draft-ietf-ippm-active-passive-00.txt   draft-ietf-ippm-active-passive-01.txt 
Network Working Group A. Morton Network Working Group A. Morton
Internet-Draft AT&T Labs Internet-Draft AT&T Labs
Intended status: Informational June 30, 2015 Intended status: Informational September 6, 2015
Expires: January 1, 2016 Expires: March 9, 2016
Active and Passive Metrics and Methods (and everything in-between, or Active and Passive Metrics and Methods (and everything in-between, or
Hybrid) Hybrid)
draft-ietf-ippm-active-passive-00 draft-ietf-ippm-active-passive-01
Abstract Abstract
This memo provides clear definitions for Active and Passive This memo provides clear definitions for Active and Passive
performance assessment. The construction of Metrics and Methods can performance assessment. The construction of Metrics and Methods can
be described as Active or Passive. Some methods may use a subset of be described as Active or Passive. Some methods may use a subset of
both active and passive attributes, and we refer to these as Hybrid both active and passive attributes, and we refer to these as Hybrid
Methods. Methods.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
skipping to change at page 1, line 35 skipping to change at page 1, line 35
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 1, 2016. This Internet-Draft will expire on March 9, 2016.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 21 skipping to change at page 2, line 21
2. Purpose and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Purpose and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1. Performance Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.1. Performance Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.2. Method of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. Method of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.3. Observation Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.3. Observation Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.4. Active Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.4. Active Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.5. Active Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.5. Active Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.6. Passive Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.6. Passive Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.7. Passive Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.7. Passive Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.8. Hybrid Methods and Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.8. Hybrid Methods and Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Graphical Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Graphical Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. Discussion of PDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2. Discussion of PDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.3. Discussion of "Coloring" Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.3. Discussion of "Coloring" Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The adjectives "active" and "passive" have been used for many years The adjectives "active" and "passive" have been used for many years
to distinguish two different classes of Internet performance to distinguish two different classes of Internet performance
assessment. The first Passive and Active Measurement (PAM) assessment. The first Passive and Active Measurement (PAM)
Conference was held in 2000, but the earliest proceedings available Conference was held in 2000, but the earliest proceedings available
on-line are from the second PAM conference in 2001 on-line are from the second PAM conference in 2001
[https://www.ripe.net/ripe/meetings/pam-2001]. [https://www.ripe.net/ripe/meetings/pam-2001].
skipping to change at page 3, line 13 skipping to change at page 3, line 13
present whether measurements take place or not. present whether measurements take place or not.
As new techniques for assessment emerge it is helpful to have clear As new techniques for assessment emerge it is helpful to have clear
definitions of these notions. This memo provides more detailed definitions of these notions. This memo provides more detailed
definitions, defines a new category for combinations of traditional definitions, defines a new category for combinations of traditional
active and passive techniques, and discusses means to evaluate new active and passive techniques, and discusses means to evaluate new
techniques as they emerge. techniques as they emerge.
This memo provides definitions for Active and Passive Metrics and This memo provides definitions for Active and Passive Metrics and
Methods based on long usage in the Internet measurement community, Methods based on long usage in the Internet measurement community,
and especially the Internet Engineering Task Force. and especially the Internet Engineering Task Force. This memo also
describes the comnination of fundamental Active and Passive
categories, which are called Hybrid Methods and Metrics.
1.1. Requirements Language 1.1. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
2. Purpose and Scope 2. Purpose and Scope
The scope of this memo is to define and describe Active and Passive The scope of this memo is to define and describe Active and Passive
skipping to change at page 3, line 40 skipping to change at page 3, line 42
Hybrid methods. Hybrid methods.
Further, this memo's purpose includes describing multiple dimensions Further, this memo's purpose includes describing multiple dimensions
in which to evaluate methods as they emerge. in which to evaluate methods as they emerge.
3. Terms and Definitions 3. Terms and Definitions
This section defines the key terms of the memo. Some definitions use This section defines the key terms of the memo. Some definitions use
the notion of "stream of interest" which is synonymous with the notion of "stream of interest" which is synonymous with
"population of interest" defined in clause 6.1.1 of ITU-T "population of interest" defined in clause 6.1.1 of ITU-T
Recommendation Y.1540. The definitions are consistent with Recommendation Y.1540 [Y.1540]. The definitions are consistent with
[I-D.zheng-ippm-framework-passive]. [I-D.zheng-ippm-framework-passive].
