draft-ietf-ippm-lmap-path-07.txt   rfc7398.txt 
Network Working Group M. Bagnulo Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Bagnulo
Internet-Draft UC3M Request for Comments: 7398 UC3M
Intended status: Informational T. Burbridge Category: Informational T. Burbridge
Expires: April 10, 2015 BT ISSN: 2070-1721 BT
S. Crawford S. Crawford
SamKnows SamKnows
P. Eardley P. Eardley
BT BT
A. Morton A. Morton
AT&T Labs AT&T Labs
October 7, 2014 February 2015
A Reference Path and Measurement Points for Large-Scale Measurement of A Reference Path and Measurement Points for
Broadband Performance Large-Scale Measurement of Broadband Performance
draft-ietf-ippm-lmap-path-07
Abstract Abstract
This document defines a reference path for Large-scale Measurement of This document defines a reference path for Large-scale Measurement of
Broadband Access Performance (LMAP) and measurement points for Broadband Access Performance (LMAP) and measurement points for
commonly used performance metrics. Other similar measurement commonly used performance metrics. Other similar measurement
projects may also be able to use the extensions described here for projects may also be able to use the extensions described here for
measurement point location. The purpose is to create an efficient measurement point location. The purpose is to create an efficient
way to describe the location of the measurement point(s) used to way to describe the location of the measurement point(s) used to
conduct a particular measurement. conduct a particular measurement.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. published for informational purposes.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not all documents
approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 10, 2015. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7398.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Purpose and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Purpose and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. Reference Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Reference Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. Subscriber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. Subscriber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.3. Dedicated Component (Links or Nodes) . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.3. Dedicated Component (Links or Nodes) . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.4. Shared Component (Links or Nodes) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.4. Shared Component (Links or Nodes) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.5. Resource Transition Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.5. Resource Transition Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.6. Service Demarcation Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.6. Service Demarcation Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.7. Managed and Un-Managed Sub-paths . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.7. Managed and Unmanaged Sub-paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Reference Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Reference Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. Measurement Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Measurement Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. Translation Between Reference Path and Various Technologies . 11 6. Examples of Reference Paths with Various Technologies . . . . 11
7. Example Resource Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. Example of Reference Path with Resource Transition . . . . . 13
8. Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document defines a reference path for Large-scale Measurement of This document defines a reference path for Large-scale Measurement of
Broadband Access Performance (LMAP) or similar measurement projects. Broadband Access Performance (LMAP) or similar measurement projects.
The series of IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) RFCs have developed terms The series of IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) RFCs have developed terms
that are generally useful for path description (section 5 of that are generally useful for path description (see Section 5 of
[RFC2330]). There are a limited number of additional terms needing [RFC2330]). There are a limited number of additional terms defined
definition here, and they will be defined in this memo. in this memo.
The reference path (See section 3.1 and Figure 1 of [Y.1541], The reference path (see Section 3.1 and Figure 1 of [Y.1541],
including the accompanying discussion) is usually needed when including the accompanying discussion) is usually needed when
attempting to communicate precisely about the components that attempting to communicate precisely about the components that
comprise the path, often in terms of their number (hops) and comprise the path, and is often expressed in terms of their number
geographic location. This memo takes the path definition further, by (hops) and geographic location. This memo takes the path definition
establishing a set of measurement points along the path and ascribing further by establishing a set of measurement points along the path
a unique designation to each point. This topic has been previously and ascribing a unique designation to each point. This topic has
developed in section 5.1 of [RFC3432], and as part of the updated been previously developed in Section 5.1 of [RFC3432] and as part of
framework for composition and aggregation, section 4 of [RFC5835]. the updated framework for composition and aggregation in Section 4 of
Section 4.1 of [RFC5835] defines the term "measurement point". [RFC5835]. Section 4.1 of [RFC5835] defines the term "measurement
point".
Measurement points and the paths they inhabit are often described in Measurement points and the paths they inhabit are often described in
general terms, like "end-to-end", "user-to-user", or "access". These general terms, like "end-to-end", "user-to-user", or "access". These
terms alone are insufficient for scientific method: What is an end? terms alone are insufficient for the scientific method, since we need
Where is a user located? Is the home network included? to clarify issues such as: What is an end? Where is a user located?
Is the home network included?
As an illustrative example, consider a measurement agent in an LMAP As an illustrative example, consider a measurement agent in an LMAP
system. When it reports its measurement results, rather than system. When it reports its measurement results, rather than
detailing its IP address and that of its measurement peer, it may detailing its IP address and that of its measurement peer, it may
prefer to describe the measured path segment abstractly (perhaps for prefer to describe the measured path segment abstractly (perhaps for
privacy reasons). For instance "from a measurement agent at a home privacy reasons), e.g., 'from a measurement agent at a home gateway
gateway to a measurement peer at a DSLAM". This memo provides the to a measurement peer at a DSLAM.' This memo provides the definition
definition for such abstract 'measurement points' and therefore the for such abstract 'measurement points' and, therefore, the portion of
portion of 'reference path' between them. 'reference path' between them.
The motivation for this memo is to provide an unambiguous framework The motivation for this memo is to provide an unambiguous framework
to describe measurement coverage, or scope of the reference path. to describe measurement coverage or scope of the reference path.
