draft-ietf-v6ops-802-16-deployment-scenarios-00.txt   draft-ietf-v6ops-802-16-deployment-scenarios-01.txt 
Network Working Group M-K. Shin Network Working Group M-K. Shin
Internet-Draft ETRI Internet-Draft ETRI
Expires: November 25, 2006 Y-H. Han Intended status: Informational Y-H. Han
KUT Expires: April 4, 2007 KUT
May 24, 2006 S-E. Kim
KT
D. Premec
Siemens Mobile
October 1, 2006
ISP IPv6 Deployment Scenarios in Wireless Broadband Access Networks IPv6 Deployment Scenarios in 802.16(e) Networks
draft-ietf-v6ops-802-16-deployment-scenarios-00 draft-ietf-v6ops-802-16-deployment-scenarios-01
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
skipping to change at page 1, line 35 skipping to change at page 1, line 39
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on November 25, 2006. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 4, 2007.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).
Abstract Abstract
This document provides detailed description of IPv6 deployment and This document provides detailed description of IPv6 deployment and
integration methods and scenarios in wireless broadband access integration methods and scenarios in wireless broadband access
networks in coexistence with deployed IPv4 services. In this networks in coexistence with deployed IPv4 services. In this
skipping to change at page 2, line 12 skipping to change at page 2, line 22
IPv6 is deployed and integrated in each of the IEEE 802.16 IPv6 is deployed and integrated in each of the IEEE 802.16
technologies using tunneling mechanisms and native IPv6. technologies using tunneling mechanisms and native IPv6.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Wireless Broadband Access Network Technologies - IEEE 2. Wireless Broadband Access Network Technologies - IEEE
802.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 802.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Elements of IEEE 802.16 Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Elements of IEEE 802.16 Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Deploying IPv6 in IEEE 802.16 Networks . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Deploying IPv6 in IEEE 802.16 Networks . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2.1. Scenario A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2.1. Mobile Access Deployment Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2.2. Scenario B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.2. Fixed/Nomadic Deployment Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.3. Scenario C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.4. Scenario D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3. IPv6 Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.3. IPv6 Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.4. IPv6 Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.4. IPv6 QoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.5. IPv6 QoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.5. IPv6 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.6. IPv6 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.6. IPv6 Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.7. IPv6 Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 22 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Recently, broadband wireless access network is emerging for wireless Recently, broadband wireless access network is emerging for wireless
communication for user requirements such as high quality data/voice communication for user requirements such as high quality data/voice
service, fast mobility, wide coverage, etc. The IEEE 802.16 Working service, fast mobility, wide coverage, etc. The IEEE 802.16 Working
Group develops standards and recommended practices to support the Group develops standards and recommended practices to support the
development and deployment of broadband wireless metropolitan area development and deployment of broadband wireless metropolitan area
networks. networks.
Whereas the existing IEEE 802.16 standard [IEEE802.16] addresses Whereas the [IEEE802.16] standard addresses fixed wireless
fixed wireless applications only, the IEEE 802.16(e) standard applications only, the [IEEE802.16e] standard serves the needs of
[IEEE802.16e] aims to serve the needs of fixed, nomadic, and fully fixed, nomadic, and fully mobile networks. It adds mobility support
mobile networks. It adds mobility support to the original standard to the original standard so that mobile subscriber stations can move
so that mobile subscriber stations can move while receiving services. during services. The standardization of IEEE 802.16e is completed,
IEEE 802.16e is one of the most promising access technologies which which plans to support mobility up to speeds of 70~80 mile/h that
would be applied to the IP-based broadband mobile communication. will enable the subscribers to carry mobile devices such as PDAs,
phones, or laptops. IEEE 802.16e is one of the most promising access
WiMAX Forum is an industrial corporation formed to promote and technologies which would be applied to the IP-based broadband mobile
certify compatibility and interoperability of broadband wireless communication.
products mainly based on IEEE 802.16. The Network Working Group
(NWG) of WiMAX Forum is defining the IEEE 802.16 network architecture
(e.g., IPv4, IPv6, Mobility, interworking with different networks,
AAA, etc). Similarly, WiBro (Wireless Broadband), Korea effort which
focuses on the 2.3 GHz spectrum band, is also based on the IEEE
802.16 and IEEE 802.16e specifications.
As the deployment of wireless broadband access network progresses, As the deployment of wireless broadband access network progresses,
users will be connected to IPv6 networks. While the IEEE 802.16 users will be connected to IPv6 networks. While the IEEE 802.16
defines the encapsulation of an IPv4/IPv6 datagram in an IEEE 802.16 defines the encapsulation of an IPv4/IPv6 datagram in an IEEE 802.16
MAC payload, a complete description of IPv4/IPv6 operation and MAC payload, a complete description of IPv4/IPv6 operation and
deployment is not present. In this document, we will discuss main deployment is not present. In this document, we will discuss main
components of IPv6 IEEE 802.16 access network and its differences components of IPv6 IEEE 802.16 access network and its differences
from IPv4 IEEE 802.16 networks and how IPv6 is deployed and from IPv4 IEEE 802.16 networks and how IPv6 is deployed and
integrated in each of the IEEE 802.16 technologies using tunneling integrated in each of the IEEE 802.16 technologies using tunneling
mechanisms and native IPv6. mechanisms and native IPv6.
This document extends works of [I-D.ietf-v6ops-bb-deployment- This document extends works of [I-D.ietf-v6ops-bb-deployment-
scenarios] and follows the structure and common terminology of the scenarios] and follows the structure and common terminology of the
document. document.
2. Wireless Broadband Access Network Technologies - IEEE 802.16 2. Wireless Broadband Access Network Technologies - IEEE 802.16
This section describes the infrastructure that exists today in IEEE This section describes the infrastructure that is based on IEEE
802.16 networks providing wireless broadband services to the 802.16 networks providing wireless broadband services to the
customer. It also describes IPv6 deployment options in these IEEE customer. It also describes a way to deploy IPv6 over IEEE 802.16
802.16 networks. networks.
2.1. Elements of IEEE 802.16 Networks 2.1. Elements of IEEE 802.16 Networks
The IEEE 802.11 access network (WLAN) has driven the revolution of The IEEE 802.11 access network (WLAN) has driven the revolution of
wireless communication but the more people use it the more its wireless communication. However, the more people use it the more its
limitations like short range or lack of mobility support were limitations such as short range and lack of mobility support arose.
revealed. Compared with such IEEE 802.11 network, IEEE 802.16 Compared with such IEEE 802.11 network, IEEE 802.16 supports enhanced
supports enhanced features like wider range and mobility. So it is features such as wider coverage and mobility. So it is expected that
expected that IEEE 802.16 network could be the next step of IEEE IEEE 802.16 network could be the next step of IEEE 802.11 network.
802.11 network.
The mechanism of transporting IP traffic over IEEE 802.16 networks is The mechanism of transporting IP traffic over IEEE 802.16 networks is
outlined in [IEEE802.16], but the details of IPv6 operations over outlined in [IEEE802.16], but the details of IPv6 operations over
IEEE 802.16 are being discussed now. IEEE 802.16 are being discussed now.
