draft-ietf-ippm-2330-update-05.txt   rfc7312.txt 
Network Working Group J. Fabini Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) J. Fabini
Internet-Draft Vienna University of Technology Request for Comments: 7312 Vienna University of Technology
Updates: 2330 (if approved) A. Morton Updates: 2330 A. Morton
Intended status: Informational AT&T Labs Category: Informational AT&T Labs
Expires: November 29, 2014 May 28, 2014 ISSN: 2070-1721 August 2014
Advanced Stream and Sampling Framework for IPPM Advanced Stream and Sampling Framework
draft-ietf-ippm-2330-update-05 for IP Performance Metrics (IPPM)
Abstract Abstract
To obtain repeatable results in modern networks, test descriptions To obtain repeatable results in modern networks, test descriptions
need an expanded stream parameter framework that also augments need an expanded stream parameter framework that also augments
aspects specified as Type-P for test packets. This memo updates the aspects specified as Type-P for test packets. This memo updates the
IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) Framework RFC 2330 with advanced IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) Framework, RFC 2330, with advanced
considerations for measurement methodology and testing. The existing considerations for measurement methodology and testing. The existing
framework mostly assumes deterministic connectivity, and that a framework mostly assumes deterministic connectivity, and that a
single test stream will represent the characteristics of the path single test stream will represent the characteristics of the path
when it is aggregated with other flows. Networks have evolved and when it is aggregated with other flows. Networks have evolved and
test stream descriptions must evolve with them, otherwise unexpected test stream descriptions must evolve with them; otherwise, unexpected
network features may dominate the measured performance. This memo network features may dominate the measured performance. This memo
describes new stream parameters for both network characterization and describes new stream parameters for both network characterization and
support of application design using IPPM metrics. support of application design using IPPM metrics.
Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. published for informational purposes.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not all documents
approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on November 29, 2014. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7312.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Definition: Reactive Path Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Definition: Reactive Path Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. New or Revised Stream Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. New or Revised Stream Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Test Packet Type-P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Test Packet Type-P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.1. Multiple Test Packet Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1.1. Multiple Test Packet Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.2. Test Packet Payload Content Optimization . . . . . . 7 3.1.2. Test Packet Payload Content Optimization . . . . . . 7
3.2. Packet History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Packet History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3. Access Technology Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3. Access Technology Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.4. Time-Slotted Randomness Cancellation . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.4. Time-Slotted Randomness Cancellation . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Quality of Metrics and Methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Quality of Metrics and Methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1. Revised Definition of Repeatability . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.1. Revised Definition of Repeatability . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2. Continuity No Longer an Alternative Repeatability 4.2. Continuity No Longer an Alternative Repeatability
Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3. Metrics Should Be Actionable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.3. Metrics Should Be Actionable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.4. It May Not Be Possible To Be Conservative . . . . . . . . 12 4.4. It May Not Be Possible To Be Conservative . . . . . . . . 13
4.5. Spatial and Temporal Composition Support Unbiased 4.5. Spatial and Temporal Composition Support Unbiased
Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.6. When to Truncate the Poisson Sampling Distribution . . . 13 4.6. When to Truncate the Poisson Sampling Distribution . . . 13
5. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The IETF IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) working group first created a The IETF IPPM working group first created a framework for metric
framework for metric development in [RFC2330]. This framework has development in [RFC2330]. This framework has stood the test of time
stood the test of time and enabled development of many fundamental and enabled development of many fundamental metrics, while only being
metrics, while only being updated once in a specific area [RFC5835]. updated once in a specific area [RFC5835].
The IPPM framework [RFC2330] generally relies on several assumptions, The IPPM framework [RFC2330] generally relies on several assumptions,
one of which is not explicitly stated but assumed: lightly loaded one of which is not explicitly stated but assumed: lightly loaded
paths conform to the linear "delay = packet size / capacity" paths conform to the linear "serialization delay = packet size /
equation, being state/history-less (with some exceptions, firewalls capacity" equation, and they are state-less or history-less (with
are mentioned). However, this does not hold true for many modern some exceptions, e.g., firewalls are mentioned). However, this does
network technologies, such as reactive paths (those with demand- not hold true for many modern network technologies, such as reactive
driven resource allocation) and links with time-slotted operation. paths (those with demand-driven resource allocation) and links with
Per-flow state can be observed on test packet streams, and such time-slotted operation. Per-flow state can be observed on test
treatment will influence network characterization if it is not taken packet streams, and such treatment will influence network
into account. Flow history will also affect the performance of characterization if it is not taken into account. Flow history will
applications and be perceived by their users. also affect the performance of applications and be perceived by their
users.
Moreover, Sections 4 and 6.2 of [RFC2330] explicitly recommend Moreover, Sections 4 and 6.2 of [RFC2330] explicitly recommend
repeatable measurement metrics and methodologies. Measurements in repeatable measurement metrics and methodologies. Measurements in
today's access networks illustrate that methodological guidelines of today's access networks illustrate that methodological guidelines of
[RFC2330] must be extended to capture the reactive nature of these [RFC2330] must be extended to capture the reactive nature of these
networks. There are proposed extensions to allow methodologies to networks. There are proposed extensions to allow methodologies to
fulfill the continuity requirement stated in section 6.2 of fulfill the continuity requirement stated in Section 6.2 of
[RFC2330], but is impossible to guarantee they can do so. Practical [RFC2330], but it is impossible to guarantee they can do so.
measurements confirm that some link types exhibit distinct responses Practical measurements confirm that some link types exhibit distinct
to repeated measurements with identical stimulus, i.e., identical responses to repeated measurements with identical stimulus, i.e.,
traffic patterns. If feasible, appropriate fine-tuning of identical traffic patterns. If feasible, appropriate fine-tuning of
measurement traffic patterns can improve measurement continuity and measurement traffic patterns can improve measurement continuity and
repeatability for these link types as shown in [IBD]. repeatability for these link types as shown in [IBD].
This memo updates the IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) Framework This memo updates the IPPM framework [RFC2330] with advanced
[RFC2330] with advanced considerations for measurement methodology considerations for measurement methodology and testing. We note that
and testing. We note that the scope of IPPM work at the time of the scope of IPPM work at the time of the publication of [RFC2330]
[RFC2330] publication (and more than a decade of work that followed) (and during more than a decade that followed) was limited to active
was limited to active techniques, or those which generate packet techniques or those that generate packet streams that are dedicated
streams which are dedicated to measurement and do not monitor user to measurement and do not monitor user traffic. This memo retains
traffic. This memo retains that same scope. that same scope.
