draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-analysis-08.txt   draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-analysis-09.txt 
Internet Draft J. Wiljakka (ed.) Internet Draft J. Wiljakka (ed.)
Document: draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-analysis-08.txt Nokia Document: draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-analysis-09.txt Nokia
Expires: July 2004 Expires: September 2004
January 2004 March 2004
Analysis on IPv6 Transition in 3GPP Networks Analysis on IPv6 Transition in 3GPP Networks
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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1. Introduction..................................................2 1. Introduction..................................................2
1.1 Scope of this Document....................................3 1.1 Scope of this Document....................................3
1.2 Abbreviations.............................................3 1.2 Abbreviations.............................................3
1.3 Terminology...............................................4 1.3 Terminology...............................................4
2. Transition Mechanisms and DNS Guidelines......................5 2. Transition Mechanisms and DNS Guidelines......................5
2.1 Dual Stack................................................5 2.1 Dual Stack................................................5
2.2 Tunneling.................................................5 2.2 Tunneling.................................................5
2.3 Protocol Translators......................................5 2.3 Protocol Translators......................................5
2.4 DNS Guidelines for IPv4/IPv6 Transition...................6 2.4 DNS Guidelines for IPv4/IPv6 Transition...................6
3. GPRS Transition Scenarios.....................................6 3. GPRS Transition Scenarios.....................................6
3.1 Dual Stack UE Connecting to IPv4 and IPv6 Nodes...........7 3.1 Dual Stack UE Connecting to IPv4 and IPv6 Nodes...........6
3.2 IPv6 UE Connecting to an IPv6 Node through an IPv4 Network 3.2 IPv6 UE Connecting to an IPv6 Node through an IPv4 Network
.............................................................8 ..............................................................8
3.3 IPv4 UE Connecting to an IPv4 Node through an IPv6 Network 3.3 IPv4 UE Connecting to an IPv4 Node through an IPv6 Network
............................................................10 .............................................................10
3.4 IPv6 UE Connecting to an IPv4 Node.......................10 3.4 IPv6 UE Connecting to an IPv4 Node.......................10
3.5 IPv4 UE Connecting to an IPv6 Node.......................11 3.5 IPv4 UE Connecting to an IPv6 Node.......................11
4. IMS Transition Scenarios.....................................12 4. IMS Transition Scenarios.....................................12
4.1 UE Connecting to a Node in an IPv4 Network through IMS...12 4.1 UE Connecting to a Node in an IPv4 Network through IMS...12
4.2 Two IMS Islands Connected over IPv4 Network..............14 4.2 Two IMS Islands Connected over IPv4 Network..............14
5. About 3GPP UE IPv4/IPv6 Configuration........................14 5. About 3GPP UE IPv4/IPv6 Configuration........................14
6. Security Considerations......................................15 6. Security Considerations......................................15
7. References...................................................16 7. References...................................................16
7.1 Normative................................................16 7.1 Normative................................................16
7.2 Informative..............................................16 7.2 Informative..............................................16
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- protocol translators - protocol translators
2.1 Dual Stack 2.1 Dual Stack
The dual IPv4/IPv6 stack is specified in [RFC2893]. If we consider The dual IPv4/IPv6 stack is specified in [RFC2893]. If we consider
the 3GPP GPRS core network, dual stack implementation in the the 3GPP GPRS core network, dual stack implementation in the
Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) enables support for IPv4 and IPv6 Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) enables support for IPv4 and IPv6
PDP contexts. UEs with dual stack and public (global) IP addresses PDP contexts. UEs with dual stack and public (global) IP addresses
can typically access both IPv4 and IPv6 services without additional can typically access both IPv4 and IPv6 services without additional
translators in the network. However, it is good to remember that translators in the network. However, it is good to remember that
public IPv4 addresses are hard to come by and in many cases private private IPv4 addresses and NATs have been used and will be used in
IPv4 addresses and NATs are deployed. Public/global IP addresses mobile networks. Public/global IP addresses are also needed for
are also needed for peer-to-peer services: the node needs a peer-to-peer services: the node needs a public/global IP address
public/global IP address that is visible to other nodes. that is visible to other nodes.
