draft-ietf-oauth-v2-09.txt   draft-ietf-oauth-v2-10.txt 
Network Working Group E. Hammer-Lahav, Ed. Network Working Group E. Hammer-Lahav, Ed.
Internet-Draft Yahoo! Internet-Draft Yahoo!
Intended status: Standards Track D. Recordon Obsoletes: 5849 (if approved) D. Recordon
Expires: December 31, 2010 Facebook Intended status: Standards Track Facebook
D. Hardt Expires: January 12, 2011 D. Hardt
Microsoft Microsoft
June 29, 2010 July 11, 2010
The OAuth 2.0 Protocol The OAuth 2.0 Protocol
draft-ietf-oauth-v2-09 draft-ietf-oauth-v2-10
Abstract Abstract
This specification describes the OAuth 2.0 protocol. This specification describes the OAuth 2.0 protocol.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on December 31, 2010. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 12, 2011.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4. Client Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.4. Client Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4.1. Web Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4.1. Web Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4.2. User-Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4.2. User-Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.4.3. Native Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.3. Native Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4.4. Autonomous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4.4. Autonomous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.1. Basic Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.1. Client Password Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3. Obtaining End-User Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3. Obtaining End-User Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.1. Authorization Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.1. Authorization Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.2. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.2.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.2.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4. Obtaining an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4. Obtaining an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.1. Access Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.1. Access Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.1.1. Authorization Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.1.1. Authorization Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.1.2. Resource Owner Basic Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.1.2. Resource Owner Password Credentials . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1.3. Assertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.1.3. Assertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1.4. Refresh Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.1.4. Refresh Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.2. Access Token Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.2. Access Token Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.3. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.3. Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.3.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.3.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5. Accessing a Protected Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5. Accessing a Protected Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.1. Authenticated Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.1. Authenticated Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.1.1. The Authorization Request Header Field . . . . . . . . 29 5.1.1. The Authorization Request Header Field . . . . . . . . 30
5.1.2. URI Query Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.1.2. URI Query Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.1.3. Form-Encoded Body Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.1.3. Form-Encoded Body Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.2. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header Field . . . . . . . . 31 5.2. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header Field . . . . . . . . 32
5.2.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.2.1. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6. Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6. Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
6.1. Defining New Client Credentials Types . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.1. Defining New Client Credentials Types . . . . . . . . . . 34
6.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
6.3. Defining New Header Field Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 34 6.3. Defining New Header Field Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 35
6.4. Defining New Access Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 6.4. Defining New Access Grant Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8.1. The OAuth Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.1. The OAuth Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8.1.2. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8.1.2. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Appendix A. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Appendix A. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Appendix B. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Appendix B. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
With the increasing use of distributed web services and cloud With the increasing use of distributed web services and cloud
computing, third-party applications require access to server-hosted computing, third-party applications require access to server-hosted
resources. These resources are usually protected and require resources. These resources are usually protected and require
authentication using the resource owner's credentials (typically a authentication using the resource owner's credentials (typically a
username and password). username and password).
In the traditional client-server authentication model, the client In the traditional client-server authentication model, the client
accesses a protected resource on the server by presenting the accesses a protected resource on the server by authenticating with
resource owner's credentials in order to authenticate and gain the server using the resource owner's credentials. In order to
access. OAuth introduces a third role to the traditional model: the provide third-party applications access to protected resources, the
resource owner. In OAuth, the client (which is usually not the resource owner shares its credentials with the third-party. This
resource owner, but is acting on its behalf) requests access to creates several problems and limitations:
resources controlled by the resource owner and hosted by the resource
server.
In addition to removing the need for resource owners to share their o Third-party applications are required to store the resource-
credentials, resource owners require the ability to restrict access owner's credentials for future use, typically a password in clear-
to a limited subset of the resources they control, to limit access text.
duration, or to limit access to the methods supported by these
resources. o Servers are required to support password (symmetric)
authentication, despite the security weaknesses created by
passwords.
o Third-party applications gain overly broad access to the resource-
owner's protected resources, leaving resource owners without any
ability to restrict access to a limited subset of resources, to
limit access duration, or to limit access to the methods supported
by these resources.
o Resource owners cannot revoke access to an individual third-party
without revoking access to all third-parties, and must do so by
changing their password.
OAuth address these issues by separating the role of the client from
that of the resource owner. In OAuth, the client (which is usually
not the resource owner, but is acting on the resource owner's behalf)
requests access to resources controlled by the resource owner and
hosted by the resource server, and is issued a different set of
credentials than those of the resource owner.
Instead of using the resource owner's credentials to access protected Instead of using the resource owner's credentials to access protected
resources, clients obtain an access token (a string which denotes a resources, clients obtain an access token (a string which denotes a
specific scope, duration, and other attributes). The format and specific scope, duration, and other attributes). The format and
structure of access tokens is beyond the scope of this specification. structure of access tokens is beyond the scope of this specification.
Tokens are issued to third-party clients by an authorization server Tokens are issued to third-party clients by an authorization server
with the approval of the resource owner. The client uses the access with the approval of the resource owner. The client uses the access
token to access the protected resources hosted by the resource token to access the protected resources hosted by the resource
server. The interaction between the authorization server and server. The interaction between the authorization server and
resource server is beyond the scope of this specification. resource server is beyond the scope of this specification.
For example, a web user (resource owner) can grant a printing service For example, a web user (resource owner) can grant a printing service
(client) access to her protected photos stored at a photo sharing (client) access to her protected photos stored at a photo sharing
service (resource server), without sharing her username and password service (resource server), without sharing her username and password
with the printing service. Instead, she authenticates directly with with the printing service. Instead, she authenticates directly with
the photo sharing service (authorization server) which issues the an authentication service trusted by the photo sharing service
printing service delegation-specific credentials (token). (authorization server) which issues the printing service delegation-
specific credentials (token).
This specification defines the use of OAuth over HTTP [RFC2616] (or This specification defines the use of OAuth over HTTP [RFC2616] (or
HTTP over TLS as defined by [RFC2818]). Other specifications may HTTP over TLS as defined by [RFC2818]). Other specifications may
extend it for use with other transport protocols. extend it for use with other transport protocols.
1.1. Notational Conventions 1.1. Notational Conventions
The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL NOT', The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL NOT',
'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
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A server capable of accepting and responding to protected A server capable of accepting and responding to protected
resource requests. resource requests.
client client
An application obtaining authorization and making protected An application obtaining authorization and making protected
resource requests. resource requests.
resource owner resource owner
An entity capable of granting access to a protected resource. An entity capable of granting access to a protected resource.
end-user end-user
A human resource owner. A human resource owner.
token token
A string representing an access authorization issued to the A string representing an access authorization issued to the
client. The string is usually opaque to the client and can client. The string is usually opaque to the client. Tokens
self-contain the authorization information in a verifiable represent specific scopes and durations of access, granted by
manner (i.e. signed), or denotes an identifier used to retrieve the resource owner, and enforced by the resource server and
the information. Tokens represent a specific scope, duration, authorization servers. The token may denote an identifier used
and other authorization attributes granted by the resource to retrieve the authorization information, or self-contain the
owner and enforced by the resource server and authorization authorization information in a verifiable manner (i.e. a token
servers. string consisting of some data and a signature). Tokens may be
pure capabilities. Specific additional authentication
credentials may be required in order for a client to use a
token.
access token access token
A token used by the client to make authenticated requests A token used by the client to make authenticated requests on
on behalf of the resource owner. behalf of the resource owner.
refresh token refresh token
A token used by the client to obtain a new access token A token used by the client to obtain a new access token without
without having to involve the resource owner. having to involve the resource owner.
authorization code A short-lived token representing the access authorization code A short-lived token representing the access grant
grant provided by the end-user. The authorization code provided by the end-user. The authorization code is used to
is used to obtain an access token and a refresh token. obtain an access token and a refresh token.
authorization server authorization server
A server capable of issuing tokens after successfully A server capable of issuing tokens after successfully
authenticating the resource owner and obtaining authorization. authenticating the resource owner and obtaining authorization.
