draft-ietf-mboned-mdh-00.txt   draft-ietf-mboned-mdh-01.txt 
MBONE Deployment Working Group Dave Thaler MBONE Deployment Working Group Dave Thaler
INTERNET-DRAFT University of Michigan INTERNET-DRAFT Microsoft
<draft-ietf-mboned-mdh-00.txt> Bernard Aboba Category: Informational Bernard Aboba
25 March 1997 Microsoft <draft-ietf-mboned-mdh-01.txt> Microsoft
14 October 1998
Multicast Debugging Handbook Multicast Debugging Handbook
1. Status of this Memo 1. Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are working docu- This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are working docu-
ments of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and ments of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and
its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute work- its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute work-
ing documents as Internet-Drafts. ing documents as Internet-Drafts.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference mate- time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference mate-
rial or to cite them other than as ``work in progress.'' rial or to cite them other than as ``work in progress.''
To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
``1id-abstracts.txt'' listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow ``1id-abstracts.txt'' listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
Directories on ds.internic.net (US East Coast), nic.nordu.net Directories on ftp.ietf.org (US East Coast), nic.nordu.net (Europe),
(Europe), ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast), or munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim). ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast), or munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim).
The distribution of this memo is unlimited. It is filed as <draft- The distribution of this memo is unlimited. It is filed as <draft-
ietf-mboned-mdh-00.txt>, and expires September 1, 1997. Please send ietf-mboned-mdh-01.txt>, and expires May 1, 1999. Please send com-
comments to the authors. ments to the authors.
2. Abstract 2. Abstract
This document serves as a handbook for the debugging of multicast con- This document serves as a handbook for the debugging of multicast con-
nectivity problems. In addition to reviewing commonly encountered nectivity problems. In addition to reviewing commonly encountered
problems, the draft summarizes publicly distributable multicast diag- problems, the draft summarizes publicly distributable multicast diag-
nostic tools, and provides examples of their use, along with pointers nostic tools, and provides examples of their use, along with pointers
to source and binary distributions. to source and binary distributions.
3. Introduction 3. Introduction
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Bogus route injection problems may be investigated via the following Bogus route injection problems may be investigated via the following
procedure: procedure:
1. Dump the DVMRP routing table. The routing table may be examined 1. Dump the DVMRP routing table. The routing table may be examined
remotely via mstat using the -r options, or locally (for mrouted) by remotely via mstat using the -r options, or locally (for mrouted) by
sending the USR1 signal to mrouted, generating the sending the USR1 signal to mrouted, generating the
/var/tmp/mrouted.dump file. /var/tmp/mrouted.dump file.
2. Check the table for bogus routes (known as "martians"). Bogus 2. Check the table for bogus routes (known as "martians"). Bogus
routes include addresses reserved for use by private internets, as routes include addresses reserved for use by private internets, as
described in [10]. These routes include 10/8, 172.16/12, or described in [9]. These routes include 10/8, 172.16/12, or 192.168/16,
192.168/16, or more specific routes within these regions. Injecting a or more specific routes within these regions. Injecting a default
default route into the DVMRP backbone is also considered to be a bogus route into the DVMRP backbone is also considered to be a bogus route.
route.
3. Locate the origin of the bogus routes by doing an mtrace to an IP 3. Locate the origin of the bogus routes by doing an mtrace to an IP
address in the bogus range. address in the bogus range.
Symptoms of unicast route redistribution are injection of a large num- Symptoms of unicast route redistribution are injection of a large num-
ber of unicast routes (25K+) into DVMRP. The problem may be investi- ber of unicast routes (25K+) into DVMRP. The problem may be investi-
gated via the following procedure: gated via the following procedure:
1. Examine the routing table. The DVMRP routing table may be examined 1. Examine the routing table. The DVMRP routing table may be examined
remotely via mstat -r, or locally (for mrouted) by sending the USR1 remotely via mstat -r, or locally (for mrouted) by sending the USR1
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to addresses in a number of "suspect" prefixes. to addresses in a number of "suspect" prefixes.