2.2 Tunneling 2.2 Tunneling
Tunneling is a transition mechanism that requires dual IPv4/IPv6 Tunneling is a transition mechanism that requires dual IPv4/IPv6
stack functionality in the encapsulating and decapsulating nodes. stack functionality in the encapsulating and decapsulating nodes.
Basic tunneling alternatives are IPv6-in-IPv4 and IPv4-in-IPv6. Basic tunneling alternatives are IPv6-in-IPv4 and IPv4-in-IPv6.
Tunneling can be static or dynamic. Static (configured) tunnels are Tunneling can be static or dynamic. Static (configured) tunnels are
fixed IPv6 links over IPv4, and they are specified in [RFC2893]. fixed IPv6 links over IPv4, and they are specified in [RFC2893].
Dynamic (automatic) tunnels are virtual IPv6 links over IPv4 where Dynamic (automatic) tunnels are virtual IPv6 links over IPv4 where
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using SIIT [RFC2765] is an example of such a mechanism. using SIIT [RFC2765] is an example of such a mechanism.
Translators may be needed in some cases when the communicating Translators may be needed in some cases when the communicating
nodes do not share the same IP version; in others, it may be nodes do not share the same IP version; in others, it may be
possible to avoid such communication altogether. Translation can possible to avoid such communication altogether. Translation can
actually happen at Layer 3 (using NAT-like techniques), Layer 4 actually happen at Layer 3 (using NAT-like techniques), Layer 4
(using a TCP/UDP proxy) or Layer 7 (using application relays). (using a TCP/UDP proxy) or Layer 7 (using application relays).
2.4 DNS Guidelines for IPv4/IPv6 Transition 2.4 DNS Guidelines for IPv4/IPv6 Transition
[DNStrans] provides guidelines to operate DNS in a mixed world of To avoid the DNS name space from fragmenting into parts where some
IPv4 and IPv6 transport. The recommendations (including the parts of DNS are only visible using IPv4 (or IPv6) transport, the
keywords) are copied verbatim from [DNStrans]: recommendation (as of this writing) is to always keep at least one
authoritative server IPv4-enabled, and to ensure that recursive DNS
"In order to preserve name space continuity, the following servers support IPv4. See DNS IPv6 transport guidelines [DNStrans]
administrative policies are RECOMMENDED: for more information.
- every recursive DNS server SHOULD be either IPv4-only or dual
stack,
- every single DNS zone SHOULD be served by at least one IPv4
reachable DNS server.
This rules out IPv6-only DNS servers performing full recursion and
DNS zones served only by IPv6-only DNS servers. However, one could
very well design a configuration where a chain of IPv6 only DNS
servers forward queries to a set of dual stack DNS servers actually
performing those recursive queries. This approach could be
revisited if/when translation techniques between IPv4 and IPv6 were
to be widely deployed.
In order to help enforcing the second point, the optional
operational zone validation processes SHOULD ensure that there is
at least one IPv4 address record available for the name servers of
any child delegations within the zone."
3. GPRS Transition Scenarios 3. GPRS Transition Scenarios
This section discusses the scenarios that might occur when a GPRS This section discusses the scenarios that might occur when a GPRS
UE contacts services or other nodes, e.g. a web server in the UE contacts services or other nodes, e.g. a web server in the
Internet. Internet.
The following scenarios described by [RFC3574] are analyzed here. The following scenarios described by [RFC3574] are analyzed here.
In all of the scenarios, the UE is part of a network where there is In all of the scenarios, the UE is part of a network where there is
at least one router of the same IP version, i.e. the GGSN, and the at least one router of the same IP version, i.e. the GGSN, and the
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typed in manually or be pre-configured by the operator or the UE typed in manually or be pre-configured by the operator or the UE
manufacturer. manufacturer.
