draft-ietf-v6ops-464xlat-02.txt   draft-ietf-v6ops-464xlat-03.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force M. Mawatari Internet Engineering Task Force M. Mawatari
Internet-Draft Japan Internet Exchange Co.,Ltd. Internet-Draft Japan Internet Exchange Co.,Ltd.
Intended status: BCP M. Kawashima Intended status: BCP M. Kawashima
Expires: October 19, 2012 NEC AccessTechnica, Ltd. Expires: November 9, 2012 NEC AccessTechnica, Ltd.
C. Byrne C. Byrne
T-Mobile USA T-Mobile USA
April 17, 2012 May 8, 2012
464XLAT: Combination of Stateful and Stateless Translation 464XLAT: Combination of Stateful and Stateless Translation
draft-ietf-v6ops-464xlat-02 draft-ietf-v6ops-464xlat-03
Abstract Abstract
This document describes an architecture (464XLAT) for providing This document describes an architecture (464XLAT) for providing
limited IPv4 connectivity across an IPv6-only network by combining limited IPv4 connectivity across an IPv6-only network by combining
existing and well-known stateful protocol translation RFC 6146 in the existing and well-known stateful protocol translation RFC 6146 in the
core and stateless protocol translation RFC 6145 at the edge. 464XLAT core and stateless protocol translation RFC 6145 at the edge. 464XLAT
is a simple and scalable technique to quickly deploy limited IPv4 is a simple and scalable technique to quickly deploy limited IPv4
access service to mobile and wireline IPv6-only edge networks without access service to mobile and wireline IPv6-only edge networks without
encapsulation. encapsulation.
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on October 19, 2012. This Internet-Draft will expire on November 9, 2012.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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5.2. Wireless 3GPP Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.2. Wireless 3GPP Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.1. Wireline Network Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6.1. Wireline Network Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.2. Wireless 3GPP Network Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6.2. Wireless 3GPP Network Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7. Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7. Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7.1. IPv6 Address Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7.1. IPv6 Address Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7.2. IPv4/IPv6 Address Translation Chart . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7.2. IPv4/IPv6 Address Translation Chart . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7.3. Traffic Treatment Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.3. Traffic Treatment Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7.4. DNS Proxy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.4. DNS Proxy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.5. IPv6 Prefix Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.5. IPv6 Prefix Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.6. CLAT in a Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.6. Relationship between CLAT and NAT44 . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.7. CLAT to CLAT communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.7. CLAT in a Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.8. CLAT to CLAT communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
8. Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8. Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The IANA unallocated IPv4 address pool was exhausted on February 3, The IANA unallocated IPv4 address pool was exhausted on February 3,
2011. Each RIR's unallocated IPv4 address pool will exhaust in the 2011. Each RIR's unallocated IPv4 address pool will exhaust in the
near future. It will be difficult for many networks to assign IPv4 near future. It will be difficult for many networks to assign IPv4
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the future case of IPv6-only servers and peers to be reached from the future case of IPv6-only servers and peers to be reached from
legacy IPv4-only hosts. The 464XLAT architecture encourages IPv6 legacy IPv4-only hosts. The 464XLAT architecture encourages IPv6
transition by making IPv4 services reachable across IPv6-only transition by making IPv4 services reachable across IPv6-only
networks and providing IPv6 and IPv4 connectivity to single-stack networks and providing IPv6 and IPv4 connectivity to single-stack
IPv4 or IPv6 servers and peers. IPv4 or IPv6 servers and peers.
Running a single-stack IPv6-only network has several operational Running a single-stack IPv6-only network has several operational
benefits in terms of increasing scalability and decreasing benefits in terms of increasing scalability and decreasing
operational complexity. Unfortunately, there are important cases operational complexity. Unfortunately, there are important cases
where IPv6-only networks fail to meet subscriber expectations, as where IPv6-only networks fail to meet subscriber expectations, as
described in [I-D.arkko-ipv6-only-experience]. The 464XLAT overcomes described in [RFC6586]. The 464XLAT overcomes the issues described
the issues described in [I-D.arkko-ipv6-only-experience] to provide in [RFC6586] to provide subscribers the full IPv6 and limited IPv4
subscribers the full IPv6 and limited IPv4 functionality while functionality while providing the network operator the benefits of a
providing the network operator the benefits of a simple yet highly simple yet highly scalable single-stack IPv6 network.
scalable single-stack IPv6 network.
