draft-ietf-oauth-v2-03.txt   draft-ietf-oauth-v2-04.txt 
Network Working Group E. Hammer-Lahav, Ed. Network Working Group E. Hammer-Lahav, Ed.
Internet-Draft Yahoo! Internet-Draft Yahoo!
Intended status: Standards Track D. Recordon Intended status: Standards Track D. Recordon
Expires: November 10, 2010 Facebook Expires: November 10, 2010 Facebook
D. Hardt D. Hardt
May 9, 2010 May 9, 2010
The OAuth 2.0 Protocol The OAuth 2.0 Protocol
draft-ietf-oauth-v2-03 draft-ietf-oauth-v2-04
Abstract Abstract
This specification describes the OAuth 2.0 protocol. OAuth provides This specification describes the OAuth 2.0 protocol. OAuth provides
a method for making authenticated HTTP requests using a token - an a method for making authenticated HTTP requests using a token - an
identifier used to denote an access grant with specific scope, identifier used to denote an access grant with specific scope,
duration, and other attributes. Tokens are issued to third-party duration, and other attributes. Tokens are issued to third-party
clients by an authorization server with the approval of the resource clients by an authorization server with the approval of the resource
owner. OAuth defines multiple flows for obtaining a token to support owner. OAuth defines multiple flows for obtaining a token to support
a wide range of client types and user experience. a wide range of client types and user experience.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.3. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.4. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.4. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.5. Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.5. Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Obtaining an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3. Obtaining an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1. Authorization Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1. Authorization Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2. Token Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2. Token Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.1. Response Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2.1. Response Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3. Flow Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.3. Flow Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.4. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.4. Client Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.5. User-Agent Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.5. User-Agent Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.5.1. Client Requests Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.5.1. Client Requests Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.5.2. Client Extracts Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.5.2. Client Extracts Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.6. Web Server Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.6. Web Server Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.6.1. Client Requests Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.6.1. Client Requests Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.6.2. Client Requests Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.6.2. Client Requests Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.7. Device Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.7. Device Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.7.1. Client Requests Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.7.1. Client Requests Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.7.2. Client Requests Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.7.2. Client Requests Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4. Username and Password Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.8. Username and Password Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.1. Client Requests Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.8.1. Client Requests Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5. Client Credentials Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.9. Client Credentials Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.1. Client Requests Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.9.1. Client Requests Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6. Assertion Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.10. Assertion Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
6.1. Client Requests Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.10.1. Client Requests Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7. Refreshing an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4. Refreshing an Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8. Accessing a Protected Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 5. Accessing a Protected Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.1. The Authorization Request Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 5.1. The Authorization Request Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.2. Bearer Token Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5.2. Bearer Token Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.2.1. URI Query Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5.2.1. URI Query Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.2.2. Form-Encoded Body Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5.2.2. Form-Encoded Body Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.3. Cryptographic Tokens Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 5.3. Cryptographic Tokens Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.3.1. The 'hmac-sha256' Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 5.3.1. The 'hmac-sha256' Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9. Identifying a Protected Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 6. Identifying a Protected Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
9.1. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header . . . . . . . . . . . 46 6.1. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header . . . . . . . . . . . 46
9.1.1. The 'realm' Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 6.1.1. The 'realm' Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
9.1.2. The 'authorization-uri' Attribute . . . . . . . . . . 46 6.1.2. The 'authorization-uri' Attribute . . . . . . . . . . 47
9.1.3. The 'algorithms' Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 6.1.3. The 'algorithms' Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
9.1.4. The 'error' Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 6.1.4. The 'error' Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Appendix A. Differences from OAuth 1.0a . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Appendix A. Differences from OAuth 1.0a . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Appendix B. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Appendix B. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
1. Authors 1. Authors
This specification was authored with the participation and based on This specification was authored with the participation and based on
the work of Allen Tom (Yahoo!), Brian Eaton (Google), Brent Goldman the work of Allen Tom (Yahoo!), Brian Eaton (Google), Brent Goldman
(Facebook), Luke Shepard (Facebook), Raffi Krikorian (Twitter), and (Facebook), Luke Shepard (Facebook), Raffi Krikorian (Twitter), and
Yaron Goland (Microsoft). Yaron Goland (Microsoft).
2. Introduction 2. Introduction
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For example, a web user (resource owner) can grant a printing service For example, a web user (resource owner) can grant a printing service
(client) access to her protected photos stored at a photo sharing (client) access to her protected photos stored at a photo sharing
service (resource server), without sharing her username and password service (resource server), without sharing her username and password
with the printing service. Instead, she authenticates directly with with the printing service. Instead, she authenticates directly with
the photo sharing service (authorization server) which issues the the photo sharing service (authorization server) which issues the
printing service delegation-specific credentials (token). printing service delegation-specific credentials (token).
This specification defines the use of OAuth over HTTP [RFC2616] (or This specification defines the use of OAuth over HTTP [RFC2616] (or
HTTP over TLS 1.0 as defined by [RFC2818]. Other specifications may HTTP over TLS 1.0 as defined by [RFC2818]. Other specifications may
extend it for use with other tranport protocols. extend it for use with other transport protocols.
2.1. Terminology 2.1. Terminology
resource server resource server
An HTTP [RFC2616] server capable of accepting authenticated An HTTP [RFC2616] server capable of accepting authenticated
resource requests using the OAuth protocol. resource requests using the OAuth protocol.
protected resource protected resource
An access-restricted resource which can be obtained from a An access-restricted resource which can be obtained from a
resource server using an OAuth-authenticated request. resource server using an OAuth-authenticated request.
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| | HTTP Request +---------------+ | | HTTP Request +---------------+
| |--(C)--- with Access Token ------>| Resource | | |--(C)--- with Access Token ------>| Resource |
| | | Server | | | | Server |
| |<-(D)----- HTTP Response ---------| | | |<-(D)----- HTTP Response ---------| |
+--------+ +---------------+ +--------+ +---------------+
Figure 2 Figure 2
This specification defines a number of authorization flows to support This specification defines a number of authorization flows to support
different client types and scenarios. These authorization flows can different client types and scenarios. These authorization flows can
be separated into three groups: user delegation flows, end-user be separated into three groups: user delegation flows, direct
credentials flows, and autonomous flows. credentials flows, and autonomous flows.
Additional authorization flows may be defined by other specifications Additional authorization flows may be defined by other specifications
to cover different scenarios and client types. to cover different scenarios and client types.
User delegation flows are used to grant client access to protected User delegation flows are used to grant client access to protected
resources by the end-user without sharing the end-user credentials resources by the end-user without sharing the end-user credentials
(e.g. a username and password) with the client. Instead, the end- (e.g. a username and password) with the client. Instead, the end-
user authenticates directly with the authorization server, and grants user authenticates directly with the authorization server, and grants
client access to its protected resources. The user delegation flows client access to its protected resources. The user delegation flows
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o Web Server Flow - This flow is optimized for clients that are part o Web Server Flow - This flow is optimized for clients that are part
of a web server application, accessible via HTTP requests. This of a web server application, accessible via HTTP requests. This
flow is described in Section 3.6. flow is described in Section 3.6.
o Device Flow - This flow is suitable for clients executing on o Device Flow - This flow is suitable for clients executing on
limited devices, but where the end-user has separate access to a limited devices, but where the end-user has separate access to a
user-agent on another computer or device. This flow is described user-agent on another computer or device. This flow is described
in Section 3.7. in Section 3.7.
End-user credentials flow enable clients with direct access to the Direct credentials flows enable clients to obtain an access token
end-user's credentials to exchange them for an access token without with a single request using the client credentials or end-user
seeking additional authorization. These flows are only suitable when credentials without seeking additional resource owner authorization.
there is a high degree of trust between the end-user and the client. The direct credentials flows defined by this specification are:
The end-user credentials flow defined by this specification is:
o Username and Password Flow - This flow is used in cases where the o Username and Password Flow - This flow is used in cases where the
end-user trusts the client to handle its credentials but it is end-user trusts the client to handle its credentials but it is
still undesirable for the client to store the end-user's username still undesirable for the client to store the end-user's username
and password. This flow is described in Section 4. and password. This flow is only suitable when there is a high
degree of trust between the end-user and the client. This flow is
Autonomous flows enable clients to act for their own behalf (the described in Section 3.8.
client is also the resource owner). The autonomous authorization
flows defined by this specifications are:
o Client Credentials Flow - The client uses its credentials to o Client Credentials Flow - The client uses its credentials to
obtain an access token. This flow is described in Section 5. obtain an access token. This flow is described in Section 3.9.
