draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-cases-02.txt   draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-cases-03.txt 
Internet Draft J. Soininen, Internet Draft J. Soininen (ed.)
Document: draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-cases-02.txt Editor Document: draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-cases-03.txt Nokia
Expires: July 2003 Nokia Expires: September 2003 March 2003
January 2003
Transition Scenarios for 3GPP Networks Transition Scenarios for 3GPP Networks
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
skipping to change at page 1, line 32 skipping to change at page 1, line 31
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2002). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.
Abstract Abstract
This document describes different scenarios in Third Generation This document describes different scenarios in Third Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP) defined packet network, i.e. General Partnership Project (3GPP) defined packet network, i.e. General
Packet Radio Service (GPRS) that would need IP version 6 and IP Packet Radio Service (GPRS) that would need IP version 6 and IP
version 4 transition. The focus of this document is on the scenarios version 4 transition. The focus of this document is on the scenarios
where the User Equipment (UE) connects to nodes in other networks, where the User Equipment (UE) connects to nodes in other networks,
e.g. in the Internet. GPRS network internal transition scenarios, e.g. in the Internet. GPRS network internal transition scenarios,
i.e. between different GPRS elements in the network, are out of scope i.e. between different GPRS elements in the network, are out of
of this document. scope.
The purpose of the document is to list the scenarios for further The purpose of the document is to list the scenarios for further
discussion and study. discussion and study.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction...................................................2 1. Introduction...................................................2
2. Scope of the document..........................................2 2. Scope of the Document..........................................2
3. Brief description of the 3GPP network environment..............3 3. Brief Description of the 3GPP Network Environment..............3
3.1 GPRS architecture basics...................................3 3.1 GPRS Architecture Basics...................................3
3.2 IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS).................4 3.2 IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS).................4
4. Transition scenarios...........................................5 4. Transition Scenarios...........................................5
4.1 GPRS Scenarios.............................................5 4.1 GPRS Scenarios.............................................5
4.2 Transition scenarios with IMS..............................8 4.2 IMS Scenarios..............................................8
5. Security Considerations........................................9 5. Security Considerations........................................9
Authors...........................................................9 Authors..........................................................10
Informative references...........................................10 Normative References.............................................11
Normative References.............................................10 Informative references...........................................11
Editor's Address.................................................10 Editor's Address.................................................11
Copyright Copyright
(C) The Internet Society (2002). All Rights Reserved. (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document will describe the transition scenarios in 3GPP packet This document describes the transition scenarios in 3GPP packet data
data networks that might come up in the deployment phase of IPv6. networks that might come up in the deployment phase of IPv6. The
The main purpose of this document is to identify, and document those main purpose of this document is to identify and to document those
scenarios for further discussion, and for study in the v6ops working scenarios for further discussion and study them in the v6ops working
group. group.
This document gives neither an overview, nor an explanation of 3GPP Just a brief overview of the 3GPP packet data network, GPRS, is given
or the 3GPP packet data network, GPRS. A good overview of the 3GPP to help the reader to better understand the transition scenarios. A
specified GPRS can be found from [1]. The GPRS architecture better overview of the 3GPP specified GPRS can be found for example
specification is defined in [2]. from [6]. The GPRS architecture is defined in [1].
2. Scope of the document 2. Scope of the Document
The scope of this document is to describe the possible transition The scope is to describe the possible transition scenarios in the
scenarios in the 3GPP defined GPRS network where a UE connects to, or 3GPP defined GPRS network where a UE connects to, or is contacted
is contacted from, the Internet or another UE. The document describes from, the Internet or another UE. The document describes scenarios
scenarios with and without the usage of the SIP based IP Multimedia with and without the usage of the SIP-based (Session Initiation
Core Network Subsystem (IMS). Protocol [5]) IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS). The 3GPP
releases 1999, 4, and 5 are considered as the basis.
The scope of this document does not include scenarios inside the GPRS Out of scope are scenarios inside the GPRS network, i.e. on the
network, i.e. on the different interfaces of the GPRS network. This different interfaces of the GPRS network. This document neither
document neither changes 3GPP specifications, nor proposes changes to changes 3GPP specifications, nor proposes changes to the current
the current specifications. specifications.
In addition, this document describes the possible transition In addition, the possible transition scenarios are described. The
scenarios. The solutions will be documented in a separate document. solutions will be documented in a separate document.
