draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-eps-07.txt   draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-eps-08.txt 
Individual Submission J. Korhonen, Ed. Individual Submission J. Korhonen, Ed.
Internet-Draft Nokia Siemens Networks Internet-Draft Nokia Siemens Networks
Intended status: Informational J. Soininen Intended status: Informational J. Soininen
Expires: March 25, 2012 Renesas Mobile Expires: April 2, 2012 Renesas Mobile
B. Patil B. Patil
T. Savolainen T. Savolainen
G. Bajko G. Bajko
Nokia Nokia
K. Iisakkila K. Iisakkila
Renesas Mobile Renesas Mobile
September 22, 2011 September 30, 2011
IPv6 in 3GPP Evolved Packet System IPv6 in 3GPP Evolved Packet System
draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-eps-07 draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-eps-08
Abstract Abstract
Use of data services in smart phones and broadband services via HSPA Use of data services in smart phones and broadband services via HSPA
and HSPA+, in particular Internet services, has increased rapidly and and HSPA+, in particular Internet services, has increased rapidly and
operators that have deployed networks based on 3GPP network operators that have deployed networks based on 3GPP network
architectures are facing IPv4 address shortages at the Internet architectures are facing IPv4 address shortages at the Internet
registries and are feeling a pressure to migrate to IPv6. This registries and are feeling a pressure to migrate to IPv6. This
document describes the support for IPv6 in 3GPP network document describes the support for IPv6 in 3GPP network
architectures. architectures.
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
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time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on March 25, 2012. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 2, 2012.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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3.1. Introduction to 3GPP GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1. Introduction to 3GPP GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2. PDP Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.2. PDP Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4. IP over 3GPP EPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4. IP over 3GPP EPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.1. Introduction to 3GPP EPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.1. Introduction to 3GPP EPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.2. PDN Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2. PDN Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.3. EPS bearer model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.3. EPS bearer model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. Address Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5. Address Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.1. IPv4 Address Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1. IPv4 Address Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2. IPv6 Address Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2. IPv6 Address Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.3. Prefix Delegation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.3. Prefix Delegation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.4. IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.4. IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 17
6. 3GPP Dual-Stack Approach to IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. 3GPP Dual-Stack Approach to IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.1. 3GPP Networks Prior to Release-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.1. 3GPP Networks Prior to Release-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.2. 3GPP Release-8 and -9 Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.2. 3GPP Release-8 and -9 Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.3. PDN Connection Establishment Process . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.3. PDN Connection Establishment Process . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.4. Mobility of 3GPP IPv4v6 Type of Bearers . . . . . . . . . 22 6.4. Mobility of 3GPP IPv4v6 Type of Bearers . . . . . . . . . 22
7. Dual-Stack Approach to IPv6 Transition in 3GPP Networks . . . 22 7. Dual-Stack Approach to IPv6 Transition in 3GPP Networks . . . 23
8. Deployment issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8. Deployment issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.1. Overlapping IPv4 Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8.1. Overlapping IPv4 Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.2. IPv6 for transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 8.2. IPv6 for transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8.3. Operational Aspects of Running Dual-Stack Networks . . . . 25 8.3. Operational Aspects of Running Dual-Stack Networks . . . . 25
8.4. Operational Aspects of Running a Network with 8.4. Operational Aspects of Running a Network with
IPv6-only Bearers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 IPv6-only Bearers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
8.5. Restricting Outbound IPv6 Roaming . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 8.5. Restricting Outbound IPv6 Roaming . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8.6. Inter-RAT Handovers and IP Versions . . . . . . . . . . . 27 8.6. Inter-RAT Handovers and IP Versions . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8.7. Provisioning of IPv6 Subscribers and Various 8.7. Provisioning of IPv6 Subscribers and Various
Combinations During Initial Network Attachment . . . . . . 28 Combinations During Initial Network Attachment . . . . . . 28
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
11. Summary and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 11. Summary and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
13. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 13. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
IPv6 has been specified in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project IPv6 has been specified in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project
(3GPP) standards since the early architectures developed for R99 (3GPP) standards since the early architectures developed for R99
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). However, the support for IPv6 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). However, the support for IPv6
in commercially deployed networks remains low. There are many in commercially deployed networks remains low. There are many
factors that can be attributed to the lack of IPv6 deployment in 3GPP factors that can be attributed to the lack of IPv6 deployment in 3GPP
networks. The most relevant one is essentially the same as the networks. The most relevant one is essentially the same as the
reason for IPv6 not being deployed by other networks as well, i.e. reason for IPv6 not being deployed by other networks as well, i.e.