Here are some of the key elements of IEEE 802.16 networks Here are some of the key elements of an IEEE 802.16 network:
MS: Mobile Station. A station in the mobile service intended to be o MS: Mobile Station. A station in the mobile service intended to
used while in motion or during halts at unspecified points. A mobile be used while in motion or during halts at unspecified points. A
station (MS) is always a subscriber station (SS). mobile station (MS) is always a subscriber station (SS) which must
provide mobility function.
BS: Base Station. A generalized equipment set providing o BS: Base Station. A generalized equipment set providing
connectivity, management and control of MS connections. There is a management and control of MS connections. There is a
unidirectional mapping between BS and MS medium access control (MAC) unidirectional mapping between BS and MS medium access control
peers for the purpose of transporting a service flow's traffic. (MAC) peers for the purpose of transporting a service flow's
Connections are identified by a connection identifier (CID) and all traffic. A connection is identified by a connection identifier
traffic is carried on a connection. Sometimes there can be (CID). All traffic is carried on the connection. Sometimes there
alternative IEEE 802.16 network deployment where a BS is integrated can be alternative IEEE 802.16 network deployment where a BS is
with an access router, composing one box in view of implementation. integrated with an access router, composing one box in view of
implementation.
Figure 1 illustrates the key elements of IEEE 802.16 networks. o AR: Access Router. A generalized equipment set providing IP
connectivity between BS and IP based network. An AR performs
first hop routing function to all MS.
Figure 1 illustrates the key elements of IEEE 802.16(e) networks.
Customer | Access Provider | Service Provider Customer | Access Provider | Service Provider
Premise | | (Backend Network) Premise | | (Backend Network)
+-----+ +-----+ +------+ +--------+ +-----+ +----+ +----+ +--------+
| MSs |--(802.16)--| BS |-----+Access+---+ Edge | ISP | MSs |--(802.16)--| BS |-----| | | Edge | ISP
+-----+ +-----+ |Router| | Router +==>Network +-----+ +----+ | AR |---| Router |==>Network
+--+---+ +--------+ +--| | | (ER) |
+-----+ +-----+ | | +------+ | +----+ +--------+
| Mss |--(802.16)--| BS |--------+ +--|AAA | +-----+ +----+ | | +------+
+-----+ +-----+ |Server| | MSs |--(802.16)--| BS |--+ +--|AAA |
+-----+ +----+ |Server|
+------+ +------+
Figure 1: Key Elements of IEEE 802.16(e) Networks Figure 1: Key Elements of IEEE 802.16(e) Networks
2.2. Deploying IPv6 in IEEE 802.16 Networks 2.2. Deploying IPv6 in IEEE 802.16 Networks
IEEE 802.16 supports two modes such as 2-way PMP (Point-to- [IEEE802.16] specifies two modes for sharing the wireless medium:
Multipoint) and Mesh topology wireless networks. In this document, point-to-multipoint (PMP) and mesh (optional). This document only
we focus on 2-way PMP topology wireless networks. focuses on PMP mode.
There are two different deployment options in current IEEE 802.16
networks: Cellular-like and Hot-zone deployment scenarios. IPv6 can
be deployed in both of these deployment models.
A. Cellular-like Deployment Model
IEEE 802.16 BS can offer both fixed communications and mobile
functions unlike IEEE 802.11. In particular, IEEE 802.16e working
group standardized such mobility features and the specification of
IEEE 802.16e provides some competition to the existing cellular
systems. This use case will be implemented only with the licensed
spectrum. IEEE 802.16 BS might be deployed with a proprietary
backend managed by an operator. All original IPv6 functionalities
will not survive and some of them might be compromised to efficiently
serve IPv6 to this 'Cellular-like' use case.
Under the use case, however, IEEE 802.16 standards are still IP-
centric, providing packet-switched approach, while cellular standards
like GSM have a more circuit-switched approach.
B. Hot Zone Deployment Model
The success of a Hotspot service with IEEE 802.11 has been prominent.
The new IEEE 802.16 standards basically support such Hotspot services
with large coverage area and high data rate. An area served by one
base station is usually termed 'Hot Zone' because it is considerably
larger than an IEEE 802.11 access point service area called Hotspot.
Many wireless Internet service providers (Wireless ISPs) have planned
to use IEEE 802.16 for the purpose of high quality service. A
company can use IEEE 802.16 to build up mobile office. Wireless
Internet spreading through a campus or a cafe can be also implemented
with it. The distinct point of this use case is that it can use
unlicensed (2.4 & 5 GHz) band as well as licensed (2.6 & 3.5GHz)
band. By using the unlicensed band, a IEEE 802.16 BS might be used
just as a wireless hub which a user purchases to build a private
wireless network in his/her home or laboratory.
Under 'Hot Zone' use case, a IEEE 802.16 BS will be deployed using an
Ethernet (IP) backbone rather than a proprietary backend like
cellular systems. Thus, many IPv6 functionalities will be preserved
when adopting IPv6 to IEEE 802.16 networks, which brings out many
research issues [I-D.jee-16ng-problem-statement] [I-D.madanapalli-nd-
over-802.16-problems].
Some of the factors that hinder deployment of native IPv6 core Some of the factors that hinder deployment of native IPv6 core
protocols include: protocols are introduced by [I-D.jee-16ng-problem-statement]. The
summary of them is as follows:
1. Lacking of Facility for IPv6 Native Multicasting 1. Lacking of Facility for IPv6 Native Multicasting
IEEE 802.16 is a PMP connection oriented technology without bi- IEEE 802.16 PMP mode is a connection oriented technology without bi-
directional native multicast support. IPv6 neighbor discovery directional native multicast support. IPv6 neighbor discovery
[RFC2461] supports various functions for the interaction between [RFC2461] supports various functions for the interaction between
nodes attached on the same subnet, such as on-link determination and nodes attached on the same subnet, such as on-link determination and
address resolution. It is designed with no dependence on a specific address resolution. It is designed with no dependence on a specific
link layer technology, but requires that the link layer technology link layer technology, but requires that the link layer technology
support native multicast. The specification of IEEE 802.16 provides support native multicast. This lacking of facility for IPv6 native
multicast and broadcast services. However, the aim of such services multicast results in inappropriateness to apply the standard neighbor
is to transmit IEEE 802.16 MAC management messages, not IP messages. discover protocol specially regarding, address resolution, router
This lacking of facility for IPv6 native multicast results in discovery, stateless auto-configuration and duplicated address
inappropriateness to apply the standard neighbor discover protocol detection.
specially regarding, address resolution, router discovery, stateless
auto-configuration and duplicated address detection.
