draft-ietf-v6ops-mobile-device-profile-01.txt   draft-ietf-v6ops-mobile-device-profile-02.txt 
V6OPS Working Group D. Binet V6OPS Working Group D. Binet
Internet-Draft M. Boucadair Internet-Draft M. Boucadair
Intended status: Informational France Telecom Intended status: Informational France Telecom
Expires: September 28, 2013 A. Vizdal Expires: October 28, 2013 A. Vizdal
Deutsche Telekom AG Deutsche Telekom AG
C. Byrne C. Byrne
T-Mobile T-Mobile
G. Chen G. Chen
China Mobile China Mobile
March 27, 2013 April 26, 2013
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Profile for Mobile Devices Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Profile for 3GPP Mobile Devices
draft-ietf-v6ops-mobile-device-profile-01 draft-ietf-v6ops-mobile-device-profile-02
Abstract Abstract
This document specifies an IPv6 profile for mobile devices. It lists This document specifies an IPv6 profile for 3GPP mobile devices. It
the set of features a mobile device is to be compliant with to lists the set of features a 3GPP mobile device is to be compliant
connect to an IPv6-only or dual-stack mobile network. with to connect to an IPv6-only or dual-stack wireless network
(including 3GPP cellular network and IEEE 802.11 network).
This document defines a different profile than the one for general This document defines a different profile than the one for general
connection to IPv6 mobile networks defined in [RFC3316]. In connection to IPv6 cellular networks defined in
particular, this document identifies also features to ensure IPv4 [I-D.ietf-v6ops-rfc3316bis]. In particular, this document identifies
service continuity over an IPv6-only transport. also features to deliver IPv4 connectivity service over an IPv6-only
transport.
Both Hosts and devices with LAN capabilities are in scope. Both hosts and devices with capability to share their WAN (Wide Area
Network) connectivity are in scope.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 28, 2013. This Internet-Draft will expire on October 28, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
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to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2. Special Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Special Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Connectivity Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Connectivity Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1. WiFi Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.1. WLAN Connectivity Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Advanced Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. Advanced Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Cellular Devices with LAN Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Cellular Devices with LAN Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. APIs & Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. APIs & Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
IPv6 deployment in mobile networks is the only perennial solution to IPv6 deployment in 3GPP mobile networks is the only perennial
the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses in those networks. Several mobile solution to the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses in those networks.
operators already deployed IPv6 or are in the pre-deployment phase. Several mobile operators have already deployed IPv6 or are in the
One of the major hurdles encountered by mobile operators is the pre-deployment phase. One of the major hurdles encountered by mobile
availability of non-broken IPv6 implementation in mobile devices. operators is the availability of non-broken IPv6 implementation in
Some vendors are already proposing some mobile devices with a set of mobile devices.
IPv6 features, but the majority of devices are still lacking IPv6
support.
[RFC3316] lists a set of features to be supported by cellular hosts [I-D.ietf-v6ops-rfc3316bis] lists a set of features to be supported
to connect to 3GPP cellular networks. Since the publication of that by cellular hosts to connect to 3GPP mobile networks. In the light
document, new functions have been specified within the 3GPP and the of recent IPv6 production deployments, additional features to
IETF whilst others have been updated. Moreover, in the light of facilitate IPv6-only deployments while accessing IPv4-only service
recent IPv6 production deployments, additional features to facilitate are to be considered.
IPv6-only deployments while accessing IPv4-only service are to be
considered.
This document defines a different profile than the one for general This document defines a different profile than the one for general
connection to IPv6 mobile networks defined in [RFC3316]; in connection to IPv6 mobile networks defined in
particular: [I-D.ietf-v6ops-rfc3316bis]; in particular:
o It lists an extended list of required features while o It lists an extended list of required features while
[I-D.ietf-v6ops-rfc3316bis] identifies issues and explains how to [I-D.ietf-v6ops-rfc3316bis] identifies issues and explains how to
implement basic IPv6 features in a mobile context. implement basic IPv6 features in a cellular context.
o It identifies also features to ensure IPv4 service continuity over o It identifies also features to ensure IPv4 service delivery over
an IPv6-only transport. an IPv6-only transport.
This document specifies an IPv6 profile for mobile devices listing This document specifies an IPv6 profile for mobile devices listing
required specifications produced by various SDOs (in particular 3GPP required specifications produced by various Standards Developing
and IETF). The objectives of this effort are: Organizations (in particular 3GPP and IETF). The objectives of this
effort are:
1. List in one single document all requirements a mobile device is 1. List in one single document all requirements a mobile device is
to comply with to connect to an IPv6 or dual stack mobile to comply with to connect to an IPv6 or dual-stack mobile
network. These requirements cover various network types such as network. These requirements cover various network types such as
GPRS, EPC or Wi-Fi network. GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), EPC (Evolved Packet Core) or
IEEE 802.11 network.
2. Help Operators with the detailed device requirement list 2. Help Operators with the detailed device requirement list
preparation (to be exchanged with device suppliers). This is preparation (to be exchanged with device suppliers). This is
also a contribution to harmonize Operators' requirements towards also a contribution to harmonize Operators' requirements towards
device vendors. device vendors.