3. If your router supports it, set a route limit on the DVMRP tunnel 3. If your router supports it, set a route limit on the DVMRP tunnel
interface. A limit of 7000 routes is currently recommended. You may interface. A limit of 7000 routes is currently recommended. You may
also wish to set "route-hog notification" at 5000 routes. also wish to set "route-hog notification" at 5000 routes.
Non-pruning DVMRP routers are those which maintain groups in the mul- Non-pruning DVMRP routers are those which maintain groups in the mul-
ticast routing table although there are no downstream subscribers. The ticast routing table although there are no downstream subscribers. The
problem can be solved via the following procedure: problem can be solved via the following procedure:
1. Check the router version number using mstat or mrinfo. As described 1. Check the router version number using mstat or mrinfo. Non-pruning
in [11], non-pruning routers include mrouted versions prior to 3, routers include mrouted versions prior to 3, Cisco Systems IOS prior
Cisco Systems IOS prior to version 11.0(3), and Bay Networks implemen- to version 11.0(3), and Bay Networks implementations prior to 9.0.
tations prior to 9.0.
2. Confirm lack of pruning as follows. First, dump the multicast for- 2. Confirm lack of pruning as follows. First, dump the multicast for-
warding table. This can be done remotely with mstat -N, or locally warding table. This can be done remotely with mstat -N, or locally
(for mrouted) by sending the USR2 signal to mrouted, generating the (for mrouted) by sending the USR2 signal to mrouted, generating the
/var/tmp/mrouted.cache file. /var/tmp/mrouted.cache file.
3. Check the forwarding table to see if an interface is in the outgo- 3. Check the forwarding table to see if an interface is in the outgo-
ing interface list for every entry in the multicast forwarding table. ing interface list for every entry in the multicast forwarding table.
If so, it is likely that a non-pruner lies downstream in that direc- If so, it is likely that a non-pruner lies downstream in that direc-
tion. tion.
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For groups with large memberships, the display may be limited to For groups with large memberships, the display may be limited to
members surpassing a given threshold in packet loss rate or jitter. members surpassing a given threshold in packet loss rate or jitter.
Using RTPmon it is possible to sort receivers for a given sender Using RTPmon it is possible to sort receivers for a given sender
according to maximum or average loss. according to maximum or average loss.
Further information is available in the RTPmon man page. Further information is available in the RTPmon man page.
Example Example
For examples and further information, see the rtpmon man page, or: For examples and further information, see the rtpmon man page, or:
http://bmrc.berkeley.edu/~drbacher/projects/mm96-demo/ or
http://bmrc.berkeley.edu/~drbacher/projects/mm96-demo/
Facilities used Facilities used
RTCP source and receiver reports RTCP source and receiver reports
IGMP multicast trace (if installed) IGMP multicast trace (if installed)
Availability Availability
RTPmon is available for UNIX and may be obtained from: RTPmon is available for UNIX and may be obtained from:
ftp://bmrc.berkeley.edu/pub/rtpmon/ ftp://mm-ftp.cs.berkeley.edu/pub/rtpmon/
Bug reports and suggestions should be sent to: Bug reports and suggestions should be sent to:
rtpmon@bmrc.berkeley.edu. rtpmon@bmrc.berkeley.edu.