2. Impact of BS on Subnet Model 2. Impact on IPv6 Subnet Model
IEEE 802.16 is different from existing wireless access technologies IEEE 802.16 is different from existing wireless access technologies
such as IEEE 802.11 or 3G, and, while IEEE 802.16 defines the such as IEEE 802.11 or 3G, and, while IEEE 802.16 defines the
encapsulation of an IP datagram in an IEEE 802.16 MAC payload, a encapsulation of an IP datagram in an IEEE 802.16 MAC payload, a
complete description of IPv6 operation is not present. IEEE 802.16 complete description of IPv6 operation is not present. IEEE 802.16
can rather benefit from IETF input and specification to support IPv6 can rather benefit from IETF input and specification to support IPv6
operation. Especially, BS should look at the classifiers and decide operation. Especially, BS should look at the classifiers and decide
where to send the packet, since IEEE 802.16 connection always ends at where to send the packet, since IEEE 802.16 connection always ends at
BS, while IPv6 connection terminates at a default router. This BS, while IPv6 connection terminates at a default router. This
operation and limitation may be dependent on the given subnet model. operation and limitation may be dependent on the given subnet model
[I-D.madanapalli-16ng-subnet-model-analysis].
Also, we should consider which type of Convergence Sublayer (CS) can 3. Multiple Convergence Sublayers (CS)
be efficiently used on each subnet models. IEEE 802.16 CS provides
the tunneling of IP(v6) packets over IEEE 802.16 air-link. The There are operational complexity problems of IP over 802.16 caused by
tunnels are identified by the Connection Identifier (CID). the existence of multiple convergence sublayers [I-D.iab-link-
encaps]. We should consider which type of Convergence Sublayer (CS)
can be efficiently used on each subnet models and scenarios. IEEE
802.16 CS delivers and classifies various kinds of higher layer PDUs
such as ATM, IPv4 packet and IPv6 packets over radio channel. For
this purpose, IEEE 802.16 introduces the Connection Identifier (CID).
Generally, CS performs the following functions in terms of IP packet Generally, CS performs the following functions in terms of IP packet
transmission: 1) Receipt of protocol data units (PDUs) from the transmission: 1) Receipt of protocol data units (PDUs) from the
higher layer, 2) Performing classification and CID mapping of the higher layer, 2) Performing classification and CID mapping of the
PDUs, 3) Delivering the PDUs to the appropriate MAC SAP, 4) Receipt PDUs, 3) Delivering the PDUs to the appropriate MAC SAP, 4) Receipt
of PDUs from the peer MAC SAP. The specification of IEEE 802.16 of PDUs from the peer MAC SAP, and 5) Forwarding the PDUs to the
defines several CSs for carrying IP packets, but does not provide a corresponding AR. The specification of IEEE 802.16 defines several
detailed description of how to carry them. The several CSs are CSs for carrying IP packets, but does not provide a detailed
generally classified into two types of CS: IPv6 CS and Ethernet CS. description of how to carry them. The several CSs are generally
classified into two types of CS: IPv6 CS and Ethernet CS.
While deploying IPv6 in the above mentioned approach, there are four In addition, due to the problems caused by the existence of multiple
possible typical scenarios as discussed below. convergence sublayers [I-D.iab-link-encaps], the mobile access
scenarios need solutions about how roaming will work when forced to
move from one CS to another. Note that, at this phase this issue is
the out of scope of this draft. It should be also discussed in 16ng
WG.
2.2.1. Scenario A There are two different deployment scenarios: fixed and mobile
access. A fixed access scenario substitudes for existing wired-based
access technologies such as digital subscriber line (xDSL) and cable
network. This fixed access scenario can provide nomadic access
within the radio coverages, which is called Hot-zone model. A mobile
access scenario is for new paradigm for voice, data and video over
mobile network. This scenario can provide high speed data rate
equalivent to wire-based Internet as well as mobility function
equivalent to cellular system. The mobile access scenario can be
classified into two different IPv6 sunbet models: shared IPv6 prefix
link model and point-to-point link model.
Scenario A represents IEEE 802.16 access network deployment where a 2.2.1. Mobile Access Deployment Scenarios
BS is separated from a router, and a subnet consists of only single
router and multiple BSs and MSs. Current celluar-like deployment Unlike IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.16 BS can offer mobility function as
models, WiMax and WiBro, fall within this scenario A. well as fixed communication. [IEEE802.16e] has been standardized to
provide mobility features on IEEE 802.16 environments. This use case
will be implemented only with the licensed spectrum. IEEE 802.16 BS
might be deployed with a proprietary backend managed by an operator.
All original IPv6 functionalities [RFC2461], [RFC2462] will not
survive. Some architectural characteristics of IEEE 802.16 networks
may affect the detailed operations of NDP [RFC2461].
There are two possible IPv6 subnet models for mobile access
deployment scenarios: shared IPv6 prefix link model and point-to-
point link model [I-D.madanapalli-16ng-subnet-model-analysis]. The
mobile access deployment models, WiMax and WiBro, fall within this
deployment model.
1. Shared IPv6 Prefix Link Model
This link model represents IEEE 802.16 mobile access network
deployment where a subnet consists of only single interface of AR and
multiple MSs. Therefore, all MSs and corresponding interface of AR
share the same IPv6 prefix as shown in Figure 2. IPv6 prefix will be
different from the interface of AR.
+-----+ +-----+
| MS1 |<------+ | MS1 |<-(16)-+
+-----+ | +-----+ |
+-----+ | +-----+ +-----+ +--------+ +-----+ | +-----+ +-----+ +--------+
| MSs |<------+----| BS1 |---->| AR |----| Edge | ISP | MS2 |<-(16)-+----| BS1 |--+->| AR |----| Edge | ISP
+-----+ +-----+ +-----+ | Router +==>Network +-----+ +-----+ | +-----+ | Router +==>Network
^ +--------+ | +--------+
+-----+ +-----+ | +-----+ +-----+ |
| Mss |<-----------| BS2 |--------+ | MS3 |<-(16)-+----| BS2 |--+
+-----+ | +-----+
+-----+ |
| MS4 |<-(16)-+
+-----+
Figure 2: Shared IPv6 Prefix Link Model
2. Point-to-Point Link Model
This link model represents IEEE 802.16 mobile access network
deployment where a subnet consists of only single AR, BS and MS.
That is, each connection to a mobile node is treated as a single
link. Each link between the MS and the AR is allocated a separate,
unique prefix or unique set of prefixes by the AR. The point-to-
point link model follows the recommendations of [RFC3314].
+-----+
| MS1 |<-(16)---------+
+-----+ |
+-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +--------+
| MS2 |<-(16)------| BS1 |--+->| AR |----| Edge | ISP
+-----+ +-----+ | +-----+ | Router +==>Network
| +--------+
+-----+ +-----+ |
| MS3 |<-(16)------| BS2 |--+
+-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+
<---> IP termination +-----+ |
| MS4 |<-(16)---------+
+-----+
Figure 2: Scenario A Figure 3: Point-to-Point Link Model
2.2.1.1. IPv6 Related Infrastructure Changes 2.2.1.1. IPv6 Related Infrastructure Changes
IPv6 will be deployed in this scenario by upgrading the following IPv6 will be deployed in this scenario by upgrading the following
devices to dual-stack: MS, BS (if possible), AR and Edge Router. In devices to dual-stack: MS, BS, AR and ER. In this scenario, IEEE
this scenario the BS is Layer 3 unaware, so no changes are needed to 802.16 BSs have only MAC and PHY layers without router function and
support IPv6. However, if IPv4 stack is loaded to them for operates as a bridge. The BS does not need to support IPv6.
management and configuration purpose, it is expected that BS should However, if IPv4 stack is loaded to them for management and
be upgraded by implementing IPv6 stack, too. configuration purpose, it is expected that BS should be upgraded by
implementing IPv6 stack, too.