This is an essential part of the meta-data to describe measurement This is an essential part of the metadata to describe measurement
results. Measurements conducted over different path scopes are not a results. Measurements conducted over different path scopes are not a
valid basis for performance comparisons. We note that additional valid basis for performance comparisons. We note that additional
measurement context information may be necessary to support a valid measurement context information may be necessary to support a valid
comparison of results. comparison of results.
1.1. Requirements Language 1.1. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
2. Purpose and Scope 2. Purpose and Scope
The scope of this memo is to define a reference path for LMAP The scope of this memo is to define a reference path for LMAP
activities with sufficient level of detail to determine the location activities with a sufficient level of detail to determine the
of different measurement points along a path without ambiguity. location of different measurement points along a path without
These conventions are likely to be useful in other measurement ambiguity. These conventions are likely to be useful in other
projects as well, and in describing the applicable measurement scope measurement projects and to describe the applicable measurement scope
for some metrics. for some metrics.
The connection between the reference path and specific network The connection between the reference path and specific network
technologies (with differing underlying architectures) is within the technologies (with differing underlying architectures) is within the
scope of this method, and examples are provided. Both wired and scope of this memo, and examples are provided. Both wired and
wireless technologies are in-scope. wireless technologies are in scope.
The purpose is to create an efficient way to describe the location of The purpose is to create an efficient way to describe the location of
the measurement point(s) used to conduct a particular measurement so the measurement point(s) used to conduct a particular measurement so
that the measurement result will adequately described in terms of that the measurement result will be adequately described in terms of
scope or coverage. This should serve many measurement uses, scope or coverage. This should serve many measurement uses,
including: including:
diagnostic: where the same metric would be measured on different o diagnostic, where the same metric would be measured on different
sub-paths bounded by measurement points (see Section 4.10 sub-paths bounded by measurement points (see Section 4.10 of
of[RFC5835]), for example to isolate the sub-path contributing the [RFC5835]), for example, to isolate the sub-path contributing the
majority of impairment levels observed on a path. majority of impairment levels observed on a path.
comparison: where the same metric may be measured on equivalent o comparison, where the same metric may be measured on equivalent
portions of different network infrastructures, for example to portions of different network infrastructures, for example, to
compare the performance of wired and wireless home network compare the performance of wired and wireless home network
technologies. technologies.
3. Terms and Definitions 3. Terms and Definitions
This section defines key terms and concepts for the purposes of this This section defines key terms and concepts for this memo.
memo.
3.1. Reference Path 3.1. Reference Path
A reference path is a serial combination of hosts, routers, switches, A reference path is a serial combination of hosts, routers, switches,
links, radios, and processing elements that comprise all the network links, radios, and processing elements that comprise all the network
elements traversed by each packet in a flow between the source and elements traversed by each packet in a flow between the source and
destination hosts. A reference path also indicates the various destination hosts. A reference path also indicates the various
boundaries present, such as administrative boundaries. A reference boundaries present, such as administrative boundaries. A reference
path is intended to be equally applicable to all IP and link-layer path is intended to be equally applicable to all IP and link-layer
networking technologies. Therefore, the components are generically networking technologies. Therefore, the components are generically
defined but their functions should have a clear counterpart or be defined, but their functions should have a clear counterpart or be
obviously omitted in any network architecture. obviously omitted in any network architecture.
3.2. Subscriber 3.2. Subscriber
An entity (associated with one or more users) that is engaged in a A subscriber is an entity (associated with one or more users) that is
subscription with a service provider. The subscriber is allowed to engaged in a subscription with a service provider. The subscriber is
subscribe and un-subscribe to services, and to register a user or a allowed to subscribe and unsubscribe to services and to register a
list of users authorized to enjoy these services. [Q1741] Both the user or a list of users authorized to enjoy these services. [Q.1741]
subscriber and service provider are allowed to set the limits
relative to the use that associated users make of subscribed Both the subscriber and service provider are allowed to set the
limits relative to the use that associated users make of subscribed
services. services.
3.3. Dedicated Component (Links or Nodes) 3.3. Dedicated Component (Links or Nodes)
All resources of a Dedicated Component (typically a link or node on All resources of a dedicated component (typically a link or node on
the Reference Path) are allocated to serving the traffic of an the reference path) are allocated to serving the traffic of an
individual Subscriber. Resources include transmission time-slots, individual subscriber. Resources include transmission time-slots,
queue space, processing for encapsulation and address/port queue space, processing for encapsulation and address/port
translation, and others. A Dedicated Component can affect the translation, and others. A dedicated component can affect the
performance of the Reference Path, or the performance of any sub-path performance of the reference path or the performance of any sub-path
where the component is involved. where the component is involved.
3.4. Shared Component (Links or Nodes) 3.4. Shared Component (Links or Nodes)
A component on the Reference Path is designated a Shared Component A component on the reference path is designated a "shared component"
when the traffic associated with multiple Subscribers is served by when the traffic associated with multiple subscribers is served by
common resources. common resources.
3.5. Resource Transition Point 3.5. Resource Transition Point
A point between Dedicated and Shared Components on a Reference Path This is a point between dedicated and shared components on a
that may be a point of significance, and is identified as a reference path that may be a point of significance and is identified
transition between two types of resources. as a transition between two types of resources.