The authorization server may be the same server as the resource The authorization server may be the same server as the resource
server, or a separate entity. server, or a separate entity.
end-user authorization endpoint end-user authorization endpoint
The authorization server's HTTP endpoint capable of The authorization server's HTTP endpoint capable of
authenticating the end-user and obtaining authorization. The authenticating the end-user and obtaining authorization. The
end-user authorization endpoint is described in Section 3. end-user authorization endpoint is described in Section 3.
token endpoint token endpoint
The authorization server's HTTP endpoint capable of issuing The authorization server's HTTP endpoint capable of issuing
tokens and refreshing expired tokens. The token endpoint is tokens and refreshing expired tokens. The token endpoint is
described in Section 4. described in Section 4.
client identifier client identifier
An unique identifier issued to the client to identify itself to A unique identifier issued to the client to identify itself to
the authorization server. Client identifiers may have a the authorization server. Client identifiers may have a
matching secret. The client identifier is described in matching secret. The client identifier is described in
Section 2. Section 2.
1.3. Overview 1.3. Overview
OAuth provides a method for clients to access a protected resource on OAuth provides a method for clients to access a protected resource on
behalf of a resource owner. Before a client can access a protected behalf of a resource owner. Before a client can access a protected
resource, it must first obtain authorization from the resource owner, resource, it must first obtain authorization from the resource owner,
then exchange the access grant for an access token (representing the then exchange the access grant for an access token (representing the
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| | | Server | | | | Server |
| |<-(F)---- Protected Resource -----| | | |<-(F)---- Protected Resource -----| |
+--------+ +---------------+ +--------+ +---------------+
Figure 1: Abstract Protocol Flow Figure 1: Abstract Protocol Flow
The abstract flow illustrated in Figure 1 includes the following The abstract flow illustrated in Figure 1 includes the following
steps: steps:
(A) The client requests authorization from the resource owner. The (A) The client requests authorization from the resource owner. The
client should not interact directly with the resource owner client should not request the resource owner's credentials
(since that would expose the resource owner's credentials to the directly. Instead, it should request authorization via an
client), but instead request authorization via an authorization authorization server or other entities. For example, the client
server or other entities. For example, the client directs the directs the resource owner to the authorization server which in
resource owner to the authorization server which in turn issues turn issues it an access grant. When unavoidable, the client
it an access grant. When unavoidable, the client interacts interacts directly with the end-user, asking for the end-user's
directly with the end-user, asking for the end-user's username username and password. If the client is acting autonomously,
and password. If the client is acting autonomously, the the authorization request is beyond the scope of this
authorization request is beyond the scope of this specification. specification.
(B) The client is issued an access grant which represents the (B) The client is issued an access grant which represents the
authorization provided by the resource owner. The access grant authorization provided by the resource owner. The access grant
can be expressed as: can be expressed as:
* Authorization code - an access grant obtained via an * Authorization code - an access grant obtained via an
authorization server. The process used to obtain an authorization server. Section 3 describes how to obtain an
authorization code utilized the end-user's user-agent and is authorization code when the end-user is present and using a
described in Section 3. user-agent.
* Assertion - an access grant obtained using a different trust * Assertion - an access grant obtained using a different trust
framework. Assertions enable the client to utilize existing framework. Assertions enable the client to utilize existing
trust relationships to obtain an access token. They provide trust relationships to obtain an access token. They provide
a bridge between OAuth and other trust frameworks. The a bridge between OAuth and other trust frameworks. The
access grant represented by an assertion depends on the access grant represented by an assertion depends on the
assertion type, its content, and how it was issued, which are assertion type, its content, and how it was issued, which are
beyond the scope of this specification. beyond the scope of this specification.
* Resource owner basic credentials - obtained when interacting * Resource owner password credentials - obtained when
directly with a resource-owner. Resource owner basic interacting directly with a resource-owner. Resource owner
credentials (i.e. a username and password) should only be password credentials (i.e. a username and password) should
used when there is a high degree of trust between the only be used when there is a high degree of trust between the
resource owner and the client (e.g. its computer operating resource owner and the client (e.g. its computer operating
system or a highly privileged application). However, unlike system or a highly privileged application). However, unlike
the HTTP Basic authentication scheme defined in [RFC2617], the HTTP Basic authentication scheme defined in [RFC2617],
the resource owner's credentials are used for a single the resource owner's credentials are used for a single
request and are exchanged for an access token and refresh request and are exchanged for an access token and refresh
token. This eliminates the need for the client to store the token. This eliminates the need for the client to store the
resource-owner's credentials for future use. resource-owner's credentials for future use.
(C) The client requests an access token by authenticating with the (C) The client requests an access token by authenticating with the
authorization server, and presenting the access grant. The authorization server, and presenting the access grant. The
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serves the request. serves the request.
When the client is acting on its own behalf (the client is also the When the client is acting on its own behalf (the client is also the
resource owner), the client does not obtain an access grant. The resource owner), the client does not obtain an access grant. The
simplified protocol flow is illustrated in Figure 2: simplified protocol flow is illustrated in Figure 2:
+--------+ +---------------+ +--------+ +---------------+
| |--(C)--- Client Credentials ----->| Authorization | | |--(C)--- Client Credentials ----->| Authorization |
| | | Server | | | | Server |
| |<-(D)------ Access Token ---------| | | |<-(D)------ Access Token ---------| |
| | (w/ Optional Refresh Token) +---------------+ | | +---------------+
| Client | | Client |
| | +---------------+ | | +---------------+
| |--(E)------ Access Token -------->| Resource | | |--(E)------ Access Token -------->| Resource |
| | | Server | | | | Server |
| |<-(F)---- Protected Resource -----| | | |<-(F)---- Protected Resource -----| |
+--------+ +---------------+ +--------+ +---------------+
Figure 2: Protocol Flow for Client Acting On Its Own Behalf Figure 2: Protocol Flow for Client Acting On Its Own Behalf
When the client uses the user-agent profile (described in When the client uses the user-agent profile (described in
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| |<---(E)----- Access Token -------------------' | |<---(E)----- Access Token -------------------'
+---------+ (w/ Optional Refresh Token) +---------+ (w/ Optional Refresh Token)
Figure 4: Web Server Flow Figure 4: Web Server Flow
The web server flow illustrated in Figure 4 includes the following The web server flow illustrated in Figure 4 includes the following
steps: steps:
(A) The web client initiates the flow by redirecting the end-user's (A) The web client initiates the flow by redirecting the end-user's
user-agent to the end-user authorization endpoint as described user-agent to the end-user authorization endpoint as described
in Section 3 The client includes its client identifier, in Section 3. The client includes its client identifier,
requested scope, local state, and a redirect URI to which the requested scope, local state, and a redirect URI to which the
authorization server will send the end-user back once access is authorization server will send the end-user back once access is
granted (or denied). granted (or denied).
(B) The authorization server authenticates the end-user (via the (B) The authorization server authenticates the end-user (via the
user-agent) and establishes whether the end-user grants or user-agent) and establishes whether the end-user grants or
denies the client's access request. denies the client's access request.
(C) Assuming the end-user granted access, the authorization server (C) Assuming the end-user granted access, the authorization server
redirects the user-agent back to the client to the redirection redirects the user-agent back to the client to the redirection
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the authorization code and responds back with the access token. the authorization code and responds back with the access token.
1.4.2. User-Agent 1.4.2. User-Agent
The user-agent profile is suitable for client applications residing The user-agent profile is suitable for client applications residing
in a user-agent, typically implemented in a browser using a scripting in a user-agent, typically implemented in a browser using a scripting
language such as JavaScript. These clients cannot keep client language such as JavaScript. These clients cannot keep client
secrets confidential and the authentication of the client is based on secrets confidential and the authentication of the client is based on
the user-agent's same-origin policy. the user-agent's same-origin policy.
