rewrote introduction.
removed terminology grouping. removed terminology grouping.
o Allowed POST for end-user authorization endpoint. o Allowed POST for end-user authorization endpoint.
o Fixed token endpoint to not require client authentication. o Fixed token endpoint to not require client authentication.
o Made URI query and POST body 'oauth_token' parameter optional. o Made URI query and POST body 'oauth_token' parameter optional.
skipping to change at page 38, line 41 skipping to change at page 41, line 13
supported for extensions). supported for extensions).
o Defined permitted access token string characters (suitable for o Defined permitted access token string characters (suitable for
inclusion in an HTTP header). inclusion in an HTTP header).
o Added a note about conflicts with previous versions. o Added a note about conflicts with previous versions.
o Moved 'client_id' definition from client authentication to access o Moved 'client_id' definition from client authentication to access
token endpoint. token endpoint.
o Added definition for 'access grant'.
-09 -09
o Fixed typos, editorial changes. o Fixed typos, editorial changes.
o Added token expiration example. o Added token expiration example.
o Added scope parameter to end-user authorization endpoint response. o Added scope parameter to end-user authorization endpoint response.
o Added note about parameters with empty values (same as omitted). o Added note about parameters with empty values (same as omitted).
skipping to change at page 42, line 4 skipping to change at page 44, line 26
-01 -01
o Editorial changes based on feedback from Brian Eaton, Bill Keenan, o Editorial changes based on feedback from Brian Eaton, Bill Keenan,
and Chuck Mortimore. and Chuck Mortimore.
o Changed device flow "type" parameter values and switch to use only o Changed device flow "type" parameter values and switch to use only
the token endpoint. the token endpoint.
-00 -00
o Initial draft based on a combination of WRAP and OAuth 1.0a. o Initial draft based on a combination of WRAP and OAuth 1.0a.
9. References 10. References
9.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging] [I-D.ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging]
Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Nielsen, H., Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Nielsen, H.,
Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., and J. Reschke, Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., and J. Reschke,
"HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message "HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message
Parsing", draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-09 (work in Parsing", draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-09 (work in
progress), March 2010. progress), March 2010.
[NIST FIPS-180-3]
National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
Hash Standard (SHS). FIPS PUB 180-3, October 2008".
[RFC2045] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail [RFC2045] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message
Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996. Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.
[RFC2104] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
February 1997.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2616] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., [RFC2616] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999. Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.
[RFC2617] Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S., [RFC2617] Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,
Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP
Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication", Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication",
RFC 2617, June 1999. RFC 2617, June 1999.
[RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000. [RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.
[RFC2828] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary", RFC 2828,
May 2000.
[RFC3023] Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media [RFC3023] Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media
Types", RFC 3023, January 2001. Types", RFC 3023, January 2001.
[RFC3447] Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography [RFC3447] Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003. Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003.
[RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO [RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003. 10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.
skipping to change at page 43, line 29 skipping to change at page 45, line 46
[RFC5849] Hammer-Lahav, E., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol", RFC 5849, [RFC5849] Hammer-Lahav, E., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol", RFC 5849,
April 2010. April 2010.
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224] [W3C.REC-html401-19991224]
Raggett, D., Hors, A., and I. Jacobs, "HTML 4.01 Raggett, D., Hors, A., and I. Jacobs, "HTML 4.01
Specification", World Wide Web Consortium Specification", World Wide Web Consortium
Recommendation REC-html401-19991224, December 1999, Recommendation REC-html401-19991224, December 1999,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224>.
9.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[I-D.hammer-oauth]
Hammer-Lahav, E., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol",
draft-hammer-oauth-10 (work in progress), February 2010.
[I-D.hardt-oauth]
Hardt, D., Tom, A., Eaton, B., and Y. Goland, "OAuth Web
Resource Authorization Profiles", draft-hardt-oauth-01
(work in progress), January 2010.
[OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os]
Cantor, S., Kemp, J., Philpott, R., and E. Maler, Cantor, S., Kemp, J., Philpott, R., and E. Maler,
"Assertions and Protocol for the OASIS Security Assertion "Assertions and Protocol for the OASIS Security Assertion
Markup Language (SAML) V2.0", OASIS Standard saml-core- Markup Language (SAML) V2.0", OASIS Standard saml-core-
2.0-os, March 2005. 2.0-os, March 2005.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Eran Hammer-Lahav (editor) Eran Hammer-Lahav (editor)
 End of changes. 155 change blocks. 
600 lines changed or deleted 711 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.40. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/