3.6. Service Demarcation Point 3.6. Service Demarcation Point
This is the point where service managed by the service provider This is the point where a service managed by the service provider
begins (or ends), and varies by technology. For example, this point begins (or ends) and varies by technology. For example, this point
is usually defined as the Ethernet interface on a residential gateway is usually defined as the Ethernet interface on a residential gateway
or modem where the scope of a packet transfer service begins and or modem where the scope of a packet transfer service begins and
ends. In the case of a WiFi Service, this would be an Air Interface ends. In the case of a WiFi service, this would be an air interface
within the intended service boundary (e.g., walls of the coffee within the intended service boundary (e.g., walls of the coffee
shop). The Demarcation Point may be within an integrated endpoint shop). The demarcation point may be within an integrated endpoint
using an Air Interface (e.g., Long-Term Evolution User Equipment, LTE using an air interface (e.g., Long-Term Evolution User Equipment (LTE
UE). Ownership does not necessarily affect the demarcation point; a UE)). Ownership does not necessarily affect the demarcation point; a
Subscriber may own all equipment on their premises, but it is likely subscriber may own all equipment on their premises, but it is likely
that the service provider will certify such equipment for connection that the service provider will certify such equipment for connection
to their network, or a third-party will certify standards compliance. to their network or that a third-party will certify standards
compliance.
3.7. Managed and Un-Managed Sub-paths 3.7. Managed and Unmanaged Sub-paths
Service providers are responsible for the portion of the path they Service providers are responsible for the portion of the path they
manage. However, most paths involve a sub-path which is beyond the manage. However, most paths involve a sub-path that is beyond the
management of the subscriber's service provider. This means that management of the subscriber's service provider. This means that
private networks, wireless networks using unlicensed frequencies, and private networks, wireless networks using unlicensed frequencies, and
the networks of other service are designated as Un-managed sub-paths. the networks of other service providers are designated as unmanaged
The Service Demarcation Point always divides Managed and Un-managed sub-paths. The service demarcation point always divides managed and
sub-paths. unmanaged sub-paths.
4. Reference Path 4. Reference Path
This section defines a reference path for Internet communication. This section defines a reference path for Internet communication.
Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Service-- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ... Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Service-- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ...
device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW
... Transit -- GRA -- Service -- Private -- Private -- Destination ... Transit -- GRA -- Service -- Private -- Private -- Destination
GRA GW GW Demarc. Net #n Net #n+1 Host GRA GW GW Demarc. Net #n Net #n+1 Host
GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway GRA = Globally Routable Address
GW = Gateway
Figure 1: Reference Path
The following are descriptions of reference path components that may The following are descriptions of reference path components that may
not be clear from their name alone. not be clear from their name alone.
o Subsc. (Subscriber) device - This is a host that normally o Subsc. (Subscriber) device - This is a host that normally
originates and terminates communications conducted over the IP originates and terminates communications conducted over the IP
packet transfer service. packet transfer service.
o Private Net #x - This is a network of devices owned and operated o Private Net #x - This is a network of devices owned and operated
by the Internet Service Subscriber. In some configurations, one by the Internet service subscriber. In some configurations, one
or more private networks and the device that provides the Service or more private networks and the device that provides the service
Demarcation point are collapsed in a single device (and ownership demarcation point are collapsed in a single device (ownership may
may shift to the service provider), and this should be noted as shift to the service provider); this should be noted as part of
part of the path description. the path description.
o Intra IP Access - This is the first point in the access o Intra IP Access - This is the first point in the access
architecture beyond the Service Demarc. where a globally routable architecture, beyond the service demarcation, where a globally
IP address is exposed and used for routing. In architectures that routable IP address is exposed and used for routing. In
use tunneling, this point may be equivalent to the Globally architectures that use tunneling, this point may be equivalent to
Routable Address Gateway (GRA GW). This point could also collapse the Globally Routable Address Gateway (GRA GW). This point could
to the device providing the Service Demarc., in principle. Only also collapse to the device providing the service demarcation, in
one Intra IP Access point is shown, but they can be identified in principle. Only one Intra IP Access point is shown, but they can
any access network. be identified in any access network.
o GRA GW - the point of interconnection between a Service Provider's o GRA GW - This is the point of interconnection between a service
administrative domain and the rest of the Internet, where routing provider's administrative domain and the rest of the Internet,
will depend on the GRAs in the IP header. where routing will depend on the GRAs in the IP header.
o Transit GRA GW - If one or more networks intervene between the o Transit GRA GW - If one or more networks intervene between the
Service Provider's access networks of the Subscriber and of the service provider's access networks of the subscriber and of the
Destination Host, then such networks are designated "transit" and destination host, then such networks are designated "transit" and
are bounded by two Transit GRA GW. are bounded by two transit GRA GWs.
Use of multiple IP address families in the measurement path must be Use of multiple IP address families in the measurement path must be
noted, as the conversions between IPv4 and IPv6 certainly influence noted, as the conversions between IPv4 and IPv6 certainly influence
the visibility of a GRA for each family. the visibility of a GRA for each family.
In the case that a private address space is used throughout an access In the case that a private address space is used throughout an access
architecture, then the Intra IP Access points must use the same architecture, then the Intra IP Access points must use the same
address space as the Service Demarcation point, and the Intra IP address space as the service demarcation point, and the Intra IP
Access points must be selected such that a test between these points Access points must be selected such that a test between these points
produces a useful assessment of access performance (e.g., includes produces a useful assessment of access performance (e.g., includes
both shared and dedicated access link infrastructure). both shared and dedicated access link infrastructure).