Unlike other profiles in which the client makes a separate end-user Unlike other profiles in which the client makes separate requests for
authorization request and an access token requests, the client end-user authorization and access token, the client receives the
receives the access token as a result of the end-user authorization access token as a result of the end-user authorization request in the
request in the form of an HTTP redirection. The client requests the form of an HTTP redirection. The client requests the authorization
authorization server to redirect the user-agent to another web server server to redirect the user-agent to another web server or local
or local resource accessible to the user-agent which is capable of resource accessible to the user-agent which is capable of extracting
extracting the access token from the response and passing it to the the access token from the response and passing it to the client.
client.
This user-agent profile does not utilize the client secret since the This user-agent profile does not utilize the client secret since the
client executables reside on the end-user's computer or device which client executables reside on the end-user's computer or device which
makes the client secret accessible and exploitable. Because the makes the client secret accessible and exploitable. Because the
access token is encoded into the redirection URI, it may be exposed access token is encoded into the redirection URI, it may be exposed
to the end-user and other applications residing on the computer or to the end-user and other applications residing on the computer or
device. device.
+----------+ Client Identifier +----------------+ +----------+ Client Identifier +----------------+
| |>---(A)-- & Redirection URI --->| | | |>---(A)-- & Redirection URI --->| |
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URI scheme (registered with the operating system to invoke the URI scheme (registered with the operating system to invoke the
client application), or by providing a redirection URI pointing to client application), or by providing a redirection URI pointing to
a server-hosted resource under the client's control which makes a server-hosted resource under the client's control which makes
the response available to the client (e.g. using the window title the response available to the client (e.g. using the window title
or other locations accessible from outside the user-agent). or other locations accessible from outside the user-agent).
o Utilize the end-user authorization endpoint as described in o Utilize the end-user authorization endpoint as described in
Section 3 by using an embedded user-agent. The client obtains the Section 3 by using an embedded user-agent. The client obtains the
response by directly communicating with the embedded user-agent. response by directly communicating with the embedded user-agent.
o Prompt end-users for their basic credentials (username and o Prompt end-users for their password and use them directly to
password) and use them directly to obtain an access token. This obtain an access token. This is generally discouraged, as it
is generally discouraged as it hands the end-user's password hands the end-user's password directly to the third-party client
directly to the 3rd party and is limited to basic credentials. which in turn has to store it in clear-text. It also requires the
server to support password-based authentication.
When choosing between launching an external browser and an embedded When choosing between launching an external browser and an embedded
user-agent, developers should consider the following: user-agent, developers should consider the following:
o External user-agents may improve completion rate as the end-user o External user-agents may improve completion rate as the end-user
may already be logged-in and not have to re-authenticate. may already be logged-in and not have to re-authenticate.
o Embedded user-agents often offer a better end-user flow, as they o Embedded user-agents often offer a better end-user flow, as they
remove the need to switch context and open new windows. remove the need to switch context and open new windows.
skipping to change at page 14, line 32 skipping to change at page 14, line 35
SAML [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] assertion) from an assertion issuer SAML [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] assertion) from an assertion issuer
or to self-issue an assertion. The assertion format, the process or to self-issue an assertion. The assertion format, the process
by which the assertion is obtained, and the method of validating by which the assertion is obtained, and the method of validating
the assertion are defined by the assertion issuer and the the assertion are defined by the assertion issuer and the
authorization server, and are beyond the scope of this authorization server, and are beyond the scope of this
specification. specification.
2. Client Credentials 2. Client Credentials
When interacting with the authorization server, the client identifies When interacting with the authorization server, the client identifies
itself using a set of client credentials. The client credentials itself using a client identifier and authenticates using a set of
include a client identifier and MAY include a secret or other means client credentials. This specification provides one mechanism for
for the authorization server to authenticate the client. authenticating the client using password credentials.
The means through which the client obtains its credentials are beyond The means through which the client obtains its credentials are beyond
the scope of this specification, but usually involve registration the scope of this specification, but usually involve registration
with the authorization server. [[ OAuth Discovery provides one way of with the authorization server. [[ OAuth Discovery provides one way of
obtaining basic client credentials ]] obtaining a client password ]]
Due to the nature of some clients, authorization servers SHOULD NOT Due to the nature of some clients, authorization servers SHOULD NOT
make assumptions about the confidentiality of client credentials make assumptions about the confidentiality of client secrets without
without establishing trust with the client operator. Authorization establishing trust with the client operator. Authorization servers
servers SHOULD NOT issue client secrets to clients incapable of SHOULD NOT issue client secrets to clients incapable of keeping their
keeping their secrets confidential. secrets confidential.
This specification provides one mechanism for authenticating the
client using a set of basic client credentials. The authorization
server MAY authenticate the client using any desired authentication
scheme.
The client MUST NOT include more than one set of client credentials The authorization server MAY authenticate the client using any
with each request, and MUST NOT utilize more than one mechanism to appropriate set of credentials and authentication scheme. The client
authenticate each request (regardless whether the credentials are MUST NOT utilize more than one set of credentials or authentication
identical). mechanism with each request.
2.1. Basic Client Credentials 2.1. Client Password Credentials
The basic client credentials include a client identifier and an The client password credentials use a shared symmetric secret to
OPTIONAL matching shared symmetric secret. The client identifier and authenticate the client. The client identifier and password are
secret are included in the request using the HTTP Basic included in the request using the HTTP Basic authentication scheme as
authentication scheme as defined in [RFC2617] by including the client defined in [RFC2617] by including the client identifier as the
identifier as the username and secret as the password. username and client password as the password.
For example (line breaks are for display purposes only): For example (line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Authorization: Basic czZCaGRSa3F0MzpnWDFmQmF0M2JW Authorization: Basic czZCaGRSa3F0MzpnWDFmQmF0M2JW
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
type=web-server&code=i1WsRn1uB1& grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
Alternatively, the client MAY include the credentials using the Alternatively, the client MAY include the password in the request
following request parameters: body using the following parameter:
client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier.
client_secret REQUIRED if the client identifier has a matching client_secret REQUIRED. The client password.
secret.
For example (line breaks are for display purposes only): For example (line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
type=web-server&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1& client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
The authorization server MUST accept the client credentials using The authorization server MUST accept the client credentials using
both the request parameters, and the HTTP Basic authentication both the request parameter, and the HTTP Basic authentication scheme.
scheme. The authorization server MAY support additional The authorization server MAY support additional authentication
authentication schemes suitable for the transmission of a username schemes suitable for the transmission of a password.
and password.
3. Obtaining End-User Authorization 3. Obtaining End-User Authorization
When the client interacts with an end-user, the end-user MUST first When the client interacts with an end-user, the end-user MUST first
grant the client authorization to access its protected resources. grant the client authorization to access its protected resources.
Once obtained, the end-user access grant is expressed as an Once obtained, the end-user access grant is expressed as an
authorization code which the client uses to obtain an access token. authorization code which the client uses to obtain an access token.
To obtain an end-user authorization, the client sends the end-user to To obtain an end-user authorization, the client sends the end-user to
the end-user authorization endpoint. the end-user authorization endpoint.
skipping to change at page 16, line 48 skipping to change at page 16, line 45
In order to direct the end-user's user-agent to the authorization In order to direct the end-user's user-agent to the authorization
server, the client constructs the request URI by adding the following server, the client constructs the request URI by adding the following
parameters to the end-user authorization endpoint URI query component parameters to the end-user authorization endpoint URI query component
using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224]: [W3C.REC-html401-19991224]:
response_type response_type
REQUIRED. The requested response: an access token, an REQUIRED. The requested response: an access token, an
authorization code, or both. The parameter value MUST be set authorization code, or both. The parameter value MUST be set
to "token" for requesting an access token, "code" for to "token" for requesting an access token, "code" for
requesting an authorization code, or "code-and-token" to requesting an authorization code, or "code_and_token" to
request both. The authorization server MAY decline to provide request both. The authorization server MAY decline to provide
one or more of these response types. [[ The 'code-and-token' one or more of these response types. [[ The 'code_and_token'
type is pending use cases and may be removed for the type is pending use cases and may be removed for the
specification ]] specification ]]
client_id client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 2. REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 2.
redirect_uri redirect_uri
REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between REQUIRED, unless a redirection URI has been established between
the client and authorization server via other means. An the client and authorization server via other means. An
absolute URI to which the authorization server will redirect absolute URI to which the authorization server will redirect
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requested scope. requested scope.
state state
OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state
between the request and callback. The authorization server between the request and callback. The authorization server
includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the
client. client.