5.3.2. RTPcast/RTPlisten, RTPquality, Duppkts, RTPdump, RTPtools, 5.3.2. RTPcast/RTPlisten, RTPquality, Duppkts, RTPdump, RTPtools,
Msessmon Msessmon, Mpoll
Author Author
Mpoll: Andrew Patrick <andrew@calvin.dgbt.doc.ca>
Description Description
RTPcast listens to RTCP receiver reports and forwards data to RTPcast listens to RTCP receiver reports and forwards data to
another multicast group; RTPlisten then listens to that group. RTP- another multicast group; RTPlisten then listens to that group. RTP-
dump listens for, and dumps RTP and RTCP packets. Duppkts listens dump listens for, and dumps RTP and RTCP packets. Duppkts listens
on a multicast group and port, and reports the number of packets on a multicast group and port, and reports the number of packets
received and lost, as well as the number of duplicates. RTPquality received and lost, as well as the number of duplicates. RTPquality
listens to RTCP receiver reports and writes data on packet loss, as listens to RTCP receiver reports and writes data on packet loss, as
well as late and non-sequenced packets. RTPtools allows recording well as late and non-sequenced packets. RTPtools allows recording
and playback of RTP sessions. Msessmon provides a routemap of par- and playback of RTP sessions. Msessmon provides a routemap of par-
ticipants in RTP conferences as well as stripcharts of statistics ticipants in RTP conferences as well as stripcharts of statistics
on RTP packet loss and jitter. on RTP packet loss and jitter. Mpoll is a survey collection tool
that can be used to collect quality ratings during multicast ses-
sions.
Example Example
Information on these tools is available from: Information on these tools is available from:
http://sauce.mmlab.uninett.no/mice-nsc/tools.html http://sauce.mmlab.uninett.no/mice-nsc/tools.html
Facilities used Facilities used
RTCP source and receiver reports RTCP source and receiver reports
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http://sauce.mmlab.uninett.no/mice-nsc/tools.html http://sauce.mmlab.uninett.no/mice-nsc/tools.html
Facilities used Facilities used
RTCP source and receiver reports RTCP source and receiver reports
Availability Availability
Binaries for RTPcast/RTPlisten are available from: Binaries for RTPcast/RTPlisten are available from:
ftp://sauce.uio.no/mice-nsc/util/rtp ftp://sauce.uio.no/mice-nsc/util/rtp
Source code for RTPquality is available from: Source code for RTPquality is available from:
ftp://sauce.uio.no/mice-nsc/util/rtp/rtpqual.c ftp://sauce.uio.no/mice-nsc/util/rtp/rtpqual.c
Source code for RTPdump is available at: Source code for RTPdump is available at:
ftp://sauce.uio.no/mice-nsc/util/rtpdump-1.0.tar.gz ftp://sauce.uio.no/mice-nsc/util/rtpdump-1.0.tar.gz
Source code for RTPtools is available at: Source code for RTPtools is available at:
ftp://sauce.uio.no/mice-nsc/util/rtptools-1.6.tar.gz ftp://sauce.uio.no/mice-nsc/util/rtptools/rtptools-1.9.tar.gz
Source and binaries for Msessmon is available at: Source and binaries for Msessmon is available at:
ftp://sauce.uio.no/mice-nsc/util/msessmon/ ftp://sauce.uio.no/mice-nsc/util/msessmon/
Source and binaries for Mpoll is available at:
ftp://sauce.uio.no/mice-nsc/util/mpoll/
5.4. Multicast router diagnostics 5.4. Multicast router diagnostics
This class of tools facilitates monitoring and management of multicast This class of tools facilitates monitoring and management of multicast
routers. routers.
5.4.1. mrouted.dump, mrouted.cache 5.4.1. mrouted.dump, mrouted.cache
Author Author
Bill Fenner, fenner@parc.xerox.com Bill Fenner, fenner@parc.xerox.com
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Availability Availability
netstat is included with a variety of operating systems, including netstat is included with a variety of operating systems, including
UNIX, OS/2, and Windows. For further information, please consult UNIX, OS/2, and Windows. For further information, please consult
the netstat man page or documentation. the netstat man page or documentation.