These scenarios may or may not be found feasible, or even likely in All the possible scenarios are listed here. Further analysis may show
further study. that some of the scenarios are not actually relevant in this context.
3. Brief description of the 3GPP network environment 3. Brief Description of the 3GPP Network Environment
This section describes the most important concepts of the 3GPP This section describes the most important concepts of the 3GPP
environment for understanding the transition scenarios. The first environment for understanding the transition scenarios. The first
part of the description gives a brief overview to the GPRS network as part of the description gives a brief overview to the GPRS network as
such. The second part concentrates on the IP Multimedia Core Network such. The second part concentrates on the IP Multimedia Core Network
Subsystem (IMS). Subsystem (IMS).
3.1 GPRS architecture basics 3.1 GPRS Architecture Basics
This section gives an overview to the most important concepts of the This section gives an overview to the most important concepts of the
3GPP packet architecture. For more detailed description, please see 3GPP packet architecture. For more detailed description, please see
[2]. [1].
From the point of view of this document, the most relevant 3GPP From the point of view of this document, the most relevant 3GPP
architectural elements are the User Equipment (UE), and the Gateway architectural elements are the User Equipment (UE), and the Gateway
GPRS Support Node (GGSN). A simplified picture of the architecture is GPRS Support Node (GGSN). A simplified picture of the architecture is
shown in Figure 1. shown in Figure 1.
The UE is the mobile phone. It can either be an integrated device The UE is the mobile phone. It can either be an integrated device
comprised of a combined GPRS part, and the IP stack, or it might be a comprising a combined GPRS part, and the IP stack, or it might be a
separate GPRS device, and a separate equipment with the IP stack, separate GPRS device, and separate equipment with the IP stack, e.g.
e.g. a laptop. a laptop.
The GGSN serves as an anchor-point for the GPRS mobility management. The GGSN serves as an anchor-point for the GPRS mobility management.
It also serves as the default router for the UE. It also serves as the default router for the UE.
The Peer node mentioned in the picture refers to a node with which The Peer node mentioned in the picture refers to a node with which
the UE is communicating. the UE is communicating.
-- ---- ************ --------- -- ---- ************ ---------
|UE|- ... -|GGSN|--+--* IPv4/v6 NW *--+--|Peer node| |UE|- ... -|GGSN|--+--* IPv4/v6 NW *--+--|Peer node|
-- ---- ************ --------- -- ---- ************ ---------
Figure 1: Simplified GPRS Architecture Figure 1: Simplified GPRS Architecture
There is a dedicated link between the UE, and the GGSN called the There is a dedicated link between the UE and the GGSN called the
Packet Data Protocol (PDP) Context. This link is created through the Packet Data Protocol (PDP) Context. This link is created through the
PDP Context activation process. During the activation the UE is PDP Context activation process. During the activation the UE is
configured with its IP address, and other information needed to configured with its IP address and other information needed to
maintain IP access, e.g. DNS server address. There are three maintain IP access, e.g. DNS server address. There are three
different types of PDP Contexts: IPv4, IPv6, and Point-to-Point different types of PDP Contexts: IPv4, IPv6, and Point-to-Point
Protocol (PPP). Protocol (PPP).
A UE can have one or more simultaneous PDP Contexts open to the same A UE can have one or more simultaneous PDP Contexts open to the same
or to different GGSNs. The PDP Context can be either of the same, or or to different GGSNs. The PDP Context can be either of the same or
different types. different types.
3.2 IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS) 3.2 IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS)
IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS) is a SIP based multimedia IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS) is an architecture for
service architecture. It is specified in Release 5 of 3GPP. This supporting multimedia services via a SIP infrastructure. It is
section provides an overview of the 3GPP IMS and is not intended to specified in 3GPP Release 5. This section provides an overview of the
be comprehensive. A more detailed description can be found in [3], 3GPP IMS and is not intended to be comprehensive. A more detailed
[4] and [5]. description can be found in [2], [3] and [4].
The IMS comprises a set of SIP proxies, servers, and registrars. In The IMS comprises a set of SIP proxies, servers, and registrars. In
addition, there are Media Gateways (MGWs) that offer connections to addition, there are Media Gateways (MGWs) that offer connections to
non-IP networks such as the Public Switched Telephony Network (PSTN). non-IP networks such as the Public Switched Telephony Network (PSTN).
A simplified overview of the IMS is depicted in figure 2. A simplified overview of the IMS is depicted in figure 2.