2. Requirements Language 2. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
3. Terminology 3. Terminology
PLAT: PLAT is Provider side translator(XLAT) that complies with PLAT: PLAT is Provider side translator(XLAT) that complies with
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additional IPv6 PDP network attachments since that does not solve the additional IPv6 PDP network attachments since that does not solve the
near-term IPv4 scarcity issues and it increases cost in most cases. near-term IPv4 scarcity issues and it increases cost in most cases.
The most logical path forward is to replace IPv4 with IPv6 and The most logical path forward is to replace IPv4 with IPv6 and
replace the common NAT44 with stateful translation [RFC6146] and replace the common NAT44 with stateful translation [RFC6146] and
DNS64 [RFC6147]. Extensive live network testing with hundreds of DNS64 [RFC6147]. Extensive live network testing with hundreds of
friendly-users has shown that IPv6-only network attachments for friendly-users has shown that IPv6-only network attachments for
mobile devices supports over 85% of the common applications on the mobile devices supports over 85% of the common applications on the
Android mobile operating systems. The remaining 15% of applications Android mobile operating systems. The remaining 15% of applications
do not work because the application requires an IPv4 socket or the do not work because the application requires an IPv4 socket or the
application does an IPv4-referral. These findings are consistent application does an IPv4-referral. These findings are consistent
with the mobile IPv6-only user experience in with the mobile IPv6-only user experience in [RFC6586].
[I-D.arkko-ipv6-only-experience].
464XLAT in combination with stateful translation [RFC6146] and DNS64 464XLAT in combination with stateful translation [RFC6146] and DNS64
[RFC6147] allows 85% of the Android applications to continue to work [RFC6147] allows 85% of the Android applications to continue to work
with single translation or native IPv6 access. For the remaining 15% with single translation or native IPv6 access. For the remaining 15%
of applications that require IPv4 connectivity, the CLAT function on of applications that require IPv4 connectivity, the CLAT function on
the UE provides a private IPv4 address and IPv4 default-route on the the UE provides a private IPv4 address and IPv4 default-route on the
host for the applications to reference and bind to. Connections host for the applications to reference and bind to. Connections
sourced from the IPv4 interface are immediately routed to the CLAT sourced from the IPv4 interface are immediately routed to the CLAT
function and passed to the IPv6-only mobile network, destine to the function and passed to the IPv6-only mobile network, destine to the
PLAT. In summary, the UE has the CLAT function that does a stateless PLAT. In summary, the UE has the CLAT function that does a stateless
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for each DNS lookup. The CLAT SHOULD set itself as the DNS server for each DNS lookup. The CLAT SHOULD set itself as the DNS server
via DHCP or other means and proxy DNS queries for IPv4 and IPv6 via DHCP or other means and proxy DNS queries for IPv4 and IPv6
clients. Using the CLAT enabled home router or UE as a DNS proxy is clients. Using the CLAT enabled home router or UE as a DNS proxy is
a normal consume gateway function and simplifies the traffic flow so a normal consume gateway function and simplifies the traffic flow so
that only IPv6 native queries are made across the access network. that only IPv6 native queries are made across the access network.
The CLAT SHOULD allow for a client to query any DNS server of its The CLAT SHOULD allow for a client to query any DNS server of its
choice and bypass the proxy. choice and bypass the proxy.
7.5. IPv6 Prefix Handling 7.5. IPv6 Prefix Handling
There are two approaches. In one of the cases, the CLAT will have a From the delegated DHCPv6 [RFC3633] prefix, a /64 is dedicated to
dedicated /64 via DHCPv6 prefix delegation [RFC3633] or other means source and receive IPv6 packets associated with the stateless
to source and receive IPv6 packets associated with the [RFC6145] translation [RFC6145].
stateless translation of IPv4 packets to the local clients. If the
CLAT choose one /64 prefix for translation from delegated prefix,
then it SHOULD NOT be used for anything else.