5.4.4. mstat 5.4.4. mstat
Author Author
Dave Thaler, thalerd@eecs.umich.edu Dave Thaler, dthaler@microsoft.com
Description Description
mstat is a general purpose tool for obtaining router configuration mstat is a general purpose tool for obtaining router configuration
and status information. In order to perform its task, mstat uti- and status information. In order to perform its task, mstat uti-
lizes SNMP MIBs (such as the IGMP, multicast routing, PIM, and lizes SNMP MIBs (such as the IGMP, multicast routing, PIM, and
DVMRP MIBs), as well as ASK_NEIGHBORS IGMP messages. mstat displays DVMRP MIBs), as well as ASK_NEIGHBORS IGMP messages. mstat displays
the contents of various MBONE-related data structures in various the contents of various MBONE-related data structures in various
formats, depending on the options selected. Options include: formats, depending on the options selected. Options include:
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available at: available at:
ftp://ftp.merit.edu/net-research/mbone/mirrors/mrouted/ ftp://ftp.merit.edu/net-research/mbone/mirrors/mrouted/
mstat is also available in the MVIEW distribution, available at: mstat is also available in the MVIEW distribution, available at:
ftp://ftp.merit.edu/net-research/mbone/mview/ ftp://ftp.merit.edu/net-research/mbone/mview/
5.4.5. mconfig 5.4.5. mconfig
Author Author
Dave Thaler, thalerd@eecs.umich.edu Dave Thaler, dthaler@microsoft.com
Description Description
mconfig allows the user to display and (if the community string is mconfig allows the user to display and (if the community string is
known) to modify the configuration of a multicast router implement- known) to modify the configuration of a multicast router implement-
ing the DVMRP MIB. ing the DVMRP MIB.
Example Example
For more information on mconfig, please see the man page. For more information on mconfig, please see the man page.
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ftp://ftp.parc.xerox.com/pub/net-research/ipmulti/mtrace5.1-sparc-solaris2.tar.Z ftp://ftp.parc.xerox.com/pub/net-research/ipmulti/mtrace5.1-sparc-solaris2.tar.Z
ftp://ftp.parc.xerox.com/pub/net-research/ipmulti/mtrace5.1-alpha-osf1.tar.Z ftp://ftp.parc.xerox.com/pub/net-research/ipmulti/mtrace5.1-alpha-osf1.tar.Z
ftp://ftp.parc.xerox.com/pub/net-research/ipmulti/mtrace5.1-sgi-irix.tar.Z ftp://ftp.parc.xerox.com/pub/net-research/ipmulti/mtrace5.1-sgi-irix.tar.Z
5.6. MBONE mapping tools 5.6. MBONE mapping tools
5.6.1. mrtree 5.6.1. mrtree
Author Author
Dave Thaler, thalerd@eecs.umich.edu Dave Thaler, dthaler@microsoft.com
Andy Adams, ala@merit.edu Andy Adams, ala@merit.edu
Description Description
mrtree uses a combination of IGMP and SNMP queries to discover the mrtree uses a combination of IGMP and SNMP queries to discover the
actual and potential multicast (sub)trees for a given source and actual and potential multicast (sub)trees for a given source and
group, rooted at a given router. An actual tree, discovered using group, rooted at a given router. An actual tree, discovered using
the multicast routing MIB, consists of routers which are currently the multicast routing MIB, consists of routers which are currently
forwarding multicast traffic to a group from a given source. A forwarding multicast traffic to a group from a given source. A
potential tree, discovered using the DVMRP MIB, is one which would potential tree, discovered using the DVMRP MIB, is one which would
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5.6.2. map-mbone 5.6.2. map-mbone
Author Author
Pavel Curtis, pavel@parc.xerox.com Pavel Curtis, pavel@parc.xerox.com
Description Description
map-mbone is useful for discovering the topology within a DVMRP map-mbone is useful for discovering the topology within a DVMRP
routing domain; to do this, it uses the IGMP ASK_NEIGHBORS message routing domain; to do this, it uses the IGMP ASK_NEIGHBORS message
to discover the neighbors of the starting router. If the -f (flood- to discover the neighbors of the starting router. If the -f
ing) option is enabled (this is the default if no starting router (flooding) option is enabled (this is the default if no starting
is specified), then once these neighbors are discovered, they too router is specified), then once these neighbors are discovered,
are queried. This continues until the leaf routers are reached. they too are queried. This continues until the leaf routers are
This option should be used with care since it can result in exces- reached. This option should be used with care since it can result
sive load on multicast routers. in excessive load on multicast routers.