2.2.1.2. Addressing 2.2.1.2. Addressing
IPv6 MS has two possible options to get an IPv6 address. These IPv6 MS has two possible options to get an IPv6 address. These
options will be equally applied to the other three scenarios below. options will be equally applied to the other scenario below (Section
2.2.2).
1. IPv6 MS can get the IPv6 address from an access router using 1. IPv6 MS can get the IPv6 address from an access router using
stateless auto-configuration. In this case, router discovery and DAD stateless auto-configuration. In this case, router discovery and DAD
operation using multicast should be properly operated over IEEE operation should be properly operated over IEEE 802.16 link.
802.16 link.
2. IPv6 MS can use DHCPv6 to get an IPv6 address from the DHCPv6 2. IPv6 MS can use DHCPv6 to get an IPv6 address from the DHCPv6
server. In this case, the DHCPv6 server would be located in the server. In this case, the DHCPv6 server would be located in the
service provider core network and Edge Router would simply act as a service provider core network and the AR should provide DHCPv6 relay
DHCP Relay Agent. This option is similar to what we do today in case agent. This option is similar to what we do today in case of DHCPv4.
of DHCPv4.
In this scenario, a router and multiple BSs form an IPv6 subnet and a In this scenario, a router and multiple BSs form an IPv6 subnet and a
single prefix is allocated to all the attached MS. All MSs attached single prefix is allocated to all the attached MSs. All MSs attached
to same AR can be on same IPv6 link. to same AR can be on same IPv6 link.
2.2.1.3. IPv6 Control and Data Transport As for the prefix assignment, in case of shared IPv6 prefix link
model, one or more IPv6 prefixes are assigned to the link and hence
shared by all the nodes that are attached to the link. In point-to-
point link model, the AR assigns a unique prefix or set of unique
prefixes for each MS.
2.2.1.3. IPv6 Transport
In a subnet, there are always two underlying links: one is the IEEE In a subnet, there are always two underlying links: one is the IEEE
802.16 wireless link between MS and BS, and the other is a wired link 802.16 wireless link between MS and BS, and the other is a wired link
between BS and AR. Also, there are multiple BSs on the same link. between BS and AR. The IPv6 packet should be classified by IPv6
source/destination addresses, etc. BS generates the flow based on
the classification. It also decides where to send the packet or just
forward the packet to the ACR, since IEEE 802.16 connection always
ends at BS while IPv6 connection terminates at the AR. This
operation may be dependent on IPv6 subnet models.
If stateless auto-configuration is used to get an IPv6 address, If stateless auto-configuration is used to get an IPv6 address,
router discovery and DAD operation should be properly operated over router discovery and DAD operation should be properly operated over
IEEE 802.16 link. So, BS may support IPv6 basic protocols such as ND IEEE 802.16 link. In case of shared IPv6 prefix link model, the DAD
using multicast functions, or provide some schemes to facilitate the [RFC2461] does not adapt well to the 802.16 air interface as there is
stateless auto-configuration. Especially, IEEE 802.16 connection no native multicast support and when supported consumes air bandwidth
terminates at BS, not a router. So, BS should look at the as well as it would have adverse effect on MSs that were in the
classifiers and decide where to send the packet. In addition, one BS dormant mode. An optimization, called Relay DAD, may be required to
can send the packet to other BSs, since multiple BSs are on the same perform DAD. However, in case of point-to-point link model, DAD is
link. easy since each connection to a MN is treated as a unique IPv6 link.
The operation and transmission methods are being intensively Note that in this scenario IPv6 CS may be more appropriate than
discussed in other documents [I-D.shin-16ng-ipv6-transmission]. Note Ethernet CS to transport IPv6 packets, since there are some overhead
that in this scenario Ethernet CS as well as IPv6 CS may be used to of Ethernet CS (e.g., Ethernet header) under mobile access
transport IPv6 packets. environments .
Simple or complex network equipments may constitute the underlying Simple or complex network equipments may constitute the underlying
wired network between BS and AR. If the IP aware equipments do not wired network between the AR and the ER. If the IP aware equipments
support IPv6, the service providers are deploying IPv6-in-IPv4 between the AR and the ER do not support IPv6, the service providers
tunneling mechanisms to transport IPv6 packets between an AR and an can deploy IPv6-in-IPv4 tunneling mechanisms to transport IPv6
Edge router. packets between the AR and the ER.
The service providers are deploying tunneling mechanisms to transport The service providers are deploying tunneling mechanisms to transport
IPv6 over their existing IPv4 networks as well as deploying native IPv6 over their existing IPv4 networks as well as deploying native
IPv6 where possible. Native IPv6 should be preferred over tunneling IPv6 where possible. Native IPv6 should be preferred over tunneling
mechanisms as native IPv6 deployment option might be more scalable mechanisms as native IPv6 deployment option might be more scalable
and provide required service performance. Tunneling mechanisms and provide required service performance. Tunneling mechanisms
should only be used when native IPv6 deployment is not an option. should only be used when native IPv6 deployment is not an option.
This can be equally applied to other three scenarios below. This can be equally applied to other scenario below (Section 2.2.2).
2.2.1.4. Routing 2.2.1.4. Routing
In general, the AR is configured with a default route that points to In general, the MS is configured with a default route that points to
the Edge router. No routing protocols are needed on these devices the the AR. Therefore, no routing protocols are needed on the MS.
which generally have limited resources. The MS just sends to the AR by default route.
The Edge Router runs the IGP used in the ISP network such as OSPFv3
or IS-IS for IPv6. The connected prefixes have to be redistributed.
Prefix summarization should be done at the Edge Router.
2.2.2. Scenario B
Scenario B represents IEEE 802.16 network deployment where a BS is
separated from a router, there are multiple access routers, and a
subnet consists of multiple BS and MSs. If 802.16 access networks
are widely deployed like WLAN, this scenario should be also
considered. Hot-zone deployment model falls within this scenario B.
+-----+ +-----+ +-----+ ISP 1
| MS1 |<-----+ +->| AR1 |----| ER1 |===>Network
+-----+ | | +-----+ +-----+
+-----+ | +-----+ |
| MS2 |<-----+-----| BS1 |--|
+-----+ +-----+ | +-----+ +-----+ ISP 2
+->| AR2 |----| ER2 |===>Network
+-----+ +-----+ | +-----+ +-----+
| Ms3 |<-----------| BS2 |--+
+-----+ +-----+
<---> IP termination
Figure 3: Scenario B
2.2.2.1. IPv6 Related Infrastructure Changes
IPv6 will be deployed in this scenario by upgrading the following
devices to dual-stack: MS, BS (if possible), AR and Edge Router. In
this scenario the BS is Layer 3 unaware, so no changes are needed to
support IPv6. However, if IPv4 stack is loaded to them for
management and configuration purpose, it is expected that BS should
be upgraded by implementing IPv6 stack, too.