+-------------+ +-------------------------------------+ +-------------+ +-------------------------------------+
| | | +------+ | | | | +------+ |
| | | |S-CSCF|--- | | | |S-CSCF|---
| | | | +------+ | | | | | +------+ |
+-|+ | | | / | +-|+ | | | / |
| | | SIP Sig. | | +------+ +------+ | | | | SIP Sig. | | +------+ +------+ |
| |----|------+------|--|----|P-CSCF|----------|I-CSCF| | | |----|------+------|--|----|P-CSCF|----------|I-CSCF| |
| | | | | +------+ +------+ | | | | | | +------+ +------+ |
| |-----------+------------------------------------------------ | |-----------+------------------------------------------------
+--+ | User traf. | | | +--+ | User traf. | | |
skipping to change at page 4, line 43 skipping to change at page 4, line 44
+-------------+ +-------------------------------------+ +-------------+ +-------------------------------------+
Figure 2: Overview of the 3GPP IMS architecture Figure 2: Overview of the 3GPP IMS architecture
The SIP proxies, servers, and registrars shown in Figure 2 are as The SIP proxies, servers, and registrars shown in Figure 2 are as
follows. follows.
- P-CSCF (Proxy-Call Session Control Function) is the first - P-CSCF (Proxy-Call Session Control Function) is the first
contact point within the IMS for the subscriber. contact point within the IMS for the subscriber.
- I-CSCF (Interrogating-CSCF) is the contact point within an - I-CSCF (Interrogating-CSCF) is the contact point within an
operators network for all connections destined to a subscriber operator's network for all connections destined to a subscriber
of that network operator, or a roaming subscriber currently of that network operator, or a roaming subscriber currently
located within that network operators service area. located within that network operator's service area.
- S-CSCF (Serving-CSCF) performs the session control services for - S-CSCF (Serving-CSCF) performs the session control services for
the subscriber. It also behaves as a SIP Registrar. the subscriber. It also acts as a SIP Registrar.
IMS UEs use the GPRS as an access network for the IMS. Thus, a UE has IMS capable UEs utilize the GPRS network as an access network for
to have an activated PDP Context to the IMS before it can proceed to accessing the IMS. Thus, a UE has to have an activated PDP Context to
use the IMS services. The PDP Context activation is explained briefly the IMS before it can proceed to use the IMS services. The PDP
in section 3.1. Context activation is explained briefly in section 3.1.
The IMS is exclusively IPv6. Thus, the activated PDP Context is of The IMS is exclusively IPv6. Thus, the activated PDP Context is of
PDP Type IPv6. This means that an 3GPP IP Multimedia terminal uses PDP Type IPv6. This means that a 3GPP IP Multimedia terminal uses
exclusively IPv6 to access the IMS, and the IMS SIP server and proxy exclusively IPv6 to access the IMS, and the IMS SIP server and proxy
support exclusively IPv6. Hence, all the traffic going to the IMS is support exclusively IPv6. Hence, all the traffic going to the IMS is
IPv6, even if the UE is dual stack capable - this comprises both IPv6, even if the UE is dual stack capable - this comprises both
signaling and user traffic. signaling and user traffic.
This, of course, does not prevent the usage of other unrelated This, of course, does not prevent the usage of other unrelated
services (e.g. corporate access) on IPv4. services (e.g. corporate access) on IPv4.
4. Transition scenarios 4. Transition Scenarios
This section is divided into two main parts - GPRS scenarios, and This section is divided into two main parts - GPRS scenarios, and
scenarios with the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). The first part - scenarios with the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). The first part -
GPRS scenarios - concentrates on scenarios with a User Equipment (UE) GPRS scenarios - concentrates on scenarios with a User Equipment (UE)
connecting to services in the Internet, e.g. mail, web. The second connecting to services in the Internet, e.g. mail, web. The second
part - IMS scenarios - then describes how an IMS capable UE can part - IMS scenarios - then describes how an IMS capable UE can
connect to other SIP capable nodes in the Internet using the IMS connect to other SIP-capable nodes in the Internet using the IMS
services. services.
4.1 GPRS Scenarios 4.1 GPRS Scenarios
This section describes the scenarios that might occur when a GPRS UE This section describes the scenarios that might occur when a GPRS UE
contacts services, or nodes outside the GPRS network, e.g. web-server contacts services, or nodes outside the GPRS network, e.g. web-server
in the Internet. in the Internet.