Autonomous flows enable clients to use utilize existing trust
relationships or different authorization constructs to obtain an
access token. They provide a bridge between OAuth and other trust
frameworks. The autonomous authorization flow defined by this
specifications is:
o Assertion Flow - The client presents an assertion such as a SAML o Assertion Flow - The client presents an assertion such as a SAML
[OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] assertion to the authorization server in [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] assertion to the authorization server in
exchange for an access token. This flow is described in exchange for an access token. This flow is described in
Section 6. Section 3.10.
2.3. Example 2.3. Example
[[ Todo ]] [[ Todo ]]
2.4. Notational Conventions 2.4. Notational Conventions
The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL NOT', The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL NOT',
'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
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the resource server when receiving a protected resource request, and the resource server when receiving a protected resource request, and
by the authorization server when receiving a token refresh request. by the authorization server when receiving a token refresh request.
In many cases it is desirable to issue access tokens with a shorter In many cases it is desirable to issue access tokens with a shorter
lifetime than the duration of the authorization grant. However, it lifetime than the duration of the authorization grant. However, it
may be undesirable to require the resource owner to authorize the may be undesirable to require the resource owner to authorize the
request again. Instead, the authorization server issues a refresh request again. Instead, the authorization server issues a refresh
token in addition to the access token. When the access token token in addition to the access token. When the access token
expires, the client can request a new access token without involving expires, the client can request a new access token without involving
the resource owner as long as the authorization grant is still valid. the resource owner as long as the authorization grant is still valid.
The token refresh method is described in Section 7. The token refresh method is described in Section 4.
3.1. Authorization Endpoint 3.1. Authorization Endpoint
Clients direct the resource owner to the authorization endpoint to Clients direct the resource owner to the authorization endpoint to
approve their access request. Before granting access, the resource approve their access request. Before granting access, the resource
owner first authenticates with the authorization server. The way in owner first authenticates with the authorization server. The way in
which the authorization server authenticates the end-user (e.g. which the authorization server authenticates the end-user (e.g.
username and password login, OpenID, session cookies) and in which username and password login, OpenID, session cookies) and in which
the authorization server obtains the end-user's authorization, the authorization server obtains the end-user's authorization,
including whether it uses a secure channel such as TLS/SSL, is beyond including whether it uses a secure channel such as TLS/SSL, is beyond
the scope of this specification. However, the authorization server the scope of this specification. However, the authorization server
MUST first verify the identity of the end-user. MUST first verify the identity of the end-user.
The URI of the authorization endpoint can be found in the service The URI of the authorization endpoint can be found in the service
documentation, or can be obtained by the client by making an documentation, or can be obtained by the client by making an
unauthorized protected resource request (from the "WWW-Authenticate" unauthorized protected resource request (from the "WWW-Authenticate"
response header auth-uri (Section 9.1.2) attribute). response header auth-uri (Section 6.1.2) attribute).
The authorization endpoint advertised by the resource server MAY The authorization endpoint advertised by the resource server MAY
include a query component as defined by [RFC3986] section 3. include a query component as defined by [RFC3986] section 3.
Since requests to the authorization endpoint result in user Since requests to the authorization endpoint result in user
authentication and the transmission of sensitive values, the authentication and the transmission of sensitive values, the
authorization server SHOULD require the use of a transport-layer authorization server SHOULD require the use of a transport-layer
mechanism such as TLS/SSL (or a secure channel with equivalent mechanism such as TLS/SSL (or a secure channel with equivalent
protections) when sending requests to the authorization endpoints. protections) when sending requests to the authorization endpoints.
3.2. Token Endpoint 3.2. Token Endpoint
After obtaining authorization from the resource owner, clients After obtaining authorization from the resource owner, clients
request an access token from the authorization server's token request an access token from the authorization server's token
endpoint. endpoint.
The URI of the token endpoint can be found in the service The URI of the token endpoint can be found in the service
documentation, or can be obtained by the client by making an documentation, or can be obtained by the client by making an
unauthorized protected resource request (from the "WWW-Authenticate" unauthorized protected resource request (from the "WWW-Authenticate"
response header token-uri (Section 9.1.2) attribute). response header token-uri (Section 6.1.2) attribute).
The token endpoint advertised by the resource server MAY include a The token endpoint advertised by the resource server MAY include a
query component as defined by [RFC3986] section 3. query component as defined by [RFC3986] section 3.
Since requests to the token endpoint result in the transmission of Since requests to the token endpoint result in the transmission of
plain text credentials in the HTTP request and response, the plain text credentials in the HTTP request and response, the
authorization server MUST require the use of a transport-layer authorization server MUST require the use of a transport-layer
mechanism such as TLS/SSL (or a secure channel with equivalent mechanism such as TLS/SSL (or a secure channel with equivalent
protections) when sending requests to the token endpoints. protections) when sending requests to the token endpoints.
3.2.1. Response Format 3.2.1. Response Format
Authorization servers respond to client requests by including a set Authorization servers respond to client requests by including a set
of response parameters in the entity body of the HTTP response. The of response parameters in the entity body of the HTTP response. The
response uses the "application/json" media type as defined by response uses the "application/json" media type as defined by
[RFC4627]. [RFC4627].
The parameters are serialized into a JSON structure by adding each The parameters are serialized into a JSON structure by adding each
parameter at the highest strucutre level. Parameter names and string parameter at the highest structure level. Parameter names and string
values are included as JSON strings. Numerical number are included values are included as JSON strings. Numerical number are included
as JSON numbers. as JSON numbers.
The authorization server MUST include the HTTP "Cache-Control" The authorization server MUST include the HTTP "Cache-Control"
response header field with a value of "no-store" in any response response header field with a value of "no-store" in any response
containing tokens, secrets, or other sensitive information. containing tokens, secrets, or other sensitive information.
3.2.1.1. Access Token Response 3.2.1.1. Access Token Response
After recieving and verifying a valid and authorized access token After receiving and verifying a valid and authorized access token
request from the client (as described in each of the flows below), request from the client (as described in each of the flows below),
the authorization server constructs a JSON-formatted response which the authorization server constructs a JSON-formatted response which
includes the common parameters set as well as additional flow- includes the common parameters set as well as additional flow-
specific parameters. The formatted parameters are sent to the client specific parameters. The formatted parameters are sent to the client
in the entity body of the HTTP response with a 200 status code (OK). in the entity body of the HTTP response with a 200 status code (OK).
The token response contains the following common parameters: The token response contains the following common parameters:
access_token access_token
REQUIRED. The access token issued by the authorization server. REQUIRED. The access token issued by the authorization server.
expires_in expires_in
OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the access token
lifetime. lifetime.
refresh_token refresh_token
OPTIONAL. The refresh token used to obtain new access tokens OPTIONAL. The refresh token used to obtain new access tokens
using the same end-user access grant as described in Section 7. using the same end-user access grant as described in Section 4.
access_token_secret access_token_secret
REQUIRED if requested by the client. The corresponding access REQUIRED if requested by the client. The corresponding access
token secret as requested by the client. token secret as requested by the client.
scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access token as a list of space-
delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter is
defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
and each string adds an additional access range to the
requested scope.
For example (line breaks are for display purposes only): For example (line breaks are for display purposes only):
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG","expires_in":3600, {"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG","expires_in":3600,
"refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8"} "refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8"}
3.2.1.2. Error Response 3.2.1.2. Error Response
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server, are left undefined by this specification. Clients should server, are left undefined by this specification. Clients should
avoid making assumptions about value sizes. Servers should document avoid making assumptions about value sizes. Servers should document
the expected size of any value they issue. the expected size of any value they issue.
Unless otherwise noted, all the protocol parameter names and values Unless otherwise noted, all the protocol parameter names and values
are case sensitive. are case sensitive.