5. Measurement Points 5. Measurement Points
A key aspect of measurement points, beyond the definition in section A key aspect of measurement points, beyond the definition in
4.1 of [RFC5835], is that the innermost IP header and higher layer Section 4.1 of [RFC5835], is that the innermost IP header and higher-
information must be accessible through some means. This is essential layer information must be accessible through some means. This is
to measure IP metrics. There may be tunnels and/or other layers essential to measure IP metrics. There may be tunnels and/or other
which encapsulate the innermost IP header, even adding another IP layers that encapsulate the innermost IP header, even adding another
header of their own. IP header of their own.
In general, measurement points cannot always be located exactly where In general, measurement points cannot always be located exactly where
desired. However, the definition in [RFC5835] and the discussion in desired. However, the definition in [RFC5835] and the discussion in
section 5.1 of [RFC3432] indicate that allowances can be made: for Section 5.1 of [RFC3432] indicate that allowances can be made; for
example, it is nearly ideal when there are deterministic errors that example, it is nearly ideal when there are deterministic errors that
can be quantified between desired and actual measurement point. can be quantified between desired and actual measurement points.
The Figure below illustrates the assignment of measurement points to The figure below illustrates the assignment of measurement points to
selected components of the reference path. selected components of the reference path.
Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Service-- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ... Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Service-- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ...
device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW
mp000 mp100 mp150 mp190 mp200 mp000 mp100 mp150 mp190 mp200
... Transit -- GRA -- Service -- Private -- Private -- Destination ... Transit -- GRA -- Service -- Private -- Private -- Destination
GRA GW GW Demarc. Net #n Net #n+1 Host GRA GW GW Demarc. Net #n Net #n+1 Host
mpX90 mp890 mp800 mp900 mpX90 mp890 mp800 mp900
GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway GRA = Globally Routable Address
GW = Gateway
Figure 1 Figure 2: Reference Path with Measurement Point Designations
Each measurement point on a specific reference path MUST be assigned Each measurement point on a specific reference path MUST be assigned
a unique number. To facilitate interpretation of the results, the a unique number. To facilitate interpretation of the results, the
measuring organisation (and whoever it shares results with) MUST have measuring organization (and whoever it shares results with) MUST have
an unambiguous understanding of what path or point was measured. In an unambiguous understanding of what path or point was measured. In
order to achieve this, a set of numbering recommendations follow. order to achieve this, a set of numbering recommendations follow.
When communicating the results of measurements, the measuring When communicating the results of measurements, the measuring
organization SHOULD supply a diagram similar to Figure 1 (with the organization SHOULD supply a diagram similar to Figure 2 (with the
technology-specific information in examples that follow), and MUST technology-specific information in examples that follow) and MUST
supply it when additional measurement point numbers have been defined supply it when additional measurement point numbers have been defined
and used, with sufficient detail to identify measurement locations in and used (with sufficient detail to identify measurement locations in
the path. the path).
Ideally, the consumer of measurement results would know the location Ideally, the consumer of measurement results would know the location
of a measurement point on the reference path from the measurement of a measurement point on the reference path from the measurement
point number alone, and the recommendations below provide a way to point number alone; the recommendations below provide a way to
accomplish this goal. Although the initial numbering may be fully accomplish this goal. Although the initial numbering may be fully
compliant with this system, network growth, consolidation, and re- compliant with this system, changing circumstances could, over time,
arrangement, or circumstances such as ownership changes, could cause lead to gaps in network numbers or non-monotonic measurement point
gaps in network numbers or non-monotonic measurement point number number assignments along the path. Such circumstances could include
assignments along the path over time. These are examples of growth, consolidation, re-arrangement, and change of ownership of the
reasonable causes for numbering deviations which must be identified network. These are examples of reasonable causes for numbering
on the reference path diagram, as required above. deviations that must be identified on the reference path diagram, as
required above.
Whilst the numbering of a measurement point is in the context of a While the numbering of a measurement point is in the context of a
particular path, for simplicity the measuring organisation SHOULD use particular path, for simplicity, the measuring organization SHOULD
the same numbering for a device (playing the same role) on all the use the same numbering for a device (playing the same role) on all
measurement paths through it. Similarly, whilst the measurement the measurement paths through it. Similarly, whilst the measurement
point numbering is in the context of a particular measuring point numbering is in the context of a particular measuring
organisation, organizations with similar technologies and organization, organizations with similar technologies and
architectures are encouraged to coordinate on local numbering and architectures are encouraged to coordinate on local numbering and
diagrams. diagrams.
The measurement point numbering system, mpXnn, has two independent The measurement point numbering system, mpXnn, has two independent
parts: parts:
1. The X in mpXnn indicates the network number. The network with 1. The X in mpXnn indicates the network number. The network with
the Subscriber's device is network 0. The network of a different the subscriber's device is network 0. The network of a different
organization (administrative or ownership domains) SHOULD be organization (administrative or ownership domains) SHOULD be
assigned a different number. Each successive network number assigned a different number. Each successive network number
SHOULD be one greater than the previous network's number. Two SHOULD be one greater than the previous network's number. Two
circumstances make it necessary to designate X=9 in the circumstances make it necessary to designate X=9 in the
Destination Host's network and X=8 for the Service Provider destination host's network and X=8 for the service provider
network at the Destination: network at the destination:
A. The number of Transit networks is unknown. A. The number of transit networks is unknown.
B. The number of Transit networks varies over time. B. The number of transit networks varies over time.
2. The nn in mpXnn indicates the measurement point and is locally- 2. The nn in mpXnn indicates the measurement point and is locally
assigned by network X. The following conventions are suggested: assigned by network X. The following conventions are suggested:
A. 00 SHOULD be used for a measurement point at the Subscriber's A. 00 SHOULD be used for a measurement point at the subscriber's
device and at the Service Demarcation point or GW nearest to device and at the service demarcation point or GW nearest to
the Subscriber's device for Transit Networks. the subscriber's device for transit networks.