3.1. Performance Metric 3.1. Performance Metric
The standard definition of a quantity, produced in an assessment of The standard definition of a quantity, produced in an assessment of
performance and/or reliability of the network, which has an intended performance and/or reliability of the network, which has an intended
utility and is carefully specified to convey the exact meaning of a utility and is carefully specified to convey the exact meaning of a
measured value. (This definition is consistent with that of measured value. (This definition is consistent with that of
Performance Metric in RFC 2330 and RFC 6390). Performance Metric in RFC 2330 and RFC 6390).
skipping to change at page 6, line 6 skipping to change at page 6, line 6
3.7. Passive Metric 3.7. Passive Metric
Passive Metrics apply to observations of packet traffic (traffic Passive Metrics apply to observations of packet traffic (traffic
flows in [RFC7011]). flows in [RFC7011]).
Passive performance metrics are assessed independent of the packets Passive performance metrics are assessed independent of the packets
or traffic flows, and solely through observation. Some refer to such or traffic flows, and solely through observation. Some refer to such
assessments as "out-of-band". assessments as "out-of-band".
One example of passive performance metrics for IP packet transfer can One example of passive performance metrics for IP packet transfer can
be found in ITU-T Recommendation Y.1540, where the metrics are be found in ITU-T Recommendation Y.1540 [Y.1540], where the metrics
defined on the basis of reference events as packet pass reference are defined on the basis of reference events as packet pass reference
points, so the metrics are agnostic to the distinction between active points, so the metrics are agnostic to the distinction between active
and passive when the necessary packet correspondence can be derived and passive when the necessary packet correspondence can be derived
from the observed stream of interest when required. from the observed stream of interest as required.
3.8. Hybrid Methods and Metrics 3.8. Hybrid Methods and Metrics
Methods of Measurement which use a combination of Active Methods and Hybrid Methods are Methods of Measurement which use a combination of
Passive Methods, to assess Active Metrics, Passive Metrics, or new Active Methods and Passive Methods, to assess Active Metrics, Passive
metrics derived from the a' priori knowledge and observations of the Metrics, or new metrics derived from the a' priori knowledge and
stream of interest. ITU-T Recommendation Y.1540 defines metrics are observations of the stream of interest. ITU-T Recommendation Y.1540
applicable to the hybrid category, since packet correspondence at [Y.1540] defines metrics are applicable to the hybrid category, since
different observation/reference points could be derived from "fields packet correspondence at different observation/reference points could
which are dedicated to measurement", but otherwise the methods are be derived from "fields which are dedicated to measurement", but
passive. otherwise the methods are passive.
With respect to the stream of interest, Hybrid methods fit in the There are several types of Hybrid methods, as categorized below.
continuum as follows, in terms of what happens at the Source(or
Observation Point nearby): With respect to a *single* stream of interest, Hybrid Type I methods
fit in the continuum as follows, in terms of what happens at the
Source (or Observation Point nearby):
o If you generate the stream of interest => Active o If you generate the stream of interest => Active
o If you augment of modify a stream of interest => Hybrid o If you augment of modify a stream of interest => Hybrid Type I
o If you solely observe a stream of interest => Passive o If you solely observe a stream of interest => Passive
We define Hybrid Type II as follows: Methods that employ two or more
different streams of interest with some degree of mutual coordination
(one or more Active streams and one or more undisturbed and
unmodified packet streams) to collect both Active and Passive Metrics
and enable enhanced characterization from additional joint analysis.
[I-D.trammell-ippm-hybrid-ps] presents a problem statement for Hybrid
Type II methods and metrics. Note that one or more Hybrid Type I
streams could be substituted for the Active streams or undisturbed
streams in the mutually coordinated set. It is the Type II Methods
where unique Hybrid Metrics are atnticipated to emerge.
Methods based on a combination of a single (generated) Active stream
and Passive observations applied to the stream of interest at
intermediate observation points are also a type of Hybrid Methods.
However, [RFC5644] already defines these as Spatial Metrics and
Methods. It is possible to replace the Active stream of [RFC5644]
with a Hybrid Type I stream and measure Spatial Metrics (but this was
un-anticipated when [RFC5644] was developed).
The Table below illustrates the categorization of methods (where
"Synthesis" refers to a combination of Active and Passive Method
attributes).
| Single Stream | Multiple Simultaneous
| of Interest | Streams of Interest
| | from Different Methods
====================================================================
Single Fundamental | Active or Passive |
Method | |
Synthesis of | Hybrid Type I |
Fundamental Methods | |
Multiple Methods | Spatial Metrics | Hybrid Type II
| [RFC 5644] |
4. Discussion 4. Discussion
This section illustrates the definitions and presents some examples. This section illustrates the definitions and presents some examples.