We stress that this update of [RFC2330] does not invalidate or We stress that this update of [RFC2330] does not invalidate or
require changes to the analytic metric definitions prepared in the require changes to the analytic metric definitions prepared in the
IPPM working group to date. Rather, it adds considerations for IPPM working group to date. Rather, it adds considerations for
active measurement methodologies and expands the importance of active measurement methodologies and expands the importance of
existing conventions and notions in [RFC2330], such as "packets of existing conventions and notions in [RFC2330], such as "packets of
Type-P". Type-P".
Among the evolutionary networking changes is a phenomenon we call Among the evolutionary networking changes is a phenomenon we call
"reactive behavior", defined below. "reactive behavior", as defined below.
1.1. Definition: Reactive Path Behavior 1.1. Definition: Reactive Path Behavior
Reactive path behavior will be observable by the test packet stream Reactive path behavior will be observable by the test packet stream
as a repeatable phenomenon where packet transfer performance as a repeatable phenomenon where packet transfer performance
characteristics *change* according to prior observations of the characteristics *change* according to prior observations of the
packet flow of interest (at the reactive host or link). Therefore, packet flow of interest (at the reactive host or link). Therefore,
reactive path behavior is nominally deterministic with respect to the reactive path behavior is nominally deterministic with respect to the
flow of interest. Other flows or traffic load conditions may result flow of interest. Other flows or traffic load conditions may result
in additional performance-affecting reactions, but these are external in additional performance-affecting reactions, but these are external
to the characteristics of the flow of interest. to the characteristics of the flow of interest.
In practice, a sender may not have absolute control of the ingress In practice, a sender may not have absolute control of the ingress
packet stream characteristics at a reactive host or link, but this packet stream characteristics at a reactive host or link, but this
does not change the deterministic reactions present there. If we does not change the deterministic reactions present there. If we
measure a path, the arrival characteristics at the reactive host/link measure a path, the arrival characteristics at the reactive host/link
are determined by the sending characteristics and the transfer are determined by the sending characteristics and the transfer
characteristics of intervening hosts and links. Identical traffic characteristics of intervening hosts and links. Identical traffic
patterns at the sending host might generate distinct patterns at the patterns at the sending host might generate different patterns at the
reactive host's/link's input due to impairments in the intermediate input of the reactive host/link due to impairments in the
subpath. The reactive host/link is expected to provide deterministic intermediate subpath. The reactive host/link is expected to provide
response on identical input patterns. a deterministic response on identical input patterns (composed of all
flows, including the flow of interest).
Other than the size of the payload at the layer of interest and the Other than the size of the payload at the layer of interest and the
header itself, packet content does not influence the measurement. header itself, packet content does not influence the measurement.
Reactive behavior at the IP layer is not influenced by the TCP ports Reactive behavior at the IP layer is not influenced by the TCP ports
in use, for example. Therefore, the indication of reactive behavior in use, for example. Therefore, the indication of reactive behavior
must include the layer at which measurements are instituted. must include the layer at which measurements are instituted.
Examples include links with Active/In-active state detectors, and Examples include links with Active/Inactive state detectors, and
hosts or links that revise their traffic serving and forwarding rates hosts or links that revise their traffic serving and forwarding rates
(up or down) based on packet arrival history. (up or down) based on packet arrival history.
Although difficult to handle from a measurement point of view, Although difficult to handle from a measurement point of view,
reactive paths entities are usually designed to improve overall reactive paths' entities are usually designed to improve overall
network performance and user experience, for example by making network performance and user experience, for example, by making
capacity available to an active user. Reactive behavior may be an capacity available to an active user. Reactive behavior may be an
artifact of solutions to allocate scarce resources according to the artifact of solutions to allocate scarce resources according to the
demands of users, thus it is an important problem to solve for demands of users; thus, it is an important problem to solve for
measurement and other disciplines, such as application design. measurement and other disciplines, such as application design.
1.2. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
2. Scope 2. Scope
The purpose of this memo is to foster repeatable measurement results The purpose of this memo is to foster repeatable measurement results
in modern networks by highlighting the key aspects of test streams in modern networks by highlighting the key aspects of test streams
and packets and make them part of the IPPM performance metric and packets and making them part of the IPPM framework.
framework.
The scope is to update key sections of [RFC2330], adding The scope is to update key sections of [RFC2330], adding
considerations that will aid the development of new measurement considerations that will aid the development of new measurement
methodologies intended for today's IP networks. Specifically, this methodologies intended for today's IP networks. Specifically, this
memo describes useful stream parameters in addition to the memo describes useful stream parameters that complement the
information in Section 11.1 of [RFC2330] and described in [RFC3432] parameters discussed in Section 11.1 of [RFC2330] and the parameters
for periodic streams. described in Section 4.2 of [RFC3432] for periodic streams.
The memo also provides new considerations to update the criteria for The memo also provides new considerations to update the criteria for
metrics in section 4 of [RFC2330], the measurement methodology in metrics in Section 4 of [RFC2330], the measurement methodology in
section 6.2 of [RFC2330], and other topics related to the quality of Section 6.2 of [RFC2330], and other topics related to the quality of
metrics and methods (see section 4). metrics and methods (see Section 4).
Other topics in [RFC2330] which might be updated or augmented are Other topics in [RFC2330] that might be updated or augmented are
deferred to future work. This includes the topics of passive and deferred to future work. This includes the topics of passive and
various forms of hybrid active/passive measurements. various forms of hybrid active/passive measurements.
3. New or Revised Stream Parameters 3. New or Revised Stream Parameters
There are several areas where measurement methodology definition and There are several areas where measurement methodology definition and
test result interpretation will benefit from an increased test result interpretation will benefit from an increased
understanding of the stream characteristics and the (possibly understanding of the stream characteristics and the (possibly
unknown) network condition that influence the measured metrics. unknown) network conditions that influence the measured metrics.
1. Network treatment depends on the fullest extent on the "packet of 1. Network treatment depends on the fullest extent on the "packet of
Type-P" definition in [RFC2330], and has for some time. Type-P" definition in [RFC2330], and has for some time.
* State is often maintained on the per-flow basis at various * State is often maintained on the per-flow basis at various
points in the path, where "flows" are determined by IP and points in the path, where "flows" are determined by IP and
other layers. Significant treatment differences occur with other layers. Significant treatment differences occur with
the simplest of Type-P parameters: packet length. Use of the simplest of Type-P parameters: packet length. Use of
multiple lengths is RECOMMENDED. multiple lengths is RECOMMENDED.
skipping to change at page 6, line 4 skipping to change at page 6, line 13
at different points in a path. at different points in a path.