Transition scenarios of the GPRS internal interfaces are outside of Transition scenarios of the GPRS internal interfaces are outside of
the scope of this document. the scope of this document.
skipping to change at page 6, line 9 skipping to change at page 6, line 9
1) Dual Stack UE connecting to IPv4 and IPv6 nodes 1) Dual Stack UE connecting to IPv4 and IPv6 nodes
2) IPv6 UE connecting to an IPv6 node through an IPv4 network 2) IPv6 UE connecting to an IPv6 node through an IPv4 network
3) IPv4 UE connecting to an IPv4 node through an IPv6 network 3) IPv4 UE connecting to an IPv4 node through an IPv6 network
4) IPv6 UE connecting to an IPv4 node 4) IPv6 UE connecting to an IPv4 node
5) IPv4 UE connecting to an IPv6 node 5) IPv4 UE connecting to an IPv6 node
1) Dual Stack UE connecting to IPv4 and IPv6 nodes 1) Dual Stack UE connecting to IPv4 and IPv6 nodes
The GPRS system has been designed in a manner that there is the The GPRS system has been designed in a manner that there is the
possibility to have simultaneous IPv4, and IPv6 PDP Contexts open. possibility to have simultaneous IPv4, and IPv6 PDP Contexts open.
Thus, in cases where the UE is dual stack capable, and in the network Thus, in cases where the UE is dual stack capable, and in the network
there is a GGSN (or separate GGSNs) that supports both connection to there is a GGSN (or separate GGSNs) that supports both connections to
IPv4 and IPv6 networks, it is possible to connect to both at the same IPv4 and IPv6 networks, it is possible to connect to both at the same
time. Figure 3 depicts this scenario. time. Figure 3 depicts this scenario.
+-------------+ +-------------+
| | | |
| UE | +------+ | UE | +------+
| | | IPv4 | | | | IPv4 |
| | /| | | | /| |
|------|------+ / +------+ |------|------+ / +------+
| IPv6 | IPv4 | +--------+ / | IPv6 | IPv4 | +--------+ /
skipping to change at page 6, line 31 skipping to change at page 6, line 31
| |------------------------| |/ | |------------------------| |/
| | | | | |
| IPv6 | GGSN |\ | IPv6 | GGSN |\
|-------------------------------| | \ |-------------------------------| | \
+-----------+ | | \ +------+ +-----------+ | | \ +------+
| GPRS Core | | | \ | IPv6 | | GPRS Core | | | \ | IPv6 |
+-----------+ +--------+ | | +-----------+ +--------+ | |
+------+ +------+
Figure 3: Dual-Stack Case Figure 3: Dual-Stack Case
However, the IPv4 addresses might be a scarce resource for the mobile However, the IPv4 addresses may be a scarce resource for the mobile
operator or an ISP. In that case, it might not be possible for the UE operator or an ISP. In that case, it might not be possible for the UE
to have a globally unique IPv4 address allocated all the time. Hence, to have a globally unique IPv4 address allocated all the time. Hence,
the UE should either activate the IPv4 PDP Context only when needed, the UE could either activate the IPv4 PDP Context only when needed,
or be allocated an IPv4 address from a private address space. or be allocated an IPv4 address from a private address space.
2) IPv6 UE connecting to an IPv6 node through an IPv4 network 2) IPv6 UE connecting to an IPv6 node through an IPv4 network
Especially in the first stages of IPv6 deployment, there are cases Especially in the initial stages of IPv6 deployment, there are cases
where an IPv6 node would need to connect to the IPv6 Internet through where an IPv6 node would need to connect to the IPv6 Internet through
a network that is IPv4. For instance, this can be seen in current a network that is IPv4. For instance, this can be seen in current
fixed networks, where the access is provided in IPv4 only, but there fixed networks, where the access is provided via IPv4 only, but there
is an IPv6 network deeper in the Internet. This scenario is shown in is an IPv6 network deeper in the Internet. This scenario is shown in
the Figure 4. Figure 4.