4.1. Graphical Representation 4.1. Graphical Representation
If we compare the Active and Passive Methods, there are at least two If we compare the Active and Passive Methods, there are at least two
dimensions on which methods can be evaluated. This evaluation space dimensions on which methods can be evaluated. This evaluation space
may be useful when a method is a combination of the two alternative may be useful when a method is a combination of the two alternative
methods. methods.
skipping to change at page 9, line 13 skipping to change at page 10, line 5
supports performance measurements. This method processes a user supports performance measurements. This method processes a user
traffic stream and adds "fields which are dedicated to measurement". traffic stream and adds "fields which are dedicated to measurement".
Thus: Thus:
o The method may have a small effect on the measured stream and o The method may have a small effect on the measured stream and
other streams in the network. other streams in the network.
o The measured stream has unknown characteristics until it is o The measured stream has unknown characteristics until it is
processed to add the PDM Option header. processed to add the PDM Option header.
We conclude that this is a Hybrid method, having at least one We conclude that this is a Hybrid Type I method, having at least one
characteristic of both active and passive methods. characteristic of both active and passive methods.
4.3. Discussion of "Coloring" Method 4.3. Discussion of "Coloring" Method
Draft [I-D.tempia-opsawg-p3m], proposed to color packets by re- Draft [I-D.tempia-opsawg-p3m], proposed to color packets by re-
writing a field of the stream at strategic interfaces to support writing a field of the stream at strategic interfaces to support
performance measurements. This method processes a user traffic performance measurements. This method processes a user traffic
stream and inserts "fields which are dedicated to measurement". stream and inserts "fields which are dedicated to measurement".
Thus: Thus:
skipping to change at page 9, line 36 skipping to change at page 10, line 28
o The measured stream has unknown characteristics until it is o The measured stream has unknown characteristics until it is
processed to add the coloring in the header, and the stream could processed to add the coloring in the header, and the stream could
be measured and time-stamped during that process. be measured and time-stamped during that process.
We note that [I-D.chen-ippm-coloring-based-ipfpm-framework] proposes We note that [I-D.chen-ippm-coloring-based-ipfpm-framework] proposes
a method similar to [I-D.tempia-opsawg-p3m], and ippm-list discussion a method similar to [I-D.tempia-opsawg-p3m], and ippm-list discussion
indicates [I-D.chen-ippm-coloring-based-ipfpm-framework] may be indicates [I-D.chen-ippm-coloring-based-ipfpm-framework] may be
covered by the same IPR as [I-D.tempia-opsawg-p3m]. covered by the same IPR as [I-D.tempia-opsawg-p3m].
We conclude that this is a Hybrid method, having at least one We conclude that this is a Hybrid Type I method, having at least one
characteristic of both active and passive methods. characteristic of both active and passive methods.
5. Security considerations 5. Security considerations
When considering privacy of those involved in measurement or those When considering privacy of those involved in measurement or those
whose traffic is measured, there is sensitive information whose traffic is measured, there is sensitive information
communicated and observed at observation and measurement points communicated and observed at observation and measurement points
described above. We refer the reader to the privacy considerations described above. We refer the reader to the privacy considerations
described in the Large Scale Measurement of Broadband Performance described in the Large Scale Measurement of Broadband Performance
(LMAP) Framework [I-D.ietf-lmap-framework], which covers active and (LMAP) Framework [I-D.ietf-lmap-framework], which covers active and
skipping to change at page 10, line 13 skipping to change at page 10, line 50
context. context.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
This memo makes no requests for IANA consideration. This memo makes no requests for IANA consideration.
7. Acknowledgements 7. Acknowledgements
Thanks to Mike Ackermann for asking the right question, and for Thanks to Mike Ackermann for asking the right question, and for
several suggestions on terminology. Brian Trammell provided key several suggestions on terminology. Brian Trammell provided key
terms and references for the passive category. Tiziano Ionta terms and references for the passive category, and suggested ways to
reviewed the draft and suggested the classification for the expand the Hybrid description and types. Phil Eardley suggested some
hybrid scenaios for categorization as part of his review. Tiziano
Ionta reviewed the draft and suggested the classification for the
"coloring" method of measurement. Nalini Elkins identified several "coloring" method of measurement. Nalini Elkins identified several
areas for clarification following her review. Bill Jouris reviewed areas for clarification following her review. Bill Jouris suggested
01 editorially and suggested several improvements. several editorial improvements.