3.4. Client Credentials 3.4. Client Credentials
When requesting access from the authorization server, the client When requesting access from the authorization server, the client
identifies itself using its authorization-server-issued client identifies itself using a set of client credentials. The client
credentials. The client credentials include a client identifier and credentials include a client identifier and an OPTIONAL symmetric
an OPTIONAL symmetric shared secret. The means through which the shared secret. The means through which the client obtains these
client obtains these credentials are beyond the scope of this credentials are beyond the scope of this specification, but usually
specification, but usually involve registration with the involve registration with the authorization server.
authorization server.
The client identifier is used by the authorization server to The client identifier is used by the authorization server to
establish the identity of the client for the purpose of presenting establish the identity of the client for the purpose of presenting
information to the resource owner prior to granting access, as well information to the resource owner prior to granting access, as well
as for providing different service levels to different clients. They as for providing different service levels to different clients. They
can also be used to block unauthorized clients from requesting can also be used to block unauthorized clients from requesting
access. access.
Due to the nature of some clients, authorization servers SHOULD NOT Due to the nature of some clients, authorization servers SHOULD NOT
make assumptions about the confidentiality of client credentials make assumptions about the confidentiality of client credentials
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OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state
between the request and callback. The authorization server between the request and callback. The authorization server
includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the
client. client.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter
is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter, multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
and each string adds additional access range to the requested and each string adds an additional access range to the
scope. requested scope.
immediate immediate
OPTIONAL. The parameter value must be set to "true" or OPTIONAL. The parameter value must be set to "true" or
"false". If set to "true", the authorization server MUST NOT "false". If set to "true", the authorization server MUST NOT
prompt the end-user to authenticate or approve access. prompt the end-user to authenticate or approve access.
Instead, the authorization server attempts to establish the Instead, the authorization server attempts to establish the
end-user's identity via other means (e.g. browser cookies) and end-user's identity via other means (e.g. browser cookies) and
checks if the end-user has previously approved an identical checks if the end-user has previously approved an identical
access request by the same client and if that access grant is access request by the same client and if that access grant is
still active. If the authorization server does not support an still active. If the authorization server does not support an
immediate check or if it is unable to establish the end-user's immediate check or if it is unable to establish the end-user's
identity or approval status, it MUST deny the request without identity or approval status, it MUST deny the request without
prompting the end-user. Defaults to "false" if omitted. prompting the end-user. Defaults to "false" if omitted.
secret_type secret_type
skipping to change at page 15, line 16 skipping to change at page 15, line 28
end-user's identity via other means (e.g. browser cookies) and end-user's identity via other means (e.g. browser cookies) and
checks if the end-user has previously approved an identical checks if the end-user has previously approved an identical
access request by the same client and if that access grant is access request by the same client and if that access grant is
still active. If the authorization server does not support an still active. If the authorization server does not support an
immediate check or if it is unable to establish the end-user's immediate check or if it is unable to establish the end-user's
identity or approval status, it MUST deny the request without identity or approval status, it MUST deny the request without
prompting the end-user. Defaults to "false" if omitted. prompting the end-user. Defaults to "false" if omitted.
secret_type secret_type
OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by
Section 8.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a Section 5.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a
bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as
described by Section 8.2. described by Section 5.2.
The client directs the end-user to the constructed URI using an HTTP The client directs the end-user to the constructed URI using an HTTP
redirection response, or by other means available to it via the end- redirection response, or by other means available to it via the end-
user's user-agent. The request MUST use the HTTP "GET" method. user's user-agent. The request MUST use the HTTP "GET" method.
For example, the client directs the end-user's user-agent to make the For example, the client directs the end-user's user-agent to make the
following HTTPS request (line breaks are for display purposes only): following HTTPS request (line breaks are for display purposes only):
GET /authorize?type=user_agent&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& GET /authorize?type=user_agent&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2FEexample%2Ecom%2Frd HTTP/1.1 redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2FEexample%2Ecom%2Frd HTTP/1.1
skipping to change at page 19, line 42 skipping to change at page 19, line 42
OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state OPTIONAL. An opaque value used by the client to maintain state
between the request and callback. The authorization server between the request and callback. The authorization server
includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the includes this value when redirecting the user-agent back to the
client. client.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter
is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter, multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
and each string adds additional access range to the requested and each string adds an additional access range to the
scope. requested scope.
immediate immediate
OPTIONAL. The parameter value must be set to "true" or OPTIONAL. The parameter value must be set to "true" or
"false". If set to "true", the authorization server MUST NOT "false". If set to "true", the authorization server MUST NOT
prompt the end-user to authenticate or approve access. prompt the end-user to authenticate or approve access.
Instead, the authorization server attempts to establish the Instead, the authorization server attempts to establish the
end-user's identity via other means (e.g. browser cookies) and end-user's identity via other means (e.g. browser cookies) and
checks if the end-user has previously approved an identical checks if the end-user has previously approved an identical
access request by the same client and if that access grant is access request by the same client and if that access grant is
still active. If the authorization server does not support an still active. If the authorization server does not support an
skipping to change at page 22, line 24 skipping to change at page 22, line 24
code code
REQUIRED. The verification code received from the REQUIRED. The verification code received from the
authorization server. authorization server.
redirect_uri redirect_uri
REQUIRED. The redirection URI used in the initial request. REQUIRED. The redirection URI used in the initial request.
secret_type secret_type
OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by
Section 8.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a Section 5.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a
bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as
described by Section 8.2. described by Section 5.2.
For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line
breaks are for display purposes only): breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
type=web_server&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3& type=web_server&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&
client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1& client_secret=gX1fBat3bV&code=i1WsRn1uB1&
skipping to change at page 23, line 38 skipping to change at page 23, line 38
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{"error":"incorrect_client_credentials"} {"error":"incorrect_client_credentials"}
3.7. Device Flow 3.7. Device Flow
The device flow is a user delegation flow suitable for clients The device flow is a user delegation flow suitable for clients
executing on devices which do not have an easy data-entry method executing on devices which do not have an easy data-entry method
(e.g. game consoles or media hub), but where the end-user has (e.g. game consoles or media hub), but where the end-user has
separate access to a user-agent on another computer or device (e.g. separate access to a user-agent on another computer or device (e.g.
home computer, a laptop, or a smartphone). The client is incapable home computer, a laptop, or a smart phone). The client is incapable
of receiving incoming requests from the authorization server of receiving incoming requests from the authorization server
(incapable of acting as an HTTP server). (incapable of acting as an HTTP server).
Instead of interacting with the end-user's user-agent, the client Instead of interacting with the end-user's user-agent, the client
instructs the end-user to use another computer or device and connect instructs the end-user to use another computer or device and connect
to the authorization server to approve the access request. Since the to the authorization server to approve the access request. Since the
client cannot receive incoming requests, it polls the authorization client cannot receive incoming requests, it polls the authorization
server repeatedly until the end-user completes the approval process. server repeatedly until the end-user completes the approval process.
This device flow does not utilize the client secret since the client This device flow does not utilize the client secret since the client
skipping to change at page 25, line 7 skipping to change at page 25, line 7
(B) The authorization server issues a verification code, a user (B) The authorization server issues a verification code, a user
code, and provides the end-user authorization URI. code, and provides the end-user authorization URI.
(C) The client instructs the end-user to use its user-agent (C) The client instructs the end-user to use its user-agent
(elsewhere) and visit the provided authorization URI. The (elsewhere) and visit the provided authorization URI. The
client provides the user with the user code to enter in order to client provides the user with the user code to enter in order to
grant access. grant access.
(D) The authorization server authenticates the end-user (via the (D) The authorization server authenticates the end-user (via the
user-agent) and prompts the end-user to grant the client's user-agent) and prompts the end-user to grant the client's
access request by entering the user code provided by the client. access request. If the end-user agrees to the client's access
request, the end-user enters the user code provided by the
client.
(E) While the end-user authorizes (or denies) the client's request (E) While the end-user authorizes (or denies) the client's request
(D), the client repeatedly polls the authorization server to (D), the client repeatedly polls the authorization server to
find out if the end-user completed the user authorization step. find out if the end-user completed the user authorization step.