DNS server addresses typically also need to be configured in the DNS server addresses typically also need to be configured in the
UE. In the case of IPv4 type PDP context, the (IPv4) DNS server UE. In the case of IPv4 type PDP context, the (IPv4) DNS server
addresses can be received in the PDP context activation (a control addresses can be received in the PDP context activation (a control
plane mechanism). Same kind of mechanism is also available for plane mechanism). Same kind of mechanism is also available for
IPv6: so-called Protocol Configuration Options Information Element IPv6: so-called Protocol Configuration Options Information Element
(PCO-IE) specified by the 3GPP [3GPP-24.008]. It is also possible (PCO-IE) specified by the 3GPP [3GPP-24.008]. It is also possible
to use [DHCPv6-SL] or [RFC3315] and [RFC3646] for receiving DNS to use [DHCPv6-SL] or [RFC3315] and [RFC3646] for receiving DNS
server addresses. The authors note that the general IPv6 DNS server addresses. Active IETF work on DNS discovery mechanisms is
discovery problem is being solved by the IETF dnsop Working Group. ongoing and might result in other mechanisms becoming available
The DNS server addresses can also be received over the air (using over time. The DNS server addresses can also be received over the
SMS), or typed in manually in the UE. air (using SMS), or typed in manually in the UE.
When accessing IMS services, the UE needs to know the P-CSCF IPv6 When accessing IMS services, the UE needs to know the P-CSCF IPv6
address. 3GPP-specific PCO-IE mechanism, or DHCPv6-based mechanism address. 3GPP-specific PCO-IE mechanism, or DHCPv6-based mechanism
([DHCPv6-SL] or [RFC3315] and [RFC3319]) can be used. Manual ([DHCPv6-SL] or [RFC3315] and [RFC3319]) can be used. Manual
configuration or configuration over the air is also possible. IMS configuration or configuration over the air is also possible. IMS
subscriber authentication and registration to the IMS and SIP subscriber authentication and registration to the IMS and SIP
integrity protection are not discussed here. integrity protection are not discussed here.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
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specific documents. However, in particular one should note that a specific documents. However, in particular one should note that a
proper configuration of locally-deployed relays and proxies is very proper configuration of locally-deployed relays and proxies is very
important, so that the outsiders will not have access to them, to important, so that the outsiders will not have access to them, to
be used for abuse, laundering attacks, or circumventing access be used for abuse, laundering attacks, or circumventing access
controls. controls.
In particular, this memo does not recommend the following technique In particular, this memo does not recommend the following technique
which has security issues, not further analyzed here: which has security issues, not further analyzed here:
- NAT-PT or other translator as a generic-purpose transition - NAT-PT or other translator as a generic-purpose transition
mechanism, mechanism
7. References 7. References
7.1 Normative 7.1 Normative
[RFC2026] Bradner, S.: The Internet Standards Process -- Revision [RFC2026] Bradner, S.: The Internet Standards Process -- Revision
3, RFC 2026, October 1996. 3, RFC 2026, October 1996.
[RFC2663] Srisuresh, P., Holdrege, M.: IP Network Address [RFC2663] Srisuresh, P., Holdrege, M.: IP Network Address
Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations, RFC 2663, August Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations, RFC 2663, August
1999. 1999.
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Standards, September 2002. Standards, September 2002.
[RFC3315] Droms, R. et al.: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for [RFC3315] Droms, R. et al.: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
IPv6 (DHCPv6), July 2003. IPv6 (DHCPv6), July 2003.
[RFC3319] Schulzrinne, H., Volz, B.: Dynamic Host Configuration [RFC3319] Schulzrinne, H., Volz, B.: Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCPv6) Options for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Protocol (DHCPv6) Options for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
Servers, July 2003. Servers, July 2003.
[RFC3646] Droms, R. (ed.): DNS Configuration options for DHCPv6, [RFC3646] Droms, R. (ed.): DNS Configuration options for DHCPv6,
December 2003 December 2003.
[3GPPtr] El Malki K., et al.: "IPv6-IPv4 Translation mechanism for [3GPPtr] El Malki K., et al.: "IPv6-IPv4 Translation mechanism for
SIP-based services in Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) SIP-based services in Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
Networks", December 2003, draft-elmalki-sipping-3gpp-translator- Networks", December 2003, draft-elmalki-sipping-3gpp-translator-
00.txt, work in progress. 00.txt, work in progress.
[DHCP-SL] Droms, R.: "Stateless DHCP Service for IPv6", January [DHCP-SL] Droms, R.: "Stateless DHCP Service for IPv6", January
2004, draft-ietf-dhc-dhcpv6-stateless-04.txt, work in progress. 2004, draft-ietf-dhc-dhcpv6-stateless-04.txt, work in progress.