If a starting router is specified but the -f option is not used, If a starting router is specified but the -f option is not used,
then the search terminates after the first hop routers are discov- then the search terminates after the first hop routers are discov-
ered, the output of map-mbone is very similar to that for mrinfo. ered, the output of map-mbone is very similar to that for mrinfo.
Routers discovered by map-mbone are queried for their version num- Routers discovered by map-mbone are queried for their version num-
bers, and if this query is successful, for their metrics, thresh- bers, and if this query is successful, for their metrics, thresh-
olds, and flags, and the results are presented in an indented list olds, and flags, and the results are presented in an indented list
format. format.
Example Example
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Availability Availability
map-mbone is available for UNIX, and the software and manual pages are included map-mbone is available for UNIX, and the software and manual pages are included
in the SNMP-capable mrouted distribution, available at: in the SNMP-capable mrouted distribution, available at:
ftp://ftp.merit.edu/net-research/mbone/mirrors/mrouted/ ftp://ftp.merit.edu/net-research/mbone/mirrors/mrouted/
5.6.3. asn 5.6.3. asn
Author Author
Dave Thaler, thalerd@eecs.umich.edu Dave Thaler, dthaler@microsoft.com
Description Description
asn gives the AS number of a given IP address by querying the rout- asn gives the AS number of a given IP address by querying the rout-
ing arbiter database. ing arbiter database.
Example Example
% asn 141.213.10.41 % asn 141.213.10.41
AS237 AS237
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Routing arbiter database Routing arbiter database
Availability Availability
asn is included in the MVIEW distribution, available at: asn is included in the MVIEW distribution, available at:
ftp://ftp.merit.edu/net-research/mbone/mview/ ftp://ftp.merit.edu/net-research/mbone/mview/
5.6.4. asname 5.6.4. asname
Author Author
Dave Thaler, thalerd@eecs.umich.edu Dave Thaler, dthaler@microsoft.com
Description Description
asname gets the name of an AS, given the AS number by querying the asname gets the name of an AS, given the AS number by querying the
WHOIS database. WHOIS database.
Example Example
% asname 237 % asname 237
NSFNETTEST14-AS NSFNETTEST14-AS
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ftp://ftp.merit.edu/net-research/mbone/mview/ ftp://ftp.merit.edu/net-research/mbone/mview/
5.7. Network Operations Center tools 5.7. Network Operations Center tools
These tools are suitable for use in a Network Operations Center. These tools are suitable for use in a Network Operations Center.
5.7.1. MVIEW 5.7.1. MVIEW
Authors Authors
Dave Thaler, thalerd@eecs.umich.edu Dave Thaler, dthaler@microsoft.com
Andy Adams, ala@merit.edu Andy Adams, ala@merit.edu
Description Description
MVIEW uses utilities such as mstat, mtrace, mrtree, asn and asname MVIEW uses utilities such as mstat, mtrace, mrtree, asn and asname
in order to produce a graphical depiction of the multicast network in order to produce a graphical depiction of the multicast network
topology and the actual and potential multicast trees for a given topology and the actual and potential multicast trees for a given
group and source. group and source.
Example Example
skipping to change at page 26, line 42 skipping to change at page 26, line 42
(such as sparse-mode PIM or CBT), it is recommended that the heart- (such as sparse-mode PIM or CBT), it is recommended that the heart-
beat generator be located close to the RP or core nodes, so as that beat generator be located close to the RP or core nodes, so as that
loss of the heartbeat will correlate closely with loss of connec- loss of the heartbeat will correlate closely with loss of connec-
tivity to the RP or core. Suitable heartbeat mechanisms include tivity to the RP or core. Suitable heartbeat mechanisms include
SNTP, which uses the group 224.0.1.1 (ntp.mcast.net) and UDP port SNTP, which uses the group 224.0.1.1 (ntp.mcast.net) and UDP port
123; and SAP, which uses the group 224.2.127.254 (sap.mcast.net) 123; and SAP, which uses the group 224.2.127.254 (sap.mcast.net)
and UDP port 9875. and UDP port 9875.