In another cases where the access network does not allow for a In another cases where the access network does not allow for a
dedicated translation prefix, the CLAT will do NAT44 such that all dedicated translation prefix, the CLAT will do NAT44 such that all
private IPv4 sourced LAN packets appears from one private IPv4 private IPv4 sourced LAN packets appears from one private IPv4
address which is statelessly translated to one IPv6 address. address which is statelessly translated to one IPv6 address.
The CLAT MAY discover the Pref64::/n of the PLAT via some method such The CLAT MAY discover the Pref64::/n of the PLAT via some method such
as DHCPv6 option, TR-069, DNS APL RR [RFC3123] or as DHCPv6 option, TR-069, DNS APL RR [RFC3123] or
[I-D.ietf-behave-nat64-discovery-heuristic]. [I-D.ietf-behave-nat64-discovery-heuristic].
7.6. CLAT in a Gateway 7.6. Relationship between CLAT and NAT44
If the CLAT does not have dedicated IPv6 prefix for translation, the
CLAT does NAT44 as an internal function which never appears on the
wire.
Incoming source IPv4 packets from the LAN of [RFC1918] addresses are
NAT44 to the CLAT host address on the LAN of one [RFC1918] address.
Then, the CLAT will do a stateless translation [RFC6145] so that the
IPv4 packets from one [RFC1918] address are translated to the CLAT
LAN IPv6 address as described in [RFC6052].
7.7. CLAT in a Gateway
The CLAT is a stateless translation feature which can be implemented The CLAT is a stateless translation feature which can be implemented
in a common home router or mobile phone that has a mobile router in a common home router or mobile phone that has a mobile router
feature. The router with CLAT function SHOULD provide common router feature. The router with CLAT function SHOULD provide common router
services such as DHCP of [RFC1918] addresses, DHCPv6, and DNS services such as DHCP of [RFC1918] addresses, DHCPv6, and DNS
service. The router SHOULD set itself as the DNS server advertised service. The router SHOULD set itself as the DNS server advertised
via DHCP or other means to the clients so that it may implement the via DHCP or other means to the clients so that it may implement the
DNS proxy function to avoid double translation of DNS request. DNS proxy function to avoid double translation of DNS request.
7.7. CLAT to CLAT communications 7.8. CLAT to CLAT communications
While CLAT to CLAT IPv4 communication may work when the client IPv4 While CLAT to CLAT IPv4 communication may work when the client IPv4
subnets do not overlap, this traffic flow is out of scope. 464XLAT is subnets do not overlap, this traffic flow is out of scope. 464XLAT is
a hub and spoke architecture focused on enabling IPv4-only services a hub and spoke architecture focused on enabling IPv4-only services
over IPv6-only access networks. over IPv6-only access networks.
8. Deployment Considerations 8. Deployment Considerations
Even if the Internet access provider for consumers is different from Even if the Internet access provider for consumers is different from
the PLAT provider (another Internet access provider or Internet the PLAT provider (another Internet access provider or Internet
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10. IANA Considerations 10. IANA Considerations
This document has no actions for IANA. This document has no actions for IANA.
11. Acknowledgements 11. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank JPIX NOC members, JPIX 464XLAT trial The authors would like to thank JPIX NOC members, JPIX 464XLAT trial
service members, Seiichi Kawamura, Dan Drown, Brian Carpenter, Rajiv service members, Seiichi Kawamura, Dan Drown, Brian Carpenter, Rajiv
Asati, Washam Fan, Behcet Sarikaya, Jan Zorz, Remi Despres, Tatsuya Asati, Washam Fan, Behcet Sarikaya, Jan Zorz, Remi Despres, Tatsuya
Oishi, Lorenzo Colitti, Erik Kline, and Ole Troan for their helpful Oishi, Lorenzo Colitti, Erik Kline, Ole Troan, Maoke Chen, and Gang
comments. We also would like to thank Fred Baker and Joel Jaeggli Chen for their helpful comments. We also would like to thank Fred
for their support. Baker and Joel Jaeggli for their support.