3. Vendors to be aware of a minimal set of requirements to allow for 3. Vendors to be aware of a minimal set of requirements to allow for
IPv6 connectivity and IPv4 service continuity (over an IPv6- only IPv6 connectivity and IPv4 service continuity (over an IPv6-only
transport). transport).
Pointers to some requirements listed in [RFC6434] are included in Pointers to some requirements listed in [RFC6434] are included in
this profile. The justification for using a stronger language this profile. The justification for using a stronger language
compared to what is specified in [RFC6434] is provided for some compared to what is specified in [RFC6434] is provided for some
requirements. requirements.
The requirements do not include 3GPP release details. For more
information on the 3GPP releases detail, the reader may refer to
Section 6.2 of [RFC6459].
Some of the features listed in this profile document require to Some of the features listed in this profile document require to
activate dedicated functions at the network side. It is out of scope activate dedicated functions at the network side. It is out of scope
of this document to list these network-side functions. of this document to list these network-side functions.
A detailed overview of IPv6 support in 3GPP architectures is provided A detailed overview of IPv6 support in 3GPP architectures is provided
in [RFC6459]. in [RFC6459].
This document makes use of the terms defined in [RFC6459]. This document makes use of the terms defined in [RFC6459]. In
addition, the following terms are used:
o "3GPP cellular host" (or cellular host for short) denotes a 3GPP
device which can be connected to 3GPP mobile networks or IEEE
802.11 networks.
o "3GPP cellular device" (or cellular device for short) refers to a
cellular host which supports the capability to share its WAN (Wide
Area Network) connectivity.
o "Cellular host" and "mobile host" are used interchangeably.
o "Cellular device" and "mobile device" are used interchangeably.
PREFIX64 denotes an IPv6 prefix used to build IPv4-converted IPv6 PREFIX64 denotes an IPv6 prefix used to build IPv4-converted IPv6
addresses [RFC6052]. addresses [RFC6052].
1.1. Scope 1.1. Scope
Various types of nodes can be connected to 3GPP networks requiring A 3GPP mobile network can be used to connect various user equipments
specific functions. Indeed, a 3GPP network can be used to connect such as a mobile telephone, a CPE (Customer Premises Equipment) or a
user equipment such as a mobile telephone, a CPE or a machine-to- M2M (machine-to-machine) device. Because of this diversity of
machine (M2M) device. Because of this diversity of terminals, it is terminals, it is necessary to define a set of IPv6 functionalities
necessary to define a set of IPv6 functionalities valid for any node valid for any node directly connecting to a 3GPP mobile network.
directly connecting to a 3GPP network. This document describes these This document describes these functionalities.
functionalities.
This document is structured to initially provide the generic IPv6
requirements which are valid for all nodes, whatever their function
or service (e.g., SIP [RFC3261]) capability. The document also
contains, dedicated sections covering specific functionalities the
specific device types must support (e.g., smartphones, devices
providing some LAN functions (mobile CPE or broadband dongles)).
M2M devices profile is out of scope. This document is structured to provide the generic IPv6 requirements
which are valid for all nodes, whatever their function or service
(e.g., SIP [RFC3261]) capability. The document also contains,
dedicated sections covering specific functionalities the specific
device types must support (e.g., smartphones, devices providing some
LAN functions (mobile CPE or broadband dongles)).
The requirements listed below are valid for both 3GPP GPRS and 3GPP The requirements listed below are valid for both 3GPP GPRS and 3GPP
EPS access. For EPS, "PDN type" terminology is used instead of "PDP EPS (Evolved Packet System) access. For EPS, PDN-Connection term is
context". used instead of PDP-Context.
This document identifies also some WLAN-related IPv6 requirements.
Other non-3GPP accesses [TS.23402] are out of scope of this document.
1.2. Special Language 1.2. Special Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
This document is not a standard. It uses the normative keywords only This document is not a standard. It uses the normative keywords only
for precision. for precision.
2. Connectivity Requirements 2. Connectivity Requirements
REQ#1: The cellular host MUST be compliant with Section 5.9.1 (IPv6 REQ#1: The cellular host MUST be compliant with Section 5.9.1 (IPv6
Addressing Architecture) and Section 5.8 (ICMPv6 support) of Addressing Architecture) and Section 5.8 (ICMPv6 support) of
[RFC6434]. [RFC6434].
REQ#2: The cellular host MUST support both IPv6 and IPv4v6 PDP REQ#2: The cellular host MUST support both IPv6 and IPv4v6 PDP-
Contexts. Contexts.
This allows each operator to select their own strategy This allows each operator to select their own strategy
regarding IPv6 introduction. Both IPv6 and IPv4v6 PDP regarding IPv6 introduction. Both IPv6 and IPv4v6 PDP-
contexts MUST be supported in addition to the IPv4 PDP Contexts MUST be supported. IPv4, IPv6 or IPv4v6 PDP-Context
context. IPv4, IPv6 or IPv4v6 PDP-Context request acceptance request acceptance depends on the cellular network
depends on the mobile network configuration. configuration.
