draft-ietf-v6ops-6204bis-05.txt   draft-ietf-v6ops-6204bis-06.txt 
Network Working Group H. Singh Network Working Group H. Singh
Internet-Draft W. Beebee Internet-Draft W. Beebee
Obsoletes: 6204 (if approved) Cisco Systems, Inc. Obsoletes: 6204 (if approved) Cisco Systems, Inc.
Intended status: Informational C. Donley Intended status: Informational C. Donley
Expires: June 24, 2012 CableLabs Expires: September 7, 2012 CableLabs
B. Stark B. Stark
AT&T AT&T
O. Troan, Ed. O. Troan, Ed.
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
December 22, 2011 March 6, 2012
Basic Requirements for IPv6 Customer Edge Routers Basic Requirements for IPv6 Customer Edge Routers
draft-ietf-v6ops-6204bis-05 draft-ietf-v6ops-6204bis-06
Abstract Abstract
This document specifies requirements for an IPv6 Customer Edge (CE) This document specifies requirements for an IPv6 Customer Edge (CE)
router. Specifically, the current version of this document focuses router. Specifically, the current version of this document focuses
on the basic provisioning of an IPv6 CE router and the provisioning on the basic provisioning of an IPv6 CE router and the provisioning
of IPv6 hosts attached to it. The document also covers IP transition of IPv6 hosts attached to it. The document also covers IP transition
technologies. Two transition technologies in RFC 5969's 6rd and RFC technologies. Two transition technologies in RFC 5969's 6rd and RFC
6333's DS-Lite. are covered in the document. The document obsoletes 6333's DS-Lite. are covered in the document. The document obsoletes
RFC 6204, if approved. RFC 6204, if approved.
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on June 24, 2012. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 7, 2012.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
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4.4. Transition Technologies Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.4. Transition Technologies Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.4.1. 6rd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.4.1. 6rd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.4.2. Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.4.2. Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 7.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Appendix A. Changes from RFC 6204 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix A. Changes from RFC 6204 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document defines basic IPv6 features for a residential or small- This document defines basic IPv6 features for a residential or small-
office router, referred to as an IPv6 CE router. Typically, these office router, referred to as an IPv6 CE router. Typically, these
routers also support IPv4. routers also support IPv4.
Mixed environments of dual-stack hosts and IPv6-only hosts (behind Mixed environments of dual-stack hosts and IPv6-only hosts (behind
the CE router) can be more complex if the IPv6-only devices are using the CE router) can be more complex if the IPv6-only devices are using
a translator to access IPv4 servers [RFC6144]. Support for such a translator to access IPv4 servers [RFC6144]. Support for such
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The IPv6 CE router is responsible for implementing IPv6 routing; that The IPv6 CE router is responsible for implementing IPv6 routing; that
is, the IPv6 CE router must look up the IPv6 destination address in is, the IPv6 CE router must look up the IPv6 destination address in
its routing table to decide to which interface it should send the its routing table to decide to which interface it should send the
packet. packet.
In this role, the IPv6 CE router is responsible for ensuring that In this role, the IPv6 CE router is responsible for ensuring that
traffic using its ULA addressing does not go out the WAN interface, traffic using its ULA addressing does not go out the WAN interface,
and does not originate from the WAN interface. and does not originate from the WAN interface.
G-1: An IPv6 CE router is an IPv6 node according to the IPv6 Node G-1: An IPv6 CE router is an IPv6 node according to the IPv6 Node
Requirements [RFC4294] specification. Requirements [RFC6434] specification.
G-2: The IPv6 CE router MUST implement ICMPv6 according to G-2: The IPv6 CE router MUST implement ICMPv6 according to
[RFC4443]. In particular, point-to-point links MUST be handled [RFC4443]. In particular, point-to-point links MUST be handled
as described in Section 3.1 of [RFC4443]. as described in Section 3.1 of [RFC4443].
G-3: The IPv6 CE router MUST NOT forward any IPv6 traffic between G-3: The IPv6 CE router MUST NOT forward any IPv6 traffic between
its LAN interface(s) and its WAN interface until the router has its LAN interface(s) and its WAN interface until the router has
successfully completed the IPv6 address acquisition process. successfully completed the IPv6 address and the delegated
prefix acquisition process.