2. Packet history (instantaneous or recent test rate or inactivity, 2. Packet history (instantaneous or recent test rate or inactivity,
also for non-test traffic) profoundly influences measured also for non-test traffic) profoundly influences measured
performance, in addition to all the Type-P parameters described performance, in addition to all the Type-P parameters described
in [RFC2330]. in [RFC2330].
3. Access technology may change during testing. A range of transfer 3. Access technology may change during testing. A range of transfer
capacities and access methods may be encountered during a test capacities and access methods may be encountered during a test
session. When different interfaces are used, the host seeking session. When different interfaces are used, the host seeking
access will be aware of the technology change which access will be aware of the technology change, which
differentiates this form of path change from other changes in differentiates this form of path change from other changes in
network state. Section 14 of [RFC2330] treats the possibility network state. Section 14 of [RFC2330] addresses the possibility
that a host may have more than one attachment to the network, and that a host may have more than one attachment to the network, and
also that assessment of the measurement path (route) is valid for also that assessment of the measurement path (route) is valid for
some length of time (in Section 5 and Section 7 of [RFC2330]). some length of time (in Sections 5 and 7 of [RFC2330]). Here, we
Here we combine these two considerations under the assumption combine these two considerations under the assumption that
that changes may be more frequent and possibly have greater changes may be more frequent and possibly have greater
consequences on performance metrics. consequences on performance metrics.
4. Paths including links or nodes with time-slotted service 4. Paths including links or nodes with time-slotted service
opportunities represent several challenges to measurement (when opportunities represent several challenges to measurement (when
service time period is appreciable): the service time period is appreciable):
* Random/unbiased sampling is not possible beyond one such link * Random/unbiased sampling is not possible beyond one such link
in the path. in the path.
* The above encourages a segmented approach to end to end * The above encourages a segmented approach to end-to-end
measurement, as described in [RFC6049] for Network measurement, as described in [RFC6049] for Network
Characterization (as defined in [RFC6703]) to understand the Characterization (as defined in [RFC6703]), to understand the
full range of delay and delay variation on the path. full range of delay and delay variation on the path.
Alternatively, if application performance estimation is the Alternatively, if application performance estimation is the
goal (also defined in [RFC6703]), then a stream with un-biased goal (also defined in [RFC6703]), then a stream with unbiased
or known-bias properties [RFC3432] may be sufficient. or known-bias properties [RFC3432] may be sufficient.
* Multi-modal delay variation makes central statistics * Multi-modal delay variation makes central statistics
unimportant, others must be used instead. unimportant; others must be used instead.
Each of these topics is treated in detail below. Each of these topics is treated in detail below.
3.1. Test Packet Type-P 3.1. Test Packet Type-P
We recommend two Type-P parameters to be added to the factors which We recommend two Type-P parameters to be added to the factors that
have impact on path performance measurements, namely packet length have impact on path performance measurements, namely packet length
and payload type. Carefully choosing these parameters can improve and payload type. Carefully choosing these parameters can improve
measurement methodologies in their continuity and repeatability when measurement methodologies in their continuity and repeatability when
deployed in reactive paths. deployed in reactive paths.
3.1.1. Multiple Test Packet Lengths 3.1.1. Multiple Test Packet Lengths
Many instances of network characterization using IPPM metrics have Many instances of network characterization using IPPM metrics have
relied on a single test packet length. When testing to assess relied on a single test packet length. When testing to assess
application performance or an aggregate of traffic, benchmarking application performance or an aggregate of traffic, benchmarking
methods have used a range of fixed lengths and frequently augmented methods have used a range of fixed lengths and frequently augmented
fixed size tests with a mixture of sizes, or IMIX as described in fixed-size tests with a mixture of sizes, or Internet Mix (IMIX) as
[RFC6985]. described in [RFC6985].
Test packet length influences delay measurements, in that the IPPM Test packet length influences delay measurements, in that the IPPM
one-way delay metric [RFC2679] includes serialization time in its one-way delay metric [RFC2679] includes serialization time in its
first-bit to last bit time stamping requirements. However, different first-bit to last-bit timestamping requirements. However, different
sizes can have a larger influence on link delay and link delay sizes can have a larger influence on link delay and link delay
variation than serialization would explain alone. This effect can be variation than serialization would explain alone. This effect can be
non-linear and change the instantaneous network performance when a non-linear and change the instantaneous network performance when a
different size is used, or the performance of packets following the different size is used, or the performance of packets following the
size change. size change.
Repeatability is a main measurement methodology goal as stated in Repeatability is a main measurement methodology goal as stated in
section 6.2 of [RFC2330]. To eliminate packet length as a potential Section 6.2 of [RFC2330]. To eliminate packet length as a potential
measurement uncertainty factor, successive measurements must use measurement uncertainty factor, successive measurements must use
identical traffic patterns. In practice a combination of random identical traffic patterns. In practice, a combination of random
payload and random start time can yield representative results as payload and random start time can yield representative results as
illustrated in [IRR]. illustrated in [IRR].
3.1.2. Test Packet Payload Content Optimization 3.1.2. Test Packet Payload Content Optimization
The aim for efficient network resource use has resulted in deployment The aim for efficient network resource use has resulted in deployment
of server-only or client-server lossless or lossy payload compression of server-only or client-server lossless or lossy payload compression
techniques on some links or paths. These optimizers attempt to techniques on some links or paths. These optimizers attempt to
compress high-volume traffic in order to reduce network load. Files compress high-volume traffic in order to reduce network load. Files
are analyzed by application-layer parsers, and parts (like comments) are analyzed by application-layer parsers, and parts (like comments)
might be dropped. Although typically acting on HTTP or JPEG files, might be dropped. Although typically acting on HTTP or JPEG files,
compression might affect measurement packets, too. In particular, compression might affect measurement packets, too. In particular,
measurement packets are qualified for efficient compression when they measurement packets are qualified for efficient compression when they
use standard plain-text payload. We note that use of transport layer use standard plain-text payload. We note that use of transport-layer
encryption will counteract the deployment of network-based analysis encryption will counteract the deployment of network-based analysis
and may reduce the adoption of payload optimizations, however. and may reduce the adoption of payload optimizations, however.