B. 90 SHOULD be used for a measurement point at the GW of a B. 90 SHOULD be used for a measurement point at the GW of a
network (opposite from the Subscriber's device or Service network (opposite from the subscriber's device or service
Demarc.). demarcation).
C. In most networks, measurement point numbers SHOULD C. In most networks, measurement point numbers SHOULD
monotonically increase from the point nearest the monotonically increase from the point nearest the
Subscriber's device to the opposite network boundary on the subscriber's device to the opposite network boundary on the
path (see below). path (but see item D for an exception).
D. When a Destination host is part of the path, 00 SHOULD be D. When a destination host is part of the path, 00 SHOULD be
used for a measurement point at the Destination host and at used for a measurement point at the destination host and at
the Destination's Service Demarcation point. Measurement the destination's service demarcation point. Measurement
point numbers SHOULD monotonically increase from the point point numbers SHOULD monotonically increase from the point
nearest the Destination's host to the opposite network nearest the destination's host to the opposite network
boundary on the path ONLY in these networks. This boundary on the path ONLY in these networks. This
directional numbering reversal allows consistent 00 directional numbering reversal allows consistent 00
designation for end hosts and Service Demarcs. designation for end hosts and service demarcation.
E. 50 MAY be used for an intermediate measurement point of E. 50 MAY be used for an intermediate measurement point of
significance, such as a Network Address Translator (NAT). significance, such as a Network Address Translator (NAT).
F. 20 MAY be used for a traffic aggregation point such as a F. 20 MAY be used for a traffic aggregation point, such as a
DSLAM within a network. Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) within a
network.
G. Any other measurement points SHOULD be assigned unused G. Any other measurement points SHOULD be assigned unused
integers between 01 and 99. The assignment SHOULD be stable integers between 01 and 99. The assignment SHOULD be stable
for at least the duration of a particular measurement study, for at least the duration of a particular measurement study
and SHOULD avoid numbers that have been assigned to other and SHOULD avoid numbers that have been assigned to other
locations within network X (unless the assignment is locations within network X (unless the assignment is
considered sufficiently stale). Sub-networks or domains considered sufficiently stale). Subnetworks or domains
within a network are useful locations for measurement points. within a network are useful locations for measurement points.
When supplying a diagram of the reference path and measurement When supplying a diagram of the reference path and measurement
points, the operator of the measurement system MUST indicate: the points, the operator of the measurement system MUST indicate the
reference path, the numbers (mpXnn) of the measurement points, and reference path, the numbers (mpXnn) of the measurement points, and
the technology-specific definition of any measurement point other the technology-specific definition of any measurement point other
than X00 and X90 with sufficient detail to clearly define its than X00 and X90 with sufficient detail to clearly define its
location (similar to the technology-specific examples in Section 6 of location (similar to the technology-specific examples in Section 6 of
this document). this document).
If the number of intermediate networks (between the source and If the number of intermediate networks (between the source and
destination) is not known or is unstable, then this SHOULD be destination) is not known or is unstable, then this SHOULD be
indicated on the diagram and results from measurement points within indicated on the diagram, and results from measurement points within
those networks need to be treated with caution. those networks need to be treated with caution.
Notes: Notes:
o The terminology "on-net" and "off-net" is sometimes used when o The terminology "on-net" and "off-net" is sometimes used when
referring to the Subscriber's Internet Service Provider (ISP) referring to the subscriber's Internet Service Provider (ISP)
measurement coverage. With respect to the reference path, tests measurement coverage. With respect to the reference path, tests
between mp100 and mp190 are "on-net". between mp100 and mp190 are "on-net".
o Widely deployed broadband Internet access measurements have used o Widely deployed broadband Internet access measurements have used
pass-through devices[SK] (at the subscriber's location) directly pass-through devices [SK] (at the subscriber's location) directly
connected to the service demarcation point: this would be located connected to the service demarcation point; this would be located
at mp100. at mp100.
o The networking technology must be indicated for the measurement o The networking technology must be indicated for the measurement
points used, especially the interface standard and configured points used, especially the interface standard and configured
speed (because the measurement connectivity itself can be a speed (because the measurement connectivity itself can be a
limiting factor for the results). limiting factor for the results).
o If it can be shown that a link connecting to a measurement point o If it can be shown that a link connecting to a measurement point
has reliably deterministic performance or negligible impairments, has reliably deterministic performance or negligible impairments,
then the remote end of the connecting link is an equivalent point then the remote end of the connecting link is an equivalent point
for some methods of measurement (although those methods should for some methods of measurement (although those methods should
describe this possibility in detail; it is not in-scope to provide describe this possibility in detail, it is not in scope to provide
such methods here). In any case, the presence of a link and such methods here). In any case, the presence of a link and
claimed equivalent measurement point must be reported. claimed equivalent measurement point must be reported.