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connected with the GPRS, at any given point of time, there is only connected with the GPRS, at any given point of time, there is only
one SGSN. one SGSN.
3.2. PDP Context 3.2. PDP Context
A PDP (Packet Data Protocol) context is an association between a UE A PDP (Packet Data Protocol) context is an association between a UE
represented by one IPv4 address and/or one /64 IPv6 prefix and a PDN represented by one IPv4 address and/or one /64 IPv6 prefix and a PDN
represented by an APN. Each PDN can be accessed via a gateway represented by an APN. Each PDN can be accessed via a gateway
(typically a GGSN or PDN-GW). On the UE a PDP context is equivalent (typically a GGSN or PDN-GW). On the UE a PDP context is equivalent
to a network interface. A UE may hence be attached to one or more to a network interface. A UE may hence be attached to one or more
gateways via separate connections, i.e. PDP contexts. Each primary gateways via separate connections, i.e. PDP contexts. 3GPP GPRS
PDP context has its own IPv4 address and/or one /64 IPv6 prefix supports PDP Types IPv4, IPv6 and since Release-9 also PDP Type
assigned to it by the PDN and anchored in the corresponding gateway. IPv4v6 (dual-stack).
Each primary PDP context has its own IPv4 address and/or one /64 IPv6
prefix assigned to it by the PDN and anchored in the corresponding
gateway. The GGSN or PDN-GW is the first hop router for the UE.
Applications on the UE use the appropriate network interface (PDP Applications on the UE use the appropriate network interface (PDP
context) for connectivity to a specific PDN. Figure 3 represents a context) for connectivity to a specific PDN. Figure 3 represents a
high level view of what a PDP context implies in 3GPP networks. high level view of what a PDP context implies in 3GPP networks.
Y Y
| +---------+ .--. | +---------+ .--.
|--+ __________________________ | APNx in | _( `. |--+ __________________________ | APNx in | _( `.
| |O______PDPc1_______________)| GGSN / |----(Internet) | |O______PDPc1_______________)| GGSN / |----(Internet)
| | | PDN-GW | ( ` . ) ) | | | PDN-GW | ( ` . ) )
|UE| +---------+ `--(___.-' |UE| +---------+ `--(___.-'
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functional split of gateways allows for operators to choose optimized functional split of gateways allows for operators to choose optimized
topological locations of nodes within the network and enables various topological locations of nodes within the network and enables various
deployment models including the sharing of radio networks between deployment models including the sharing of radio networks between
different operators. This also allows independent scaling and growth different operators. This also allows independent scaling and growth
of traffic throughput and control signal processing. of traffic throughput and control signal processing.
+--------+ +--------+
S1-MME +-------+ S11 | IP | S1-MME +-------+ S11 | IP |
+----|----| MME |---|----+ |Services| +----|----| MME |---|----+ |Services|
| | | | +--------+ | | | | +--------+
| +-------+ | |SGi | +-------+ | S5/ |SGi
+----+ LTE-Uu +-------+ S1-U +-------+ S5 +-------+ +----+ LTE-Uu +-------+ S1-U +-------+ S8 +-------+
|UE |----|---|eNodeB |---|----------------| SGW |--|---|PDN-GW | |UE |----|---|eNodeB |---|----------------| SGW |--|---|PDN-GW |
| |========|=======|====================|=======|======| | | |========|=======|====================|=======|======| |
+----+ +-------+DualStack EPS Bearer+-------+ +-------+ +----+ +-------+DualStack EPS Bearer+-------+ +-------+
Figure 4: EPS Architecture for 3GPP Access Figure 4: EPS Architecture for 3GPP Access
S5: It provides user plane tunnelling and tunnel management S5/S8: It provides user plane tunnelling and tunnel management
between SGW and PDN-GW, using GTP or PMIPv6 as the network between SGW and PDN-GW, using GTP (both GTP-U and GTP-C) or
based mobility management protocol. PMIPv6 [RFC5213][TS.23402] as the network based mobility
management protocol. The S5 interface is used when PDN-GW
and SGW are located inside one operator (i.e. PLMN). The
S8-interface is used if the PDN-GW and the SGW are located
in different operator domains (i.e. 'other' PLMN).