The client includes the verification code and its client The client includes the verification code and its client
identifier. identifier.
(F) Assuming the end-user granted access, the authorization server (F) Assuming the end-user granted access, the authorization server
validates the verification code provided by the client and validates the verification code provided by the client and
responds back with the access token. responds back with the access token.
3.7.1. Client Requests Authorization 3.7.1. Client Requests Authorization
The client initiates the flow by requesting a set of verification The client initiates the flow by requesting a set of verification
codes from the authorization server by making an HTTP "GET" request codes from the authorization server by making an HTTP "POST" request
to the token endpoint. The client constructs a request URI by adding to the token endpoint. The client constructs a request URI by adding
the following parameters to the request: the following parameters to the request:
type type
REQUIRED. The parameter value MUST be set to "device_code". REQUIRED. The parameter value MUST be set to "device_code".
client_id client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.4. REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.4.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter
is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter, multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
and each string adds additional access range to the requested and each string adds an additional access range to the
scope. requested scope.
For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line
breaks are for display purposes only): breaks are for display purposes only):
GET /token?type=device_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3 POST /token?type=device_code&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3
HTTP/1.1 HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
In response, the authorization server generates a verification code In response, the authorization server generates a verification code
and a user code and includes them in the HTTP response body using the and a user code and includes them in the HTTP response body using the
"application/json" format as desribed by Section 3.2.1 with a 200 "application/json" format as described by Section 3.2.1 with a 200
status code (OK). The response contains the following parameters: status code (OK). The response contains the following parameters:
code code
REQUIRED. The verification code. REQUIRED. The verification code.
user_code user_code
REQUIRED. The user code. REQUIRED. The user code.
user_uri user_uri
REQUIRED. The user authorization URI on the authorization REQUIRED. The user authorization URI on the authorization
server. server. The URI should be short and easy to remember as end-
users will be asked to manually type it into their user-agent.
expires_in expires_in
OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the verification code OPTIONAL. The duration in seconds of the verification code
lifetime. lifetime.
interval interval
OPTIONAL. The minimum amount of time in seconds that the OPTIONAL. The minimum amount of time in seconds that the
client SHOULD wait between polling requests to the token client SHOULD wait between polling requests to the token
endpoint. endpoint.
skipping to change at page 27, line 11 skipping to change at page 27, line 18
authorization server, it polls the authorization server repeatedly authorization server, it polls the authorization server repeatedly
until the end-user grants or denies the request, or the verification until the end-user grants or denies the request, or the verification
code expires. code expires.
The client makes the following request at an arbitrary but reasonable The client makes the following request at an arbitrary but reasonable
interval which MUST NOT exceed the minimum interval rate provided by interval which MUST NOT exceed the minimum interval rate provided by
the authorization server (if present via the "interval" parameter). the authorization server (if present via the "interval" parameter).
Alternatively, the client MAY provide a user interface for the end- Alternatively, the client MAY provide a user interface for the end-
user to manually inform it when authorization was granted. user to manually inform it when authorization was granted.
The client requests an access token by making an HTTP "GET" request The client requests an access token by making an HTTP "POST" request
to the token endpoint. The client constructs a request URI by adding to the token endpoint. The client constructs a request URI by adding
the following parameters to the request: the following parameters to the request:
type type
REQUIRED. The parameter value MUST be set to "device_token". REQUIRED. The parameter value MUST be set to "device_token".
client_id client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.4. REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.4.
code code
The verification code received from the authorization server. The verification code received from the authorization server.
secret_type secret_type
OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by
Section 8.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a Section 5.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a
bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as
described by Section 8.2. described by Section 5.2.
For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line
breaks are for display purposes only): breaks are for display purposes only):
GET /token?type=device_token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3 POST /token?type=device_token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3
&code=J2vC42OifV HTTP/1.1 &code=J2vC42OifV HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
If the end-user authorized the request, the authorization server If the end-user authorized the request, the authorization server
issues an access token response as described in Section 3.2.1.1. issues an access token response as described in Section 3.2.1.1.
For example (line breaks are for display purposes only): For example (line breaks are for display purposes only):
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
skipping to change at page 28, line 32 skipping to change at page 29, line 4
any response from the end-user, or the client is exceeding the any response from the end-user, or the client is exceeding the
allowed polling interval, the authorization server returns an error allowed polling interval, the authorization server returns an error
response as described in Section 3.2.1.2 with one of the following response as described in Section 3.2.1.2 with one of the following
error codes: error codes:
o "'authorization_pending" o "'authorization_pending"
o "slow_down" o "slow_down"
o "code_expired" o "code_expired"
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{"error":"authorization_pending"} {"error":"authorization_pending"}
4. Username and Password Flow 3.8. Username and Password Flow
The username and password flow is an end-user credentials flow The username and password flow is suitable for clients capable of
suitable for clients capable of asking end users for their usernames asking end-users for their usernames and passwords. It is also used
and passwords. It is also used to migrate existing clients using to migrate existing clients using direct authentication schemes such
direct authentication schemes such as HTTP Basic or Digest as HTTP Basic or Digest authentication to OAuth by converting the
authentication to OAuth by converting the end-user credentials stored end-user credentials stored with tokens.
with tokens.
However, unlike the HTTP Basic authentication scheme defined in However, unlike the HTTP Basic authentication scheme defined in
[RFC2617], the end-user's credentials are used in a single request [RFC2617], the end-user's credentials are used in a single request
and are exchanged for an access token and refresh token which and are exchanged for an access token and refresh token which
eliminates the client need to store them for future use. eliminates the client need to store them for future use.
The methods through which the client prompts end users for their The methods through which the client prompts end users for their
usernames and passwords is beyond the scope of this specification. usernames and passwords is beyond the scope of this specification.
The client MUST discard the usernames and passwords once an access The client MUST discard the usernames and passwords once an access
token has been obtained. token has been obtained.
skipping to change at page 30, line 8 skipping to change at page 30, line 18
(A) The end-user provides the client with its username and password. (A) The end-user provides the client with its username and password.
(B) The client sends an access token request to the authorization (B) The client sends an access token request to the authorization
server and includes its client identifier and client secret, and server and includes its client identifier and client secret, and
the end-user's username and password. the end-user's username and password.
(C) The authorization server validates the end-user credentials and (C) The authorization server validates the end-user credentials and
the client credentials and issues an access token. the client credentials and issues an access token.
4.1. Client Requests Access Token 3.8.1. Client Requests Access Token
The client requests an access token by making an HTTP "POST" request The client requests an access token by making an HTTP "POST" request
to the token endpoint. The client constructs a request URI by adding to the token endpoint. The client constructs a request URI by adding
the following parameters to the request: the following parameters to the request:
type type
REQUIRED. The parameter value MUST be set to "username". REQUIRED. The parameter value MUST be set to "username".
client_id client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.4. REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.4.
skipping to change at page 30, line 35 skipping to change at page 30, line 45
REQUIRED. The end-user's username. REQUIRED. The end-user's username.
password password
REQUIRED. The end-user's password. REQUIRED. The end-user's password.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter
is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter, multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
and each string adds additional access range to the requested and each string adds an additional access range to the
scope. requested scope.
secret_type secret_type
OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by
Section 8.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a Section 5.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a
bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as
described by Section 8.2. described by Section 5.2.
For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line
breaks are for display purposes only): breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
type=username&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&client_secret= type=username&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&client_secret=
47HDu8s&username=johndoe&password=A3ddj3w 47HDu8s&username=johndoe&password=A3ddj3w
skipping to change at page 31, line 35 skipping to change at page 32, line 5
flow. flow.
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{"error":"incorrect_client_credentials"} {"error":"incorrect_client_credentials"}
5. Client Credentials Flow 3.9. Client Credentials Flow
The client credentials flow is used when the client acts autonomously The client credentials flow is used when the client acts on behalf of
without acting on behalf of a separate resource owner. The client itself (the client is the resource owner), or when the client
secret is assumed to be high-entropy since it is not designed to be credentials are used to obtain an access token representing a
memorized by an end-user. previously established access authorization. The client secret is
assumed to be high-entropy since it is not designed to be memorized
by an end-user.