The client directs the end-user to the constructed URI using an HTTP The client directs the end-user to the constructed URI using an HTTP
redirection response, or by other means available to it via the end- redirection response, or by other means available to it via the end-
user's user-agent. The request MUST use the HTTP "GET" method. user's user-agent. The authorization server MUST support the use of
the HTTP "GET" method for the end-user authorization endpoint, and
MAY support the use of the "POST" method as well.
For example, the client directs the end-user's user-agent to make the For example, the client directs the end-user's user-agent to make the
following HTTP request using transport-layer security (line breaks following HTTP request using transport-layer security (line breaks
are for display purposes only): are for display purposes only):
GET /authorize?response_type=code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& GET /authorize?response_type=code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb HTTP/1.1 redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
If the client has previously registered a redirection URI with the If the client has previously registered a redirection URI with the
skipping to change at page 18, line 4 skipping to change at page 17, line 49
GET /authorize?response_type=code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& GET /authorize?response_type=code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb HTTP/1.1 redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
If the client has previously registered a redirection URI with the If the client has previously registered a redirection URI with the
authorization server, the authorization server MUST verify that the authorization server, the authorization server MUST verify that the
redirection URI received matches the registered URI associated with redirection URI received matches the registered URI associated with
the client identifier. [[ provide guidance on how to perform matching the client identifier. [[ provide guidance on how to perform matching
]] ]]
Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were
omitted from the request. omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore
unrecognized request parameters.
The authorization server validates the request to ensure all required The authorization server validates the request to ensure all required
parameters are present and valid. If the request is invalid, the parameters are present and valid. If the request is invalid, the
authorization server immediately redirects the user-agent back to the authorization server immediately redirects the user-agent back to the
client using the redirection URI provided with the appropriate error client using the redirection URI provided with the appropriate error
code as described in Section 3.2. code as described in Section 3.2.
The authorization server authenticates the end-user and obtains an The authorization server authenticates the end-user and obtains an
authorization decision (by asking the end-user or by establishing authorization decision (by asking the end-user or by establishing
approval via other means). When a decision has been established, the approval via other means). When a decision has been established, the
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or by other means available to it via the end-user's user-agent. or by other means available to it via the end-user's user-agent.
3.1. Authorization Response 3.1. Authorization Response
If the end-user grants the access request, the authorization server If the end-user grants the access request, the authorization server
issues an access token, an authorization code, or both, and delivers issues an access token, an authorization code, or both, and delivers
them to the client by adding the following parameters to the them to the client by adding the following parameters to the
redirection URI (as described below): redirection URI (as described below):
code code
REQUIRED if the response type is "token" or "code-and-token", REQUIRED if the response type is "code" or "code_and_token",
otherwise MUST NOT be included. The authorization code otherwise MUST NOT be included. The authorization code
generated by the authorization server. The authorization code generated by the authorization server. The authorization code
SHOULD expire shortly after it is issued. The authorization SHOULD expire shortly after it is issued. The authorization
server MUST invalidate the authorization code after a single server MUST invalidate the authorization code after a single
usage. The authorization code is bound to the client usage. The authorization code is bound to the client
identifier and redirection URI. identifier and redirection URI.
access_token access_token
REQUIRED if the response type is "token" or "code-and-token", REQUIRED if the response type is "token" or "code_and_token",
otherwise MUST NOT be included. The access token. otherwise MUST NOT be included. The access token issued by the
authorization server. The access token string MUST comply with
the access-token rule defined in Section 5.1.1.
expires_in expires_in
OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token lifetime OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token lifetime
if an access token is included. For example, the value "3600" if an access token is included. For example, the value "3600"
denotes that the access token will expire in one hour from the denotes that the access token will expire in one hour from the
time the response was generated by the authorization server. time the response was generated by the authorization server.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access token as a list of space- OPTIONAL. The scope of the access token as a list of space-
delimited strings if an access token is included. The value of delimited strings if an access token is included. The value of
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expires_in expires_in
OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token lifetime OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token lifetime
if an access token is included. For example, the value "3600" if an access token is included. For example, the value "3600"
denotes that the access token will expire in one hour from the denotes that the access token will expire in one hour from the
time the response was generated by the authorization server. time the response was generated by the authorization server.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access token as a list of space- OPTIONAL. The scope of the access token as a list of space-
delimited strings if an access token is included. The value of delimited strings if an access token is included. The value of
the "scope" parameter is defined by the authorization server. the "scope" parameter is defined by the authorization server.
If the value contains multiple space-delimited strings, their If the value contains multiple space-delimited strings, their
order does not matter, and each string adds an additional order does not matter, and each string adds an additional
access range to the requested scope. access range to the requested scope. The authorization server
SHOULD include the parameter if the requested scope is
different from the one requested by the client.
state state
REQUIRED if the "state" parameter was present in the client REQUIRED if the "state" parameter was present in the client
authorization request. Set to the exact value received from authorization request. Set to the exact value received from
the client. the client.
The method in which the authorization server adds the parameter to The method in which the authorization server adds the parameter to
the redirection URI is determined by the response type requested by the redirection URI is determined by the response type requested by
the client in the authorization request using the "response_type" the client in the authorization request using the "response_type"
parameter. parameter.
skipping to change at page 19, line 38 skipping to change at page 19, line 43
parameters to the redirection URI fragment component using the parameters to the redirection URI fragment component using the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224]. [W3C.REC-html401-19991224].
For example, the authorization server redirects the end-user's user- For example, the authorization server redirects the end-user's user-
agent by sending the following HTTP response: agent by sending the following HTTP response:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: http://example.com/rd#access_token=FJQbwq9&expires_in=3600 Location: http://example.com/rd#access_token=FJQbwq9&expires_in=3600
If the response type is "code-and-token", the authorization server If the response type is "code_and_token", the authorization server
adds the "code" and "state" parameters to the redirection URI query adds the "code" and "state" parameters to the redirection URI query
component and the "access_token", "scope", and "expires_in" to the component and the "access_token", "scope", and "expires_in" to the
redirection URI fragment using the redirection URI fragment using the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224]. [W3C.REC-html401-19991224].
For example, the authorization server redirects the end-user's user- For example, the authorization server redirects the end-user's user-
agent by sending the following HTTP response (line breaks are for agent by sending the following HTTP response (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: http://example.com/rd?code=i1WsRn1uB1 Location: http://example.com/rd?code=i1WsRn1uB1
#access_token=FJQbwq9&expires_in=3600 #access_token=FJQbwq9&expires_in=3600
The sizes of tokens and other values received from the authorization Clients SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The sizes of
server, are left undefined by this specification. Clients should tokens and other values received from the authorization server, are
avoid making assumptions about value sizes. Servers should document left undefined by this specification. Clients should avoid making
the expected size of any value they issue. assumptions about value sizes. Servers should document the expected
size of any value they issue.