2.2.2.2. Addressing
In this scenario, multiple BSs and MSs form an IPv6 subnet and
multiple prefixes are allocated to all the attached MS. All MSs
attached to different BSs under the same AR, can be on same IPv6
link.
2.2.2.3. IPv6 Control and Data Transport
In a subnet, like scenario A, there are always two underlying links:
one is the IEEE 802.16 wireless link between MS and BS, and the other
is a wired link between BS and AR. Also, there are multiple BSs on
the same link.
If stateless auto-configuration is used to get an IPv6 address,
considerations on router discovery and DAD operation are the same as
scenario A.
The operation and transmission methods are being intensively
discussed in other documents [I-D.shin-16ng-ipv6-transmission]. Note
that in this scenario Ethernet CS may be more suitable to transport
IPv6 packets, rather than IPv6 CS, since this scenario requires
broadcast-like functions (e.g., multi-homing).
Simple or complex network equipments may constitute the underlying
wired network between BS and AR. If the IP aware equipments do not
support IPv6, the service providers are deploying IPv6-in-IPv4
tunneling mechanisms to transport IPv6 packets between an AR and an
Edge router.
2.2.2.4. Routing
In this scenario, IPv6 multi-homing considerations exist. For
example, if there exist two routers to support MSs, default router
must be selected.
The Edge Router runs the IGP used in the SP network such as OSPFv3 or
IS-IS for IPv6. The connected prefixes have to be redistributed.
Prefix summarization should be done at the Edge Router.
2.2.3. Scenario C
Scenario C represents IEEE 802.16 access network deployment where a The AR can configure multiple link to ER for network reliability.
BS is integrated with a router, composing one box in view of The AR should support IPv6 routing protocol such as OSPFv3 [RFC2740]
implementation, and a subnet consists of only single BS/router and or IS-IS for IPv6 when connected to the ER with multiple links.
multiple MSs.
+-----+ The ER runs the IGP such as OSPFv3 or IS-IS for IPv6 in the service
| MS1 |<------+ provider network. The routing information of the ER can be
+-----+ | redistributed to the AR. Prefix summarization should be done at the
+-----+ | +-------+ +--------+ ER.
| MS2 |<------+--->|BS/AR1 |---------| Edge | ISP
+-----+ +-------+ | Router +==>Network
+--------+
+-----+ +-------+ |
| Ms3 |<---------->|BS/AR2 |-----------+
+-----+ +-------+
<---> IP termination
Figure 4: Scenario C 2.2.1.5. Mobility
2.2.3.1. IPv6 Related Infrastructure Changes As for mobility management, the movement between BSs is handled by
Mobile IPv6 [RFC3775], if it requires a subnet change. Also, in
certain cases (e.g., fast handover [I-D.ietf-mipshop-fmipv6-
rfc4068bis]) the link mobility information must be available for
facilitating layer 3 handoff procedure.
IPv6 will be deployed in this scenario by upgrading the following Mobile IPv6 defines that movement detection uses Neighbor
devices to dual-stack: MS, BS/AR and Edge Router. Unreachability Detection to detect when the default router is no
longer bi-directionally reachable, in which case the mobile node must
discover a new default router. Periodic Router Advertisements for
reachability and movement detection may be unnecessary because IEEE
802.16 MAC provides the reachability by its Ranging procedure and the
movement detection by the Handoff procedure.
2.2.3.2. Addressing IEEE 802.16 defines L2 triggers whether refresh of an IP address is
required during the handoff. Though a handoff has occurred, an
additional router discovery procedure is not required in case of
intra-subnet handoff. Also, faster handoff may be occurred by the L2
trigger in case of inter-subnet handoff.
In this scenario, a single prefix is allocated to all the attached Also, IEEE 802.16g which is under-developed defines L2 triggers for
MS. All MSs attached to same BS can be on same IPv6 link. link status such as link-up, link-down, handoff-start. These L2
triggers may make Mobile IPv6 procedure more efficient and faster.
In addition, Mobile IPv6 Fast Handover assumes the support from link-
layer technology, but the particular link-layer information being
available, as well as the timing of its availability (before, during
or after a handover has occurred), differs according to the
particular link-layer technology in use. This issue is also being
discussed in [I-D.ietf-mipshop-fh80216e].
2.2.3.3. IPv6 Control and Data Transport 2.2.2. Fixed/Nomadic Deployment Scenarios
If stateless auto-configuration is used to get an IPv6 address, The IEEE 802.16 access networks can provide plain Ethernet
router discovery and DAD operations should be properly operated over connectivity end-to-end. Wireless DSL deployment model is an example
IEEE 802.16 link. So, BS/AR should support IPv6 basic protocols such of a fixed/nomadic IPv6 deployment of IEEE 802.16. Many wireless
as ND using multicast functions, or provide some schemes to Internet service providers (Wireless ISPs) have planned to use IEEE
facilitate the stateless auto-configuration. 802.16 for the purpose of high quality broadband wireless service. A
company can use IEEE 802.16 to build up mobile office. Wireless
Internet spreading through a campus or a cafe can be also implemented
with it. The distinct point of this use case is that it can use
unlicensed (2.4 & 5 GHz) band as well as licensed (2.6 & 3.5GHz)
band. By using the unlicensed band, an IEEE 802.16 BS might be used
just as a wireless switch/hub which a user purchases to build a
private wireless network in his/her home or laboratory.
The operation and transmission methods are being intensively Under fixed access model, the IEEE 802.16 BS will be deployed using
discussed in other documents [I-D.shin-16ng-ipv6-transmission]. Note an IP backbone rather than a proprietary backend like cellular
that in this scenario Ethernet CS as well as IPv6 CS may be used to systems. Thus, many IPv6 functionalities such as [RFC2461],
transport IPv6 packets. [RFC2462] will be preserved when adopting IPv6 to IEEE 802.16
devices.
2.2.3.4. Routing This scenario also represents IEEE 802.16 network deployment where a
subnet consists of multiple MSs and multiple interface of the
multiple BSs. Multiple access routers can exist. There exist
multiple hosts behind an SS (networks behind an MS may exist). When
802.16 access networks are widely deployed like WLAN, this case
should be also considered. Hot-zone deployment model falls within
this case.
In general, BS/Router is configured with a default route that points +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ ISP 1
to the Edge router. No routing protocols are needed on these devices | SS1 |<-(16)+ +->| AR1 |----| ER1 |===>Network
which generally have limited resources. +-----+ | | +-----+ +-----+
+-----+ | +-----+ |
| SS2 |<-(16)+-----| BS1 |--|
+-----+ +-----+ | +-----+ +-----+ ISP 2
+->| AR2 |----| ER2 |===>Network
+-----+ +-----+ +-----+ | +-----+ +-----+
|Hosts|<-->|SS/GW|<-(16)------| BS2 |--+
+-----+ +-----+ +-----+
This network
behind MS may exist
The Edge Router runs the IGP used in the SP network such as OSPFv3 or Figure 4: Fixed/Nomadic Deployment Scenario
IS-IS for IPv6. The connected prefixes have to be redistributed.