IPPM-conforming measurements should add packet payload content as a IPPM-conforming measurements should add packet payload content as a
Type-P parameter which can help to improve measurement determinism. Type-P parameter, which can help to improve measurement determinism.
Some packet payloads are more susceptible to compression than others, Some packet payloads are more susceptible to compression than others,
but optimizers in the measurement path can be out ruled by using but optimizers in the measurement path can be out ruled by using
incompressible packet payload. This payload content could be incompressible packet payload. This payload content could be
supplied by a pseudo-random sequence generator or by using part of a supplied by a pseudo-random sequence generator or by using part of a
compressed file (e.g., a part of a ZIP compressed archive). compressed file (e.g., a part of a ZIP compressed archive).
Optimization can go beyond the scope of one single data- or Optimization can go beyond the scope of one single data or
measurement stream. Many more client- or network-centric measurement stream. Many more client- or network-centric
optimization technologies have been proposed or standardized so far, optimization technologies have been proposed or standardized so far,
including Robust Header Compression (ROHC) and Voice over IP including Robust Header Compression (ROHC) and Voice over IP
aggregation as presented for instance in [EEAW]. Where optimization aggregation as presented, for instance, in [EEAW]. Where
is feasible and valuable, many more of these technologies may follow. optimization is feasible and valuable, many more of these
As a general observation, the more concurrent flows an intermediate technologies may follow. As a general observation, the more
host treats and the longer the paths shared by flows are, the higher concurrent flows an intermediate host treats and the longer the paths
becomes the incentive of hosts to aggregate flows belonging to shared by flows are, the higher becomes the incentive of hosts to
distinct sources. Measurements should consider this potential aggregate flows belonging to distinct sources. Measurements should
additional source of uncertainty with respect to repeatability. consider this potential additional source of uncertainty with respect
Aggregation of flows in networking devices can, for instance, result to repeatability. Aggregation of flows in networking devices can,
in reciprocal timing and performance influence of these flows which for instance, result in reciprocal timing and performance influence
may exceed typical reciprocal queueing effects by orders of of these flows, which may exceed typical reciprocal queueing effects
magnitude. by orders of magnitude.
3.2. Packet History 3.2. Packet History
Recent packet history and instantaneous data rate influence Recent packet history and instantaneous data rate influence
measurement results for reactive links supporting on-demand capacity measurement results for reactive links supporting on-demand capacity
allocation. Measurement uncertainty may be reduced by knowledge of allocation. Measurement uncertainty may be reduced by knowledge of
measurement packet history and total host load. Additionally, small measurement packet history and total host load. Additionally, small
changes in history, e.g., because of lost packets along the path, can changes in history, e.g., because of lost packets along the path, can
be the cause of large performance variations. be the cause of large performance variations.
For instance, delay in reactive 3G networks like High Speed Packet For instance, delay in reactive 3G networks like High Speed Packet
Access (HSPA) depends to a large extent on the test traffic data Access (HSPA) depends to a large extent on the test traffic data
rate. The reactive resource allocation strategy in these networks rate. The reactive resource allocation strategy in these networks
affects the uplink direction in particular. Small changes in data affects the uplink direction in particular. Small changes in data
rate can be the reason of more than 200% increase in delay, depending rate can be the reason of more than a 200% increase in delay,
on the specific packet size. A detailed theoretical and practical depending on the specific packet size. A detailed theoretical and
analysis of RRC link transitions, which can cause such behavior in practical analysis of Radio Resource Control (RRC) link transitions,
Universal Mobile Terrestrial System (UMTS) networks, is presented, which can cause such behavior in Universal Mobile Terrestrial System
e.g., in [RRC]. (UMTS) networks, is presented, e.g., in [RRC].
3.3. Access Technology Change 3.3. Access Technology Change
[RFC2330] discussed the scenario of multi-homed hosts. If hosts [RFC2330] discussed the scenario of multi-homed hosts. If hosts
become aware of access technology changes (e.g., because of IP become aware of access technology changes (e.g., because of IP
address changes or lower layer information) and make this information address changes or lower-layer information) and make this information
available, measurement methodologies can use this information to available, measurement methodologies can use this information to
improve measurement representativeness and relevance. improve measurement representativeness and relevance.
However, today's various access network technologies can present the However, today's various access network technologies can present the
same physical interface to the host. A host may or may not become same physical interface to the host. A host may or may not become
aware when its access technology changes on such an interface. aware when its access technology changes on such an interface.
Measurements for paths which support on-demand capacity allocation Measurements for paths that support on-demand capacity allocation
are therefore challenging, in that it is difficult to differentiate are, therefore, challenging in that it is difficult to differentiate
between access technology changes (e.g., because of mobility) and between access technology changes (e.g., because of mobility) and
reactive path behavior (e.g., because of data rate change). reactive path behavior (e.g., because of data rate change).
3.4. Time-Slotted Randomness Cancellation 3.4. Time-Slotted Randomness Cancellation
Time-Slotted operation of path entities - interfaces, routers or Time-slotted operation of path entities -- interfaces, routers, or
links - in a network path is a particular challenge for measurements, links -- in a network path is a particular challenge for
especially if the time slot period is substantial. The central measurements, especially if the time-slot period is substantial. The
observation as an extension to Poisson stream sampling in [RFC2330] central observation as an extension to Poisson stream sampling in
is that the first such time-slotted component cancels unbiased [RFC2330] is that the first such time-slotted component cancels
measurement stream sampling. In the worst case, time-slotted unbiased measurement stream sampling. In the worst case, time-
operation converts an unbiased, random measurement packet stream into slotted operation converts an unbiased, random measurement packet
a periodic packet stream. Being heavily biased, these packets may stream into a periodic packet stream. Being heavily biased, these
interact with periodic behavior of subsequent time-slotted network packets may interact with periodic behavior of subsequent time-
entities[TSRC]. slotted network entities [TSRC].