o Some access network architectures may have an additional traffic o Some access network architectures may have an additional traffic
aggregation device between mp100 and mp150. Use of a measurement aggregation device between mp100 and mp150. Use of a measurement
point at this location would require a local number and diagram. point at this location would require a local number and diagram.
o A Carrier Grade NAT (CGN) deployed in the Service Provider's o A Carrier Grade NAT (CGN) deployed in the service provider's
access network would be positioned between mp100 and mp190, and access network would be positioned between mp100 and mp190, and
the egress side of the CGN may be designated mp150. mp150 is the egress side of the CGN may be designated mp150. mp150 is
generally an intermediate measurement point in the same address generally an intermediate measurement point in the same address
space as mp190. space as mp190.
o In the case that private address space is used in an access o In the case that private address space is used in an access
architecture, then mp100 may need to use the same address space as architecture, mp100 may need to use the same address space as its
its "on-net" measurement point counterpart, so that a test between "on-net" measurement point counterpart so that a test between
these points produces a useful assessment of network performance. these points produces a useful assessment of network performance.
Tests between mp000 and mp100 could use a different private Tests between mp000 and mp100 could use a different private
address space, and when the globally-routable side of a CGN is at address space, and when the globally routable side of a CGN is at
mp150, then the private address side of the CGN could be mp150, the private address side of the CGN could be designated
designated mp149 for tests with mp100. mp149 for tests with mp100.
o Measurement points at Transit GRA GWs are numbered mpX00 and o Measurement points at transit GRA GWs are numbered mpX00 and
mpX90, where X is the lowest positive integer not already used in mpX90, where X is the lowest positive integer not already used in
the path. The GW of the first transit network is shown, with the path. The GW of the first transit network is shown with point
point mp200 and the last transit network GW with mpX90. mp200 and the last transit network GW with mpX90.
6. Translation Between Reference Path and Various Technologies 6. Examples of Reference Paths with Various Technologies
This section and those that follow are intended to provide example This section and those that follow are intended to provide example
mappings between particular network technologies and the reference mappings between particular network technologies and the reference
path. path.
We provide an example for 3G Cellular access below. We provide an example for 3G cellular access below.
Subscriber -- Private --- Service ------------- GRA --- Transit ... Subscriber -- Private --- Service ------------- GRA --- Transit ...
device Net #1 Demarc. GW GRA GW device Net #1 Demarc. GW GRA GW
mp000 mp100 mp190 mp200 mp000 mp100 mp190 mp200
|_____________UE______________|___RAN+Core____|___GGSN__| |_____________UE______________|___RAN+Core____|___GGSN__|
|_____Un-managed sub-path_____|____Managed sub-path_____| |_____Unmanaged sub-path_____|____Managed sub-path_____|
GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway, UE = User Equipment, GRA = Globally Routable Address
RAN = Radio Access Network, GGSN = Gateway GPRS Support Node. GW = Gateway
UE = User Equipment
RAN = Radio Access Network
GGSN = Gateway General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Support Node
We next provide an example of DSL access. Consider the case where: Figure 3: Example of Reference Path with 3G Cellular Access
Next, we provide an example of DSL access. Consider the case where:
o The Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) has a NAT device that is o The Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) has a NAT device that is
configured with a public IP address. configured with a public IP address.
o The CPE is a home router that has also an incorporated a WiFi o The CPE consists of a wired residential GW and modem internally
access point and this is the only networking device in the home connected (via Private Net #2) to an embedded home router and WiFi
network, all endpoints attach directly to the CPE though the WiFi access point (Private Net #1). All subscriber devices (UE) attach
access. to the CPE through the WiFi access. mp100 is on the modem side of
Private Net #2.
We believe this is a fairly common configuration in some parts of the We believe this is a fairly common configuration in some parts of the
world and fairly simple as well. world and is fairly simple as well.
This case would map into the defined reference measurement points as This case would map into the defined reference measurement points as
follows: follows:
Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Service-- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ... Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Service-- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ...
device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW
mp000 mp100 mp150 mp190 mp200 mp000 mp100 mp150 mp190 mp200
|--UE--|------------CPE/NAT--------|------|-BRAS-|------| |--UE--|------------CPE/NAT--------|------|-BRAS-|------|
|------DSL Network---| |------DSL Network---|
|_______Un-managed sub-path________|__Managed sub-path__| |________Unmanaged sub-path________|__Managed sub-path__|
GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway, BRAS = Broadband GRA = Globally Routable Address
Remote Access Server GW = Gateway
BRAS = Broadband Remote Access Server
Consider next another access network case where: Figure 4: Example of Reference Path with DSL Access
o The Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) is a NAT device that is Consider another access network case where:
configured with a private IP address.
o There is a Carrier Grade NAT (CGN) located deep in the Access ISP o The CPE is a NAT device that is configured with a private IP
network. address.
o There is a CGN located deep in the access ISP network.
o The CPE is a home router that has also an incorporated a WiFi o The CPE is a home router that has also an incorporated a WiFi
access point and this is the only networking device in the home access point and this is the only networking device in the home
network, all endpoints attach directly to the CPE though the WiFi network, all endpoints attach directly to the CPE through the WiFi
access. access.