+--------+ +---------------+ +--------+ +---------------+
| | | | | | | |
| |>--(A)--- Client Credentials ---->| Authorization | | |>--(A)--- Client Credentials ---->| Authorization |
| Client | | Server | | Client | | Server |
| |<--(B)---- Access Token ---------<| | | |<--(B)---- Access Token ---------<| |
| | (w/ Optional Refresh Token) | | | | (w/ Optional Refresh Token) | |
+--------+ +---------------+ +--------+ +---------------+
Figure 7 Figure 7
The client credential flow illustrated in Figure 7 includes the The client credential flow illustrated in Figure 7 includes the
following steps: following steps:
(A) The client sends an access token request to the authorization (A) The client sends an access token request to the authorization
server and includes its client identifier and client secret. server and includes its client identifier and client secret.
(B) The authorization server validates the client credentials and (B) The authorization server validates the client credentials and
issues an access token. issues an access token.
5.1. Client Requests Access Token 3.9.1. Client Requests Access Token
The client requests an access token by making an HTTP "POST" request The client requests an access token by making an HTTP "POST" request
to the token endpoint. The client constructs a request URI by adding to the token endpoint. The client constructs a request URI by adding
the following parameters to the request: the following parameters to the request:
type type
REQUIRED. The parameter value MUST be set to REQUIRED. The parameter value MUST be set to
"client_credentials". "client_credentials".
client_id client_id
REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.4. REQUIRED. The client identifier as described in Section 3.4.
client_secret client_secret
REQUIRED. The client secret as described in Section 3.4. REQUIRED. The client secret as described in Section 3.4.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter
is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter, multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
and each string adds additional access range to the requested and each string adds an additional access range to the
scope. requested scope.
secret_type secret_type
OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by
Section 8.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a Section 5.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a
bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as
described by Section 8.2. described by Section 5.2.
For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line
breaks are for display purposes only): breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
type=client_credentials&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&client_secret=47HDu8s type=client_credentials&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&client_secret=47HDu8s
The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials and if The authorization server MUST validate the client credentials and if
skipping to change at page 33, line 32 skipping to change at page 34, line 4
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG","expires_in":3600, {"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG","expires_in":3600,
"refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8"} "refresh_token":"8xLOxBtZp8"}
If the request is invalid, the authorization server returns an error If the request is invalid, the authorization server returns an error
response as described in Section 3.2.1.2 with one of the following response as described in Section 3.2.1.2 with one of the following
error codes: error codes:
o "incorrect_client_credentials" o "incorrect_client_credentials"
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{"error":"incorrect_client_credentials"} {"error":"incorrect_client_credentials"}
6. Assertion Flow 3.10. Assertion Flow
The assertion flow is used when a client wishes to exchange an The assertion flow is used when a client wishes to exchange an
existing security token or assertion for an access token. This flow existing security token or assertion for an access token. This flow
is suitable when the client is acting autonomously or on behalf of is suitable when the client is the resource owner or is acting on
the end-user (based on the content of the assertion used). behalf of the resource owner (based on the content of the assertion
used).
The assertion flow requires the client to obtain a assertion (such as The assertion flow requires the client to obtain a assertion (such as
a SAML [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] assertion) from an assertion issuer a SAML [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] assertion) from an assertion issuer
or to self-issue an assertion prior to initiating the flow. The or to self-issue an assertion prior to initiating the flow. The
assertion format, the process by which the assertion is obtained, and assertion format, the process by which the assertion is obtained, and
the method of validating the assertion are defined by the assertion the method of validating the assertion are defined by the assertion
issuer and the authorization server, and are beyond the scope of this issuer and the authorization server, and are beyond the scope of this
specification. specification.
+--------+ +---------------+ +--------+ +---------------+
skipping to change at page 34, line 34 skipping to change at page 35, line 5
The assertion flow illustrated in Figure 8 includes the following The assertion flow illustrated in Figure 8 includes the following
steps: steps:
(A) The client sends an access token request to the authorization (A) The client sends an access token request to the authorization
server and includes an assertion. server and includes an assertion.
(B) The authorization server validates the assertion and issues an (B) The authorization server validates the assertion and issues an
access token. access token.
6.1. Client Requests Access Token 3.10.1. Client Requests Access Token
The client requests an access token by making an HTTP "POST" request The client requests an access token by making an HTTP "POST" request
to the token endpoint. The client constructs a request URI by adding to the token endpoint. The client constructs a request URI by adding
the following parameters to the request: the following parameters to the request:
type type
REQUIRED. The parameter value MUST be set to "assertion". REQUIRED. The parameter value MUST be set to "assertion".
format format
REQUIRED. The format of the assertion as defined by the REQUIRED. The format of the assertion as defined by the
authorization server. The value MUST be an absolute URI. authorization server. The value MUST be an absolute URI.
assertion assertion
REQUIRED. The assertion. REQUIRED. The assertion.
scope scope
OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list OPTIONAL. The scope of the access request expressed as a list
of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter of space-delimited strings. The value of the "scope" parameter
is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains is defined by the authorization server. If the value contains
multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter, multiple space-delimited strings, their order does not matter,
and each string adds additional access range to the requested and each string adds an additional access range to the
scope. requested scope.
secret_type secret_type
OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by
Section 8.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a Section 5.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a
bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as
described by Section 8.2. described by Section 5.2.
For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line
breaks are for display purposes only): breaks are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
type=assertion&format=_______&assertion=_______ type=assertion&format=_______&assertion=_______
The authorization server MUST validate the assertion and if valid The authorization server MUST validate the assertion and if valid
skipping to change at page 36, line 19 skipping to change at page 36, line 34
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{"error":"invalid_assertion"} {"error":"invalid_assertion"}
Authorization servers SHOULD issue access tokens with a limited Authorization servers SHOULD issue access tokens with a limited
lifetime and require clients to refresh them by requesting a new lifetime and require clients to refresh them by requesting a new
access token using the same assertion if it is still valid. access token using the same assertion if it is still valid.
Otherwise the client MUST obtain a new valid assertion. Otherwise the client MUST obtain a new valid assertion.
7. Refreshing an Access Token 4. Refreshing an Access Token
Token refresh is used when the lifetime of an access token is shorter Token refresh is used when the lifetime of an access token is shorter
than the lifetime of the authorization grant. It allows clients to than the lifetime of the authorization grant. It allows clients to
obtain a new access token without having to go through the obtain a new access token without having to go through the
authorization flow again or involve the resource owner. It is also authorization flow again or involve the resource owner. It is also
used to obtain a new token with different security properties (e.g. used to obtain a new token with different security properties (e.g.
bearer token, token with shared symmetric secret). bearer token, token with shared symmetric secret).
+--------+ Client Credentials, +---------------+ +--------+ Client Credentials, +---------------+
| | Refresh Token, | | | | Refresh Token, | |
skipping to change at page 37, line 17 skipping to change at page 37, line 35
client_secret client_secret
REQUIRED if the client was issued a secret. The client secret. REQUIRED if the client was issued a secret. The client secret.
refresh_token refresh_token
REQUIRED. The refresh token associated with the access token REQUIRED. The refresh token associated with the access token
to be refreshed. to be refreshed.
secret_type secret_type
OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by OPTIONAL. The access token secret type as described by
Section 8.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a Section 5.3. If omitted, the authorization server will issue a
bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as bearer token (an access token without a matching secret) as
described by Section 8.2. described by Section 5.2.
For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line break For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request (line break
are for display purposes only): are for display purposes only):
POST /token HTTP/1.1 POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
type=refresh_token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&client_secret=8eSEIpnqmM type=refresh_token&client_id=s6BhdRkqt3&client_secret=8eSEIpnqmM
&refresh_token=n4E9O119d&secret_type=hmac-sha256 &refresh_token=n4E9O119d&secret_type=hmac-sha256
verify the client credential, the validity of the refresh token, and verify the client credential, the validity of the refresh token, and
that the resource owner's authorization is still valid. If the that the resource owner's authorization is still valid. If the
request is valid, the authorization server issues an access token request is valid, the authorization server issues an access token
response as described in Section 3.2.1.1. The authorization server response as described in Section 3.2.1.1. The authorization server
MAY issue a new token. MAY issue a new refresh token in which case the client MUST NOT use
the previous refresh token and replace it with the newly issued
refresh token.