REQ#3: The cellular host MUST comply with the behavior defined in REQ#3: The cellular host MUST comply with the behavior defined in
[TS.23060] [TS.23401] [TS.24008] for requesting a PDP context [TS.23060] [TS.23401] [TS.24008] for requesting a PDP-Context
type. In particular, the cellular host MUST request an IPv6 PDP type. In particular, the cellular host MUST request by default
context if the cellular host is IPv6-only and requesting an an IPv6 PDP-Context if the cellular host is IPv6-only and
IPv4v6 PDP context if the cellular host is dual stack or when requesting an IPv4v6 PDP-Context if the cellular host is dual-
the cellular host is not aware of connectivity types requested stack or when the cellular host is not aware of connectivity
by devices connected to it (e.g., cellular host with LAN types requested by devices connected to it (e.g., cellular host
capabilities): with LAN capabilities as discussed in Section 4):
* If the requested IPv4v6 PDP context is not supported by the * If the requested IPv4v6 PDP-Context is not supported by the
network, but IPv4 and IPv6 PDP types are allowed, then the network, but IPv4 and IPv6 PDP types are allowed, then the
cellular host will be configured with an IPv4 address and/or cellular host will be configured with an IPv4 address or an
an IPv6 prefix by the network. It MAY initiate another PDP IPv6 prefix by the network. It MUST initiate another PDP-
request in addition to the one already activated for a given Context activation in addition to the one already activated
APN. for a given APN (Access Point Name).
* If the requested PDP type and subscription data allows only * If the requested PDP type and subscription data allows only
one IP address family (IPv4 or IPv6), the cellular host MUST one IP address family (IPv4 or IPv6), the cellular host MUST
NOT request a second PDP context to the same APN for the NOT request a second PDP-Context to the same APN for the
other IP address family. other IP address family.
The text above focuses on the specification part which explains The text above focuses on the specification part which explains
the behavior for requesting IPv6-related PDP context(s). the behavior for requesting IPv6-related PDP-Context(s).
Understanding this behavior is important to avoid having broken Understanding this behavior is important to avoid having broken
IPv6 implementations in cellular devices. IPv6 implementations in cellular devices.
REQ#4: The cellular host MUST support the PCO (Protocol REQ#4: The cellular host MUST support the PCO (Protocol
Configuration Options) [TS.24008] to retrieve the IPv6 Configuration Options) [TS.24008] to retrieve the IPv6
address(es) of the Recursive DNS server(s). address(es) of the Recursive DNS server(s).
In-band signaling is a convenient method to inform the In-band signaling is a convenient method to inform the
cellular host about various services, including DNS server cellular host about various services, including DNS server
information. It does not require any specific protocol to be information. It does not require any specific protocol to be
supported and it is already deployed in IPv4 cellular supported and it is already deployed in IPv4 cellular
networks to convey such DNS information. networks to convey such DNS information.
REQ#5: The cellular host MUST support IPv6 aware Traffic Flow REQ#5: The cellular host MUST support IPv6 aware Traffic Flow
Templates (TFT) [TS.24008]. Templates (TFT) [TS.24008].
Traffic Flow Templates are employing a Packet Filter to Traffic Flow Templates are employing a packet filter to
couple an IP traffic with a PDP-Context. Thus a dedicated couple an IP traffic with a PDP-Context. Thus a dedicated
PDP-Context and radio resources can be provided by the mobile PDP-Context and radio resources can be provided by the
network for certain IP traffic. cellular network for certain IP traffic.
REQ#6: The device MUST support the Neighbor Discovery Protocol REQ#6: The device MUST support the Neighbor Discovery Protocol
([RFC4861] and [RFC5942]). ([RFC4861] and [RFC5942]).
This is a stronger form compared to what is specified in This is a stronger form compared to what is specified in
Section 12.2 of [RFC6434]. The support of Neighbor Discovery Section 5.2 and Section 12.2 of [RFC6434].
Protocol is mandatory in mobile environment as it is the only
way to convey IPv6 prefix towards the mobile device.
In particular, MTU communication via Router Advertisement The support of Neighbor Discovery Protocol is mandatory in
SHOULD be supported since many 3GPP networks do not have a 3GPP cellular environment as it is the only way to convey
standard MTU setting due to inconsistencies in GTP [RFC3314] IPv6 prefix towards the 3GPP cellular device.
mobility tunnel infrastructure deployments.
In particular, MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) communication
via Router Advertisement MUST be supported since many 3GPP
networks do not have a standard MTU setting.
REQ#7: The cellular host MUST comply with Section 5.6.1 of
[RFC6434]. If the MTU used by cellular hosts is larger than
1280 bytes, they can rely on Path MTU discovery function to
discover the real path MTU.
REQ#8: The cellular host MUST support IPv6 Stateless Address REQ#8: The cellular host MUST support IPv6 Stateless Address
Autoconfiguration ([RFC4862]) apart from the exceptions noted in Autoconfiguration ([RFC4862]) apart from the exceptions noted in
[TS.23060] (3G) and [TS.23401] (LTE): [TS.23060] (3G) and [TS.23401] (LTE):
Stateless mode is the only way to configure a cellular host. Stateless mode is the only way to configure a cellular host.
The GGSN must allocate a prefix that is unique within its The GGSN must allocate a prefix that is unique within its
scope to each primary PDP context. scope to each primary PDP-Context.
The cellular host MUST use the interface identifier sent in To configure its link local address, the cellular host MUST
PDP Context Accept message to configure its link local use the Interface Identifier conveyed in 3GPP PDP-Context
address. The cellular host may use a different Interface setup signaling received from a GGSN/PGW. The cellular host
Identifiers to configure its global addresses. may use a different Interface Identifiers to configure its
global addresses (see also REQ#23 about privacy addressing
requirement).