G-4: By default, an IPv6 CE router that has no default router(s) on G-4: By default, an IPv6 CE router that has no default router(s) on
its WAN interface MUST NOT advertise itself as an IPv6 default its WAN interface MUST NOT advertise itself as an IPv6 default
router on its LAN interfaces. That is, the "Router Lifetime" router on its LAN interfaces. That is, the "Router Lifetime"
field is set to zero in all Router Advertisement messages it field is set to zero in all Router Advertisement messages it
originates [RFC4861]. originates [RFC4861].
G-5: By default, if the IPv6 CE router is an advertising router and G-5: By default, if the IPv6 CE router is an advertising router and
loses its IPv6 default router(s) and/or detects loss of loses its IPv6 default router(s) and/or detects loss of
connectivity on the WAN interface, it MUST explicitly connectivity on the WAN interface, it MUST explicitly
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be the link-local address on the WAN interface. be the link-local address on the WAN interface.
W-3: Absent other routing information, the IPv6 CE router MUST use W-3: Absent other routing information, the IPv6 CE router MUST use
Router Discovery as specified in [RFC4861] to discover a Router Discovery as specified in [RFC4861] to discover a
default router(s) and install default route(s) in its routing default router(s) and install default route(s) in its routing
table with the discovered router's address as the next hop. table with the discovered router's address as the next hop.
W-4: The router MUST act as a requesting router for the purposes of W-4: The router MUST act as a requesting router for the purposes of
DHCPv6 prefix delegation ([RFC3633]). DHCPv6 prefix delegation ([RFC3633]).
W-5: DHCPv6 address assignment (IA_NA) and DHCPv6 prefix delegation W-5: The IPv6 CE router MUST use a persistent DHCP Unique Identifier
(IA_PD) SHOULD be done as a single DHCPv6 session.
W-6: The IPv6 CE router MUST use a persistent DHCP Unique Identifier
(DUID) for DHCPv6 messages. The DUID MUST NOT change between (DUID) for DHCPv6 messages. The DUID MUST NOT change between
network interface resets or IPv6 CE router reboots. network interface resets or IPv6 CE router reboots.
W-6: The WAN interface of the CE router SHOULD support an IPv4 PCP
client as specified in [I-D.ietf-pcp-base] for use by
applications on the CE Router. This document takes no position
on whether such functionality is enabled by default or
mechanisms by which users would configure the functionality.
Link-layer requirements: Link-layer requirements:
WLL-1: If the WAN interface supports Ethernet encapsulation, then WLL-1: If the WAN interface supports Ethernet encapsulation, then
the IPv6 CE router MUST support IPv6 over Ethernet [RFC2464]. the IPv6 CE router MUST support IPv6 over Ethernet [RFC2464].
WLL-2: If the WAN interface supports PPP encapsulation, the IPv6 CE WLL-2: If the WAN interface supports PPP encapsulation, the IPv6 CE
router MUST support IPv6 over PPP [RFC5072]. router MUST support IPv6 over PPP [RFC5072].
WLL-3: If the WAN interface supports PPP encapsulation, in a dual- WLL-3: If the WAN interface supports PPP encapsulation, in a dual-
stack environment with IPCP and IPV6CP running over one PPP stack environment with IPCP and IPV6CP running over one PPP
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WAA-9: As a router, the IPv6 CE router MUST follow the weak host WAA-9: As a router, the IPv6 CE router MUST follow the weak host
(Weak ES) model [RFC1122]. When originating packets from an (Weak ES) model [RFC1122]. When originating packets from an
interface, it will use a source address from another one of interface, it will use a source address from another one of
its interfaces if the outgoing interface does not have an its interfaces if the outgoing interface does not have an
address of suitable scope. address of suitable scope.
Prefix delegation requirements: Prefix delegation requirements:
WPD-1: The IPv6 CE router MUST support DHCPv6 prefix delegation WPD-1: The IPv6 CE router MUST support DHCPv6 prefix delegation
requesting router behavior as specified in [RFC3633] (IA_PD requesting router behavior as specified in [RFC3633] (IA_PD
option). option). The IPv6 CE Router SHOULD support the
[I-D.ietf-dhc-pd-exclude] PD-Exclude option.
