draft-ietf-ippm-spatial-composition-04.txt   draft-ietf-ippm-spatial-composition-05.txt 
Network Working Group A. Morton Network Working Group A. Morton
Internet-Draft AT&T Labs Internet-Draft AT&T Labs
Intended status: Standards Track E. Stephan Intended status: Standards Track E. Stephan
Expires: January 8, 2008 France Telecom Division R&D Expires: May 8, 2008 France Telecom Division R&D
July 7, 2007 November 5, 2007
Spatial Composition of Metrics Spatial Composition of Metrics
draft-ietf-ippm-spatial-composition-04 draft-ietf-ippm-spatial-composition-05
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
Abstract Abstract
This memo utilizes IPPM metrics that are applicable to both complete This memo utilizes IPPM metrics that are applicable to both complete
paths and sub-paths, and defines relationships to compose a complete paths and sub-paths, and defines relationships to compose a complete
path metric from the sub-path metrics with some accuracy w.r.t. the path metric from the sub-path metrics with some accuracy w.r.t. the
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3.1. Scope of work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Scope of work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2. Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. Incomplete Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3. Incomplete Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Common Specifications for Composed Metrics . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Common Specifications for Composed Metrics . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Name: Type-P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1. Name: Type-P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.1. Metric Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1.1. Metric Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.2. Definition and Metric Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.2. Definition and Metric Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.4. Statistic: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.4. Statistic: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.5. Composition Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.5. Composition Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.6. Statement of Conjecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.6. Statement of Conjecture and Assumptions . . . . . . . 8
4.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function . . . . . . 8 4.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function . . . . . . 8
4.1.8. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth . . . . . . 9 4.1.8. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth . . . . . . 9
4.1.9. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail . . . . 9 4.1.9. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail . . . . 9
4.1.10. Application of Measurement Methodology . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.10. Application of Measurement Methodology . . . . . . . . 9
5. One-way Delay Composed Metrics and Statistics . . . . . . . . 10 5. One-way Delay Composed Metrics and Statistics . . . . . . . . 10
5.1. Name: 5.1. Name:
Type-P-Finite-One-way-Delay-Poisson/Periodic-Stream . . . 10 Type-P-Finite-One-way-Delay-Poisson/Periodic-Stream . . . 10
5.1.1. Metric Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1.1. Metric Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1.2. Definition and Metric Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1.2. Definition and Metric Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.2. Name: Type-P-Finite-Composite-One-way-Delay-Mean . . . . . 11 5.2. Name: Type-P-Finite-Composite-One-way-Delay-Mean . . . . . 11
5.2.1. Metric Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2.1. Metric Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2.2. Definition and Metric Units of the Mean Statistic . . 11 5.2.2. Definition and Metric Units of the Mean Statistic . . 11
5.2.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2.4. Composition Function: Sum of Means . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2.4. Composition Function: Sum of Means . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2.5. Statement of Conjecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.2.5. Statement of Conjecture and Assumptions . . . . . . . 12
5.2.6. Justification of the Composition Function . . . . . . 12 5.2.6. Justification of the Composition Function . . . . . . 12
5.2.7. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth . . . . . . 12 5.2.7. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth . . . . . . 12
5.2.8. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail . . . . 12 5.2.8. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail . . . . 12
5.2.9. Application of Measurement Methodology . . . . . . . . 12 5.2.9. Application of Measurement Methodology . . . . . . . . 12
5.3. Name: Type-P-Finite-Composite-One-way-Delay-Minimum . . . 12 5.3. Name: Type-P-Finite-Composite-One-way-Delay-Minimum . . . 12
5.3.1. Metric Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.3.1. Metric Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.3.2. Definition and Metric Units of the Mean Statistic . . 13 5.3.2. Definition and Metric Units of the Mean Statistic . . 13
5.3.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.3.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.3.4. Composition Function: Sum of Means . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.3.4. Composition Function: Sum of Means . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.3.5. Statement of Conjecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.3.5. Statement of Conjecture and Assumptions . . . . . . . 14
5.3.6. Justification of the Composition Function . . . . . . 14 5.3.6. Justification of the Composition Function . . . . . . 14
5.3.7. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth . . . . . . 14 5.3.7. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth . . . . . . 14
5.3.8. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail . . . . 14 5.3.8. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail . . . . 14
5.3.9. Application of Measurement Methodology . . . . . . . . 14 5.3.9. Application of Measurement Methodology . . . . . . . . 14
6. Loss Metrics and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6. Loss Metrics and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.1. Type-P-Composite-One-way-Packet-Loss-Empirical-Probability 14 6.1. Type-P-Composite-One-way-Packet-Loss-Empirical-Probability 14
6.1.1. Metric Parameters: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.1.1. Metric Parameters: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.1.2. Definition and Metric Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.1.2. Definition and Metric Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.1.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.1.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.1.4. Statistic: 6.1.4. Statistic:
Type-P-One-way-Packet-Loss-Empirical-Probability . . . 15 Type-P-One-way-Packet-Loss-Empirical-Probability . . . 15
6.1.5. Composition Function: Composition of Empirical 6.1.5. Composition Function: Composition of Empirical
Probabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Probabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.1.6. Statement of Conjecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.1.6. Statement of Conjecture and Assumptions . . . . . . . 15
6.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function . . . . . . 15 6.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function . . . . . . 16
6.1.8. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth . . . . . . 16 6.1.8. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth . . . . . . 16
6.1.9. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail . . . . 16 6.1.9. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail . . . . 16
6.1.10. Application of Measurement Methodology . . . . . . . . 16 6.1.10. Application of Measurement Methodology . . . . . . . . 16
7. Delay Variation Metrics and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. Delay Variation Metrics and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.1. Name: Type-P-One-way-pdv-refmin-Poisson/Periodic-Stream . 16 7.1. Name: Type-P-One-way-pdv-refmin-Poisson/Periodic-Stream . 16
7.1.1. Metric Parameters: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7.1.1. Metric Parameters: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.1.2. Definition and Metric Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7.1.2. Definition and Metric Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7.1.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7.1.3. Discussion and other details . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7.1.4. Statistics: Mean, Variance, Skewness, Quanitle . . . . 17 7.1.4. Statistics: Mean, Variance, Skewness, Quanitle . . . . 18
7.1.5. Composition Functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 7.1.5. Composition Functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.1.6. Statement of Conjecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7.1.6. Statement of Conjecture and Assumptions . . . . . . . 19
7.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function . . . . . . 19 7.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function . . . . . . 20
7.1.8. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth . . . . . . 19 7.1.8. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth . . . . . . 20
7.1.9. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail . . . . 20 7.1.9. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail . . . . 20
7.1.10. Application of Measurement Methodology . . . . . . . . 20 7.1.10. Application of Measurement Methodology . . . . . . . . 20
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8.1. Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 8.1. Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8.2. User Data Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 8.2. User Data Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8.3. Interference with the metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8.3. Interference with the metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
10. Issues (Open and Closed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 10. Issues (Open and Closed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 25 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 25
1. Contributors 1. Contributors
Thus far, the following people have contributed useful ideas, Thus far, the following people have contributed useful ideas,
suggestions, or the text of sections that have been incorporated into suggestions, or the text of sections that have been incorporated into
this memo: this memo:
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The main purpose of this memo is to define the deterministic The main purpose of this memo is to define the deterministic
functions that yield the complete path metrics using metrics of the functions that yield the complete path metrics using metrics of the
sub-paths. The effectiveness of such metrics is dependent on their sub-paths. The effectiveness of such metrics is dependent on their
usefulness in analysis and applicability with practical measurement usefulness in analysis and applicability with practical measurement
methods. methods.
The relationships may involve conjecture, and [RFC2330] lists four The relationships may involve conjecture, and [RFC2330] lists four
points that the metric definitions should include: points that the metric definitions should include:
o the specific conjecture applied to the metric, o the specific conjecture applied to the metric and assumptions of
the statistical model of the process being measured (if any, see
[RFC2330] section 12),
o a justification of the practical utility of the composition in o a justification of the practical utility of the composition in
terms of making accurate measurements of the metric on the path, terms of making accurate measurements of the metric on the path,
o a justification of the usefulness of the composition in terms of o a justification of the usefulness of the composition in terms of
making analysis of the path using A-frame concepts more effective, making analysis of the path using A-frame concepts more effective,
and and
o an analysis of how the conjecture could be incorrect. o an analysis of how the conjecture could be incorrect.
Also, [RFC2330] gives an example where a conjecture that the delay of Also, [RFC2330] gives an example where a conjecture that the delay of
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This section is unique for every metric. This section is unique for every metric.
4.1.4. Statistic: 4.1.4. Statistic:
This section is unique for every metric. This section is unique for every metric.
4.1.5. Composition Function 4.1.5. Composition Function
This section is unique for every metric. This section is unique for every metric.
4.1.6. Statement of Conjecture 4.1.6. Statement of Conjecture and Assumptions
This section is unique for each metric. This section is unique for each metric.
4.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function 4.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function
It is sometimes impractical to conduct active measurements between It is sometimes impractical to conduct active measurements between
every Src-Dst pair. Since the full mesh of N measurement points every Src-Dst pair. Since the full mesh of N measurement points
grows as N x N, the scope of measurement may be limited by testing grows as N x N, the scope of measurement may be limited by testing
resources. resources.