Time-slotted randomness cancellation (TSRC) sources can be found in Time-slotted randomness cancellation (TSRC) sources can be found in
virtually any system, network component or path, their impact on virtually any system, network component or path, their impact on
measurements being a matter of the order of magnitude when compared measurements being a matter of the order of magnitude when compared
to the metric under observation. Examples of TSRC sources include to the metric under observation. Examples of TSRC sources include,
but are not limited to system clock resolution, operating system but are not limited to, system clock resolution, operating system
ticks, time-slotted component or network operation, etc. The amount ticks, time-slotted component or network operation, etc. The amount
of measurement bias is determined by the particular measurement of measurement bias is determined by the particular measurement
stream, relative offset between allocated time-slots in subsequent stream, relative offset between allocated time slots in subsequent
path entities, delay variation in these paths, and other sources of path entities, delay variation in these paths, and other sources of
variation. Measurement results might change over time, depending on variation. Measurement results might change over time, depending on
how accurately the sending host, receiving host, and time-slotted how accurately the sending host, receiving host, and time-slotted
components in the measurement path are synchronized to each other and components in the measurement path are synchronized to each other and
to global time. If path segments maintain flow state, flow parameter to global time. If path segments maintain flow state, flow parameter
change or flow re-allocations can cause substantial variation in change or flow reallocations can cause substantial variation in
measurement results. measurement results.
Practical measurements confirm that such interference limits delay Practical measurements confirm that such interference limits delay
measurement variation to a sub-set of theoretical value range. measurement variation to a subset of theoretical value range.
Measurement samples for such cases can aggregate on artificial Measurement samples for such cases can aggregate on artificial
limits, generating multi-modal distributions as demonstrated in limits, generating multi-modal distributions as demonstrated in
[IRR]. In this context, the desirable measurement sample statistics [IRR]. In this context, the desirable measurement sample statistics
differentiate between multi-modal delay distributions caused by differentiate between multi-modal delay distributions caused by
reactive path behavior and the ones due to time-slotted interference. reactive path behavior and the ones due to time-slotted interference.
Measurement methodology selection for time-slotted paths depends to a Measurement methodology selection for time-slotted paths depends to a
large extent on the respective viewpoint. End-to-end metrics can large extent on the respective viewpoint. End-to-end metrics can
provide accurate measurement results for short-term sessions and low provide accurate measurement results for short-term sessions and low
likelihood of flow state modifications. Applications or services likelihood of flow state modifications. Applications or services
which aim at approximating path performance for a short time interval that aim at approximating path performance for a short time interval
(in the order of minutes) and expect stable path conditions should (in the order of minutes) and expect stable path conditions should,
therefore prefer end-to-end metrics. Here stable path conditions therefore, prefer end-to-end metrics. Here, stable path conditions
refer to any kind of global knowledge concerning measurement path refer to any kind of global knowledge concerning measurement path
flow state and flow parameters. flow state and flow parameters.
However, if long-term forecast of time-slotted path performance is However, if long-term forecast of time-slotted path performance is
the main measurement goal, a segmented approach relying on the main measurement goal, a segmented approach relying on
measurement of sub-path metrics is preferred. Re-generating unbiased measurement of subpath metrics is preferred. Regenerating unbiased
measurement traffic at any hop can help to reveal the true range of measurement traffic at any hop can help to reveal the true range of
path performance for all path segments. path performance for all path segments.
4. Quality of Metrics and Methodologies 4. Quality of Metrics and Methodologies
[RFC6808] proposes repeatability and continuity as one of the metric [RFC6808] proposes repeatability and continuity as one of the metric
and methodology properties to infer on measurement quality. and methodology properties to infer on measurement quality.
Depending mainly on the set of controlled measurement parameters, Depending mainly on the set of controlled measurement parameters,
measurements repeated for a specific network path using a specific measurements repeated for a specific network path using a specific
methodology may or may not yield repeatable results. Challenging methodology may or may not yield repeatable results. Challenging
measurement scenarios for adequate parameter control include measurement scenarios for adequate parameter control include
wireless, reactive, or time-slotted networks as discussed earlier in wireless, reactive, or time-slotted networks as discussed earlier in
this document. This section presents an expanded definition of this document. This section presents an expanded definition of
"repeatability" beyond the definition in [RFC2330] and an expanded "repeatability" beyond the definition in [RFC2330] and an expanded
examination of the [RFC2330] concept of "continuity" and its limited examination of the concept of "continuity" in [RFC2330] and its
applicability. limited applicability.
4.1. Revised Definition of Repeatability 4.1. Revised Definition of Repeatability
[RFC2330] defines repeatability in a general way: [RFC2330] defines repeatability in a general way:
"A methodology for a metric should have the property that it is "A methodology for a metric should have the property that it is
repeatable: if the methodology is used multiple times under identical repeatable: if the methodology is used multiple times under identical
conditions, the same measurements should result in the same conditions, the same measurements should result in the same
measurements." measurements."
The challenge is to develop this definition further, such that it The challenge is to develop this definition further, such that it
becomes an objective measurable criterion (and does not depend on the becomes an objective measurable criterion (and does not depend on the
concept of continuity discussed below). Fortunately, this topic has concept of continuity discussed below). Fortunately, this topic has
been treated in other IPPM work. In BCP 176 [RFC6576], the criteria been treated in other IPPM work. In BCP 176 [RFC6576], the criteria
of equivalent results was agreed as the surrogate for of equivalent results was agreed as the surrogate for
interoperability when assessing metric RFCs for standards track interoperability when assessing metric RFCs for Standards Track
advancement. The criteria of equivalence were expressed as objective advancement. The criteria of equivalence were expressed as objective
statistical requirements for comparison across same implementations statistical requirements for comparison across the same
and independent implementations in the test plans specific to each implementations and independent implementations in the test plans
RFC evaluated ([RFC2679] in the test plan of [RFC6808]). specific to each RFC evaluated ([RFC2679] in the test plan of
[RFC6808]).
The tests of [RFC6808] rely on nearly identical conditions to be The tests of [RFC6808] rely on nearly identical conditions to be
present for analysis, but accept that these conditions cannot be present for analysis and accept that these conditions cannot be
exactly identical in the production network paths used. The test exactly identical in the production network paths used. The test
plans allow some correction factors to be applied (some statistical plans allow some correction factors to be applied (some statistical
tests are hyper-sensitive to differences in the mean of tests are hyper-sensitive to differences in the mean of
distributions), and recognize the original findings of [RFC2330] distributions) and recognize the original findings of [RFC2330]
regarding excess sample sizes. regarding excess sample sizes.
One way to view the reliance on identical conditions is to view it as One way to view the reliance on identical conditions is to view it as
a challenge: how few parameters and path conditions need to be a challenge: How few parameters and path conditions need to be
controlled and still produce repeatable methods/measurements? controlled and still produce repeatable methods/measurements?