8. References 8. References
8.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis, [RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis,
"Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, May "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330,
1998. DOI 10.17487/RFC2330, May 1998,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2330>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3432] Raisanen, V., Grotefeld, G., and A. Morton, "Network [RFC3432] Raisanen, V., Grotefeld, G., and A. Morton, "Network
performance measurement with periodic streams", RFC 3432, performance measurement with periodic streams", RFC 3432,
November 2002. DOI 10.17487/RFC3432, November 2002,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3432>.
[RFC5835] Morton, A. and S. Van den Berghe, "Framework for Metric [RFC5644] Stephan, E., Liang, L., and A. Morton, "IP Performance
Composition", RFC 5835, April 2010. Metrics (IPPM): Spatial and Multicast", RFC 5644,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5644, October 2009,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5644>.
[RFC7011] Claise, B., Trammell, B., and P. Aitken, "Specification of [RFC5835] Morton, A., Ed. and S. Van den Berghe, Ed., "Framework for
the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Metric Composition", RFC 5835, DOI 10.17487/RFC5835, April
Exchange of Flow Information", STD 77, RFC 7011, September 2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5835>.
2013.
[RFC7011] Claise, B., Ed., Trammell, B., Ed., and P. Aitken,
"Specification of the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
Protocol for the Exchange of Flow Information", STD 77,
RFC 7011, DOI 10.17487/RFC7011, September 2013,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7011>.
8.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-lmap-framework] [I-D.ietf-lmap-framework]
Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T.,
Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A framework for Large-Scale Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A framework for Large-Scale
Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP)", draft-ietf- Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP)", draft-ietf-
lmap-framework-14 (work in progress), April 2015. lmap-framework-14 (work in progress), April 2015.
[I-D.ietf-ippm-6man-pdm-option] [I-D.ietf-ippm-6man-pdm-option]
skipping to change at page 11, line 19 skipping to change at page 12, line 19
[I-D.tempia-opsawg-p3m] [I-D.tempia-opsawg-p3m]
Capello, A., Cociglio, M., Castaldelli, L., and A. Bonda, Capello, A., Cociglio, M., Castaldelli, L., and A. Bonda,
"A packet based method for passive performance "A packet based method for passive performance
monitoring", draft-tempia-opsawg-p3m-04 (work in monitoring", draft-tempia-opsawg-p3m-04 (work in
progress), February 2014. progress), February 2014.
[I-D.chen-ippm-coloring-based-ipfpm-framework] [I-D.chen-ippm-coloring-based-ipfpm-framework]
Chen, M., Zheng, L., Mirsky, G., and G. Fioccola, "IP Flow Chen, M., Zheng, L., Mirsky, G., and G. Fioccola, "IP Flow
Performance Measurement Framework", draft-chen-ippm- Performance Measurement Framework", draft-chen-ippm-
coloring-based-ipfpm-framework-03 (work in progress), coloring-based-ipfpm-framework-04 (work in progress), July
February 2015. 2015.
[I-D.zheng-ippm-framework-passive] [I-D.zheng-ippm-framework-passive]
Zheng, L., Elkins, N., Lingli, D., Ackermann, M., and G. Zheng, L., Elkins, N., Lingli, D., Ackermann, M., and G.
Mirsky, "Framework for IP Passive Performance Mirsky, "Framework for IP Passive Performance
Measurements", draft-zheng-ippm-framework-passive-03 (work Measurements", draft-zheng-ippm-framework-passive-03 (work
in progress), February 2015. in progress), February 2015.
[I-D.trammell-ippm-hybrid-ps]
Trammell, B., Zheng, L., Berenguer, S., and M. Bagnulo,
"Hybrid Measurement using IPPM Metrics", draft-trammell-
ippm-hybrid-ps-01 (work in progress), February 2014.
[Y.1540] ITU-T Recommendation Y.1540, , "Internet protocol data
communication service - IP packet transfer and
availability performance parameters", March 2011.
Author's Address Author's Address
Al Morton Al Morton
AT&T Labs AT&T Labs
200 Laurel Avenue South 200 Laurel Avenue South
Middletown, NJ Middletown, NJ
USA USA
Email: acmorton@att.com Email: acmorton@att.com
 End of changes. 24 change blocks. 
48 lines changed or deleted 110 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.42. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/