S1-U: Provides user plane tunnelling and inter eNodeB path S1-U: Provides user plane tunnelling and inter eNodeB path
switching during handover between eNodeB and SGW, using the switching during handover between eNodeB and SGW, using the
GTP-U protocol (GTP user plane). GTP-U protocol (GTP user plane).
S1-MME: Reference point for the control plane protocol between S1-MME: Reference point for the control plane protocol between
eNodeB and MME. eNodeB and MME.
SGi: It is the interface between the PDN-GW and the packet data SGi: It is the interface between the PDN-GW and the packet data
network. Packet data network may be an operator external network. Packet data network may be an operator external
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4.2. PDN Connection 4.2. PDN Connection
A PDN connection is an association between a UE represented by one A PDN connection is an association between a UE represented by one
IPv4 address and/or one /64 IPv6 prefix, and a PDN represented by an IPv4 address and/or one /64 IPv6 prefix, and a PDN represented by an
APN. The PDN connection is the EPC equivalent of the GPRS PDP APN. The PDN connection is the EPC equivalent of the GPRS PDP
context. Each PDN can be accessed via a gateway (a PDN-GW). PDN is context. Each PDN can be accessed via a gateway (a PDN-GW). PDN is
responsible for the IP address/prefix allocation to the UE. On the responsible for the IP address/prefix allocation to the UE. On the
UE a PDN connection is equivalent to a network interface. A UE may UE a PDN connection is equivalent to a network interface. A UE may
hence be attached to one or more gateways via separate connections, hence be attached to one or more gateways via separate connections,
i.e. PDN connections. Each PDN connection has its own IP address/ i.e. PDN connections. 3GPP EPS supports PDN Types IPv4, IPv6 and
prefix assigned to it by the PDN and anchored in the corresponding IPv4v6 (dual-stack) since the beginning of EPS i.e. Release-8.
gateway. Applications on the UE use the appropriate network
interface (PDN connection) for connectivity. Each PDN connection has its own IP address/prefix assigned to it by
the PDN and anchored in the corresponding gateway. In case of GTP-
based S5/S8 interface, the PDN-GW is the first hop router for the UE
and in case of PMIPv6-based S5/S8 the SGW is the first hop router.
Applications on the UE use the appropriate network interface (PDN
connection) for connectivity.
4.3. EPS bearer model 4.3. EPS bearer model
The logical concept of a bearer has been defined to be an aggregate The logical concept of a bearer has been defined to be an aggregate
of one or more IP flows related to one or more services. An EPS of one or more IP flows related to one or more services. An EPS
bearer exists between the UE and the PDN-GW and is used to provide bearer exists between the UE and the PDN-GW and is used to provide
the same level of packet forwarding treatment to the aggregated IP the same level of packet forwarding treatment to the aggregated IP
flows constituting the bearer. Services with IP flows requiring a flows constituting the bearer. Services with IP flows requiring a
different packet forwarding treatment would therefore require more different packet forwarding treatment would therefore require more
than one EPS bearer. The UE performs the binding of the uplink IP than one EPS bearer. The UE performs the binding of the uplink IP
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5.1. IPv4 Address Configuration 5.1. IPv4 Address Configuration
UE's IPv4 address configuration is always performed during PDP UE's IPv4 address configuration is always performed during PDP
context/EPS bearer setup procedures (on layer-2). DHCPv4-based context/EPS bearer setup procedures (on layer-2). DHCPv4-based
[RFC2131] address configuration is supported by the 3GPP [RFC2131] address configuration is supported by the 3GPP
specifications, but is not used in wide scale. The UE must always specifications, but is not used in wide scale. The UE must always
support address configuration as part of the bearer setup signaling, support address configuration as part of the bearer setup signaling,
since DHCPv4 is optional for both UEs and networks. since DHCPv4 is optional for both UEs and networks.
The 3GPP standards also specify a 'deferred IPv4 address allocation'
on a PMIPv6-based dual-stack IPv4v6 PDN connection at the time of
connection establishment as described in Section 4.7.1 of [TS.23402].