For example (line breaks are for display purposes only): For example (line breaks are for display purposes only):
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG","expires_in":3600} {"access_token":"SlAV32hkKG","expires_in":3600}
If the request is invalid, the authorization server returns an error If the request is invalid, the authorization server returns an error
skipping to change at page 38, line 19 skipping to change at page 38, line 37
o "unsupported_secret_type" o "unsupported_secret_type"
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Content-Type: application/json Content-Type: application/json
Cache-Control: no-store Cache-Control: no-store
{"error":"incorrect_client_credentials"} {"error":"incorrect_client_credentials"}
8. Accessing a Protected Resource 5. Accessing a Protected Resource
Clients access protected resources by presenting an access token to Clients access protected resources by presenting an access token to
the resource server. The methods used by the resource server to the resource server. The methods used by the resource server to
validate the access token are beyond the scope of this specification, validate the access token are beyond the scope of this specification,
but generally involve an interaction or coordination between the but generally involve an interaction or coordination between the
resource server and authorization server. resource server and authorization server.
The method in which a client uses an access token depends on the The method in which a client uses an access token depends on the
security properties of the access tokens. By default, access tokens security properties of the access tokens. By default, access tokens
are issued without a matching secret. Clients MAY request an access are issued without a matching secret. Clients MAY request an access
skipping to change at page 39, line 10 skipping to change at page 39, line 31
When an access token includes a matching secret, the secret is not When an access token includes a matching secret, the secret is not
included directly in the request but is used instead to generate a included directly in the request but is used instead to generate a
cryptographic signature of the request. The signature can only be cryptographic signature of the request. The signature can only be
generated and verified by entities with access to the secret. generated and verified by entities with access to the secret.
Clients SHOULD NOT make authenticated requests with an access token Clients SHOULD NOT make authenticated requests with an access token
to unfamiliar resource servers, especially when using bearer tokens, to unfamiliar resource servers, especially when using bearer tokens,
regardless of the presence of a secure channel. regardless of the presence of a secure channel.
8.1. The Authorization Request Header 5.1. The Authorization Request Header
The "Authorization" request header field is used by clients to make The "Authorization" request header field is used by clients to make
both bearer token and cryptographic token requests. When making both bearer token and cryptographic token requests. When making
bearer token requests, the client uses the "token" attribute to bearer token requests, the client uses the "token" attribute to
include the access token in the request without any of the other include the access token in the request without any of the other
attributes. Additional methods for making bearer token requests are attributes. Additional methods for making bearer token requests are
described in Section 8.2. described in Section 5.2.
For example: For example:
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 GET /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Authorization: Token token="vF9dft4qmT" Authorization: Token token="vF9dft4qmT"
When making a cryptographic token request (using an access token with When making a cryptographic token request (using an access token with
a matching secret) the client uses the "token" attribute to include a matching secret) the client uses the "token" attribute to include
the access token in the request, and uses the "nonce", "timestamp", the access token in the request, and uses the "nonce", "timestamp",
skipping to change at page 40, line 23 skipping to change at page 40, line 36
token-id = "token" "=" <"> token <"> token-id = "token" "=" <"> token <">
timestamp = "timestamp" "=" <"> 1*DIGIT <"> timestamp = "timestamp" "=" <"> 1*DIGIT <">
nonce = "nonce" "=" <"> token <"> nonce = "nonce" "=" <"> token <">
algorithm = "algorithm" "=" algorithm-name algorithm = "algorithm" "=" algorithm-name
algorithm-name = "hmac-sha256" / algorithm-name = "hmac-sha256" /
token token
signature = "signature" "=" <"> token <"> signature = "signature" "=" <"> token <">
8.2. Bearer Token Requests 5.2. Bearer Token Requests
Clients make bearer token requests by including the access token Clients make bearer token requests by including the access token
using the HTTP "Authorization" request header with the "Token" using the HTTP "Authorization" request header with the "Token"
authentication scheme as described in Section 8.1. The access token authentication scheme as described in Section 5.1. The access token
is included using the "token" parameter. is included using the "token" parameter.
For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request: For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request:
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 GET /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Authorization: Token token="vF9dft4qmT" Authorization: Token token="vF9dft4qmT"
The resource server MUST validate the access token and ensure it has The resource server MUST validate the access token and ensure it has
not expired and that its scope covers the requested resource. If the not expired and that its scope covers the requested resource. If the
token expired or is invalid, the resource server MUST reply with an token expired or is invalid, the resource server MUST reply with an
HTTP 401 status code (Unauthorized) and include the HTTP HTTP 401 status code (Unauthorized) and include the HTTP
"WWW-Authenticate" response header as described in Section 9.1. "WWW-Authenticate" response header as described in Section 6.1.
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
WWW-Authenticate: Token realm='Service', error='token_expired' WWW-Authenticate: Token realm='Service', error='token_expired'
Alternatively, the client MAY include the access token using the HTTP Alternatively, the client MAY include the access token using the HTTP
request URI in the query component as described in Section 8.2.1, or request URI in the query component as described in Section 5.2.1, or
in the HTTP body when using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" in the HTTP body when using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
content type as described in Section 8.2.2. Clients SHOULD only use content type as described in Section 5.2.2. Clients SHOULD only use
the request URI or body when the "Authorization" request header is the request URI or body when the "Authorization" request header is
not available, and MUST NOT use more than one method in each request. not available, and MUST NOT use more than one method in each request.
8.2.1. URI Query Parameter 5.2.1. URI Query Parameter
When including the access token in the HTTP request URI, the client When including the access token in the HTTP request URI, the client
adds the access token to the request URI query component as defined adds the access token to the request URI query component as defined
by [RFC3986] using the "oauth_token" parameter. by [RFC3986] using the "oauth_token" parameter.
For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request: For example, the client makes the following HTTPS request:
GET /resource?oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT HTTP/1.1 GET /resource?oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
The HTTP request URI query can include other request-specific The HTTP request URI query can include other request-specific
parameters, in which case, the "oauth_token" parameters SHOULD be parameters, in which case, the "oauth_token" parameters SHOULD be
appended following the request-specific parameters, properly appended following the request-specific parameters, properly
separated by an "&" character (ASCII code 38). separated by an "&" character (ASCII code 38).
The resource server MUST validate the access token and ensure it has The resource server MUST validate the access token and ensure it has
not expired and its scope includes the requested resource. If the not expired and its scope includes the requested resource. If the
resource expired or is not valid, the resource server MUST reply with resource expired or is not valid, the resource server MUST reply with
an HTTP 401 status code (Unauthorized) and include the HTTP an HTTP 401 status code (Unauthorized) and include the HTTP
"WWW-Authenticate" response header as described in Section 9.1. "WWW-Authenticate" response header as described in Section 6.1.
8.2.2. Form-Encoded Body Parameter 5.2.2. Form-Encoded Body Parameter
When including the access token in the HTTP request entity-body, the When including the access token in the HTTP request entity-body, the
client adds the access token to the request body using the client adds the access token to the request body using the
"oauth_token" parameter. The client can use this method only if the "oauth_token" parameter. The client can use this method only if the
following REQUIRED conditions are met: following REQUIRED conditions are met:
o The entity-body is single-part. o The entity-body is single-part.
o The entity-body follows the encoding requirements of the o The entity-body follows the encoding requirements of the
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded" content-type as defined by "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" content-type as defined by
skipping to change at page 42, line 22 skipping to change at page 42, line 35
POST /resource HTTP/1.1 POST /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT oauth_token=vF9dft4qmT
The resource server MUST validate the access token and ensure it has The resource server MUST validate the access token and ensure it has
not expired and its scope includes the requested resource. If the not expired and its scope includes the requested resource. If the
resource expired or is not valid, the resource server MUST reply with resource expired or is not valid, the resource server MUST reply with
an HTTP 401 status code (Unauthorized) and include the HTTP an HTTP 401 status code (Unauthorized) and include the HTTP
"WWW-Authenticate" response header as described in Section 9.1. "WWW-Authenticate" response header as described in Section 6.1.