Prefix summarization should be done at the Edge Router.
2.2.4. Scenario D While Figure 3 illustrates a generic deployment scenario, the
following Figure 4 shows in more detail how an existing DSL ISP would
integrate the 802.16 access network into its existing infrastructure.
Scenario D represents IEEE 802.16 access network deployment where a +-----+ +---+ +-----+ +-----+ ISP 1
BS is integrated with a router, composing one box in view of | SS1 |<-(16)+ | | +-->|BRAS |----| ER1 |===>Network
implementation. In this scenario, a subnet consists of only single +-----+ | | b| | +-----+ +-----+
BS/router and single MS. This scenario mimics the current 3GPP-like +-----+ | +-----+ |E r| |
IPv6 deployment model. | SS2 |<-(16)+-----| BS1 |-----|t i| |
+-----+ +-----+ |h d|--+
| g| | +-----+ +-----+ ISP 2
+-----+ +-----+ | e| +-->|BRAS |----| ER2 |===>Network
| SS3 |<-(16)------| BS2 |-----| | | +-----+ +-----+
+-----+ +-----+ +---+ |
|
+-----+ +-----+ |
| TE |<-(DSL)-----|DSLAM|------------+
+-----+ +-----+
+-----+ Figure 5: Integration of 802.16 access into DSL infrastructure
| MS1 |<-------------+
+-----+ v
+-----+ +-------+ +--------+
| MS2 |<---------->|BS/AR1 |---------| Edge | ISP
+-----+ +-------+ | Router +==>Network
+--------+
+-----+ +-------+ |
| Ms3 |<---------->|BS/AR2 |-----------+
+-----+ +-------+
<---> IP termination
Figure 5: Scenario D In this approach the 802.16 BS is acting as a DSLAM (Digital
Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer). On the network side, the BS is
connected to an Ethernet bridge which can be separate equipment or
integrated into BRAS (Broadband Remote Access Server).
2.2.4.1. IPv6 Related Infrastructure Changes 2.2.2.1. IPv6 Related Infrastructure Changes
IPv6 will be deployed in this scenario by upgrading the following IPv6 will be deployed in this scenario by upgrading the following
devices to dual-stack: MS, BS/AR and Edge Router. devices to dual-stack: MS, BS, AR and ER. In this scenario, IEEE
802.16 BSs have only MAC and PHY layers without router function and
operates as a bridge. The BS does not need to support IPv6.
However, if IPv4 stack is loaded to them for management and
configuration purpose, it is expected that BS should be upgraded by
implementing IPv6 stack, too.
2.2.4.2. Addressing The BRAS in Figure 4 is providing the functionality of the AR. The
Ethernet bridge is necessary for protecting the BRAS from 802.16 link
layer peculiarities. The Ethernet bridge relays all traffic received
through BS to its network side port(s) connected to BRAS. Any
traffic received from BRAS is relayed to appropriate BS. Since
802.16 MAC layer has no native support for multicast (and broadcast)
in the uplink direction, the Ethernet bridge will emulate Ethernet
level multicast (and broadcast) by relaying the multicast frame
received from the MS to all of its ports. Ethernet bridge may also
provide some IPv6 specific functions to increase link efficiency of
the 802.16 radio link (see Section 2.2.2.3).
In this case, if stateless auto-configuration is used, 3GPP-like IPv6 2.2.2.2. Addressing
addressing scheme [RFC 3314] can be used. That is, a unique prefix
can be allocated to each MS. [RFC 3314] recommends that a given
prefix should be assigned to only one primary PDP context so that
3GPP terminals are allowed to generate multiple IPv6 address using
the prefix without the concerns of address confliction (DAD).
2.2.4.3. IPv6 Control and Data Transport One or more IPv6 prefixes can be shared to all the attached MSs.
Prefix delegation can be required since networks can exist behind SS.
In this scenario, IEEE 802.16 connection and IPv6 termination point 2.2.2.3. IPv6 Transport
are the same, since a BS is integrated with a router. In addition,
each MS can be on different IPv6 link. So, many IPv6 protocols can
be operated without much consideration about the underlying network
implementation.
Only IEEE 802.16 link will be taken into consideration for IPv6 Note that in this scenario Ethernet CS may be more appropriate than
adoption. For example, DAD operation is not needed since each MS has IPv6 CS to transport IPv6 packets, since the scenario need to support
only a well-known neighbor, a router. The operation and transmission plain Ethernet connectivity end-to-end. However, the IPv6 CS can
methods are being intensively discussed in other documents [I-D.shin- also be supported. Every MS and the BS has the Ethernet type MAC
16ng-ipv6-transmission]. address. If the MS is using IP CS, then the BS needs to take care of
the Ethernet header. In the upstream direction, the BS will need to
generate an appropriate Ethernet header and prepend it to the IP
datagram. In the downstream direction, the BS will use the
destination address from the Ethernet header to identify the MS and
then it will strip the Ethernet header before relaying the IP
datagram over the 802.16 MAC connection. Ethernet bridge may provide
implementation of authoritative address cache and Relay DAD.
Authoritative address cache is a mapping between the IPv6 address and
the MAC addresses of all attached MSs.
Note that in this scenario IPv6 CS type may be more suitable to The bridge builds its authoritative address cache by parsing the IPv6
transport IPv6 packets rather than Ethernet CS type since broadcast- Neighbor Discovery messages used during address configuration (DAD).
like functions are not required. Relay DAD means that the Neighbor Solicitation message used in DAD
process will be relayed only to the MS which already has configured
the solicited address as its own address (if such MS exist at all).
2.2.4.4. Routing 2.2.2.4. Routing
In general, the access router is configured with a default route that In this scenario, IPv6 multi-homing considerations exist. For
points to the Edge Router. No routing protocols are needed on these example, if there exist two routers to support MSs, default router
devices which generally have limited resources. must be selected.
The Edge Router runs the IGP used in the service provider network The Edge Router runs the IGP used in the SP network such as OSPFv3
such as OSPFv3 or IS-IS for IPv6. The connected prefixes have to be [RFC2740] or IS-IS for IPv6. The connected prefixes have to be
redistributed. Prefix summarization should be done at the Edge redistributed. Prefix summarization should be done at the Edge
Router. Router.
2.2.2.5. Mobility
No mobility functions are supported in fixed access scenario.
However, mobility can support in the radio coverage without any
mobility protocol like WLAN technology. Therefore, a user can access
Internet nomadically in the coverage.
2.3. IPv6 Multicast 2.3. IPv6 Multicast
In IEEE 802.16 air link, downlink connections can be shared among
multiple MSs, enabling multicast channels with multiple MSs receiving
the same information from the BS. MBS may be used to efficiently
implement multicast. However, it is not clear how to do this, as
currently CID is assigned by BS, but in MBS it should be done at an
AR and it's network scope. For MBS how this mapping will happen is
not clear, so MBS discussions have been postponed in WiMax for now.