12. References 12. References
12.1. Normative References 12.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC6052] Bao, C., Huitema, C., Bagnulo, M., Boucadair, M., and X. [RFC6052] Bao, C., Huitema, C., Bagnulo, M., Boucadair, M., and X.
Li, "IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators", RFC 6052, Li, "IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators", RFC 6052,
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[RFC6145] Li, X., Bao, C., and F. Baker, "IP/ICMP Translation [RFC6145] Li, X., Bao, C., and F. Baker, "IP/ICMP Translation
Algorithm", RFC 6145, April 2011. Algorithm", RFC 6145, April 2011.
[RFC6146] Bagnulo, M., Matthews, P., and I. van Beijnum, "Stateful [RFC6146] Bagnulo, M., Matthews, P., and I. van Beijnum, "Stateful
NAT64: Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6 NAT64: Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6
Clients to IPv4 Servers", RFC 6146, April 2011. Clients to IPv4 Servers", RFC 6146, April 2011.
12.2. Informative References 12.2. Informative References
[I-D.arkko-ipv6-only-experience]
Arkko, J. and A. Keranen, "Experiences from an IPv6-Only
Network", draft-arkko-ipv6-only-experience-05 (work in
progress), February 2012.
[I-D.hazeyama-widecamp-ipv6-only-experience] [I-D.hazeyama-widecamp-ipv6-only-experience]
Hazeyama, H., Hiromi, R., Ishihara, T., and O. Nakamura, Hazeyama, H., Hiromi, R., Ishihara, T., and O. Nakamura,
"Experiences from IPv6-Only Networks with Transition "Experiences from IPv6-Only Networks with Transition
Technologies in the WIDE Camp Spring 2012", Technologies in the WIDE Camp Spring 2012",
draft-hazeyama-widecamp-ipv6-only-experience-01 (work in draft-hazeyama-widecamp-ipv6-only-experience-01 (work in
progress), March 2012. progress), March 2012.
[I-D.ietf-behave-nat64-discovery-heuristic] [I-D.ietf-behave-nat64-discovery-heuristic]
Savolainen, T., Korhonen, J., and D. Wing, "Discovery of Savolainen, T., Korhonen, J., and D. Wing, "Discovery of
IPv6 Prefix Used for IPv6 Address Synthesis", IPv6 Prefix Used for IPv6 Address Synthesis",
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[RFC6333] Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee, "Dual- [RFC6333] Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee, "Dual-
Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4 Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4
Exhaustion", RFC 6333, August 2011. Exhaustion", RFC 6333, August 2011.
[RFC6459] Korhonen, J., Soininen, J., Patil, B., Savolainen, T., [RFC6459] Korhonen, J., Soininen, J., Patil, B., Savolainen, T.,
Bajko, G., and K. Iisakkila, "IPv6 in 3rd Generation Bajko, G., and K. Iisakkila, "IPv6 in 3rd Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP) Evolved Packet System (EPS)", Partnership Project (3GPP) Evolved Packet System (EPS)",
RFC 6459, January 2012. RFC 6459, January 2012.
[RFC6586] Arkko, J. and A. Keranen, "Experiences from an IPv6-Only
Network", RFC 6586, April 2012.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Masataka Mawatari Masataka Mawatari
Japan Internet Exchange Co.,Ltd. Japan Internet Exchange Co.,Ltd.
KDDI Otemachi Building 19F, 1-8-1 Otemachi, KDDI Otemachi Building 19F, 1-8-1 Otemachi,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0004 Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0004
JAPAN JAPAN
Phone: +81 3 3243 9579 Phone: +81 3 3243 9579
Email: mawatari@jpix.ad.jp Email: mawatari@jpix.ad.jp
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