8.3. Cryptographic Tokens Requests 5.3. Cryptographic Tokens Requests
Clients make authenticated protected resource requests using an Clients make authenticated protected resource requests using an
access token with a matching secret by calculating a set of values access token with a matching secret by calculating a set of values
and including them in the request using the "Authorization" header and including them in the request using the "Authorization" header
field. The way clients calculate these values depends on the access field. The way clients calculate these values depends on the access
token secret type as issued by the authorization server. token secret type as issued by the authorization server.
This specification defines the "hmac-sha256" algorithm, and This specification defines the "hmac-sha256" algorithm, and
establishes a registry for providing additional algorithms. Clients establishes a registry for providing additional algorithms. Clients
obtain an access token with a matching "hmac-sha256" secret by using obtain an access token with a matching "hmac-sha256" secret by using
the "secret_type" parameter when requesting an access token. the "secret_type" parameter when requesting an access token.
8.3.1. The 'hmac-sha256' Algorithm 5.3.1. The 'hmac-sha256' Algorithm
The "hmac-sha256" algorithm uses the HMAC method as defined in The "hmac-sha256" algorithm uses the HMAC method as defined in
[RFC2104] together with the SHA-256 hash function defined in [NIST [RFC2104] together with the SHA-256 hash function defined in [NIST
FIPS-180-3] to apply the access token secret to the request and FIPS-180-3] to apply the access token secret to the request and
generate a signature value that is included in the request instead of generate a signature value that is included in the request instead of
transmitting the secret in the clear. transmitting the secret in the clear.
To use the "hmac-sha256" algorithm, clients: To use the "hmac-sha256" algorithm, clients:
1. Calculate the request timestamp and generate a request nonce as 1. Calculate the request timestamp and generate a request nonce as
described in Section 8.3.1.1. described in Section 5.3.1.1.
2. Construct the normalized request string as described in 2. Construct the normalized request string as described in
Section 8.3.1.2. Section 5.3.1.2.
3. Calculate the request signature as described in Section 8.3.1.3. 3. Calculate the request signature as described in Section 5.3.1.3.
4. Include the timestamp, nonce, algorithm name, and calculated 4. Include the timestamp, nonce, algorithm name, and calculated
signature in the request using the "Authorization" header field. signature in the request using the "Authorization" header field.
For example: For example:
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 GET /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: server.example.com Host: server.example.com
Authorization: Token token="vF9dft4qmT", Authorization: Token token="vF9dft4qmT",
nonce="s8djwd", nonce="s8djwd",
skipping to change at page 43, line 30 skipping to change at page 43, line 43
algorithm="hmac-sha256", algorithm="hmac-sha256",
signature="wOJIO9A2W5mFwDgiDvZbTSMK/PY=" signature="wOJIO9A2W5mFwDgiDvZbTSMK/PY="
The resource server MUST validate the access token and ensure it has The resource server MUST validate the access token and ensure it has
not expired and that its scope covers the requested resource. The not expired and that its scope covers the requested resource. The
resource server MUST also recalculate the request signature using the resource server MUST also recalculate the request signature using the
attributes provided by the client and compare it to the signature attributes provided by the client and compare it to the signature
provided. If the token expired or is invalid, or if the signature is provided. If the token expired or is invalid, or if the signature is
incorrect, the resource server MUST reply with an HTTP 401 status incorrect, the resource server MUST reply with an HTTP 401 status
code (Unauthorized) and include the HTTP "WWW-Authenticate" response code (Unauthorized) and include the HTTP "WWW-Authenticate" response
header as described in Section 9.1. header as described in Section 6.1.
For example: For example:
HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
Date: Tue, 15 Nov 2010 08:12:31 GMT Date: Tue, 15 Nov 2010 08:12:31 GMT
WWW-Authenticate: Token realm='Service', WWW-Authenticate: Token realm='Service',
algorithms='hmac-sha256', algorithms='hmac-sha256',
error='invalid_signature' error='invalid_signature'
[[ Errors list ]] [[ Errors list ]]
8.3.1.1. Nonce and Timestamp 5.3.1.1. Nonce and Timestamp
A timestamp in combination with unique nonce values is used to A timestamp in combination with unique nonce values is used to
protect against replay attacks when transmitted over an insecure protect against replay attacks when transmitted over an insecure
channel. channel.
The nonce is a random string, uniquely generated by the client to The nonce is a random string, uniquely generated by the client to
allow the resource server to verify that a request has never been allow the resource server to verify that a request has never been
made before and helps prevent replay attacks when requests are made made before and helps prevent replay attacks when requests are made
over a non-secure channel. The nonce value MUST be unique across all over a non-secure channel. The nonce value MUST be unique across all
requests with the same timestamp and token combinations. requests with the same timestamp and token combinations.
skipping to change at page 44, line 20 skipping to change at page 44, line 38
seconds since January 1, 1970 00:00:00 GMT, and MUST be a positive seconds since January 1, 1970 00:00:00 GMT, and MUST be a positive
integer. integer.
To avoid the need to retain an infinite number of nonce values for To avoid the need to retain an infinite number of nonce values for
future checks, resource servers MAY choose to restrict the time future checks, resource servers MAY choose to restrict the time
period after which a request with an old timestamp is rejected. When period after which a request with an old timestamp is rejected. When
resource servers apply such a restriction, clients SHOULD synchronize resource servers apply such a restriction, clients SHOULD synchronize
their clocks by using the resource server's time as indicated by the their clocks by using the resource server's time as indicated by the
HTTP "Date" response header field as defined in [RFC2616]. HTTP "Date" response header field as defined in [RFC2616].
8.3.1.2. Normalized String Construction 5.3.1.2. Normalized String Construction
The normalized request string is a consistent, reproducible The normalized request string is a consistent, reproducible
concatenation of several of the HTTP request elements into a single concatenation of several of the HTTP request elements into a single
string. The string is used as an input to the selected cryptographic string. The string is used as an input to the selected cryptographic
method and includes the HTTP request method (e.g. "GET", "POST", method and includes the HTTP request method (e.g. "GET", "POST",
etc.), the authority as declared by the HTTP "Host" request header, etc.), the authority as declared by the HTTP "Host" request header,
and the request resource URI. and the request resource URI.
The normalized request string does not cover the entire HTTP request. The normalized request string does not cover the entire HTTP request.
Most notably, it does not include the entity-body or most HTTP Most notably, it does not include the entity-body or most HTTP
entity-headers. It is important to note that the resource server entity-headers. It is important to note that the resource server
cannot verify the authenticity of the excluded request elements cannot verify the authenticity of the excluded request elements
without using additional protections such as TLS/SSL. without using additional protections such as TLS/SSL.
The normalized request string is constructed by concatenating The normalized request string is constructed by concatenating
together, in order, the following HTTP request elements, separated by together, in order, the following HTTP request elements, separated by
the "," character (ASCII code 44): the "," character (ASCII code 44):
1. The request timestamp as described in Section 8.3.1.1. 1. The request timestamp as described in Section 5.3.1.1.
2. The request nonce as described in Section 8.3.1.1. 2. The request nonce as described in Section 5.3.1.1.
3. The cryptographic algorithm used. 3. The cryptographic algorithm used.
4. The HTTP request method in uppercase. For example: "HEAD", 4. The HTTP request method in uppercase. For example: "HEAD",
"GET", "POST", etc. "GET", "POST", etc.