Note that it should be intensively researched later, since MBS will
be one of the killer services in IEEE 802.16 networks.
In order to support multicast services in IEEE 802.16, Multicast In order to support multicast services in IEEE 802.16, Multicast
Listener Discovery (MLD) [RFC2710] must be supported between the MS Listener Discovery (MLD) [RFC2710] must be supported between the MS
and BS/Router. Also, the inter-working with IP multicast protocols and AR. Also, the inter-working with IP multicast protocols and
and Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS) should be considered. Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS) should be considered.
Within IEEE 802.16 networks, an MS connects to its BS/router via
point-to-point links. MLD allows an MS to send link-local multicast
destination queries and reports. The packets are transmitted as
normal IEEE 802.16 MAC frames, as the same as regular unicast
packets. Especially, multicast CIDs can be used to transmit
efficiently query packets on the downlink.
There are exactly two IP devices connected to the point-to-point
link, and no attempt is made (at the link-layer) to suppress the
forwarding of multicast traffic. Consequently, sending MLD reports
for link-local addresses in IEEE 802.16 network may not always be
necessary. MLD is needed for multicast group knowledge that is not
link-local.
MBS defines Multicast and Broadcast Services, but actually, MBS seems MBS defines Multicast and Broadcast Services, but actually, MBS seems
to be a broadcast service, not multicasting. MBS adheres to to be a broadcast service, not multicasting. MBS adheres to
broadcast services, while traditional IP multicast schemes define broadcast services, while traditional IP multicast schemes define
multicast routing using a shared tree or source-specific tree to multicast routing using a shared tree or source-specific tree to
deliver packets efficiently. deliver packets efficiently.
In IEEE 802.16 networks, two types of access to MBS may be supported: In IEEE 802.16 networks, two types of access to MBS may be supported:
single-BS access and multi-BS access. Therefore, these two types of single-BS access and multi-BS access. Therefore, these two types of
services may be roughly mapped into Source-Specific Multicast. services may be roughly mapped into Source-Specific Multicast.
Note that it should be intensively researched later, since MBS will 2.4. IPv6 QoS
be one of the killer services in IEEE 802.16 networks.
2.4. IPv6 Mobility
As for mobility management, the movement between BSs is handled by
Mobile IPv6 [RFC3775], if it requires a subnet change. Also, in
certain cases (e.g., fast handover [I-D.ietf-mipshop-fast-mipv6]) the
link mobility information must be available for facilitating layer 3
handoff procedure.
Mobile IPv6 defines that movement detection uses Neighbor
Unreachability Detection to detect when the default router is no
longer bi-directionally reachable, in which case the mobile node must
discover a new default router. Periodic Router Advertisements for
reachability and movement detection may be unnecessary because IEEE
802.16 MAC provides the reachability by its Ranging procedure and the
movement detection by the Handoff procedure, if a BS is integrated
with a AR.
In addition, IEEE 802.16e has facilities in determining whether the
change of MS's IP address is required during the handoff. Therefore,
Mobile IPv6 can get a hint from such low-layer facilities, and
conduct its Layer 3 mobility protocol only when it is needed. Though
a handoff has occurred, an additional router discovery procedure is
not required in case of intra-subnet handoff. Also, faster handoff
may be occurred by the L2 trigger in case of inter-subnet handoff.
Mobile IPv6 Fast Handover assumes the support from link-layer
technology, but the particular link-layer information being
available, as well as the timing of its availability (before, during
or after a handover has occurred), differs according to the
particular link-layer technology in use. IEEE 802.16g which is
under-developed defines L2 triggers for IEEE 802.16 link status such
as link-up, link-down, handoff-start. These L2 triggers may make
Mobile IPv6 procedure more efficient and faster.
This issue is also being discussed in [I-D.ietf-mipshop-fh80216e].
2.5. IPv6 QoS
In IEEE 802.16 networks, a connection is unidirectional and has a QoS In IEEE 802.16 networks, a connection is unidirectional and has a QoS
specification. The QoS has different semantics with IP QoS (e.g., specification. The QoS has different semantics with IP QoS (e.g.,
diffserv). Mapping CID to Service Flow IDentifier (SFID) defines QoS diffserv). Mapping CID to Service Flow IDentifier (SFID) defines QoS
parameters of the service flow associated with that connection. In parameters of the service flow associated with that connection. In
order to interwork with IP QoS, IP QoS (e.g., diffserv, or flow label order to interwork with IP QoS, IP QoS (e.g., diffserv, or flow label
for IPv6) mapping to IEEE 802.16 link specifics should be provided. for IPv6) mapping to IEEE 802.16 link specifics should be provided.
2.6. IPv6 Security 2.5. IPv6 Security
When initiating the connection, an MS is authenticated by the AAA When initiating the connection, an MS is authenticated by the AAA
server located at its service provider network. All the parameters server located at its service provider network. All the parameters
related to authentication (username, password and etc.) are forwarded related to authentication (username, password and etc.) are forwarded
by the BS to the AAA server. The AAA server authenticates MSs. If by the BS to the AAA server. The AAA server authenticates the MSs
an MS is once authenticated and associated successfully with BS, an and once authenticated. When an MS is once authenticated and
IPv6 address will be acquired by the MS. Note the initiation and associated successfully with BS, IPv6 address will be acquired by the
authentication process is the same as used in IPv4. MS with stateless autoconfiguration or DHCPv6. Note the initiation
and authentication process is the same as used in IPv4.
IPsec is a fundamental part of IPv6. Unlike IPv4, IPsec for IPv6 may IPsec is a fundamental part of IPv6. Unlike IPv4, IPsec for IPv6 may
be used within the global end-to-end architecture. But, we don't be used within the global end-to-end architecture. But, we don't
have PKIs across organizations and IPsec isn't integrated with IEEE have PKIs across organizations and IPsec isn't integrated with IEEE
802.16 network mobility management. 802.16 network mobility management.
IEEE 802.16 network threats may be different from IPv6 and IPv6 IEEE 802.16 network threats may be different from IPv6 and IPv6
transition threat models [I-D.ietf-v6ops-security-overview]. It transition threat models [I-D.ietf-v6ops-security-overview]. It
should be also discussed. should be also discussed.
2.7. IPv6 Network Management 2.6. IPv6 Network Management
For IPv6 network management, the necessary instrumentation (such as For IPv6 network management, the necessary instrumentation (such as
MIBs, NetFlow Records, etc) should be available. MIBs, NetFlow Records, etc) should be available.
Upon entering the network, an MS is assigned three management Upon entering the network, an MS is assigned three management
connections in each direction. These three connections reflect the connections in each direction. These three connections reflect the
three different QoS requirements used by different management levels. three different QoS requirements used by different management levels.
