Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET)                              T. Clausen
Internet-Draft                          LIX, Ecole Polytechnique, France
Expires: August 5, 2007
Intended status: Standards Track                             C. Dearlove
Expires: January 10, 2008                BAE Systems Advanced Technology
                                                                  Centre
                                                              P. Jacquet
                                                 Project Hipercom, INRIA
                                                  The OLSRv2 Design Team
                                                     MANET Working Group
                                                           February
                                                            July 9, 2007

          The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2
                       draft-ietf-manet-olsrv2-03
                       draft-ietf-manet-olsrv2-04

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 5, 2007. January 10, 2008.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

Abstract

   This document describes version 2 of the Optimized Link State Routing
   (OLSRv2) protocol for mobile ad hoc networks.  The protocol embodies
   an optimization of the classical link state algorithm tailored to the
   requirements of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET).

   The key optimization of OLSRv2 is that of multipoint relays,
   providing an efficient mechanism for network-wide broadcast of link
   state information (i.e. reducing the cost of performing a network-
   wide link state broadcast).  A secondary optimization is that OLSRv2
   employs partial link state information: each node maintains
   information about all destinations, but only a subset of links.
   Consequently, only selected nodes diffuse link state advertisements
   (thus reducing the number of network-wide link state broadcasts) and
   these advertisements contain only a subset of links (thus reducing
   the size of network-wide link state broadcasts).  The partial link
   state information thus obtained still allows each OLSRv2 node to at
   all times maintain optimal (in terms of number of hops) routes to all
   destinations in the network.

   OLSRv2 imposes minimum requirements on the network by not requiring
   sequenced or reliable transmission of control traffic.  Furthermore,
   the only interaction between OLSRv2 and the IP stack is routing table
   management.