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This section is unique for each metric. This section is unique for each metric.
4.1.10. Application of Measurement Methodology 4.1.10. Application of Measurement Methodology
The methodology: The methodology:
SHOULD use similar packets sent and collected separately in each sub- SHOULD use similar packets sent and collected separately in each sub-
path. path.
Allows a degree of flexibility (e.g., active or passive methods can Allows a degree of flexibility regarding test stream generation
produce the "same" metric, but timing and correlation of passive (e.g., active or passive methods can produce an equivalent result,
measurements is much more challenging). but the lack of control over the source, timing and correlation of
passive measurements is much more challenging).
Poisson and/or Periodic streams are RECOMMENDED. Poisson and/or Periodic streams are RECOMMENDED.
Applies to both Inter-domain and Intra-domain composition. Applies to both Inter-domain and Intra-domain composition.
SHOULD have synchronized measurement time intervals in all sub-paths, SHOULD have synchronized measurement time intervals in all sub-paths,
but largely overlapping intervals MAY suffice. but largely overlapping intervals MAY suffice.
REQUIRES assumption of sub-path independence w.r.t. the metric being REQUIRES assumption of sub-path independence w.r.t. the metric being
defined/composed. defined/composed.
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Then the Then the
Type-P-Finite-Composite-One-way-Delay-Mean = Type-P-Finite-Composite-One-way-Delay-Mean =
S S
--- ---
\ \
CompMeanDelay = > (MeanDelay [i]) CompMeanDelay = > (MeanDelay [i])
/ /
--- ---
i = 1 i = 1
5.2.5. Statement of Conjecture 5.2.5. Statement of Conjecture and Assumptions
The mean of a sufficiently large stream of packets measured on each The mean of a sufficiently large stream of packets measured on each
sub-path during the interval [T, Tf] will be representative of the sub-path during the interval [T, Tf] will be representative of the
true mean of the delay distribution (and the distributions themselves true mean of the delay distribution (and the distributions themselves
are sufficiently independent), such that the means may be added to are sufficiently independent), such that the means may be added to
produce an estimate of the complete path mean delay. produce an estimate of the complete path mean delay.
It is assumed that the one-way delay distributions of the sub-paths
and the complete path are continuous.
5.2.6. Justification of the Composition Function 5.2.6. Justification of the Composition Function
See the common section. See the common section.
5.2.7. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth 5.2.7. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth
See the common section. See the common section.
5.2.8. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail 5.2.8. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail
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Type-P-Finite-Composite-One-way-Delay-Minimum = Type-P-Finite-Composite-One-way-Delay-Minimum =
S S
--- ---
\ \
CompMinDelay = > (MinDelay [i]) CompMinDelay = > (MinDelay [i])
/ /
--- ---
i = 1 i = 1
5.3.5. Statement of Conjecture 5.3.5. Statement of Conjecture and Assumptions
The minimum of a sufficiently large stream of packets measured on The minimum of a sufficiently large stream of packets measured on
each sub-path during the interval [T, Tf] will be representative of each sub-path during the interval [T, Tf] will be representative of
the true minimum of the delay distribution (and the distributions the true minimum of the delay distribution (and the distributions
themselves are sufficiently independent), such that the minima may be themselves are sufficiently independent), such that the minima may be
added to produce an estimate of the complete path minimum delay. added to produce an estimate of the complete path minimum delay.
It is assumed that the one-way delay distributions of the sub-paths
and the complete path are continuous.
5.3.6. Justification of the Composition Function 5.3.6. Justification of the Composition Function
See the common section. See the common section.
5.3.7. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth 5.3.7. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth
See the common section. See the common section.
5.3.8. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail 5.3.8. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail
skipping to change at page 15, line 39 skipping to change at page 15, line 44
Epn) as Epn) as
Type-P-Composite-One-way-Packet-Loss-Empirical-Probability = Type-P-Composite-One-way-Packet-Loss-Empirical-Probability =
CompEp = 1 - {(1 - Ep1) x (1 - Ep2) x (1 - Ep3) x ... x (1 - Epn)} CompEp = 1 - {(1 - Ep1) x (1 - Ep2) x (1 - Ep3) x ... x (1 - Epn)}
If any Epn is undefined in a particular measurement interval, If any Epn is undefined in a particular measurement interval,
possibly because a measurement system failed to report a value, then possibly because a measurement system failed to report a value, then
any CompEp that uses sub-path n for that measurement interval is any CompEp that uses sub-path n for that measurement interval is
undefined. undefined.