We believe this is becoming a fairly common configuration in some We believe this is becoming a fairly common configuration in some
parts of the world. parts of the world.
This case would map into the defined reference measurement points as This case would map into the defined reference measurement points as
follows: follows:
Subsc. -- Private ------------- Service-- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ... Subsc. -- Private ------------- Service-- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ...
device Net #1 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW device Net #1 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW
mp000 mp100 mp150 mp190 mp200 mp000 mp100 mp150 mp190 mp200
|--UE--|------------CPE/NAT--------|------|-CGN-|------| |--UE--|------------CPE/NAT--------|------|-CGN-|------|
|--Access Network---| |--Access Network---|
|_______Un-managed sub-path________|_Managed sub-path__| |________Unmanaged sub-path________|_Managed sub-path__|
GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway GRA = Globally Routable Address
GW = Gateway
CGN = Carrier Grade NAT
7. Example Resource Transition Figure 5: Example of Reference Path with CGN
This section gives an example of Shared and Dedicated portions with 7. Example of Reference Path with Resource Transition
the reference path. This example shows two Resource Transition
Points. This section gives an example of shared and dedicated portions with
the reference path. This example shows two resource transition
points.
Consider the case where: Consider the case where:
o The CPE consists of a wired Residential GW and modem (Private o The CPE consists of a wired residential GW and modem (Private Net
Net#2) connected to a WiFi access point (Private Net#1). The #2) connected to a WiFi access point (Private Net #1). The
Subscriber device (UE) attaches to the CPE though the WiFi access. subscriber device (UE) attaches to the CPE through the WiFi
access.
o The WiFi subnetwork (Private Net#1) shares unlicensed radio o The WiFi subnetwork (Private Net #1) shares unlicensed radio
channel resources with other WiFi access networks (and potentially channel resources with other WiFi access networks (and potentially
other sources of interference), thus this is a Shared portion of other sources of interference); thus, this is a shared portion of
the path. the path.
o The wired subnetwork (Private Net#2) and a portion of the Service o The wired subnetwork (Private Net #2) and a portion of the service
Provider's Network are Dedicated Resources (for a single provider's network are dedicated resources (for a single
Subscriber), thus there is a Resource Transition Point between subscriber); thus, there is a resource transition point between
(Private Net#1) and (Private Net#2). Private Net #1 and Private Net #2.
o Subscriber traffic shares common resources with other subscribers o Subscriber traffic shares common resources with other subscribers
upon reaching the Carrier Grade NAT (CGN), thus there is a upon reaching the CGN; thus, there is a resource transition point
Resource Transition Point and further network components are and further network components are designated as shared resources.
designated as Shared Resources.
We believe this is a fairly common configuration in parts of the We believe this is a fairly common configuration in parts of the
world. world.
This case would map into the defined reference measurement points as This case would map into the defined reference measurement points as
follows: follows:
Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Access -- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ... Subsc. -- Private -- Private -- Access -- Intra IP -- GRA -- Transit ...
device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW device Net #1 Net #2 Demarc. Access GW GRA GW
mp000 mp100 mp150 mp190 mp200 mp000 mp100 mp150 mp190 mp200
|--UE--|------------CPE/NAT--------|------|-CGN-|------| |--UE--|------------CPE/NAT--------|------|-CGN-|------|
| WiFi | 1000Base-T |--Access Network---| | WiFi | 1000Base-T |--Access Network---|
|-Shared--|RT|------Dedicated------| RT |-----Shared------... |-Shared--|RT|------Dedicated------| RT |-----Shared------...
|_______Un-managed sub-path________|_Managed sub-path__| |_______Unmanaged sub-path________|_Managed sub-path__|
GRA = Globally Routable Address, GW = Gateway, RT = Resource GRA = Globally Routable Address
Transition Point GW = Gateway
RT = Resource Transition Point
8. Security considerations Figure 6: Example of Reference Path with Two Reference Transition
Points
Specification of a Reference Path and identification of measurement 8. Security Considerations
points on the path represent agreements among interested parties, and
they present no threat to the implementors of this memo, or to the Specification of a reference path and identification of measurement
points on the path represent agreements among interested parties.
They present no threat to the implementors of this memo, or to the
Internet resulting from implementation of the guidelines provided Internet resulting from implementation of the guidelines provided
here. here.
Attacks at end hosts or identified measurement points are possible. Attacks at end hosts or identified measurement points are possible.
However, there is no requirement to include IP addresses of hosts or However, there is no requirement to include IP addresses of hosts or
other network devices in a reference path with measurement points other network devices in a reference path with measurement points
that is compliant with this memo. As a result, the path diagrams that is compliant with this memo. As a result, the path diagrams
with measurement point designation numbers do not aid such attacks. with measurement point designation numbers do not aid such attacks.
Most network operators' diagrams of reference paths will bear a close Most network operators' diagrams of reference paths will bear a close
skipping to change at page 14, line 7 skipping to change at page 15, line 14
atypical network details in their diagram, e.g., to explain why a atypical network details in their diagram, e.g., to explain why a
longer latency measurement is expected, then the diagram reveals some longer latency measurement is expected, then the diagram reveals some
topological details and should be marked as confidential and shared topological details and should be marked as confidential and shared
with others under a specific agreement. with others under a specific agreement.