REQ#9: The cellular host must comply with Section 7.3 of [RFC6434]. For more details, refer to [RFC6459] and
[I-D.ietf-v6ops-rfc3316bis].
The support of Router Advertisement Options for DNS REQ#9: The cellular host MUST comply with Section 7.3 of [RFC6434].
configuration allows for a consistent method of informing
cellular hosts about DNS recursive servers across various
types of access networks. The cellular host SHOULD support
RA-based DNS information discovery.
REQ#10: The cellular host must comply with Section 7.2.1 of REQ#10: The cellular host MUST comply with Section 7.2.1 of
[RFC6434]. [RFC6434].
Stateless DHCPv6 is useful to retrieve other information than Stateless DHCPv6 is useful to retrieve other information than
DNS. DNS.
If [RFC6106] is not supported, the cellular host SHOULD If [RFC6106] is not supported, the cellular host SHOULD
retrieve DNS information using stateless DHCPv6 [RFC3736]. retrieve DNS information using stateless DHCPv6 [RFC3736].
If the cellular host receives the DNS information in several REQ#11: If the cellular host receives the DNS information in several
channels for the same interface, the following preference channels for the same interface, the following preference order
order MUST be followed: MUST be followed:
1. PCP 1. PCO
2. RA
3. DHCPv6 2. RA
REQ#11: The cellular host SHOULD support a method to locally 3. DHCPv6
REQ#12: The cellular host SHOULD support a method to locally
construct IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses [RFC6052]. A method to construct IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses [RFC6052]. A method to
learn PREFIX64 SHOULD be supported by the cellular host. learn PREFIX64 SHOULD be supported by the cellular host.
This solves the issue when applications use IPv4 referrals on This solves the issue when applications use IPv4 referrals on
IPv6-only access networks. IPv6-only access networks.
In PCP-based environments, cellular hosts SHOULD follow In PCP-based environments, cellular hosts SHOULD follow
[I-D.ietf-pcp-nat64-prefix64] to learn the IPv6 Prefix used [I-D.ietf-pcp-nat64-prefix64] to learn the IPv6 Prefix used
by an upstream PCP-controlled NAT64 device. If PCP is not by an upstream PCP-controlled NAT64 device. If PCP is not
enabled, the cellular host SHOULD implement the method enabled, the cellular host SHOULD implement the method
specified in [I-D.ietf-behave-nat64-discovery-heuristic] to specified in [I-D.ietf-behave-nat64-discovery-heuristic] to
retrieve the PREFIX64. retrieve the PREFIX64.
REQ#12: The cellular host SHOULD implement the Customer Side REQ#13: The cellular host SHOULD implement the Customer Side
Translator (CLAT, [I-D.ietf-v6ops-464xlat]) function which is Translator (CLAT, [RFC6877]) function which is compliant with
compliant with [RFC6052][RFC6145][RFC6146]. [RFC6052][RFC6145][RFC6146].
CLAT function in the cellular host allows for IPv4-only CLAT function in the cellular host allows for IPv4-only
application and IPv4-referals to work on an IPv6-only PDP. application and IPv4-referals to work on an IPv6-only
CLAT function requires a NAT64 capability [RFC6146] in the connectivity. CLAT function requires a NAT64 capability
core network. [RFC6146] in the core network.
REQ#13: The cellular device SHOULD embed a DNS64 function [RFC6147]. REQ#14: The cellular device SHOULD embed a DNS64 function [RFC6147].
Local DNS64 functionality allows for compatibility with Local DNS64 functionality allows for compatibility with DNS
DNSSEC. Means to configure or discover a PREFIX64 is also Security Extensions (DNSSEC, [RFC4033], [RFC4034],
required on the cellular device. [RFC4035]). Means to configure or discover a PREFIX64 is
also required on the cellular device as discussed in REQ#12.
REQ#14: The cellular host SHOULD support PCP [I-D.ietf-pcp-base]. REQ#15: The cellular host SHOULD support PCP [I-D.ietf-pcp-base].
The support of PCP is seen as a driver to save battery The support of PCP is seen as a driver to save battery
consumption exacerbated by keepalive messages. PCP also consumption exacerbated by keepalive messages. PCP also
gives the possibility of enabling incoming connections to the gives the possibility of enabling incoming connections to the
user. Indeed, because several stateful devices may be cellular device. Indeed, because several stateful devices
deployed in mobile networks (e.g., NAT and/or Firewalls), PCP may be deployed in wireless networks (e.g., NAT and/or
can be used by the cellular host to control network based NAT Firewalls), PCP can be used by the cellular host to control
and Firewall functions which will reduce per-application network-based NAT and Firewall functions which will reduce
signaling and save battery consumption. per-application signaling and save battery consumption.
REQ#15: When the cellular host is dual stack connected, it SHOULD REQ#16: When the cellular host is dual-stack connected (i.e.,
configured with an IPv4 address and IPv6 prefix), it SHOULD
support means to prefer native IPv6 connection over connection support means to prefer native IPv6 connection over connection
established through translation devices (e.g., NAT44 and NAT64). established through translation devices (e.g., NAT44 and NAT64).