5. The hostname, colon-separated (ASCII code 58) from the TCP port 5. The hostname, colon-separated (ASCII code 58) from the TCP port
used to make the request as included in the HTTP request "Host" used to make the request as included in the HTTP request "Host"
header field. The port MUST be included even if it is not header field. The port MUST be included even if it is not
included in the "Host" header field (i.e. the default port for included in the "Host" header field (i.e. the default port for
skipping to change at page 45, line 16 skipping to change at page 45, line 35
6. The request resource URI. 6. The request resource URI.
For example, the normalized request string for the "GET" request URI For example, the normalized request string for the "GET" request URI
"http://example.com/resource", request timestamp "137131200", request "http://example.com/resource", request timestamp "137131200", request
nonce "s8djwd", and "hmac-sha256" algorithm (line breaks are for nonce "s8djwd", and "hmac-sha256" algorithm (line breaks are for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
137131200,s8djwd,hmac-sha256,GET,example.com:80, 137131200,s8djwd,hmac-sha256,GET,example.com:80,
http://example.com/resource http://example.com/resource
8.3.1.3. Signature Calculation 5.3.1.3. Signature Calculation
Clients calculate the request signature using the HMAC-SHA256 Clients calculate the request signature using the HMAC-SHA256
function: function:
digest = HMAC-SHA256 (key, text) digest = HMAC-SHA256 (key, text)
by setting the function variables are follows: by setting the function variables are follows:
text text
is set to the value of the normalize request string as is set to the value of the normalize request string as
described in Section 8.3.1.2. described in Section 5.3.1.2.
key key
is set to the access token secret. is set to the access token secret.
The request signature is the calculated value of the "digest" The request signature is the calculated value of the "digest"
variable after the result octet string is base64-encoded per variable after the result octet string is base64-encoded per
[RFC2045] section 6.8. [RFC2045] section 6.8.
9. Identifying a Protected Resource 6. Identifying a Protected Resource
Clients access protected resources after locating the appropriate Clients access protected resources after locating the appropriate
authorization and token endpoints and obtaining an access token. In authorization and token endpoints and obtaining an access token. In
many cases, interacting with a protected resource requires prior many cases, interacting with a protected resource requires prior
knowledge of the protected resource properties and methods, as well knowledge of the protected resource properties and methods, as well
as its authentication requirements (i.e. establishing client as its authentication requirements (i.e. establishing client
identity, locating the authorization and token endpoints). identity, locating the authorization and token endpoints).
However, there are cases in which clients are unfamiliar with the However, there are cases in which clients are unfamiliar with the
protected resource, including whether the resource requires protected resource, including whether the resource requires
authentication. When clients attempt to access an unfamiliar authentication. When clients attempt to access an unfamiliar
protected resource without an access token, the resource server protected resource without an access token, the resource server
denies the request and informs the client of the required credentials denies the request and informs the client of the required credentials
using an HTTP authentication challenge. using an HTTP authentication challenge.
In addition, when receiving an invalid authenticated request, the In addition, when receiving an invalid authenticated request, the
resource server issues an authentication challenge including the resource server issues an authentication challenge including the
error type and message. error type and message.
9.1. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header 6.1. The WWW-Authenticate Response Header
A resource server receiving a request for a protected resource A resource server receiving a request for a protected resource
without a valid access token MUST respond with a 401 HTTP status code without a valid access token MUST respond with a 401 HTTP status code
(Unauthorized), and includes at least one "Token" "WWW-Authenticate" (Unauthorized), and includes at least one "Token" "WWW-Authenticate"
response header field challenge. response header field challenge.
The "WWW-Authenticate" header field uses the framework defined by The "WWW-Authenticate" header field uses the framework defined by
[RFC2617] as follows: [RFC2617] as follows:
challenge = "Token" RWS token-challenge challenge = "Token" RWS token-challenge
skipping to change at page 46, line 38 skipping to change at page 47, line 20
[ CS algorithms ] [ CS algorithms ]
[ CS error ] [ CS error ]
authz-uri = "auth-uri" "=" URI-Reference authz-uri = "auth-uri" "=" URI-Reference
token-uri = "token-uri" "=" URI-Reference token-uri = "token-uri" "=" URI-Reference
algorithms = "algorithms" "=" <"> 1#algorithm-name <"> algorithms = "algorithms" "=" <"> 1#algorithm-name <">
error = "error" "=" <"> token <"> error = "error" "=" <"> token <">
CS = OWS "," OWS CS = OWS "," OWS
9.1.1. The 'realm' Attribute 6.1.1. The 'realm' Attribute
The "realm" attribute is used to provide the protected resources The "realm" attribute is used to provide the protected resources
partition as defined by [RFC2617]. partition as defined by [RFC2617].
9.1.2. The 'authorization-uri' Attribute 6.1.2. The 'authorization-uri' Attribute
9.1.3. The 'algorithms' Attribute 6.1.3. The 'algorithms' Attribute
9.1.4. The 'error' Attribute
10. Security Considerations 6.1.4. The 'error' Attribute
7. Security Considerations
[[ Todo ]] [[ Todo ]]
11. IANA Considerations 8. IANA Considerations
[[ Not Yet ]] [[ Not Yet ]]
12. Acknowledgements 9. Acknowledgements
[[ Add OAuth 1.0a authors + WG contributors ]] [[ Add OAuth 1.0a authors + WG contributors ]]
Appendix A. Differences from OAuth 1.0a Appendix A. Differences from OAuth 1.0a
[[ Todo ]] [[ Todo ]]
Appendix B. Document History Appendix B. Document History
[[ to be removed by RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-04
o Changed all token endpoints to use "POST"
o Clarified the authorization server's ability to issue a new
refresh token when refreshing a token.
o Changed the flow categories to clarify the autonomous group.
o Changed client credentials language not to always be server-
issued.
o Added a "scope" response parameter.
o Fixed typos.
o Fixed broken document structure.
-03 -03
o Fixed typo in JSON error examples. o Fixed typo in JSON error examples.
o Fixed general typos. o Fixed general typos.
o Moved all flows sections up one level. o Moved all flows sections up one level.
-02 -02
skipping to change at page 48, line 5 skipping to change at page 48, line 48
o Added "scope" parameter. o Added "scope" parameter.
o Initial proposal for a JSON-based token response format. o Initial proposal for a JSON-based token response format.
-01 -01
o Editorial changes based on feedback from Brian Eaton, Bill Keenan, o Editorial changes based on feedback from Brian Eaton, Bill Keenan,
and Chuck Mortimore. and Chuck Mortimore.
o Changed devide flow "type" parameter values and switch to use only o Changed device flow "type" parameter values and switch to use only
the token endpoint. the token endpoint.
-00 -00
o Initial draft based on a combination of WRAP and OAuth 1.0a. o Initial draft based on a combination of WRAP and OAuth 1.0a.
13. References 10. References
13.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging] [I-D.ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging]
Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Nielsen, H., Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Nielsen, H.,
Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., and J. Reschke, Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., and J. Reschke,
"HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message "HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message
Parsing", draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-09 (work in Parsing", draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-09 (work in
progress), March 2010. progress), March 2010.
[NIST FIPS-180-3] [NIST FIPS-180-3]
National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
skipping to change at page 49, line 21 skipping to change at page 50, line 16
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for [RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.
[W3C.REC-html40-19980424] [W3C.REC-html40-19980424]
Hors, A., Raggett, D., and I. Jacobs, "HTML 4.0 Hors, A., Raggett, D., and I. Jacobs, "HTML 4.0
Specification", World Wide Web Consortium Specification", World Wide Web Consortium
Recommendation REC-html40-19980424, April 1998, Recommendation REC-html40-19980424, April 1998,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-html40-19980424>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-html40-19980424>.
13.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[I-D.hammer-oauth] [I-D.hammer-oauth]
Hammer-Lahav, E., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol", Hammer-Lahav, E., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol",
draft-hammer-oauth-10 (work in progress), February 2010. draft-hammer-oauth-10 (work in progress), February 2010.
[I-D.hardt-oauth] [I-D.hardt-oauth]
Hardt, D., Tom, A., Eaton, B., and Y. Goland, "OAuth Web Hardt, D., Tom, A., Eaton, B., and Y. Goland, "OAuth Web
Resource Authorization Profiles", draft-hardt-oauth-01 Resource Authorization Profiles", draft-hardt-oauth-01
(work in progress), January 2010. (work in progress), January 2010.
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