The first of these is the basic connection, which is used for the The first of these is the basic connection, which is used for the
transfer of short, time-critical MAC management message and radio transfer of short, time-critical MAC management messages and radio
link control (RLC) messages. The primary management connection is link control (RLC) messages. The primary management connection is
used to transfer longer, more delay-tolerant messages such as those used to transfer longer, more delay-tolerant messages such as those
used for authentication and connection setup. The secondary used for authentication and connection setup. The secondary
management connection is used for the transfer of standards-based management connection is used for the transfer of standards-based
management messages such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol management messages such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP), Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), and Simple Network (DHCP), Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), and Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP). Management Protocol (SNMP).
IPv6 based IEEE 802.16 network can be managed by IPv4 or IPv6 when
network elements are implemented dual stak. For example, network
management system (NMS) can send SNMP message by IPv4 with IPv6
related object identifier. Also, an NMS can use IPv6 for SNMP
request and response including IPv4 related OID.
3. IANA Considerations 3. IANA Considerations
This document requests no action by IANA. This document requests no action by IANA.
4. Security Considerations 4. Security Considerations
Please refer to sec 2.6 "IPv6 Security" technology sections for Please refer to Section 2.5 "IPv6 Security" technology sections for
details. details.
5. Acknowledgements 5. Acknowledgements
This work extends v6ops works on [I-D.ietf-v6ops-bb-deployment- This work extends v6ops works on [I-D.ietf-v6ops-bb-deployment-
scenarios]. We thank all the authors of the document. scenarios]. We thank all the authors of the document. Special
thanks are due to Maximilian Riegel, Jonne Soininen, Brian E
Carpenter, Jim Bound, and Jung-Mo Moon for extensive review of this
document.
6. References 6. References
6.1. Normative References 6.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3775] Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.
[RFC2461] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., and W. Simpson, "Neighbor [RFC2461] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., and W. Simpson, "Neighbor
Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461, Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461,
December 1998. December 1998.
[RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.
[RFC2462] Thomson, S. and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address [RFC2462] Thomson, S. and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address
Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998. Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998.
[RFC2710] Deering, S., Fenner, W., and B. Haberman, "Multicast [RFC2710] Deering, S., Fenner, W., and B. Haberman, "Multicast
Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6", RFC 2710, Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6", RFC 2710,
October 1999. October 1999.
6.2. Informative References [RFC2740] Coltun, R., Ferguson, D., and J. Moy, "OSPF for IPv6",
RFC 2740, December 1999.
[RFC3316] Arkko, J., Kuijpers, G., Soliman, H., Loughney, J., and J. 6.2. Informative References
Wiljakka, "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) for Some
Second and Third Generation Cellular Hosts", RFC 3316,
April 2003.
[I-D.ietf-mipshop-fast-mipv6] [RFC3314] Wasserman, M., "Recommendations for IPv6 in Third
Koodli, R., "Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6", Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Standards",
draft-ietf-mipshop-fast-mipv6-03 (work in progress), RFC 3314, September 2002.
October 2004.
[I-D.madanapalli-nd-over-802.16-problems] [RFC3775] Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
Madanapalli, S., "IPv6 Neighbor Discovery over 802.16: in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.
Problems and Goals",
draft-madanapalli-nd-over-802.16-problems-00 (work in
progress), December 2005.
[I-D.mandin-ip-over-80216-ethcs] [I-D.jee-16ng-problem-statement]
Mandin, J., "Transport of IP over 802.16", Jee, J., "16ng Problem Statement",
draft-mandin-ip-over-80216-ethcs-00 (work in progress), draft-jee-16ng-problem-statement-02 (work in progress),
October 2005. October 2005.
[I-D.madanapalli-16ng-subnet-model-analysis]
Madanapalli, S., "Analysis of IPv6 Link Models for 802.16
based Networks",
draft-madanapalli-16ng-subnet-model-analysis-01 (work in
progress), September 2006.
[I-D.ietf-mipshop-fmipv6-rfc4068bis]
Koodli, R., "Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6",
draft-ietf-mipshop-fmipv6-rfc4068bis-00 (work in
progress), May 2006.
[I-D.ietf-mipshop-fh80216e]
Jang, H., "Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers over IEEE 802.16e
Networks", draft-ietf-mipshop-fh80216e-00 (work in
progress), April 2006.
[I-D.ietf-v6ops-security-overview] [I-D.ietf-v6ops-security-overview]
Davies, E., "IPv6 Transition/Co-existence Security Davies, E., "IPv6 Transition/Co-existence Security
Considerations", draft-ietf-v6ops-security-overview-04 Considerations", draft-ietf-v6ops-security-overview-05
(work in progress), March 2006. (work in progress), September 2006.
[I-D.ietf-v6ops-bb-deployment-scenarios] [I-D.ietf-v6ops-bb-deployment-scenarios]
Asadullah, S., "ISP IPv6 Deployment Scenarios in Broadband Asadullah, S., "ISP IPv6 Deployment Scenarios in Broadband
Access Networks", Access Networks",
draft-ietf-v6ops-bb-deployment-scenarios-04 (work in draft-ietf-v6ops-bb-deployment-scenarios-05 (work in
progress), October 2005. progress), June 2006.
[I-D.shin-16ng-ipv6-transmission] [I-D.iab-link-encaps]
Shin, M. and H. Jang, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Aboba, B., "Multiple Encapsulation Methods Considered
IEEE 802.16", draft-shin-16ng-ipv6-transmission-00 (work Harmful", draft-iab-link-encaps-02 (work in progress),
in progress), February 2006. August 2006.
[IEEE802.16] [IEEE802.16]
"IEEE 802.16-2004, IEEE standard for Local and "IEEE 802.16-2004, IEEE standard for Local and
metropolitan area networks, Part 16: Air Interface for metropolitan area networks, Part 16: Air Interface for
fixed broadband wireless access systems", October 2004. fixed broadband wireless access systems", October 2004.
[IEEE802.16e] [IEEE802.16e]
"IEEE Std. for Local and metropolitan area networks Part "IEEE Std. for Local and metropolitan area networks Part
16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless 16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless
Access Systems Amendment 2: Physical and Medium Access Access Systems Amendment 2: Physical and Medium Access
skipping to change at page 22, line 5 skipping to change at page 21, line 24
Email: myungki.shin@gmail.com Email: myungki.shin@gmail.com
Youn-Hee Han Youn-Hee Han
KUT KUT
Gajeon-Ri 307 Byeongcheon-Myeon Gajeon-Ri 307 Byeongcheon-Myeon
Cheonan-Si Chungnam Province, 330-708 Cheonan-Si Chungnam Province, 330-708
Korea Korea
Email: yhhan@kut.ac.kr Email: yhhan@kut.ac.kr
Intellectual Property Statement Sang-Eon Kim
KT
17 Woomyeon-dong, Seocho-gu
Seoul, 137-791
Korea
Email: sekim@kt.co.kr
Domagoj Premec
Siemens Mobile
Heinzelova 70a
10010 Zagreb
Croatia
Email: domagoj.premec@siemens.com
Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
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OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
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The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
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skipping to change at page 22, line 29 skipping to change at page 22, line 45
such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
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OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). This document is subject
to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.
Acknowledgment Acknowledgment
Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
Internet Society. Administrative Support Activity (IASA).
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