3.2. Error Response 3.2. Error Response
If the end-user denies the access request or if the request is If the end-user denies the access request or if the request is
invalid, the authorization server informs the client by adding the invalid, the authorization server informs the client by adding the
following parameters to the redirection URI query component using the following parameters to the redirection URI query component using the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format as defined by
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224]: [W3C.REC-html401-19991224]:
error error
skipping to change at page 21, line 10 skipping to change at page 21, line 10
agent by sending the following HTTP response: agent by sending the following HTTP response:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: https://client.example.com/cb?error=access-denied Location: https://client.example.com/cb?error=access-denied
3.2.1. Error Codes 3.2.1. Error Codes
The authorization server includes one of the following error codes The authorization server includes one of the following error codes
with the error response: with the error response:
invalid-request invalid_request
The request is missing a required parameter, includes an The request is missing a required parameter, includes an
unknown parameter or parameter value, or is otherwise unsupported parameter or parameter value, or is otherwise
malformed. malformed.
invalid-client-id invalid_client
The client identifier provided is invalid. The client identifier provided is invalid.
unauthorized-client unauthorized_client
The client is not authorized to use the requested response The client is not authorized to use the requested response
type. type.
redirect-uri-mismatch redirect_uri_mismatch
The redirection URI provided does not match a pre-registered The redirection URI provided does not match a pre-registered
value. value.
access-denied access_denied
The end-user or authorization server denied the request. The end-user or authorization server denied the request.
unsupported-response-type unsupported_response_type
The requested response type is not supported by the The requested response type is not supported by the
authorization server. authorization server.
invalid_scope invalid_scope
The requested scope is invalid, unknown, or malformed. The requested scope is invalid, unknown, or malformed.
[[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]] [[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]]
4. Obtaining an Access Token 4. Obtaining an Access Token
The client obtains an access token by authenticating with the The client obtains an access token by authenticating with the
authorization server and presenting its access grant. authorization server and presenting its access grant (in the form of
an authorization code, resource owner credentials, an assertion, or a
After establishing resource owner authorization, clients request an
access token from the authorization server's token endpoint. When
requesting an access token, the client authenticates with the
authorization server and includes the access grant (in the form of an
authorization code, resource owner credentials, an assertion, or a
refresh token). refresh token).
The location of the token endpoint can be found in the service
documentation, or can be obtained by using [[ OAuth Discovery ]].
The token endpoint URI MAY include a query component.
Since requests to the token endpoint result in the transmission of Since requests to the token endpoint result in the transmission of
plain text credentials in the HTTP request and response, the plain text credentials in the HTTP request and response, the
authorization server MUST require the use of a transport-layer authorization server MUST require the use of a transport-layer
security mechanism when sending requests to the token endpoints. security mechanism when sending requests to the token endpoints.
Servers MUST support TLS 1.2 as defined in [RFC5246], and MAY support Servers MUST support TLS 1.2 as defined in [RFC5246], and MAY support
additional transport-layer security mechanisms. additional transport-layer security mechanisms.
The client requests an access token by constructing a token request The client requests an access token by making an HTTP "POST" request
and making an HTTP "POST" request. The client constructs the request to the token endpoint. The location of the token endpoint can be
URI by adding its client credentials to the request as described in found in the service documentation, or can be obtained by using [[
Section 2, and includes the following parameters using the OAuth Discovery ]]. The token endpoint URI MAY include a query
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format in the HTTP request component.
entity-body:
The client authenticates with the authorization server by adding its
client credentials to the request as described in Section 2. The
authorization server MAY allow unauthenticated access token requests
when the client identity does not matter (e.g. anonymous client) or
when the client identity is established via other means (e.g. using
an assertion access grant).
The client constructs the request by including the following
parameters using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" format in
the HTTP request entity-body:
grant_type grant_type
REQUIRED. The access grant type included in the request. REQUIRED. The access grant type included in the request.
Value MUST be one of "authorization-code", "basic-credentials", Value MUST be one of "authorization_code", "password",
"assertion", "refresh-token", or "none". "assertion", "refresh_token", or "none".
client_id
REQUIRED, unless the client identity can be establish via other
means (e.g. assertion). The client identifier as described in
Section 2.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter
is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter, multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
and each string adds an additional access range to the and each string adds an additional access range to the
requested scope. If the access grant being used already requested scope. If the access grant being used already
represents an approved scope (e.g. authorization code, represents an approved scope (e.g. authorization code,
assertion), the requested scope MUST be equal or lesser than assertion), the requested scope MUST be equal or lesser than
the scope previously granted. the scope previously granted.
In addition, the client MUST include the appropriate parameters In addition, the client MUST include the appropriate parameters
listed for the selected access grant type as described in listed for the selected access grant type as described in
Section 4.1. Section 4.1.
Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were Parameters sent without a value MUST be treated as if they were
omitted from the request. omitted from the request. The authorization server SHOULD ignore
unrecognized request parameters.
4.1. Access Grant Types 4.1. Access Grant Types
The client requests an access token using one of the four types of The client requests an access token using one of the four types of
access grants: authorization code, basic credentials, assertion, or access grants: authorization code, password credentials, assertion,
refresh token. or refresh token.
When requesting an access token using the "none" access grant type When requesting an access token using the "none" access grant type
(no access grant is included), the client is requesting access to the (no access grant is included), the client is requesting access to the
protected resources under its control, or those of another resource protected resources under its control, or those of another resource
owner which has been previously arranged with the authorization owner which has been previously arranged with the authorization
server (the method of which is beyond the scope of this server (the method of which is beyond the scope of this
specification). specification).
4.1.1. Authorization Code 4.1.1. Authorization Code
The client includes the authorization code using the The client includes the authorization code using the
"authorization-code" access grant type and the following parameters: "authorization_code" access grant type and the following parameters:
code code
REQUIRED. The authorization code received from the REQUIRED. The authorization code received from the
authorization server. authorization server.
redirect_uri redirect_uri
REQUIRED. The redirection URI used in the initial request. REQUIRED. The redirection URI used in the initial request.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
transport-layer security (line breaks are for display purposes only): its client credentials via the "client_secret" parameter described in
Section 2 and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=authorization-code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=authorization_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1& client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
The authorization server MUST verify that the authorization code, The authorization server MUST:
client identity, client secret, and redirection URI are all valid and
match its stored association. If the request is valid, the
authorization server issues a successful response as described in
Section 4.2.
4.1.2. Resource Owner Basic Credentials o Validate the client credentials (if present) and ensure they match
the authorization code.
o Verify that the authorization code and redirection URI are all
valid and match its stored association.
If the request is valid, the authorization server issues a successful
response as described in Section 4.2.
4.1.2. Resource Owner Password Credentials
The client includes the resource owner credentials using the The client includes the resource owner credentials using the
"basic-credentials" access grant type and the following parameters: "password" access grant type and the following parameters: [[ add
[[ add internationalization consideration for username and password internationalization consideration for username and password ]]
]]
username username
REQUIRED. The end-user's username. REQUIRED. The resource owner's username.
password password
REQUIRED. The end-user's password. REQUIRED. The resource owner's password.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
transport-layer security (line breaks are for display purposes only): its client credentials via the "client_secret" parameter described in
Section 2 and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=basic-credentials&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=password&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=47HDu8s&username=johndoe&password=A3ddj3w client_secret=47HDu8s&username=johndoe&password=A3ddj3w
The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials and The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials (if
end-user credentials and if valid issues an access token response as present) and end-user credentials and if valid issue an access token
described in Section 4.2. response as described in Section 4.2.
4.1.3. Assertion 4.1.3. Assertion
The client includes the assertion using the "assertion" access grant The client includes the assertion using the "assertion" access grant
type and the following parameters: type and the following parameters:
assertion_type assertion_type
REQUIRED. The format of the assertion as defined by the REQUIRED. The format of the assertion as defined by the
authorization server. The value MUST be an absolute URI. authorization server. The value MUST be an absolute URI.
assertion assertion
REQUIRED. The assertion. REQUIRED. The assertion.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using
transport-layer security (line breaks are for display purposes only): transport-layer security, and client authentication is achieved via
the assertion (line breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=assertion&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&client_secret=diejdsks& grant_type=assertion&
assertion_type=urn%3Aoasis%3Anames%3Atc%3ASAML%3A2.0%3Aassertion& assertion_type=urn%3Aoasis%3Anames%3Atc%3ASAML%3A2.0%3Aassertion&
assertion=PHNhbWxwOl...[omitted for brevity]...ZT4%3D assertion=PHNhbWxwOl...[omitted for brevity]...ZT4%3D
The authorization server MUST validate the assertion and if valid The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials (if
issues an access token response as described in Section 4.2. The present) and the assertion and if valid issues an access token
authorization server SHOULD NOT issue a refresh token. response as described in Section 4.2. The authorization server
SHOULD NOT issue a refresh token (instead, require the client to use
the same or new assertion).