Although the [RFC6808] test plan documented numerical criteria for Although the test plan in [RFC6808] documented numerical criteria for
equivalence, we cannot specify the exact numerical criteria for equivalence, we cannot specify the exact numerical criteria for
repeatability *in general*. The process in the BCP [RFC6576] and repeatability *in general*. The process in the BCP [RFC6576] and
statistics in [RFC6808] have been used successfully, and the statistics in [RFC6808] have been used successfully, and the
numerical criteria to declare a metric repeatable should be agreed by numerical criteria to declare a metric repeatable should be agreed by
all interested parties prior to measurement. all interested parties prior to measurement.
We revise the definition slightly, as follows: We revise the definition slightly, as follows:
A methodology for a metric should have the property that it is A methodology for a metric should have the property that it is
repeatable: if the methodology is used multiple times under repeatable: if the methodology is used multiple times under
identical conditions, the methods should produce equivalent identical conditions, the methods should produce equivalent
measurement results. measurement results.
4.2. Continuity No Longer an Alternative Repeatability Criterion 4.2. Continuity No Longer an Alternative Repeatability Criterion
In the original framework [RFC2330], the concept of continuity was In the original framework [RFC2330], the concept of continuity was
introduced to provide a relaxed criteria for judging repeatability, introduced to provide a relaxed criteria for judging repeatability
and was described in section 6.2 of [RFC2330] as follows: and was described in Section 6.2 of [RFC2330] as follows:
"...a methodology for a given metric exhibits continuity if, for "...a methodology for a given metric exhibits continuity if, for
small variations in conditions, it results in small variations in the small variations in conditions, it results in small variations in the
resulting measurements." resulting measurements."
Although there are conditions where metrics may exhibit continuity, Although there are conditions where metrics may exhibit continuity,
there are others where this criteria would fail for both user traffic there are others where this criteria would fail for both user traffic
and active measurement traffic. Consider link fragmentation, and the and active measurement traffic. Consider link fragmentation and the
non-linear increase in delay when we increase packet size just beyond non-linear increase in delay when we increase packet size just beyond
the limit of a single fragment. An active measurement packet would the limit of a single fragment. An active measurement packet would
see the same delay increase when exceeding the fragment size. see the same delay increase when exceeding the fragment size.
The Bulk Transfer Capacity (BTC) [RFC3148] gives another example at The Bulk Transfer Capacity (BTC) [RFC3148] gives another example in
bottom of page 2: Section 1, bottom of page 2:
"There is also evidence that most TCP implementations exhibit non- There is also evidence that most TCP implementations exhibit non-
linear performance over some portion of their operating region. It linear performance over some portion of their operating region.
is possible to construct simple simulation examples where incremental It is possible to construct simple simulation examples where
improvements to a path (such as raising the link data rate) results incremental improvements to a path (such as raising the link data
in lower overall TCP throughput (or BTC) [Mat98]." rate) results in lower overall TCP throughput (or BTC) [Mat98].
Clearly, the time-slotted network elements described in section 3.4 Clearly, the time-slotted network elements described in Section 3.4
above also qualifies as a new exception to the ideal of continuity. of this document also qualify as a new exception to the ideal of
continuity.
Therefore, we deprecate continuity as an alternate criterion on Therefore, we deprecate continuity as an alternate criterion on
metrics, and prefer the more exact evaluation of repeatability metrics and prefer the more exact evaluation of repeatability
instead. instead.
4.3. Metrics Should Be Actionable 4.3. Metrics Should Be Actionable
The IP Performance Metrics Framework [RFC2330] includes usefulness as The IP Performance Metrics Framework [RFC2330] includes usefulness as
a metric criterion: a metric criterion:
"...The metrics must be useful to users and providers in "...The metrics must be useful to users and providers in
understanding the performance they experience or provide...". understanding the performance they experience or provide...".
When considering measurements as part of a maintenance process, When considering measurements as part of a maintenance process,
evaluation of measurement results for a path under observation can evaluation of measurement results for a path under observation can
draw attention to potential performance problems "somewhere" on the draw attention to potential performance problems "somewhere" on the
path. Anomaly detection is therefore an important phase and first path. Anomaly detection is, therefore, an important phase and first
step which already satisfies the usefulness criterion for many step that already satisfies the usefulness criterion for many
metrics. metrics.
This concept of usefulness can be extended, becoming a sub-set of This concept of usefulness can be extended, becoming a subset of what
what we refer to as "actionable" criterion in the following. We note we refer to as "actionable" criterion in the following. We note that
that this is not the term from law. this is not the term from law.
Central to maintenance is the isolation of the root cause of reported Central to maintenance is the isolation of the root cause of reported
anomalies down to a specific sub-path, link or host, and metrics anomalies down to a specific subpath, link or host, and metrics
should support this second step as well. While detection of path should support this second step as well. While detection of path
anomaly may be the result of an on-going monitoring process, the anomaly may be the result of an on-going monitoring process, the
second step of cause isolation consists of specific, directed on- second step of cause isolation consists of specific, directed on-
demand measurements on components and sub-paths. Metrics must demand measurements on components and subpaths. Metrics must support
support users in this directed search, becoming actionable: users in this directed search, becoming actionable:
Metrics must enable users and operators to understand path Metrics must enable users and operators to understand path
performance and SHOULD help to direct corrective actions when performance and SHOULD help to direct corrective actions when
warranted, based on the measurement results. warranted, based on the measurement results.
Besides characterizing metrics, usefulness and actionable properties Besides characterizing metrics, usefulness and actionable properties
are also applicable to methodologies and measurements. are also applicable to methodologies and measurements.
4.4. It May Not Be Possible To Be Conservative 4.4. It May Not Be Possible To Be Conservative
[RFC2330] adopts the term "conservative" for measurement [RFC2330] adopts the term "conservative" for measurement
methodologies for which: methodologies for which:
"... the act of measurement does not modify, or only slightly "... the act of measurement does not modify, or only slightly
modifies, the value of the performance metric the methodology modifies, the value of the performance metric the methodology
attempts to measure." attempts to measure."
It should be noted that this definition of "conservative" in the It should be noted that this definition of "conservative" in the
sense of [RFC2330] depends to a large extent on the measurement sense of [RFC2330] depends to a large extent on the measurement
path's technology and characteristics. In particular, when deployed path's technology and characteristics. In particular, when deployed
on reactive paths, sub-paths, links or hosts conforming to the on reactive paths, subpaths, links or hosts conforming to the
definition in Section 1.1 of this document, measurement packets can definition in Section 1.1 of this document, measurement packets can
originate capacity (re)allocations. In addition, small measurement originate capacity (re)allocations. In addition, small measurement
flow variations can result in other users on the same path perceiving flow variations can result in other users on the same path perceiving
significant variations in measurement results. Therefore: significant variations in measurement results. Therefore:
It is not always possible for the method to be conservative. It is not always possible for the method to be conservative.