When both IPv4 and IPv6 DNS servers are configured, a dual-
stack host MUST contact first its IPv6 DNS server.
Cellular hosts SHOULD follow the procedure specified in Cellular hosts SHOULD follow the procedure specified in
[RFC6724] for source address selection. [RFC6724] for source address selection.
Some potential issues are discussed in REQ#17: The cellular host SHOULD support Happy Eyeballs procedure
[I-D.ietf-mif-happy-eyeballs-extension] for MIFed devices.
REQ#16: The cellular host SHOULD support Happy Eyeballs procedure
defined in [RFC6555]. defined in [RFC6555].
REQ#17: The cellular host SHOULD NOT perform Duplicate Address
Detection (DAD) for these Global IPv6 addresses (as the GGSN or
PDN-GW must not configure any IPv6 addresses using the prefix
allocated to the cellular host). Refer to Section 4 for DAD
considerations on the LAN interface when the 3GPP connection is
shared.
REQ#18: The cellular device MAY embed a BIH function [RFC6535] REQ#18: The cellular device MAY embed a BIH function [RFC6535]
facilitating the communication between an IPv4 application and facilitating the communication between an IPv4 application and
an IPv6 server. an IPv6 server.
2.1. WiFi Connectivity 2.1. WLAN Connectivity Requirements
It is increasingly common for cellular hosts have a Wi-Fi interface It is increasingly common for cellular hosts have a WLAN interface in
in addition to their cellular interface. These hosts are likely to addition to their cellular interface. These hosts are likely to be
be connected to private or public hotspots. Below are listed some connected to private or public hotspots. Below are listed some
generic requirements: generic requirements:
REQ#19: IPv6 MUST be supported on the Wi-Fi interface. In REQ#19: IPv6 MUST be supported on the WLAN interface. In
particular, IPv6-only connectivity MUST be supported over the particular, IPv6-only connectivity MUST be supported over the
Wi-Fi interface. WLAN interface.
Recent tests revealed that IPv4 configuration is required Some tests revealed that IPv4 configuration is required to
to enable IPv6-only connectivity. Indeed, some cellular enable IPv6-only connectivity. Indeed, some cellular
handsets can access a Wi-Fi IPv6-only network by handsets can access a WLAN IPv6-only network by configuring
configuring first a static IPv4 address. Once the device first a static IPv4 address. Once the device is connected
is connected to the network and the wlan0 interface got an to the network and the wlan0 interface got an IPv6 global
IPv6 global address, the IPv4 address can be deleted from address, the IPv4 address can be deleted from the
the configuration. This avoids the device to ask configuration. This avoids the device to ask automatically
automatically for a DHCPv4 server, and allows to connect to for a DHCPv4 server, and allows to connect to IPv6-only
IPv6-only networks. networks. Failing to configure an IPv4 address on the
interface MUST NOT prohibit using IPv6 on the same
interface.
IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration ([RFC4862]) MUST IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration ([RFC4862]) MUST
be supported. be supported.
REQ#20: DHCPv6 client SHOULD be supported on Wi-Fi interface. REQ#20: DHCPv6 client SHOULD be supported on WLAN interface.
Refer to Section 7.2.1 of [RFC6434]. Refer to Section 7.2.1 of [RFC6434].
REQ#21: Wi-Fi interface SHOULD support Router Advertisement Options REQ#21: WLAN interface SHOULD support Router Advertisement Options
for DNS configuration (See Section Section 7.3 of [RFC6434]). for DNS configuration (See Section Section 7.3 of [RFC6434]).
If the device receives the DNS information in several channels
for the same interface, the following preference order MUST be REQ#22: If the device receives the DNS information in several
followed: channels for the same interface, the following preference
order MUST be followed:
1. RA 1. RA
2. DHCPv6 2. DHCPv6
3. Advanced Requirements 3. Advanced Requirements
REQ#22: The cellular host must comply with Section 5.6.1 of REQ#23: The cellular host MUST be able to generate IPv6 addresses
[RFC6434]. If the MTU used by cellular hosts is larger than which preserve privacy.
1280 bytes, they can rely on Path MTU discovery function to
discover the real path MTU.
REQ#23: The cellular host must comply with Section 5.9.3 of The activation of privacy extension (e.g., using [RFC4941])
[RFC6434] for the support of the Privacy Extensions for makes it more difficult to track a host over time when
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6. compared to using a permanent Interface Identifier. Note,
[RFC4941] does not require any DAD mechanism to be
activated as the GGSN/PGW MUST NOT configure any global
address based on the prefix allocated to the cellular host.
The activation of privacy extension makes it more difficult Tracking a host is still possible based on the first 64
to track a host over time when compared to using a bits of the IPv6 address. Means to prevent against such
permanent interface identifier. [RFC4941] does not require tracking issues may be enabled in the network side.
any DAD mechanism to be activated as the GGSN (or PDN-GW)
MUST NOT configure any global address based on the prefix
allocated to the cellular host.
REQ#24: The cellular host SHOULD support ROHC for IPv6 ([RFC5795]). REQ#24: The cellular host MUST support ROHC RTP Profile (0x0001) and
ROHC UDP Profile (0x0002) for IPv6 ([RFC5795]). Other ROHC
profiles MAY be supported.