Authorization servers SHOULD issue access tokens with a limited Authorization servers SHOULD issue access tokens with a limited
lifetime and require clients to refresh them by requesting a new lifetime and require clients to refresh them by requesting a new
access token using the same assertion if it is still valid. access token using the same assertion if it is still valid.
Otherwise the client MUST obtain a new valid assertion. Otherwise the client MUST obtain a new valid assertion.
4.1.4. Refresh Token 4.1.4. Refresh Token
The client includes the refresh token using the "refresh-token" The client includes the refresh token using the "refresh_token"
access grant type and the following parameter: access grant type and the following parameter:
refresh_token refresh_token
REQUIRED. The refresh token associated with the access token REQUIRED. The refresh token associated with the access token
to be refreshed. to be refreshed.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using For example, the client makes the following HTTP request by including
transport-layer security (line break are for display purposes only): its client credentials via the "client_secret" parameter described in
Section 2 and using transport-layer security (line breaks are for
display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
grant_type=refresh-token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& grant_type=refresh_token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=8eSEIpnqmM&refresh_token=n4E9O119d client_secret=8eSEIpnqmM&refresh_token=n4E9O119d
The authorization server MUST verify the client credentials, the The authorization server MUST verify the client credentials (if
validity of the refresh token, and that the resource owner's present), the validity of the refresh token, and that the resource
authorization is still valid. If the request is valid, the owner's authorization is still valid. If the request is valid, the
authorization server issues an access token response as described in authorization server issues an access token response as described in
Section 4.2. The authorization server MAY issue a new refresh token. Section 4.2. The authorization server MAY issue a new refresh token.
4.2. Access Token Response 4.2. Access Token Response
After receiving and verifying a valid and authorized access token After receiving and verifying a valid and authorized access token
request from the client, the authorization server issues the access request from the client, the authorization server issues the access
token and optional refresh token, and constructs the response by token and optional refresh token, and constructs the response by
adding the following parameters to the entity body of the HTTP adding the following parameters to the entity body of the HTTP
response with a 200 (OK) status code: response with a 200 (OK) status code:
The token response contains the following parameters: The token response contains the following parameters:
access_token access_token
REQUIRED. The access token issued by the authorization server. REQUIRED. The access token issued by the authorization server.
The access token string MUST comply with the access-token rule
defined in Section 5.1.1.
expires_in expires_in
OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token
lifetime. For example, the value "3600" denotes that the lifetime. For example, the value "3600" denotes that the
access token will expire in one hour from the time the response access token will expire in one hour from the time the response
was generated by the authorization server. was generated by the authorization server.
refresh_token refresh_token
OPTIONAL. The refresh token used to obtain new access tokens OPTIONAL. The refresh token used to obtain new access tokens
using the same end-user access grant as described in using the same end-user access grant as described in
Section 4.1.4. Section 4.1.4. The authorization server SHOULD NOT issue a
refresh token when the access grant type is set to "none".
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access token as a list of space- OPTIONAL. The scope of the access token as a list of space-
delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter is delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter is
defined by the authorization server. If the value contains defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter, multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
and each string adds an additional access range to the and each string adds an additional access range to the
requested scope. requested scope. The authorization server SHOULD include the
parameter if the requested scope is different from the one
requested by the client.
The parameters are including in the entity body of the HTTP response The parameters are including in the entity body of the HTTP response
using the "application/json" media type as defined by [RFC4627]. The using the "application/json" media type as defined by [RFC4627]. The
parameters are serialized into a JSON structure by adding each parameters are serialized into a JSON structure by adding each
parameter at the highest structure level. Parameter names and string parameter at the highest structure level. Parameter names and string
values are included as JSON strings. Numerical values are included values are included as JSON strings. Numerical values are included
as JSON numbers. as JSON numbers.
The authorization server MUST include the HTTP "Cache-Control" The authorization server MUST include the HTTP "Cache-Control"
response header field with a value of "no-store" in any response response header field with a value of "no-store" in any response
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HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{ {
"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG", "access_token":"SlAV32hkKG",
"expires_in":3600, "expires_in":3600,
"refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8" "refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8"
} }
The sizes of tokens and other values received from the authorization Clients SHOULD ignore unrecognized response parameters. The sizes of
server, are left undefined by this specification. Clients should tokens and other values received from the authorization server, are
avoid making assumptions about value sizes. Servers should document left undefined by this specification. Clients should avoid making
the expected size of any value they issue. assumptions about value sizes. Servers should document the expected
size of any value they issue.
4.3. Error Response 4.3. Error Response
If the token request is invalid or unauthorized, the authorization If the token request is invalid or unauthorized, the authorization
server constructs the response by adding the following parameter to server constructs the response by adding the following parameter to
the entity body of the HTTP response using the "application/json" the entity body of the HTTP response using the "application/json"
media type: media type:
error error
REQUIRED. A single error code as described in Section 4.3.1. REQUIRED. A single error code as described in Section 4.3.1.
skipping to change at page 27, line 30 skipping to change at page 28, line 12
with information about the error, used to provide the end-user with information about the error, used to provide the end-user
with additional information about the error. with additional information about the error.
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{ {
"error":"invalid-request" "error":"invalid_request"
} }
If the client provided invalid credentials using an HTTP If the client provided invalid credentials using an HTTP
authentication scheme via the "Authorization" request header field, authentication scheme via the "Authorization" request header field,
the authorization server MUST respond with the HTTP 401 the authorization server MUST respond with the HTTP 401
(Unauthorized) status code. Otherwise, the authorization server (Unauthorized) status code. Otherwise, the authorization server
SHALL respond with the HTTP 400 (Bad Request) status code. SHALL respond with the HTTP 400 (Bad Request) status code.
4.3.1. Error Codes 4.3.1. Error Codes
The authorization server includes one of the following error codes The authorization server includes one of the following error codes
with the error response: with the error response:
invalid-request invalid_request
The request is missing a required parameter, includes an The request is missing a required parameter, includes an
unknown parameter or parameter value, repeats a parameter, unsupported parameter or parameter value, repeats a parameter,
includes multiple credentials, utilizes more than one mechanism includes multiple credentials, utilizes more than one mechanism
for authenticating the client, or is otherwise malformed. for authenticating the client, or is otherwise malformed.
invalid-client-credentials invalid_client
The client identifier provided is invalid, the client failed to The client identifier provided is invalid, the client failed to
authenticate, or the client provided multiple client authenticate, the client did not include its credentials,
credentials. provided multiple client credentials, or used unsupported
credentials type.
unauthorized-client unauthorized_client
The client is not authorized to use the access grant type The authenticated client is not authorized to use the access
provided. grant type provided.
invalid-grant invalid_grant
The provided access grant is invalid, expired, or revoked (e.g. The provided access grant is invalid, expired, or revoked (e.g.
invalid assertion, expired authorization token, bad end-user invalid assertion, expired authorization token, bad end-user
basic credentials, or mismatching authorization code and password credentials, or mismatching authorization code and
redirection URI). redirection URI).
unsupported-grant-type unsupported_grant_type
The access grant included - its type or another attribute - is The access grant included - its type or another attribute - is
not supported by the authorization server. not supported by the authorization server.
invalid-scope invalid_scope
The requested scope is invalid, unknown, malformed, or exceeds The requested scope is invalid, unknown, malformed, or exceeds
the previously granted scope. the previously granted scope.