4.5. Spatial and Temporal Composition Support Unbiased Sampling 4.5. Spatial and Temporal Composition Support Unbiased Sampling
Concepts related to temporal and spatial composition of metrics in Concepts related to temporal and spatial composition of metrics in
Section 9 of [RFC2330] have been extended in [RFC5835]. [RFC5835] Section 9 of [RFC2330] have been extended in [RFC5835]. [RFC5835]
defines multiple new types of metrics, including Spatial Composition, defines multiple new types of metrics, including Spatial Composition,
Temporal Aggregation, and Spatial Aggregation. So far, only the Temporal Aggregation, and Spatial Aggregation. So far, only the
metrics for Spatial Composition have been standardized [RFC6049], metrics for Spatial Composition have been standardized [RFC6049],
providing the ability to estimate the performance of a complete path providing the ability to estimate the performance of a complete path
from subpath metrics. Spatial Composition aligns with the finding of from subpath metrics. Spatial Composition aligns with the finding of
[TSRC], that unbiased sampling is not possible beyond the first time- [TSRC] that unbiased sampling is not possible beyond the first time-
slotted link within a measurement path. slotted link within a measurement path.
In cases where unbiased measurement for all segments of a path is In cases where unbiased measurement for all segments of a path is
not feasible due to the presence of a time-slotted link, restoring not feasible due to the presence of a time-slotted link, restoring
randomness of measurement samples when necessary is recommended as randomness of measurement samples when necessary is recommended as
presented in [TSRC], in combination with Spatial Composition presented in [TSRC], in combination with Spatial Composition
[RFC6049]. [RFC6049].
4.6. When to Truncate the Poisson Sampling Distribution 4.6. When to Truncate the Poisson Sampling Distribution
Section 11.1.1 of [RFC2330] describes Poisson sampling, where the Section 11.1.1 of [RFC2330] describes Poisson sampling, where the
inter-packet send times have a Poisson distribution. A path element inter-packet send times have a Poisson distribution. A path element
with reactive behavior sensitive to flow inactivity could change with reactive behavior sensitive to flow inactivity could change
state if the random inter-packet time is too long. state if the random inter-packet time is too long.
It is recommended to truncate the tail of Poisson distribution It is recommended to truncate the tail of Poisson distribution
when needed to avoid reactive element state changes. when needed to avoid reactive element state changes.
Tail truncation has been used without issue to ensure that minimum Tail truncation has been used without issue to ensure that minimum
sample sizes can be attained in a fixed test interval. sample sizes can be attained in a fixed-test interval.
5. Conclusions 5. Conclusions
Safeguarding repeatability as a key property of measurement Safeguarding repeatability as a key property of measurement
methodologies is highly challenging and sometimes impossible in methodologies is highly challenging and sometimes impossible in
reactive paths. Measurements in paths with demand-driven allocation reactive paths. Measurements in paths with demand-driven allocation
strategies must use a prototypical application packet stream to infer strategies must use a prototypical application packet stream to infer
a specific application's performance. Measurement repetition with a specific application's performance. Measurement repetition with
unbiased network and flow states (e.g., by rebooting measurement unbiased network and flow states (e.g., by rebooting measurement
hosts) can help to avoid interference with periodic network behavior, hosts) can help to avoid interference with periodic network behavior,
randomness being a mandatory feature for avoiding correlation with with randomness being a mandatory feature for avoiding correlation
network timing. with network timing.
Inferring the path performance between one measurement session or Inferring the path performance between one measurement session or
packet stream and other sessions/streams with alternate packet stream and other sessions/streams with alternate
characteristics is generally discouraged with reactive paths because characteristics is generally discouraged with reactive paths because
of the huge set of global parameters which have influence on of the huge set of global parameters that have influence on
instantaneous path performance. instantaneous path performance.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
The security considerations that apply to any active measurement of The security considerations that apply to any active measurement of
live paths are relevant here as well. See [RFC4656] and [RFC5357]. live paths are relevant here as well. See [RFC4656] and [RFC5357].
When considering privacy of those involved in measurement or those When considering privacy of those involved in measurement or those
whose traffic is measured, the sensitive information available to whose traffic is measured, the sensitive information available to
potential observers is greatly reduced when using active techniques potential observers is greatly reduced when using active techniques
which are within this scope of work. Passive observations of user that are within this scope of work. Passive observations of user
traffic for measurement purposes raise many privacy issues. We refer traffic for measurement purposes raise many privacy issues. We refer
the reader to the privacy considerations described in the Large Scale the reader to the privacy considerations described in the Large Scale
Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP) Framework Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP) Framework [LMAP], which
[I-D.ietf-lmap-framework], which covers active and passive covers active and passive techniques.
techniques.
7. IANA Considerations
This memo makes no requests of IANA.
8. Acknowledgements 7. Acknowledgements
The authors thank Rudiger Geib, Matt Mathis, Konstantinos The authors thank Rudiger Geib, Matt Mathis, Konstantinos
Pentikousis, and Robert Sparks for their helpful comments on this Pentikousis, and Robert Sparks for their helpful comments on this
memo, Alissa Cooper and Kathleen Moriarty for suggesting ways to memo, Alissa Cooper and Kathleen Moriarty for suggesting ways to
"update the update" for heightened privacy awareness and its "update the update" for heightened privacy awareness and its
consequences, and Ann Cerveny for her editorial review and comments consequences, and Ann Cerveny for her editorial review and comments
that helped to improve readability overall. that helped to improve readability overall.
9. References 8. References
9.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis, [RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis,
"Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, May "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, May
1998. 1998.
[RFC2679] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A One-way [RFC2679] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A One-way
Delay Metric for IPPM", RFC 2679, September 1999. Delay Metric for IPPM", RFC 2679, September 1999.
skipping to change at page 15, line 31 skipping to change at page 16, line 5
Metrics", RFC 6049, January 2011. Metrics", RFC 6049, January 2011.
[RFC6576] Geib, R., Morton, A., Fardid, R., and A. Steinmitz, "IP [RFC6576] Geib, R., Morton, A., Fardid, R., and A. Steinmitz, "IP
Performance Metrics (IPPM) Standard Advancement Testing", Performance Metrics (IPPM) Standard Advancement Testing",
BCP 176, RFC 6576, March 2012. BCP 176, RFC 6576, March 2012.