Bandwidth in mobile environments must be optimized as much Bandwidth in cellular networks must be optimized as much as
as possible. ROHC provides a solution to reduce bandwidth possible. ROHC provides a solution to reduce bandwidth
consumption and to reduce the impact of having bigger consumption and to reduce the impact of having bigger
packet headers in IPv6 compared to IPv4. packet headers in IPv6 compared to IPv4.
"RTP/UDP/IP" ROHC profile (0x0001) to compress RTP packets
and "UDP/IP" ROHC profile (0x0002) to compress RTCP packets
are required for Voice over LTE (VoLTE) by IR.92.4.0
section 4.1 [IR92]. Note, [IR92] indicates also the host
must be able to apply the compression to packets that are
carried over the radio bearer dedicated for the voice
media.
REQ#25: The cellular host SHOULD support IPv6 Router Advertisement REQ#25: The cellular host SHOULD support IPv6 Router Advertisement
Flags Options ([RFC5175]). Flags Options ([RFC5175]).
This is a stronger form compared to what is specified in This is a stronger form compared to what is specified in
[RFC6434]. The justification is some flags are used by the [RFC6434].
GGSN (or PDN-GW) to inform cellular hosts about the
autoconfiguration process.
REQ#26: The cellular host must comply with Section 5.3 of [RFC6434] REQ#26: The cellular host MUST comply with Section 5.3 of [RFC6434]
and SHOULD support Router Advertisement extension for and SHOULD support Router Advertisement extension for
communicating default router preferences and more-specific communicating default router preferences and more-specific
routes as described in [RFC4191]. routes as described in [RFC4191].
This function can be used for instance for traffic offload. This function can be used for instance for traffic offload.
4. Cellular Devices with LAN Capabilities 4. Cellular Devices with LAN Capabilities
This section focuses on cellular devices (e.g., CPE, smartphones or This section focuses on cellular devices (e.g., CPE, smartphones or
dongles with tethering features) which provide IP connectivity to dongles with tethering features) which provide IP connectivity to
other devices connected to them. In such case, all connected devices other devices connected to them. In such case, all connected devices
are sharing the same GPRS, UMTS or EPS connection. In addition to are sharing the same 2G, 3G or LTE connection. In addition to the
the generic requirements listed in Section 2, these cellular devices generic requirements listed in Section 2, these cellular devices have
have to meet the requirements listed below. to meet the requirements listed below.
REQ#27: The cellular device MUST support Prefix Delegation REQ#27: The cellular device MUST support Prefix Delegation
capabilities [RFC3633] and MUST support Prefix Exclude Option capabilities [RFC3633] and MUST support Prefix Exclude Option
for DHCPv6-based Prefix Delegation as defined in [RFC6603]. for DHCPv6-based Prefix Delegation as defined in [RFC6603].
Particularly, it MUST behave as a Requesting Router. Particularly, it MUST behave as a Requesting Router.
Cellular networks are more and more perceived as an Cellular networks are more and more perceived as an
alternative to fixed networks for home IP-based services alternative to fixed networks for home IP-based services
delivery; especially with the advent of smartphones and delivery; especially with the advent of smartphones and
3GPP data dongles. There is a need for an efficient 3GPP data dongles. There is a need for an efficient
skipping to change at page 10, line 40 skipping to change at page 11, line 16
DHCPv6, the cellular device will be configured with two DHCPv6, the cellular device will be configured with two
prefixes: prefixes:
(1) one for 3GPP link allocated using SLAAC mechanism (1) one for 3GPP link allocated using SLAAC mechanism
and and
(2) another one delegated for LANs acquired during (2) another one delegated for LANs acquired during
Prefix Delegation operation. Prefix Delegation operation.
Note that the 3GPP network architecture requires both the Note that the 3GPP network architecture requires both the
WAN and the Delegated Prefix to be aggregatable, so the WAN (Wide Area Network) and the delegated prefix to be
subscriber can be identified using a single prefix. aggregatable, so the subscriber can be identified using a
single prefix.
Without the Prefix Exclude Option, the delegating router Without the Prefix Exclude Option, the delegating router
(GGSN/PDN-GW) will have to ensure [RFC3633] compliancy (GGSN/PGW) will have to ensure [RFC3633] compliancy (e.g.,
(e.g., halving the Delegated prefix and assigning the WAN halving the delegated prefix and assigning the WAN prefix
prefix out of the 1st half and the prefix to be delegated out of the 1st half and the prefix to be delegated to the
to the terminal from the 2nd half). terminal from the 2nd half).
REQ#28: The cellular device MUST be compliant with the CPE REQ#28: The cellular device MUST be compliant with the CPE
requirements specified in [RFC6204]. requirements specified in [RFC6204].
REQ#29: For deployments requiring to share the same /64 prefix, the REQ#29: For deployments requiring to share the same /64 prefix, the
cellular device SHOULD support [I-D.ietf-v6ops-64share] to cellular device SHOULD support [I-D.ietf-v6ops-64share] to
enable sharing a /64 prefix between the 3GPP interface towards enable sharing a /64 prefix between the 3GPP interface towards
the GGSN (WAN interface) and the LAN interfaces. the GGSN (WAN interface) and the LAN interfaces.