[[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]] [[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]]
5. Accessing a Protected Resource 5. Accessing a Protected Resource
Clients access protected resources by presenting an access token to Clients access protected resources by presenting an access token to
the resource server. Access tokens act as bearer tokens, where the the resource server. Access tokens act as bearer tokens, where the
token string acts as a shared symmetric secret. This requires token string acts as a shared symmetric secret. This requires
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The resource server MUST validate the access token and ensure it has The resource server MUST validate the access token and ensure it has
not expired and that its scope covers the requested resource. The not expired and that its scope covers the requested resource. The
methods used by the resource server to validate the access token are methods used by the resource server to validate the access token are
beyond the scope of this specification, but generally involve an beyond the scope of this specification, but generally involve an
interaction or coordination between the resource server and interaction or coordination between the resource server and
authorization server. authorization server.
5.1. Authenticated Requests 5.1. Authenticated Requests
Clients make authenticated token requests using the "Authorization" Clients make authenticated token requests using the "Authorization"
request header field as described in Section 5.1.1. Alternatively, request header field. Resource servers MUST accept authenticated
clients MAY include the access token using the HTTP request URI in requests using the "OAuth" HTTP authentication scheme as described in
the query component as described in Section 5.1.2, or in the HTTP Section 5.1.1, and MAY support additional methods.
body when using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" content type
as described in Section 5.1.3. Alternatively, clients MAY attempt to include the access token using
the HTTP request URI in the query component as described in
Section 5.1.2, or in the HTTP body when using the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" content type as described in
Section 5.1.3. Resource server MAY support these alternative
methods.
Clients SHOULD only use the request URI or body when the Clients SHOULD only use the request URI or body when the
"Authorization" request header field is not available, and MUST NOT "Authorization" request header field is not available, and MUST NOT
use more than one method in each request. use more than one method in each request.
5.1.1. The Authorization Request Header Field 5.1.1. The Authorization Request Header Field
The "Authorization" request header field is used by clients to make The "Authorization" request header field is used by clients to make
authenticated token requests. The client uses the "token" attribute authenticated token requests. The client uses the "OAuth"
to include the access token in the request. authentication scheme to include the access token in the request.
For example: For example:
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 GET /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Authorization: Token token="vF9dft4qmT" Authorization: OAuth vF9dft4qmT
The "Authorization" header field uses the framework defined by The "Authorization" header field uses the framework defined by
[RFC2617] as follows: [RFC2617] as follows:
credentials = "Token" RWS access-token [ CS 1#auth-param ] credentials = "OAuth" RWS access-token [ CS 1#auth-param ]
access-token = "token" "=" <"> token <"> access-token = 1*( quoted-char / <"> )
CS = OWS "," OWS CS = OWS "," OWS
quoted-char = "!" / "#" / "$" / "%" / "&" / "'" / "("
/ ")" / "*" / "+" / "-" / "." / "/" / DIGIT
/ ":" / "<" / "=" / ">" / "?" / "@" / ALPHA
/ "[" / "]" / "^" / "_" / "`" / "{" / "|"
/ "}" / "~" / "\" / "," / ";"
NOTE: [RFC5849] defines a different format for the "OAuth"
authentication scheme. Resource servers can differentiate between
the two protocol versions based on the presence of the
"oauth_signature_method" which is REQUIRED in the previous version
and is not supported by this specification.
5.1.2. URI Query Parameter 5.1.2. URI Query Parameter
When including the access token in the HTTP request URI, the client When including the access token in the HTTP request URI, the client
adds the access token to the request URI query component as defined adds the access token to the request URI query component as defined
by [RFC3986] using the "oauth_token" parameter. by [RFC3986] using the "oauth_token" parameter.
For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using
transport-layer security: transport-layer security:
GET /resource?oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT HTTP/1.1 GET /resource?oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT HTTP/1.1
skipping to change at page 30, line 20 skipping to change at page 31, line 20
The HTTP request URI query can include other request-specific The HTTP request URI query can include other request-specific
parameters, in which case, the "oauth_token" parameters SHOULD be parameters, in which case, the "oauth_token" parameters SHOULD be
appended following the request-specific parameters, properly appended following the request-specific parameters, properly
separated by an "&" character (ASCII code 38). separated by an "&" character (ASCII code 38).
For example: For example:
http://example.com/resource?x=y&oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT http://example.com/resource?x=y&oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT
NOTE: The "oauth_token" parameter is used by the previous version
of the OAuth protocol as described in [RFC5849]. Resource servers
can differentiate between the two protocol versions based on the
presence of the "oauth_signature_method" which is REQUIRED in the
previous version and is not supported by this specification.
5.1.3. Form-Encoded Body Parameter 5.1.3. Form-Encoded Body Parameter
When including the access token in the HTTP request entity-body, the When including the access token in the HTTP request entity-body, the
client adds the access token to the request body using the client adds the access token to the request body using the
"oauth_token" parameter. The client can use this method only if the "oauth_token" parameter. The client can use this method only if the
following REQUIRED conditions are met: following REQUIRED conditions are met:
o The entity-body is single-part. o The entity-body is single-part.
o The entity-body follows the encoding requirements of the o The entity-body follows the encoding requirements of the
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For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using For example, the client makes the following HTTP request using
transport-layer security: transport-layer security:
POST /resource HTTP/1.1 POST /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT
NOTE: The "oauth_token" parameter is used by the previous version
of the OAuth protocol as described in [RFC5849]. Resource servers
can differentiate between the two protocol versions based on the
presence of the "oauth_signature_method" which is REQUIRED in the
previous version and is not supported by this specification.
5.2. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header Field 5.2. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header Field
If the protected resource request contains an invalid access token or If the protected resource request contains an invalid access token or
is malformed, the resource server MUST include the HTTP is malformed, the resource server MUST include the HTTP
"WWW-Authenticate" response header field. The "WWW-Authenticate" "WWW-Authenticate" response header field. The "WWW-Authenticate"
header field uses the framework defined by [RFC2617] as follows: header field uses the framework defined by [RFC2617] as follows:
challenge = "Token" RWS token-challenge challenge = "OAuth" RWS token-challenge
token-challenge = realm token-challenge = realm
[ CS error ] [ CS error ]
[ CS error-desc ] [ CS error-desc ]
[ CS error-uri ] [ CS error-uri ]
[ CS scope ] [ CS scope ]
[ CS 1#auth-param ] [ CS 1#auth-param ]
error = "error" "=" <"> token <"> error = "error" "=" <"> token <">
error-desc = "error-description" "=" quoted-string error-desc = "error_description" "=" quoted-string
error-uri = "error-uri" = <"> URI-Reference <"> error-uri = "error_uri" = <"> URI-Reference <">
scope = ptoken / <"> ptoken *( 1*SP ptoken ) <"> scope = quoted-value /
<"> quoted-value *( 1*SP quoted-value ) <">
ptoken = 1*ptokenchar quoted-value = 1*quoted-char
ptokenchar = "!" / "#" / "$" / "%" / "&" / "'" / "("
/ ")" / "*" / "+" / "-" / "." / "/" / DIGIT
/ ":" / "<" / "=" / ">" / "?" / "@" / ALPHA
/ "[" / "]" / "^" / "_" / "`" / "{" / "|"
/ "}" / "~"
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
WWW-Authenticate: Token realm='Example Service', error='expired-token' WWW-Authenticate: OAuth realm='Example Service', error='expired-token'
The "realm" attribute is used to provide the protected resources The "realm" attribute is used to provide the protected resources
partition as defined by [RFC2617]. [[ add explanation ]] partition as defined by [RFC2617]. [[ add explanation ]]
The "error" attribute is used to provide the client with the reason The "error" attribute is used to provide the client with the reason
why the access request was declined. The parameter values are why the access request was declined. The parameter values are
described in Section 5.2.1. described in Section 5.2.1.
The "error-description" attribute provides a human-readable text The "error_description" attribute provides a human-readable text
containing additional information, used to assist in the containing additional information, used to assist in the
understanding and resolution of the error occurred. understanding and resolution of the error occurred.