6.1.6. Statement of Conjecture 6.1.6. Statement of Conjecture and Assumptions
The empirical probability of loss calculated on a sufficiently large The empirical probability of loss calculated on a sufficiently large
stream of packets measured on each sub-path during the interval [T, stream of packets measured on each sub-path during the interval [T,
Tf] will be representative of the true loss probability (and the Tf] will be representative of the true empirical loss probability
probabilities themselves are sufficiently independent), such that the (and the probabilities themselves are sufficiently independent), such
sub-path probabilities may be combined to produce an estimate of the that the sub-path probabilities may be combined to produce an
complete path loss probability. estimate of the complete path empirical loss probability.
6.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function 6.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function
See the common section. See the common section.
6.1.8. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth 6.1.8. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth
See the common section. See the common section.
6.1.9. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail 6.1.9. Specific cases where the conjecture might fail
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distributions. distributions.
7.1.5.2. Normal Power Approximation 7.1.5.2. Normal Power Approximation
Type-P-One-way-Composite-pdv-refmin-NPA for the complete Source to Type-P-One-way-Composite-pdv-refmin-NPA for the complete Source to
Destination path can be calculated by combining statistics of all the Destination path can be calculated by combining statistics of all the
constituent sub-paths in the following process: constituent sub-paths in the following process:
< see [Y.1541] clause 8 and Appendix X > < see [Y.1541] clause 8 and Appendix X >
7.1.6. Statement of Conjecture 7.1.6. Statement of Conjecture and Assumptions
The delay distribution of a sufficiently large stream of packets The delay distribution of a sufficiently large stream of packets
measured on each sub-path during the interval [T, Tf] will be measured on each sub-path during the interval [T, Tf] will be
sufficiently stationary and the sub-path distributions themselves are sufficiently stationary and the sub-path distributions themselves are
sufficiently independent, so that summary information describing the sufficiently independent, so that summary information describing the
sub-path distributions can be combined to estimate the delay sub-path distributions can be combined to estimate the delay
distribution of complete path. distribution of complete path.
It is assumed that the one-way delay distributions of the sub-paths
and the complete path are continuous.
7.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function 7.1.7. Justification of the Composition Function
See the common section. See the common section.
7.1.8. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth 7.1.8. Sources of Deviation from the Ground Truth
In addition to the common deviations, a few additional sources exist In addition to the common deviations, a few additional sources exist
here. For one, very tight distributions with range on the order of a here. For one, very tight distributions with range on the order of a
few milliseconds are not accurately represented by a histogram with 1 few milliseconds are not accurately represented by a histogram with 1
ms bins. This size was chosen assuming an implicit requirement on ms bins. This size was chosen assuming an implicit requirement on
skipping to change at page 22, line 42 skipping to change at page 23, line 8
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>RESOLUTION: No and Yes. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>RESOLUTION: No and Yes.
11. Acknowledgements 11. Acknowledgements
12. References 12. References
12.1. Normative References 12.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-ippm-framework-compagg] [I-D.ietf-ippm-framework-compagg]
Morton, A. and S. Berghe, "Framework for Metric Morton, A., "Framework for Metric Composition",
Composition", draft-ietf-ippm-framework-compagg-03 (work draft-ietf-ippm-framework-compagg-04 (work in progress),
in progress), March 2007. July 2007.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis, [RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis,
"Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330,
May 1998. May 1998.
[RFC2679] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A One-way [RFC2679] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A One-way
Delay Metric for IPPM", RFC 2679, September 1999. Delay Metric for IPPM", RFC 2679, September 1999.
[RFC2680] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A One-way [RFC2680] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A One-way
Packet Loss Metric for IPPM", RFC 2680, September 1999. Packet Loss Metric for IPPM", RFC 2680, September 1999.
[RFC3393] Demichelis, C. and P. Chimento, "IP Packet Delay Variation [RFC3393] Demichelis, C. and P. Chimento, "IP Packet Delay Variation
Metric for IP Performance Metrics (IPPM)", RFC 3393, Metric for IP Performance Metrics (IPPM)", RFC 3393,
November 2002. November 2002.
[RFC3432] Raisanen, V., Grotefeld, G., and A. Morton, "Network
performance measurement with periodic streams", RFC 3432,
November 2002.
[RFC4148] Stephan, E., "IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) Metrics [RFC4148] Stephan, E., "IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) Metrics
Registry", BCP 108, RFC 4148, August 2005. Registry", BCP 108, RFC 4148, August 2005.
12.2. Informative References 12.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-ippm-multimetrics] [I-D.ietf-ippm-multimetrics]
Stephan, E., "IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) for spatial Stephan, E., "IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) for spatial
and multicast", draft-ietf-ippm-multimetrics-04 (work in and multicast", draft-ietf-ippm-multimetrics-04 (work in
progress), July 2007. progress), July 2007.
 End of changes. 24 change blocks. 
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