WPD-2: The IPv6 CE router MAY indicate as a hint to the delegating WPD-2: The IPv6 CE router MAY indicate as a hint to the delegating
router the size of the prefix it requires. If so, it MUST router the size of the prefix it requires. If so, it MUST
ask for a prefix large enough to assign one /64 for each of ask for a prefix large enough to assign one /64 for each of
its interfaces, rounded up to the nearest nibble, and SHOULD its interfaces, rounded up to the nearest nibble, and SHOULD
be configurable to ask for more. be configurable to ask for more.
WPD-3: The IPv6 CE router MUST be prepared to accept a delegated WPD-3: The IPv6 CE router MUST be prepared to accept a delegated
prefix size different from what is given in the hint. If the prefix size different from what is given in the hint. If the
delegated prefix is too small to address all of its delegated prefix is too small to address all of its
interfaces, the IPv6 CE router SHOULD log a system management interfaces, the IPv6 CE router SHOULD log a system management
error. error.
WPD-4: By default, the IPv6 CE router MUST initiate DHCPv6 prefix WPD-4: By default, the IPv6 CE router MUST initiate DHCPv6 prefix
delegation when either the M or O flags are set to 1 in a delegation when either the M or O flags are set to 1 in a
received Router Advertisement message. received Router Advertisement message.
WPD-5: If the IPv6 CE router is configured to initiate DHCPv6 before WPD-5: If the delegated prefix(es) are aggregate route(s) of
receiving a Router Advertisement, it MUST also request an
IA_NA option in DHCPv6.
WPD-6: If the delegated prefix(es) are aggregate route(s) of
multiple, more-specific routes, the IPv6 CE router MUST multiple, more-specific routes, the IPv6 CE router MUST
discard packets that match the aggregate route(s), but not discard packets that match the aggregate route(s), but not
any of the more-specific routes. In other words, the next any of the more-specific routes. In other words, the next
hop for the aggregate route(s) should be the null hop for the aggregate route(s) should be the null
destination. This is necessary to prevent forwarding loops destination. This is necessary to prevent forwarding loops
when some addresses covered by the aggregate are not when some addresses covered by the aggregate are not
reachable [RFC4632]. reachable [RFC4632].
(a) The IPv6 CE router SHOULD send an ICMPv6 Destination (a) The IPv6 CE router SHOULD send an ICMPv6 Destination
Unreachable message in accordance with Section 3.1 of Unreachable message in accordance with Section 3.1 of
[RFC4443] back to the source of the packet, if the [RFC4443] back to the source of the packet, if the
packet is to be dropped due to this rule. packet is to be dropped due to this rule.
WPD-7: If the IPv6 CE router requests both an IA_NA and an IA_PD WPD-6: If the IPv6 CE router requests both an IA_NA and an IA_PD
option in DHCPv6, it MUST accept an IA_PD option in DHCPv6 option in DHCPv6, it MUST accept an IA_PD option in DHCPv6
Advertise/Reply messages, even if the message does not Advertise/Reply messages, even if the message does not
contain any addresses, unless configured to only obtain its contain any addresses, unless configured to only obtain its
WAN IPv6 address via DHCPv6. WAN IPv6 address via DHCPv6.
WPD-8: By default, an IPv6 CE router MUST NOT initiate any dynamic WPD-7: By default, an IPv6 CE router MUST NOT initiate any dynamic
routing protocol on its WAN interface. routing protocol on its WAN interface.
4.3. LAN-Side Configuration 4.3. LAN-Side Configuration
The IPv6 CE router distributes configuration information obtained The IPv6 CE router distributes configuration information obtained
during WAN interface provisioning to IPv6 hosts and assists IPv6 during WAN interface provisioning to IPv6 hosts and assists IPv6
hosts in obtaining IPv6 addresses. It also supports connectivity of hosts in obtaining IPv6 addresses. It also supports connectivity of
these devices in the absence of any working WAN interface. these devices in the absence of any working WAN interface.