[RFC6703] Morton, A., Ramachandran, G., and G. Maguluri, "Reporting [RFC6703] Morton, A., Ramachandran, G., and G. Maguluri, "Reporting
IP Network Performance Metrics: Different Points of View", IP Network Performance Metrics: Different Points of View",
RFC 6703, August 2012. RFC 6703, August 2012.
9.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[EEAW] Pentikousis, K., Piri, E., Pinola, J., Fitzek, F., [EEAW] Pentikousis, K., Piri, E., Pinola, J., Fitzek, F.,
Nissilae, T., and I. Harjula, "Empirical Evaluation of Nissilae, T., and I. Harjula, "Empirical Evaluation of
VoIP Aggregation over a Fixed WiMAX Testbed", Proceedings VoIP Aggregation over a Fixed WiMAX Testbed", Proceedings
of the 4th International Conference on Testbeds and of the 4th International Conference on Testbeds and
research infrastructures for the development of networks research infrastructures for the development of networks
and communities (TridentCom '08) and communities (TridentCom '08), Article No. 19, March
http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1390599, March 2008. 2008, <http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=139059>.
[I-D.ietf-lmap-framework]
Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T.,
Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A framework for large-scale
measurement platforms (LMAP)", draft-ietf-lmap-
framework-05 (work in progress), May 2014.
[IBD] Fabini, J., Karner, W., Wallentin, L., and T. Baumgartner, [IBD] Fabini, J., Karner, W., Wallentin, L., and T. Baumgartner,
"The Illusion of Being Deterministic - Application-Level "The Illusion of Being Deterministic - Application-Level
Considerations on Delay in 3G HSPA Networks", Lecture Considerations on Delay in 3G HSPA Networks", Lecture
Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Volume 5550, 2009, pp Notes in Computer Science, Volume 5550, pp. 301-312 , May
301-312 , May 2009. 2009.
[IRR] Fabini, J., Wallentin, L., and P. Reichl, "The Importance [IRR] Fabini, J., Wallentin, L., and P. Reichl, "The Importance
of Being Really Random: Methodological Aspects of IP-Layer of Being Really Random: Methodological Aspects of IP-Layer
2G and 3G Network Delay Assessment", ICC'09 Proceedings of 2G and 3G Network Delay Assessment", ICC'09 Proceedings of
the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Communications, the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Communications,
doi: 10.1109/ICC.2009.5199514, June 2009. doi: 10.1109/ICC.2009.5199514, June 2009.
[LMAP] Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T.,
Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A framework for large-scale
measurement platforms (LMAP)", Work in Progress, June
2014.
[Mat98] Mathis, M., "Empirical Bulk Transfer Capacity", IP [Mat98] Mathis, M., "Empirical Bulk Transfer Capacity", IP
Performance Metrics Working Group report in Proceeding of Performance Metrics Working Group report in Proceedings of
the Forty Third Internet Engineering Task Force, Orlando, the Forty-Third Internet Engineering Task Force, Orlando,
FL. http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/98dec/slides/ FL, December 1998,
ippm-mathis-98dec.pdf, December 1998. <http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/43/slides/
ippm-mathis-98dec.pdf>.
[RFC3148] Mathis, M. and M. Allman, "A Framework for Defining [RFC3148] Mathis, M. and M. Allman, "A Framework for Defining
Empirical Bulk Transfer Capacity Metrics", RFC 3148, July Empirical Bulk Transfer Capacity Metrics", RFC 3148, July
2001. 2001.
[RFC6808] Ciavattone, L., Geib, R., Morton, A., and M. Wieser, "Test [RFC6808] Ciavattone, L., Geib, R., Morton, A., and M. Wieser, "Test
Plan and Results Supporting Advancement of RFC 2679 on the Plan and Results Supporting Advancement of RFC 2679 on the
Standards Track", RFC 6808, December 2012. Standards Track", RFC 6808, December 2012.
[RFC6985] Morton, A., "IMIX Genome: Specification of Variable Packet [RFC6985] Morton, A., "IMIX Genome: Specification of Variable Packet
Sizes for Additional Testing", RFC 6985, July 2013. Sizes for Additional Testing", RFC 6985, July 2013.
[RRC] Peraelae, P., Barbuzzi, A., Boggia, G., and K. [RRC] Peraelae, P., Barbuzzi, A., Boggia, G., and K.
Pentikousis, "Theory and Practice of RRC State Transitions Pentikousis, "Theory and Practice of RRC State Transitions
in UMTS Networks", IEEE Globecom 2009 Workshops doi: 10 in UMTS Networks", IEEE Globecom 2009 Workshops, doi:
.1109/GLOCOMW.2009.5360763, November 2009. 10.1109/GLOCOMW.2009.5360763, November 2009.
[TSRC] Fabini, J. and M. Abmayer, "Delay Measurement Methodology [TSRC] Fabini, J. and M. Abmayer, "Delay Measurement Methodology
Revisited: Time-slotted Randomness Cancellation", IEEE Revisited: Time-slotted Randomness Cancellation", IEEE
Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement doi:10 Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Volume
.1109/TIM.2013.2263914, October 2013. 62, Issue 10, doi:10.1109/TIM.2013.2263914, October 2013.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Joachim Fabini Joachim Fabini
Vienna University of Technology Vienna University of Technology
Gusshausstrasse 25/E389 Gusshausstrasse 25/E389
Vienna 1040 Vienna 1040
Austria Austria
Phone: +43 1 58801 38813 Phone: +43 1 58801 38813
Fax: +43 1 58801 38898 Fax: +43 1 58801 38898
Email: Joachim.Fabini@tuwien.ac.at EMail: Joachim.Fabini@tuwien.ac.at
URI: http://www.tc.tuwien.ac.at/about-us/staff/joachim-fabini/ URI: http://www.tc.tuwien.ac.at/about-us/staff/joachim-fabini/
Al Morton Al Morton
AT&T Labs AT&T Labs
200 Laurel Avenue South 200 Laurel Avenue South
Middletown, NJ 07748 Middletown, NJ 07748
USA USA
Phone: +1 732 420 1571 Phone: +1 732 420 1571
Fax: +1 732 368 1192 Fax: +1 732 368 1192
Email: acmorton@att.com EMail: acmorton@att.com
URI: http://home.comcast.net/~acmacm/ URI: http://home.comcast.net/~acmacm/
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