[DNStrans] Durand, A. and Ihren, J.: "DNS IPv6 transport [DNStrans] Durand, A. and Ihren, J.: "DNS IPv6 transport
operational guidelines", November 2003, draft-ietf-dnsop-ipv6- operational guidelines", November 2003, draft-ietf-dnsop-ipv6-
transport-guidelines-01.txt, work in progress. transport-guidelines-01.txt, work in progress.
[ISATAP] Templin, F., Gleeson, T., Talwar, M. and Thaler, D.: [ISATAP] Templin, F., Gleeson, T., Talwar, M. and Thaler, D.:
"Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)", draft- "Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)",
ietf-ngtrans-isatap-17.txt, work in progress. February 2004, draft-ietf-ngtrans-isatap-20.txt, work in progress.
[ISP-sa] Lind, M., Ksinant, V., Park, D., Baudot, A.: "Scenarios [ISP-sa] Lind, M., Ksinant, V., Park, D., Baudot, A.: "Scenarios
and Analysis for Introducing IPv6 into ISP Networks", December and Analysis for Introducing IPv6 into ISP Networks", February
2003, draft-ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios-analysis-00.txt, work in 2004, draft-ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios-analysis-01.txt, work in
progress. progress.
[NATPTappl] Satapati, S., Sivakumar, S., Barany, P., Okazaki, S., [NATPTappl] Satapati, S., Sivakumar, S., Barany, P., Okazaki, S.,
Wang, H.: "NAT-PT Applicability", October 2003, draft-satapati- Wang, H.: "NAT-PT Applicability", October 2003, draft-satapati-
v6ops-natpt-applicability-00.txt, work in progress. v6ops-natpt-applicability-00.txt, work in progress.
[NATPT-DNS] Durand, A.: "Issues with NAT-PT DNS ALG in RFC2766", [NATPT-DNS] Durand, A.: "Issues with NAT-PT DNS ALG in RFC2766",
January 2003, draft-durand-v6ops-natpt-dns-alg-issues-01.txt, work January 2003, draft-durand-v6ops-natpt-dns-alg-issues-01.txt, work
in progress, the draft has expired. in progress, the draft has expired.
[STEP] Savola, P.: "Simple IPv6-in-IPv4 Tunnel Establishment [STEP] Savola, P.: "Simple IPv6-in-IPv4 Tunnel Establishment
Procedure (STEP)", January 2004, draft-savola-v6ops-conftun-setup- Procedure (STEP)", January 2004, draft-savola-v6ops-conftun-setup-
02.txt, work in progress. 02.txt, work in progress.
[v4v6trans] van der Pol, R., Satapati, S., Sivakumar, S.:
"Issues when translating between IPv4 and IPv6", January 2003,
draft-vanderpol-v6ops-translation-issues-00.txt, work in progress,
the draft has expired.
[3GPP-24.008] 3GPP TS 24.008 V5.8.0, "Mobile radio interface Layer [3GPP-24.008] 3GPP TS 24.008 V5.8.0, "Mobile radio interface Layer
3 specification; Core network protocols; Stage 3 (Release 5)", June 3 specification; Core network protocols; Stage 3 (Release 5)", June
2003. 2003.
8. Contributors 8. Contributors
Pekka Savola has contributed both text and his IPv6 experience to Pekka Savola has contributed both text and his IPv6 experience to
this document. He has provided a large number of helpful comments this document. He has provided a large number of helpful comments
on the v6ops mailing list. on the v6ops mailing list.
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copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice
this standard. Please address the information to the IETF Executive this standard. Please address the information to the IETF Executive
Director. Director.
12. Copyright 12. Copyright
The following copyright notice is copied from [RFC2026], Section The following copyright notice is copied from [RFC2026], Section
10.4. It describes the applicable copyright for this document. 10.4. It describes the applicable copyright for this document.
Copyright (C) The Internet Society January 27, 2004. All Rights Copyright (C) The Internet Society March 24, 2004. All Rights
Reserved. Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain
it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied,
published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction
of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this
paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works. paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works.
However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such
as by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet as by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet
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