Example Example
For further information on the SNTP heartbeat, consult references For further information on SNTP, consult [1].
[1] and [9].
Facilities used Facilities used
SNTP (for time-based heartbeats) SNTP (for time-based heartbeats)
SAP (for session announcement heartbeats) SAP (for session announcement heartbeats)
SNMP traps (for alerts) SNMP traps (for alerts)
Availability Availability
5.8. Network analysis tools 5.8. Network analysis tools
skipping to change at page 27, line 33 skipping to change at page 27, line 33
See http://www.cavebear.com/dwtnda/ for examples. See http://www.cavebear.com/dwtnda/ for examples.
Facilities used Facilities used
This is a troubleshooting tool, so it will typically respond to This is a troubleshooting tool, so it will typically respond to
packets that, strictly speaking, ought to go unanswered. packets that, strictly speaking, ought to go unanswered.
Availability Availability
DWTNDA runs on MS-DOS and Win-95 and is free. (Source is not pro- DWTNDA runs on MS-DOS and Windows 95/98 and is free. Source is not
vided.) See http://www.cavebear.com/dwtnda/ for various documents provided. See http://www.cavebear.com/dwtnda/ for various documents
and download information. and download information.
5.8.2. Mtap 5.8.2. Mtap
Author Author
Luis Fernando da Silva Barra, barra@ax.apc.org Luis Fernando da Silva Barra, barra@ax.apc.org
Michael Stanton, michael@omega.lncc.br Michael Stanton, michael@omega.lncc.br
Description Description
skipping to change at page 28, line 51 skipping to change at page 28, line 51
MTap uses a window-based user interface, developed using Tcl/Tk, MTap uses a window-based user interface, developed using Tcl/Tk,
and captures packets through the Berkeley Packet Filter (BPF). It and captures packets through the Berkeley Packet Filter (BPF). It
can thus be ported to different platforms. can thus be ported to different platforms.
Mtap, which is still under development, has been ported to Linux Mtap, which is still under development, has been ported to Linux
and Solaris; minor problems related to packet capture have still to and Solaris; minor problems related to packet capture have still to
be resolved for the Solaris version. When it is released, it will be resolved for the Solaris version. When it is released, it will
be available from: be available from:
http://www.inf.puc-rio.br/~michael/GERENTE/tools http://www.inf.puc-rio.br/~michael/GERENTE/tools
6. Acknowledgments 6. References
Thanks to Karl Auerbach for the description of the Dr. Watson tool,
and to Michael Stanton for the description of the Mtap tool.
7. References
[1] D. Mills. "Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) Version 4 for [1] Mills, D., "Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) Version 4 for
IPv4, IPv6 and OSI." RFC 2030, University of Delaware, October, 1996. IPv4, IPv6 and OSI", RFC 2030, October 1996.
[2] S.E. Deering. "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting." RFC 1112, [2] Fenner, W., "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 2", RFC
Stanford University, August, 1989. 2236, November 1997.
[3] K. McCloghrie, D. Farinacci, D. Thaler. "Internet Group Manage- [3] McCloghrie, K., Farinacci, D., and D. Thaler, "Internet Group
ment Protocol MIB." draft-ietf-idmr-igmp-mib-04.txt, cisco Systems, Management Protocol MIB", Internet draft (work in progress), draft-
University of Michigan, November 1996. ietf-idmr-igmp-mib-07.txt, July 1998.