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| | | | +------+ | | | | +------+
| UE |------------------| |-----------------| | | UE |------------------| |-----------------| |
| | +-----------+ | GGSN | +---------+ | IPv6 | | | +-----------+ | GGSN | +---------+ | IPv6 |
| IPv6 | | GPRS Core | | | | IPv4 Net| | | | IPv6 | | GPRS Core | | | | IPv4 Net| | |
+------+ +-----------+ +------+ +---------+ +------+ +------+ +-----------+ +------+ +---------+ +------+
Figure 4: IPv6 nodes communicating over IPv4 Figure 4: IPv6 nodes communicating over IPv4
In this case, in the GPRS system, the UE would be IPv6 capable, and In this case, in the GPRS system, the UE would be IPv6 capable, and
skipping to change at page 7, line 38 skipping to change at page 7, line 38
| | +-----------+ | GGSN | +---------+ | IPv4 | | | +-----------+ | GGSN | +---------+ | IPv4 |
| IPv4 | | GPRS Core | | | | IPv6 Net| | | | IPv4 | | GPRS Core | | | | IPv6 Net| | |
+------+ +-----------+ +------+ +---------+ +------+ +------+ +-----------+ +------+ +---------+ +------+
Figure 5: IPv4 nodes communicating over IPv6 Figure 5: IPv4 nodes communicating over IPv6
In this case, the operator would still provide an IPv4 capable GGSN, In this case, the operator would still provide an IPv4 capable GGSN,
and a connection through the IPv6 network to the IPv4 Internet. and a connection through the IPv6 network to the IPv4 Internet.
4) IPv6 UE connecting to an IPv4 node 4) IPv6 UE connecting to an IPv4 node
In this scenario an IPv6 UE connects to an IPv4 node in the IPv4 In this scenario, an IPv6 UE connects to an IPv4 node in the IPv4
Internet. As an example, an IPv6 UE connects to an IPv4 web server in Internet. As an example, an IPv6 UE connects to an IPv4 web server in
the legacy Internet. In the figure 6, this kind of possible the legacy Internet. In the figure 6, this kind of possible
installation is described. installation is described.
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| | | | +---+ +------+ | | | | +---+ +------+
| UE |------------------| |-----| |----| | | UE |------------------| |-----| |----| |
| | +-----------+ | GGSN | | ? | | IPv4 | | | +-----------+ | GGSN | | ? | | IPv4 |
| IPv6 | | GPRS Core | | | | | | | | IPv6 | | GPRS Core | | | | | | |
+------+ +-----------+ +------+ +---+ +------+ +------+ +-----------+ +------+ +---+ +------+
skipping to change at page 8, line 19 skipping to change at page 8, line 19
Internet. Figure 7 depicts this configuration. Internet. Figure 7 depicts this configuration.
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| | | | +---+ +------+ | | | | +---+ +------+
| UE |------------------| |-----| |----| | | UE |------------------| |-----| |----| |
| | +-----------+ | GGSN | | ? | | IPv6 | | | +-----------+ | GGSN | | ? | | IPv6 |
| IPv4 | | GPRS Core | | | | | | | | IPv4 | | GPRS Core | | | | | | |
+------+ +-----------+ +------+ +---+ +------+ +------+ +-----------+ +------+ +---+ +------+
Figure 7: IPv4 node communicating with IPv6 node Figure 7: IPv4 node communicating with IPv6 node
4.2 Transition scenarios with IMS 4.2 IMS Scenarios
As described in section 3.2, IMS is exclusively IPv6. Thus, the As described in section 3.2, IMS is exclusively IPv6. Thus, the
number of possible transition scenarios is reduced dramatically. In number of possible transition scenarios is reduced dramatically. In
the following, the possible transition scenarios are listed. the following, the possible transition scenarios are listed.
1) UE connecting to a node in an IPv4 network through IMS 1) UE connecting to a node in an IPv4 network through IMS
2) Two IPv6 IMS connected via an IPv4 network 2) Two IPv6 IMS connected via an IPv4 network
1) UE connecting to a node in an IPv4 network through IMS 1) UE connecting to a node in an IPv4 network through IMS
skipping to change at page 9, line 12 skipping to change at page 9, line 12
+------+ +------+ +-----+ +---+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +-----+ +---+ +------+
Figure 8: IMS UE connecting to an IPv4 node Figure 8: IMS UE connecting to an IPv4 node
2) Two IPv6 IMS connected via an IPv4 network 2) Two IPv6 IMS connected via an IPv4 network
At the early stages of IMS deployment, there may be cases where two At the early stages of IMS deployment, there may be cases where two
IMS islands are only connected via an IPv4 network such as the legacy IMS islands are only connected via an IPv4 network such as the legacy
Internet. See Figure 9 for illustration. Internet. See Figure 9 for illustration.