When considering privacy of those involved in measurement or those When considering privacy of those involved in measurement or those
whose traffic is measured, there may be sensitive information whose traffic is measured, there may be sensitive information
communicated to recipients of the network diagrams illustrating paths communicated to recipients of the network diagrams illustrating paths
and measurement points described above. We refer the reader to the and measurement points described above. We refer the reader to the
privacy considerations described in the Large Scale Measurement of privacy considerations described in the Large Scale Measurement of
Broadband Performance (LMAP) Framework [I-D.ietf-lmap-framework], Broadband Performance (LMAP) Framework [LMAP-FRAMEWORK], which covers
which covers active and passive measurement techniques and supporting active and passive measurement techniques and supporting material on
material on measurement context. For example, the value of sensitive measurement context. For example, the value of sensitive information
information can be further diluted by summarising measurement results can be further diluted by summarizing measurement results over many
over many individuals or areas served by the provider. There is an individuals or areas served by the provider. There is an opportunity
opportunity enabled by forming anonymity sets described in [RFC6973] enabled by forming anonymity sets described in [RFC6973] based on the
based on the reference path and measurement points in this memo. For reference path and measurement points in this memo. For example, all
example, all measurements from the Subscriber device can be measurements from the subscriber device can be identified as "mp000",
identified as "mp000", instead of using the IP address or other instead of using the IP address or other device information. The
device information. The same anonymisation applies to the Internet same anonymization applies to the Internet service provider, where
Service Provider, where their Internet gateway would be referred to their Internet gateway would be referred to as "mp190".
as "mp190".
9. IANA Considerations
This memo makes no requests for IANA consideration.
10. Acknowledgements
Thanks to Matt Mathis, Charles Cook, Dan Romascanu, Lingli Deng, and 9. References
Spencer Dawkins for review and comments.
11. References 9.1. Normative References
11.1. Normative References [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis, [RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis,
"Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, May "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, May
1998. 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2330>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3432] Raisanen, V., Grotefeld, G., and A. Morton, "Network [RFC3432] Raisanen, V., Grotefeld, G., and A. Morton, "Network
performance measurement with periodic streams", RFC 3432, performance measurement with periodic streams", RFC 3432,
November 2002. November 2002, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3432>.
[RFC5835] Morton, A. and S. Van den Berghe, "Framework for Metric [RFC5835] Morton, A. and S. Van den Berghe, "Framework for Metric
Composition", RFC 5835, April 2010. Composition", RFC 5835, April 2010,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5835>.
11.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-lmap-framework] [LMAP-FRAMEWORK]
Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T.,
Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A framework for large-scale Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A framework for large-scale
measurement platforms (LMAP)", draft-ietf-lmap- measurement platforms (LMAP)", Work in Progress,
framework-08 (work in progress), August 2014. draft-ietf-lmap-framework-10, January 2015.
[Q.1741] International Telecommunications Union, "IMT-2000
references to Release 9 of GSM-evolved UMTS core network",
ITU-T Recommendation Q.1741.7, November 2011,
<http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Q.1741.7/en>.
[RFC6973] Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J., [RFC6973] Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J.,
Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy
Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973, July Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973, July
2013. 2013, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6973>.
[SK] Crawford, Sam., "Test Methodology White Paper", SamKnows [SK] Crawford, S., "Test Methodology White Paper", SamKnows
Whitebox Briefing Note Whitebox Briefing Note , July 2011,
http://www.samknows.com/broadband/index.php, July 2011. <http://www.samknows.com/broadband/index.php>.
[Q1741] Q.1741.7, , "IMT-2000 references to Release 9 of GSM- [Y.1541] International Telecommunications Union, "Network
evolved UMTS core network", performance objectives for IP-based services", ITU-T
http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Q.1741.7/en, November 2011. Recommendation Y.1541, November 2011,
<http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Y.1541/en>.
[Y.1541] Y.1541, , "Network performance objectives for IP-based Acknowledgments
services", http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Y.1541/en,
November 2011. Thanks to Matt Mathis, Charles Cook, Dan Romascanu, Lingli Deng, and
Spencer Dawkins for review and comments.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Marcelo Bagnulo Marcelo Bagnulo
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
Av. Universidad 30 Av. Universidad 30
Leganes, Madrid 28911 Leganes, Madrid 28911
SPAIN Spain
Phone: 34 91 6249500 Phone: 34 91 6249500
Email: marcelo@it.uc3m.es EMail: marcelo@it.uc3m.es
URI: http://www.it.uc3m.es URI: http://www.it.uc3m.es
Trevor Burbridge Trevor Burbridge
BT BT
Adastral Park, Martlesham Heath Adastral Park, Martlesham Heath
Ipswich Ipswich
ENGLAND United Kingdom
EMail: trevor.burbridge@bt.com
Email: trevor.burbridge@bt.com
Sam Crawford Sam Crawford
SamKnows SamKnows
Email: sam@samknows.com EMail: sam@samknows.com
Phil Eardley Philip Eardley
BT BT
Adastral Park, Martlesham Heath Adastral Park, Martlesham Heath
Ipswich Ipswich
ENGLAND United Kingdom
Email: philip.eardley@bt.com EMail: philip.eardley@bt.com
Al Morton Al Morton
AT&T Labs AT&T Labs
200 Laurel Avenue South 200 Laurel Avenue South
Middletown, NJ Middletown, NJ
USA United States
Email: acmorton@att.com EMail: acmorton@att.com
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