[4] M. Handley. "SAP: Session Announcement Protocol (Version 1)." [4] M. Handley. "SAP: Session Announcement Protocol (Version 1)."
draft-ietf-mmusic-sap-02.ps, UCL, December, 1996. draft-ietf-mmusic-sap-02.ps, UCL, December, 1996.
[5] K. McCloghrie, D. Farinacci, D. Thaler. "IP Multicast Routing [5] McCloghrie, K., Farinacci, D., and D. Thaler, "IP Multicast Rout-
MIB." draft-ietf-idmr-multicast-routmib-04.txt, cisco Systems, Univer- ing MIB", Internet draft (work in progress), draft-ietf-idmr-multi-
sity of Michigan, November 1996. cast-routmib-07.txt, July 1998.
[6] K. McCloghrie, D. Farinacci, D. Thaler. "Protocol Independent [6] McCloghrie, K., Farinacci, D., and D. Thaler, "Protocol Indepen-
Multicast MIB." draft-ietf-idmr-pim-mib-02.txt, cisco Systems, Univer- dent Multicast MIB", Internet draft (work in progress), draft-ietf-
sity of Michigan, June 1996. idmr-pim-mib-05.txt, July 1998.
[7] D. Thaler. "Distance Vector Multicasting Routing Protocol MIB." [7] Thaler, D., "Distance Vector Multicasting Routing Protocol MIB",
draft-ietf-idmr-dvmrp-mib-03.txt, University of Michigan, June 1996. Internet draft (work in progress), draft-ietf-idmr-dvmrp-mib-03.txt,
June 1996.
[8] W. Fenner, S. Casner. "A "traceroute" facility for IP Multi- [8] Fenner,W., and S. Casner, "A "traceroute" facility for IP Multi-
cast." draft-ietf-idmr-traceroute-ipm-01.txt, Xerox PARC, Precept cast", Internet draft (work in progress), draft-ietf-idmr-traceroute-
Software, November 1996. ipm-03.txt, August 1998.
[9] B. Aboba, T. Pfenning. "The Use of SNTP as a Multicast Heart- [9] Rekhter, Y. et al., "Address Allocation for Private Internets",
beat." draft-ietf-mboned-sntp-heart-02.txt, Microsoft, December, 1996 RFC 1918, February, 1996.
[10] Y. Rekhter, et al. "Address Allocation for Private Internets." 7. Security Considerations
RFC 1918, Cisco Systems, February, 1996
[11] J. Hawkinson. "Multicast Pruning a Necessity." draft-ietf- SNMP-based monitoring tools require that the manager be provided
mboned-pruning-01.txt, September, 1996 access to the relevant MIBs. In order to limit security risks, such
access will typically be provided on a selective basis. For example,
the authentication and access control facilities in SNMP v3 can be
used to limit access to authorized users.
8. Authors' Addresses MBONE-mapping tools such as map-mbone should be used with care since
in flooding mode they can result in excessive load on multicast
routers.
Through use of RTP monitoring tools, it may be possible to obtain sen-
sitive information on user viewing habits. In order to protect against
this, encryption technologies such as IPSEC can be used to provide
confidentiality.
8. Acknowledgments
Thanks to Karl Auerbach for the description of the Dr. Watson tool,
and to Michael Stanton for the description of the Mtap tool.
9. Authors' Addresses
Dave Thaler Dave Thaler
EECS Department Microsoft Corporation
University of Michigan One Microsoft Way
Ann Arbor, MI 48109 Redmond, WA 98052
Phone: 313-763-5243 Phone: 425-703-8835
EMail: thalerd@eecs.umich.edu EMail: dthaler@microsoft.com
Bernard Aboba Bernard Aboba
Microsoft Corporation Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052 Redmond, WA 98052
Phone: 206-936-6605 Phone: 425-936-6605
EMail: bernarda@microsoft.com EMail: bernarda@microsoft.com
10. Expiration Date
This memo is filed as <draft-ietf-mboned-mdh-01.txt>, and expires
May 1, 1999.
 End of changes. 

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