REQ#30: The cellular device SHOULD support the Customer Side REQ#30: The cellular device SHOULD support the Customer Side
Translator (CLAT) [I-D.ietf-v6ops-464xlat]. Translator (CLAT) [RFC6877].
Various IP devices are likely to be connected to cellular Various IP devices are likely to be connected to cellular
device, acting as a CPE. Some of these devices can be device, acting as a CPE. Some of these devices can be
dual-stack, others are IPv6-only or IPv4-only. IPv6-only dual-stack, others are IPv6-only or IPv4-only. IPv6-only
connectivity for cellular device does not allow IPv4-only connectivity for cellular device does not allow IPv4-only
sessions to be established for hosts connected on the LAN sessions to be established for hosts connected on the LAN
segment of cellular devices. segment of cellular devices.
In order to allow IPv4 sessions establishment initiated In order to allow IPv4 sessions establishment initiated
from devices located on LAN segment side and target IPv4 from devices located on LAN segment side and target IPv4
skipping to change at page 11, line 42 skipping to change at page 12, line 20
tunnels, the effective MTU is frequently effectively tunnels, the effective MTU is frequently effectively
reduced to 1440 bytes. While a host may generate packets reduced to 1440 bytes. While a host may generate packets
with an MTU of 1500 bytes, this results in undesirable with an MTU of 1500 bytes, this results in undesirable
fragmentation of the GTP IP/UDP packets. fragmentation of the GTP IP/UDP packets.
Receiving and relaying RA MTU values facilitates a more Receiving and relaying RA MTU values facilitates a more
harmonious functioning of the mobile core network where end harmonious functioning of the mobile core network where end
nodes transmit packets that do not exceed the MTU size of nodes transmit packets that do not exceed the MTU size of
the mobile network's GTP tunnels. the mobile network's GTP tunnels.
[TS.23060] indicates providing a link MTU value of 1358
octets to the 3GPP cellular device will prevent the IP
layer fragmentation within the transport network between
the cellular device and the GGSN/PGW.
5. APIs & Applications 5. APIs & Applications
REQ#32: Name resolution libraries MUST support both IPv4 and IPv6. REQ#32: Name resolution libraries MUST support both IPv4 and IPv6.
In particular, the cellular host MUST support [RFC3596]. In particular, the cellular host MUST support [RFC3596].
REQ#33: Applications MUST be independent of the underlying IP REQ#33: Applications MUST be independent of the underlying IP
address family. address family.
This means applications must be IP version agnostic. This means applications must be IP version agnostic.
REQ#34: Applications using URIs MUST follow [RFC3986]. For example, REQ#34: Applications using URIs MUST follow [RFC3986]. For example,
SIP applications MUST follow the correction defined in SIP applications MUST follow the correction defined in
[RFC5954]. [RFC5954].
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
The security considerations identified in [RFC3316] are to be taken The security considerations identified in [I-D.ietf-v6ops-rfc3316bis]
into account. and [RFC6459] are to be taken into account.
REQ#35: If the cellular device provides LAN features, it SHOULD be REQ#35: If the cellular device provides LAN features, it SHOULD be
compliant with the security requirements specified in compliant with the security requirements specified in
[RFC6092]. [RFC6092].
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
This document does not require any action from IANA. This document does not require any action from IANA.
8. Acknowledgements 8. Acknowledgements
Many thanks to H. Soliman, H. Singh, L. Colliti, T. Lemon, B. Many thanks to H. Soliman, H. Singh, L. Colliti, T. Lemon, B.
Sarikaya, J. Korhonen, M. Mawatari, M. Abrahamsson, P. Vickers, Sarikaya, M. Mawatari, M. Abrahamsson, P. Vickers, V. Kuarsingh,
V. Kuarsingh, and J. Woodyatt for the discussion in the v6ops and J. Woodyatt for the discussion in the v6ops mailing list.
mailing list.
Special thanks to T. Savolainen and J. Korhonen for the detailed
review.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, [RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
skipping to change at page 14, line 32 skipping to change at page 15, line 18
[RFC6724] Thaler, D., Draves, R., Matsumoto, A., and T. Chown, [RFC6724] Thaler, D., Draves, R., Matsumoto, A., and T. Chown,
"Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol Version 6 "Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol Version 6
(IPv6)", RFC 6724, September 2012. (IPv6)", RFC 6724, September 2012.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-behave-nat64-discovery-heuristic] [I-D.ietf-behave-nat64-discovery-heuristic]
Savolainen, T., Korhonen, J., and D. Wing, "Discovery of Savolainen, T., Korhonen, J., and D. Wing, "Discovery of
the IPv6 Prefix Used for IPv6 Address Synthesis", draft- the IPv6 Prefix Used for IPv6 Address Synthesis", draft-
ietf-behave-nat64-discovery-heuristic-16 (work in ietf-behave-nat64-discovery-heuristic-17 (work in
progress), March 2013. progress), April 2013.
[I-D.ietf-mif-happy-eyeballs-extension]
Chen, G., Williams, C., Wing, D., and A. Yourtchenko,
"Happy Eyeballs Extension for Multiple Interfaces", draft-
ietf-mif-happy-eyeballs-extension-02 (work in progress),
February 2013.
[I-D.ietf-pcp-base] [I-D.ietf-pcp-base]
Wing, D., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and P. Wing, D., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and P.
Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", draft-ietf-pcp- Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", draft-ietf-pcp-
base-29 (work in progress), November 2012. base-29 (work in progress), November 2012.
[I-D.ietf-pcp-nat64-prefix64] [I-D.ietf-pcp-nat64-prefix64]
Boucadair, M., "Learn NAT64 PREFIX64s using PCP", draft- Boucadair, M., "Learn NAT64 PREFIX64s using PCP", draft-
ietf-pcp-nat64-prefix64-00 (work in progress), February ietf-pcp-nat64-prefix64-00 (work in progress), February
2013. 2013.
[I-D.ietf-v6ops-464xlat]
Mawatari, M., Kawashima, M., and C. Byrne, "464XLAT:
Combination of Stateful and Stateless Translation", draft-
ietf-v6ops-464xlat-10 (work in progress), February 2013.
[I-D.ietf-v6ops-64share] [I-D.ietf-v6ops-64share]
Byrne, C., Drown, D., and V. Ales, "Extending an IPv6 /64 Byrne, C., Drown, D., and V. Ales, "Extending an IPv6 /64
Prefix from a 3GPP Mobile Interface to a LAN", draft-ietf- Prefix from a 3GPP Mobile Interface to a LAN", draft-ietf-
v6ops-64share-03 (work in progress), February 2013. v6ops-64share-04 (work in progress), April 2013.
[I-D.ietf-v6ops-rfc3316bis] [I-D.ietf-v6ops-rfc3316bis]
Korhonen, J., Arkko, J., Savolainen, T., and S. Krishnan, Korhonen, J., Arkko, J., Savolainen, T., and S. Krishnan,
"IPv6 for 3GPP Cellular Hosts", draft-ietf-v6ops- "IPv6 for 3GPP Cellular Hosts", draft-ietf-v6ops-
rfc3316bis-01 (work in progress), February 2013. rfc3316bis-01 (work in progress), February 2013.
[RFC3314] Wasserman, M., "Recommendations for IPv6 in Third [IR92] GSMA, , "IR.92.V4.0 - IMS Profile for Voice and SMS",
Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Standards", RFC March 2011, <http://www.gsma.com/newsroom/ir-92-v4-0-ims-
3314, September 2002. profile-for-voice-and-sms>.
[RFC3316] Arkko, J., Kuijpers, G., Soliman, H., Loughney, J., and J. [RFC4033] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
Wiljakka, "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) for Some Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC
Second and Third Generation Cellular Hosts", RFC 3316, 4033, March 2005.
April 2003.
[RFC4034] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions",
RFC 4034, March 2005.
[RFC4035] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security
Extensions", RFC 4035, March 2005.
[RFC6092] Woodyatt, J., "Recommended Simple Security Capabilities in [RFC6092] Woodyatt, J., "Recommended Simple Security Capabilities in
Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) for Providing Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) for Providing
Residential IPv6 Internet Service", RFC 6092, January Residential IPv6 Internet Service", RFC 6092, January
2011. 2011.
[RFC6204] Singh, H., Beebee, W., Donley, C., Stark, B., and O. [RFC6204] Singh, H., Beebee, W., Donley, C., Stark, B., and O.
Troan, "Basic Requirements for IPv6 Customer Edge Troan, "Basic Requirements for IPv6 Customer Edge
Routers", RFC 6204, April 2011. Routers", RFC 6204, April 2011.
[RFC6459] Korhonen, J., Soininen, J., Patil, B., Savolainen, T., [RFC6459] Korhonen, J., Soininen, J., Patil, B., Savolainen, T.,
Bajko, G., and K. Iisakkila, "IPv6 in 3rd Generation Bajko, G., and K. Iisakkila, "IPv6 in 3rd Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP) Evolved Packet System (EPS)", Partnership Project (3GPP) Evolved Packet System (EPS)",
RFC 6459, January 2012. RFC 6459, January 2012.
[RFC6877] Mawatari, M., Kawashima, M., and C. Byrne, "464XLAT:
Combination of Stateful and Stateless Translation", RFC
6877, April 2013.
[TS.23060] [TS.23060]
3GPP, , "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service 3GPP, , "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service
description; Stage 2", September 2011. description; Stage 2", September 2011.
[TS.23401] [TS.23401]
3GPP, , "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements 3GPP, , "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements
for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
(E-UTRAN) access", September 2011. (E-UTRAN) access", September 2011.
[TS.23402]
3GPP, , "Architecture enhancements for non-3GPP accesses",
September 2011.
[TS.24008] [TS.24008]
3GPP, , "Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification; 3GPP, , "Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification;
Core network protocols; Stage 3", June 2011. Core network protocols; Stage 3", June 2011.
[TS.29060]
3GPP, , "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); GPRS
Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp interface",
September 2011.
[TS.29274]
3GPP, , "3GPP Evolved Packet System (EPS); Evolved General
Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunnelling Protocol for
Control plane (GTPv2-C); Stage 3", June 2011.
[TS.29281]
3GPP, , "General Packet Radio System (GPRS) Tunnelling
Protocol User Plane (GTPv1-U)", September 2011.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
David Binet David Binet
France Telecom France Telecom
Rennes Rennes
France France
Email: david.binet@orange.com Email: david.binet@orange.com
Mohamed Boucadair Mohamed Boucadair
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