An IPv6 CE router is expected to support an IPv6 end-user network and An IPv6 CE router is expected to support an IPv6 end-user network and
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Security requirements: Security requirements:
S-1: The IPv6 CE router SHOULD support [RFC6092]. In particular, S-1: The IPv6 CE router SHOULD support [RFC6092]. In particular,
the IPv6 CE router SHOULD support functionality sufficient for the IPv6 CE router SHOULD support functionality sufficient for
implementing the set of recommendations in [RFC6092], implementing the set of recommendations in [RFC6092],
Section 4. This document takes no position on whether such Section 4. This document takes no position on whether such
functionality is enabled by default or mechanisms by which functionality is enabled by default or mechanisms by which
users would configure it. users would configure it.
S-2: The IPv6 CE router MUST support ingress filtering in accordance S-2: The IPv6 CE router SHOULD support ingress filtering in
with BCP 38 [RFC2827]. accordance with BCP 38 [RFC2827].
S-3: If the IPv6 CE router firewall is configured to filter incoming S-3: If the IPv6 CE router firewall is configured to filter incoming
tunneled data, the firewall SHOULD provide the capability to tunneled data, the firewall SHOULD provide the capability to
filter decapsulated packets from a tunnel. filter decapsulated packets from a tunnel.
5. Acknowledgements 5. Acknowledgements
Thanks to the following people (in alphabetical order) for their Thanks to the following people (in alphabetical order) for their
guidance and feedback: guidance and feedback:
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7. References 7. References
7.1. Normative References 7.1. Normative References
[I-D.droms-dhc-dhcpv6-maxsolrt-update] [I-D.droms-dhc-dhcpv6-maxsolrt-update]
Droms, R., "Modification to Default Value of MAX_SOL_RT", Droms, R., "Modification to Default Value of MAX_SOL_RT",
draft-droms-dhc-dhcpv6-maxsolrt-update-00 (work in draft-droms-dhc-dhcpv6-maxsolrt-update-00 (work in
progress), November 2011. progress), November 2011.
[I-D.ietf-dhc-pd-exclude]
Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., Krishnan, S., and O. Troan,
"Prefix Exclude Option for DHCPv6-based Prefix
Delegation", draft-ietf-dhc-pd-exclude-04 (work in
progress), December 2011.
[I-D.ietf-pcp-base]
Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Selkirk, P., Wing, D., and R.
Penno, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)",
draft-ietf-pcp-base-23 (work in progress), February 2012.
[RFC1102] Clark, D., "Policy routing in Internet protocols", [RFC1102] Clark, D., "Policy routing in Internet protocols",
RFC 1102, May 1989. RFC 1102, May 1989.
[RFC1104] Braun, H., "Models of policy based routing", RFC 1104, [RFC1104] Braun, H., "Models of policy based routing", RFC 1104,
June 1989. June 1989.
[RFC1122] Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts - [RFC1122] Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, October 1989. Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, October 1989.
[RFC1918] Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and [RFC1918] Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and
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[RFC4191] Draves, R. and D. Thaler, "Default Router Preferences and [RFC4191] Draves, R. and D. Thaler, "Default Router Preferences and
More-Specific Routes", RFC 4191, November 2005. More-Specific Routes", RFC 4191, November 2005.
[RFC4193] Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast [RFC4193] Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
Addresses", RFC 4193, October 2005. Addresses", RFC 4193, October 2005.
[RFC4242] Venaas, S., Chown, T., and B. Volz, "Information Refresh [RFC4242] Venaas, S., Chown, T., and B. Volz, "Information Refresh
Time Option for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for Time Option for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 4242, November 2005. IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 4242, November 2005.
[RFC4294] Loughney, J., "IPv6 Node Requirements", RFC 4294,
April 2006.
[RFC4443] Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, "Internet Control [RFC4443] Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, "Internet Control
Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol
Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443, March 2006. Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443, March 2006.
[RFC4605] Fenner, B., He, H., Haberman, B., and H. Sandick, [RFC4605] Fenner, B., He, H., Haberman, B., and H. Sandick,
"Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) / Multicast "Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) / Multicast
Listener Discovery (MLD)-Based Multicast Forwarding Listener Discovery (MLD)-Based Multicast Forwarding
("IGMP/MLD Proxying")", RFC 4605, August 2006. ("IGMP/MLD Proxying")", RFC 4605, August 2006.