The "error-uri" attribute provides a URI identifying a human-readable The "error_uri" attribute provides a URI identifying a human-readable
web page with information about the error, used to offer the end-user web page with information about the error, used to offer the end-user
with additional information about the error. If the value is not an with additional information about the error. If the value is not an
absolute URI, it is relative to the URI of the requested protected absolute URI, it is relative to the URI of the requested protected
resource. resource.
The "scope" attribute is a space-delimited list of scope values The "scope" attribute is a space-delimited list of scope values
indicating the required scope of the access token for accessing the indicating the required scope of the access token for accessing the
requested resource. requested resource.
5.2.1. Error Codes 5.2.1. Error Codes
The authorization server includes one of the following error codes The authorization server includes one of the following error codes
with the error response: with the error response:
invalid-request invalid_request
The request is missing a required parameter, includes an The request is missing a required parameter, includes an
unknown parameter or parameter value, repeats the same unsupported parameter or parameter value, repeats the same
parameter, uses more than one method for including an access parameter, uses more than one method for including an access
token, or is otherwise malformed. The resource server MUST token, or is otherwise malformed. The resource server MUST
respond with the HTTP 400 (Bad Request) status code. respond with the HTTP 400 (Bad Request) status code.
invalid-token invalid_token
The access token provided is invalid. Resource servers SHOULD The access token provided is invalid. Resource servers SHOULD
use this error code when receiving an expired token which use this error code when receiving an expired token which
cannot be refreshed to indicate to the client that a new cannot be refreshed to indicate to the client that a new
authorization is necessary. The resource server MUST respond authorization is necessary. The resource server MUST respond
with the HTTP 401 (Unauthorized) status code. with the HTTP 401 (Unauthorized) status code.
expired-token expired_token
The access token provided has expired. Resource servers SHOULD The access token provided has expired. Resource servers SHOULD
only use this error code when the client is expected to be able only use this error code when the client is expected to be able
to handle the response and request a new access token using the to handle the response and request a new access token using the
refresh token issued with the expired access token. The refresh token issued with the expired access token. The
resource server MUST respond with the HTTP 401 (Unauthorized) resource server MUST respond with the HTTP 401 (Unauthorized)
status code. status code.
insufficient-scope insufficient_scope
The request requires higher privileges than provided by the The request requires higher privileges than provided by the
access token. The resource server SHOULD respond with the HTTP access token. The resource server SHOULD respond with the HTTP
403 (Forbidden) status code and MAY include the "scope" 403 (Forbidden) status code and MAY include the "scope"
attribute with the scope necessary to access the protected attribute with the scope necessary to access the protected
resource. resource.
[[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]] [[ Add mechanism for extending error codes ]]
If the request lacks any authentication information (i.e. the client If the request lacks any authentication information (i.e. the client
was unaware authentication is necessary), the resource server SHOULD was unaware authentication is necessary or attempted using an
not include an error code or other error information. unsupported authentication method), the resource server SHOULD not
include an error code or other error information.
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
WWW-Authenticate: Token realm='Example Service' WWW-Authenticate: OAuth realm='Example Service'
6. Extensibility 6. Extensibility
6.1. Defining New Client Credentials Types 6.1. Defining New Client Credentials Types
[[ TBD ]] [[ TBD ]]
6.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters 6.2. Defining New Endpoint Parameters
Applications that wish to define new request or response parameters Applications that wish to define new request or response parameters
skipping to change at page 33, line 47 skipping to change at page 34, line 48
Parameters utilizing the "x_" parameter name prefix MUST be limited Parameters utilizing the "x_" parameter name prefix MUST be limited
to vendor-specific extensions that are not commonly applicable, and to vendor-specific extensions that are not commonly applicable, and
are specific to the implementation details of the authorization are specific to the implementation details of the authorization
server where they are used. All other new parameters MUST be server where they are used. All other new parameters MUST be
registered, and MUST NOT use the "x_" parameter name prefix. registered, and MUST NOT use the "x_" parameter name prefix.
Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF, and parameter Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF, and parameter
values syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference values syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference
to the syntax of an existing parameter). to the syntax of an existing parameter).
param-name = 1*fchar param-name = 1*name-char
fchar = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA name-char = "-" / "." / "_" / DIGIT / ALPHA
6.3. Defining New Header Field Parameters 6.3. Defining New Header Field Parameters
Applications that wish to define new parameters for use in the OAuth Applications that wish to define new parameters for use in the OAuth
"Authorization" or "WWW-Authenticate" header fields MUST register "Authorization" or "WWW-Authenticate" header fields MUST register
them in the parameters registry, following the procedures in them in the parameters registry, following the procedures in
Section 8.1. Section 8.1.
Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF and MUST NOT Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF and MUST NOT
begin with "x_". Parameter values MUST conform to the param-value begin with "x_". Parameter values MUST conform to the param-value
ABNF and their syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a ABNF and their syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a
reference to the syntax of an existing parameter). reference to the syntax of an existing parameter).
param-value = ptoken | quoted-string param-value = quoted-value | quoted-string
6.4. Defining New Access Grant Types 6.4. Defining New Access Grant Types
The assertion access grant type was designed to allow the The assertion access grant type was designed to allow the
authorization server to accept additional access grants not authorization server to accept additional access grants not
specified. Applications that wish to define additional access grant specified. Applications that wish to define additional access grant
types can do so by utilizing a new or existing assertion type and types can do so by utilizing a new or existing assertion type and
format. format.
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
skipping to change at page 36, line 44 skipping to change at page 38, line 9
Smith, Jeremy Suriel, and Franklin Tse. Smith, Jeremy Suriel, and Franklin Tse.
Appendix C. Acknowledgements Appendix C. Acknowledgements
[[ Add OAuth 1.0a authors + WG contributors ]] [[ Add OAuth 1.0a authors + WG contributors ]]
Appendix D. Document History Appendix D. Document History
[[ to be removed by RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-10
o Fixed typos. Many editorial changes. Rewrote introduction.
removed terminology grouping.
o Allowed POST for end-user authorization endpoint.
o Fixed token endpoint to not require client authentication.
o Made URI query and POST body 'oauth_token' parameter optional.
o Moved all parameter names and values to use underscores.
o Changed 'basic_credentials' to 'password',
'invalid_client_credentials' and 'invalid_client_id' to
'invalid_client'.
o Added note that access token requests without an access grant
should not include a refresh token.
o Changed scheme name from 'Token' to 'OAuth', simplified request
format to simple string for token instead of key=value pair (still
supported for extensions).
o Defined permitted access token string characters (suitable for
inclusion in an HTTP header).
o Added a note about conflicts with previous versions.
o Moved 'client_id' definition from client authentication to access
token endpoint.
-09 -09
o Fixed typos, editorial changes. o Fixed typos, editorial changes.
o Added token expiration example. o Added token expiration example.
o Added scope parameter to end-user authorization endpoint response. o Added scope parameter to end-user authorization endpoint response.
o Added note about parameters with empty values (same as omitted). o Added note about parameters with empty values (same as omitted).
skipping to change at page 41, line 29 skipping to change at page 43, line 20
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for [RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security [RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008. (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.
[RFC5849] Hammer-Lahav, E., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol", RFC 5849,
April 2010.
[W3C.REC-html401-19991224] [W3C.REC-html401-19991224]
Hors, A., Jacobs, I., and D. Raggett, "HTML 4.01 Raggett, D., Hors, A., and I. Jacobs, "HTML 4.01
Specification", World Wide Web Consortium Specification", World Wide Web Consortium
Recommendation REC-html401-19991224, December 1999, Recommendation REC-html401-19991224, December 1999,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224>.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[I-D.hammer-oauth] [I-D.hammer-oauth]
Hammer-Lahav, E., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol", Hammer-Lahav, E., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol",
draft-hammer-oauth-10 (work in progress), February 2010. draft-hammer-oauth-10 (work in progress), February 2010.
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