This has the advantage of a single PDN Connection for IPv6 and IPv4
along with deferring IPv4 address allocation until an application
needs it. The deferred address allocation is based on the use of
DHCPv4 as well as appropriate UE side implementation dependant
triggers to invoke the protocol.
5.2. IPv6 Address Configuration 5.2. IPv6 Address Configuration
IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) as specified in IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) as specified in
[RFC4861][RFC4862] is the only supported address configuration [RFC4861][RFC4862] is the only supported address configuration
mechanism. Stateful DHCPv6-based address configuration [RFC3315] is mechanism. Stateful DHCPv6-based address configuration [RFC3315] is
not supported by 3GPP specifications. On the other hand, Stateless not supported by 3GPP specifications. On the other hand, Stateless
DHCPv6-service to obtain other configuration information is supported DHCPv6-service to obtain other configuration information is supported
[RFC3736]. This implies that the M-bit is always zero and the O-bit [RFC3736]. This implies that the M-bit is always zero and the O-bit
may be set to one in the Router Advertisement (RA) sent to the UE. may be set to one in the Router Advertisement (RA) sent to the UE.
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connectivity in the 3GPP networks by itself will provide some degree connectivity in the 3GPP networks by itself will provide some degree
of relief to the IPv4 address space as many of the applications and of relief to the IPv4 address space as many of the applications and
services can start to work over IPv6. However without comprehensive services can start to work over IPv6. However without comprehensive
testing of different applications and solutions that exist today and testing of different applications and solutions that exist today and
are widely used, for their ability to operate over IPv6 PDN are widely used, for their ability to operate over IPv6 PDN
connections, an IPv6-only access would cause disruptions. connections, an IPv6-only access would cause disruptions.
12. Acknowledgements 12. Acknowledgements
The authors thank Shabnam Sultana, Sri Gundavelli, Hui Deng, The authors thank Shabnam Sultana, Sri Gundavelli, Hui Deng,
Zhenqiang Li, Mikael Abrahamsson, James Woodyatt, Martin Thomson, Zhenqiang Li, Mikael Abrahamsson, James Woodyatt, Wes George, Martin
Russ Mundy, Cameron Byrne, Ales Vizdal, Frank Brockners, Adrian Thomson, Russ Mundy, Cameron Byrne, Ales Vizdal, Frank Brockners,
Farrel, Stephen Farrell, and Jari Arkko for their reviews and Adrian Farrel, Stephen Farrell, and Jari Arkko for their reviews and
comments on this document. comments on this document.
13. Informative References 13. Informative References
[GSMA.IR.34] [GSMA.IR.34]
GSMA, "Inter-PLMN Backbone Guidelines", GSMA GSMA, "Inter-PLMN Backbone Guidelines", GSMA
PRD IR.34.4.9, March 2010. PRD IR.34.4.9, March 2010.
[I-D.ietf-dhc-pd-exclude] [I-D.ietf-dhc-pd-exclude]
Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., Krishnan, S., and O. Troan, Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., Krishnan, S., and O. Troan,
skipping to change at page 33, line 6 skipping to change at page 33, line 20
[TS.23203] [TS.23203]
3GPP, "Policy and charging control architecture (PCC)", 3GPP, "Policy and charging control architecture (PCC)",
3GPP TS 23.203 8.11.0, September 2010. 3GPP TS 23.203 8.11.0, September 2010.
[TS.23401] [TS.23401]
3GPP, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements 3GPP, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements
for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
(E-UTRAN) access", 3GPP TS 23.401 10.4.0, June 2011. (E-UTRAN) access", 3GPP TS 23.401 10.4.0, June 2011.
[TS.23402]
3GPP, "Architecture enhancements for non-3GPP accesses",
3GPP TS 23.402 10.5.0, September 2011.
[TS.24008] [TS.24008]
3GPP, "Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification", 3GPP 3GPP, "Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification", 3GPP
TS 24.008 8.12.0, December 2010. TS 24.008 8.12.0, December 2010.
[TS.24301] [TS.24301]
3GPP, "Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved 3GPP, "Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved
Packet System (EPS)", 3GPP TS 24.301 8.8.0, December 2010. Packet System (EPS)", 3GPP TS 24.301 8.8.0, December 2010.
[TS.29002] [TS.29002]
3GPP, "Mobile Application Part (MAP) specification", 3GPP 3GPP, "Mobile Application Part (MAP) specification", 3GPP
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