[RFC4632] Fuller, V. and T. Li, "Classless Inter-domain Routing [RFC4632] Fuller, V. and T. Li, "Classless Inter-domain Routing
skipping to change at page 18, line 37 skipping to change at page 18, line 45
Routers", RFC 6204, April 2011. Routers", RFC 6204, April 2011.
[RFC6333] Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee, "Dual- [RFC6333] Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee, "Dual-
Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4 Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4
Exhaustion", RFC 6333, August 2011. Exhaustion", RFC 6333, August 2011.
[RFC6334] Hankins, D. and T. Mrugalski, "Dynamic Host Configuration [RFC6334] Hankins, D. and T. Mrugalski, "Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) Option for Dual-Stack Lite", Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) Option for Dual-Stack Lite",
RFC 6334, August 2011. RFC 6334, August 2011.
[RFC6434] Jankiewicz, E., Loughney, J., and T. Narten, "IPv6 Node
Requirements", RFC 6434, December 2011.
7.2. Informative References 7.2. Informative References
[MULTIHOMING-WITHOUT-NAT] [MULTIHOMING-WITHOUT-NAT]
Troan, O., Ed., Miles, D., Matsushima, S., Okimoto, T., Troan, O., Ed., Miles, D., Matsushima, S., Okimoto, T.,
and D. Wing, "IPv6 Multihoming without Network Address and D. Wing, "IPv6 Multihoming without Network Address
Translation", Work in Progress, December 2010. Translation", Work in Progress, December 2010.
[RFC6144] Baker, F., Li, X., Bao, C., and K. Yin, "Framework for [RFC6144] Baker, F., Li, X., Bao, C., and K. Yin, "Framework for
IPv4/IPv6 Translation", RFC 6144, March 2011. IPv4/IPv6 Translation", RFC 6144, March 2011.
skipping to change at page 19, line 30 skipping to change at page 19, line 40
5. Changed the WPD-2 bullet from MUST be configurable to SHOULD be 5. Changed the WPD-2 bullet from MUST be configurable to SHOULD be
configurable. configurable.
6. Changed bullet WPD-4 for a default behavior without compromising 6. Changed bullet WPD-4 for a default behavior without compromising
any prior specification of the CE device. The change was needed any prior specification of the CE device. The change was needed
by a specific layer 1 deployment which wanted to specify a MUST by a specific layer 1 deployment which wanted to specify a MUST
for DHCPv6 in their layer 1 profile and not conflict with this for DHCPv6 in their layer 1 profile and not conflict with this
document. document.
7. Changed bullet WPD-7 to qualify text for DHCPv6. 7. Changed bullet WPD-7 to qualify text for DHCPv6. Removed W-5
and WPD-5 beause the text does not have consensus from the IETF
DHC Working Group for what the final solution related to the
removed bullets is.
8. Added a new WAN DHCPv6 requirement for SOL_MAX_RT of DHCPv6 so 8. Added a new WAN DHCPv6 requirement for SOL_MAX_RT of DHCPv6 so
that if an service provider does not have DHCPv6 service enabled that if an service provider does not have DHCPv6 service enabled
CE routers do not send too frequent DHCPv6 requests to the CE routers do not send too frequent DHCPv6 requests to the
service provider DHCPv6 server. service provider DHCPv6 server.
9. Changed bullet L-11 from SHOULD provide DNS options in the RA to 9. Changed bullet L-11 from SHOULD provide DNS options in the RA to
MUST provide DNS option in the RA. MUST provide DNS option in the RA.
10. New bullet added to the Security Considerations section due to 10. New bullet added to the Security Considerations section due to
addition of transition technology. The CE router filters addition of transition technology. The CE router filters
decapsulated 6rd data. decapsulated 6rd data.
11. Minor change involved changing ICMP to ICMPv6. 11. Minor change involved changing ICMP to ICMPv6.
12. Added PCP client requirement for the WAN.
13. Added a requirement for the DHCPv6 pd-exclude option.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Hemant Singh Hemant Singh
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
1414 Massachusetts Ave. 1414 Massachusetts Ave.
Boxborough, MA 01719 Boxborough, MA 01719
USA USA
Phone: +1 978 936 1622 Phone: +1 978 936 1622
EMail: shemant@cisco.com EMail: shemant@cisco.com
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