+------+ +------+ +-----+ +-----+ +------+ +------+ +-----+ +-----+
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| UE |-...-| |-----| IMS |--------| | | UE |-...-| |-----| IMS |----------| |
| | | GGSN | | |+------+| IMS | | | | GGSN | | |+------+| IMS |
| IPv6 | | | | || IPv4 || | | IPv6 | | | | || IPv4 || |
+------+ +------+ +-----++------++-----+ +------+ +------+ +-----++------++-----+
Figure 9: Two IMS islands connected over IPv4 Figure 9: Two IMS islands connected over IPv4
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
This document does not generate any additional security This document describes possible transition scenarios for 3GPP
considerations. networks for future study. Solutions and mechanism are explored in
other documents: The description of the 3GPP network scenarios does
not have any security considerations.
Authors Authors
This is document is a result of a joint effort of a design team. The This document is a result of a joint effort of a design team. The
members of the design team are listed in the following. members of the design team are listed in the following.
Alain Durand, Sun Microsystems Alain Durand, Sun Microsystems
<Alain.Durand@sun.com> <Alain.Durand@sun.com>
Karim El-Malki, Ericsson Radio Systems Karim El-Malki, Ericsson Radio Systems
<Karim.El-Malki@era.ericsson.se> <Karim.El-Malki@era.ericsson.se>
Niall Richard Murphy, Enigma Consulting Limited Niall Richard Murphy, Enigma Consulting Limited
<niallm@enigma.ie> <niallm@enigma.ie>
skipping to change at page 10, line 7 skipping to change at page 10, line 36
<hesham.soliman@era.ericsson.se> <hesham.soliman@era.ericsson.se>
Margaret Wasserman, Wind River Margaret Wasserman, Wind River
<mrw@windriver.com> <mrw@windriver.com>
Juha Wiljakka, Nokia Juha Wiljakka, Nokia
<juha.wiljakka@nokia.com> <juha.wiljakka@nokia.com>
Acknowledgements Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Basavaraj Patil, Tuomo SipilĄ, Fred The authors would like to thank Basavaraj Patil, Tuomo Sipila, Fred
Templin, Rod Van Meter, and Jens Staack for good input, and comments Templin, Rod Van Meter, Pekka Savola, Francis Dupont, Christine
that helped writing this document. Fisher, Alain Baudot, Rod Walsh, and Jens Staack for good input, and
comments that helped writing this document.
Informative references
[1] Wasserman, M., "Recommendations for IPv6 in Third Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP) Standards", September 2002, RFC3314.
Normative References Normative References
[2] 3GPP TS 23.060 v 5.2.0, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); [1] 3GPP TS 23.060 v 5.2.0, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Service description; Stage 2(Release 5)", June 2002. Service description; Stage 2(Release 5)", June 2002.
[3] 3GPP TS 23.228 v 5.3.0, "IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS); Stage [2] 3GPP TS 23.228 v 5.3.0, " IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS); Stage
2(Release 5)", January 2002. 2(Release 5)", January 2002.
[4] 3GPP TS 24.228 V5.0.0, "Signalling flows for the IP multimedia [3] 3GPP TS 24.228 V5.0.0, "Signalling flows for the IP multimedia
call control based on SIP and SDP; Stage 3 (Release 5)", March call control based on SIP and SDP; Stage 3 (Release 5)", March
2002. 2002.
[5] 3GPP TS 24.229 V5.0.0, "IP Multimedia Call Control Protocol [4] 3GPP TS 24.229 V5.0.0, "IP Multimedia Call Control Protocol
based on SIP and SDP; Stage 3 (Release 5)", March 2002. based on SIP and SDP; Stage 3 (Release 5)", March 2002.
[5] Rosenberg J., Schulzrinne H., Camarillo G., Johnston A.,
Peterson J., Sparks R., Handley M., Schooler E., " SIP: Session
Initiation Protocol", RFC3261, June 2002.
Informative references
[6] Wasserman, M., "Recommendations for IPv6 in Third Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP) Standards", RFC3314, September 2002.
Editor's Address Editor's Address
Jonne Soininen Jonne Soininen
Nokia Nokia
313 Fairchild Dr. Phone: +1-650-864-6794 313 Fairchild Dr. Phone: +1-650-864-6794
Mountain View, CA, USA Email: jonne.Soininen@nokia.com Mountain View, CA, USA Email: jonne.soininen@nokia.com
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