   OLSRv2 is particularly suitable for large and dense networks as the
   technique of MPRs works well in this context.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.  Applicability Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  Protocol Overview and Functioning  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  Local Information Base . .  Protocol Parameters and Constants  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.1.  Message Intervals  . . . . 11
     5.1.  Local Attached Network Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  Processing and Forwarding Repositories . .
     5.2.  Advertised Information Validity Times  . . . . . . . . . . 12
     6.1.
     5.3.  Received Set . . Message Validity Times  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.4.  Jitter . . . . . . . . 12
     6.2.  Processed Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.5.  Hop Limit Parameter  . . . . 12
     6.3.  Forwarded Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.6.  Willingness  . . . . . . . 13
     6.4.  Relay Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.7.  Parameter Change Constraints . . . . . . . . 13
   7.  Packet Processing and Message Forwarding . . . . . . . 14
   6.  Information Repositories . . . . 14
     7.1.  Actions when Receiving an OLSRv2 Packet . . . . . . . . . 14
     7.2.  Actions when Receiving an OLSRv2 Message . . . . . . 17
     6.1.  Local Information Base . . . 14
     7.3.  Message Considered for Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     7.4.  Message Considered for Forwarding . . . 17
       6.1.1.  Local Attached Network Set . . . . . . . . . 15
   8.  Information Repositories . . . . . 17
     6.2.  Neighborhood Information Base  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     8.1.  Neighborhood
     6.3.  Topology Information Base  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       8.1.1.  Link
       6.3.1.  Advertised Neighbor Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       6.3.2.  Advertising Remote Node Set  . . . . . . . . 18
       8.1.2.  MPR Set  . . . . . . 19
       6.3.3.  Topology Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       8.1.3.  MPR Selector Set . . . . 19
       6.3.4.  Attached Network Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     8.2.  Topology Information Base . . 20
       6.3.5.  Routing Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       8.2.1.  Advertised Neighbor Set . . . . . . . 21
     6.4.  Processing and Forwarding Information Base . . . . . . . . 19
       8.2.2.  ANSN History 21
       6.4.1.  Received Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       8.2.3.  Topology Set . . 21
       6.4.2.  Processed Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       8.2.4.  Attached Network . 22
       6.4.3.  Forwarded Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       8.2.5.  Routing Set . . . 22
       6.4.4.  Relay Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   9.  Control Message Structures . . . . 23
   7.  Packet Processing and Message Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     7.1.  Actions when Receiving an OLSRv2 Packet  . . . 22
     9.1.  HELLO Messages . . . . . . 24
     7.2.  Actions when Receiving an OLSRv2 Message . . . . . . . . . 24
     7.3.  Message Considered for Processing  . . . . . . . 22
       9.1.1.  HELLO Message TLVs . . . . . 25
     7.4.  Message Considered for Forwarding  . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   8.  Packets and Messages . 23
       9.1.2.  HELLO Message Address Block TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     9.2.  TC Messages . . . . . . . . . 29
     8.1.  HELLO Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       9.2.1.  TC Message TLVs . . . . . . . . 30
       8.1.1.  HELLO Message TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       9.2.2. . . . . . . . 30
       8.1.2.  HELLO Message Address Block TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     8.2.  TC Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       8.2.1.  TC Message TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       8.2.2.  TC Message Address Block TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   10. 32
   9.  HELLO Message Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     10.1. 33
     9.1.  HELLO Message: Transmission  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   11. 33
   10. HELLO Message Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     11.1. Populating the 34
     10.1. Updating Willingness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     10.2. Updating MPR Selector Set Selectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     11.2. . . 34
     10.3. Symmetric Neighborhood 1-Hop and 2-Hop Neighborhood Changes . . 28
   12. . . . . 34
   11. TC Message Generation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     12.1. 36
     11.1. TC Message: Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   13. 37
   12. TC Message Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
     13.1. 39
     12.1. Initial TC Message Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       13.1.1. 39
       12.1.1. Populating the ANSN History Advertising Remote Node Set . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       13.1.2. 40
       12.1.2. Populating the Topology Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
       13.1.3. 41
       12.1.3. Populating the Attached Network Set  . . . . . . . . . 34
     13.2. 41
     12.2. Completing TC Message Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
       13.2.1. 42
       12.2.1. Purging the Topology Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
       13.2.2. 42
       12.2.2. Purging the Attached Network Set . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   14. Populating the MPR Set 42
   13. Selecting MPRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
   15. . . . . 43
   14. Populating Derived Sets  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     15.1. 45
     14.1. Populating the Relay Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     15.2. 45
     14.2. Populating the Advertised Neighbor Set . . . . . . . . . . 37
   16. 45
   15. Routing Table Set Calculation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
   17. Proposed Values for Constants . 46
     15.1. Network Topology Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     17.1. Neighborhood Discovery Constants . . . 46
     15.2. Populating the Routing Set . . . . . . . . . . 42
     17.2. Message Intervals . . . . . . 47
     15.3. Routing Set Updates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     17.3. Holding Times . . . . . 48
   16. Proposed Values for Parameters and Constants . . . . . . . . . 49
     16.1. Message Interval Parameters  . . . . . . . . 42
     17.4. Jitter Times . . . . . . . 49
     16.2. Advertised Information Validity Time Parameters  . . . . . 49
     16.3. Received Message Validity Time Parameters  . . . . . . . . 49
     16.4. Jitter Time Parameters . . . 42
     17.5. Willingness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
     16.5. Hop Limit Parameter  . . . . . . . . 42
   18. Sequence Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . 49
     16.6. Willingness Parameter and Constants  . . . . . . . . . . . 49
   17. Sequence Numbers . 43
   19. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
     19.1. Message Types . 51
   18. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
     19.2. TLV 52
     18.1. Message Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   20. References . . 52
     18.2. TLV Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
     20.1. Normative 52
   19. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
     20.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . 54
     19.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . 46
   Appendix A.   Node Configuration . . . . . . . . . . 54
     19.2. Informative References . . . . . . . 47
   Appendix B.   Protocol and Port Number . . . . . . . . . . . 54
   Appendix A.   Node Configuration . . . 48
   Appendix C.   Example Heuristic for Calculating MPRs . . . . . . . 49
   Appendix D.   Packet and Message Layout . . . . . . . 56
   Appendix B.   Example Algorithm for Calculating MPRs . . . . . . 52
   Appendix D.1. Packet and Message Options . 57
     B.1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   Appendix D.2. Example HELLO Message . . . . . . . . . . . 57
     B.2.  MPR Selection Algorithm for each OLSRv2 Interface  . . . . 54 58
   Appendix D.3. C.   Example TC Message . . . . Algorithm for Calculating the Routing Set  . 59
     C.1.  Add Local Symmetric Links  . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
   Appendix E.   Time TLVs . . . . 59
     C.2.  Add Remote Symmetric Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
     C.3.  Add Attached Networks  . 58
     E.1.  Representing Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
   Appendix D.   Packet and Message Layout  . . . 58
     E.2.  General Time TLV Structure . . . . . . . . . . 62
   Appendix D.1. Packet and Message Options . . . . . . 58
     E.3.  Message TLVs . . . . . . . 62
   Appendix D.2. Example HELLO Message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
   Appendix D.3. Example TC Message . 60
       E.3.1.  VALIDITY_TIME TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
   Appendix E.   Constraints  . . 60
       E.3.2.  INTERVAL_TIME TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 68
   Appendix F.   Message Jitter . . . . .   Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 72
   Appendix F.1.  Jitter . . Confidentiality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
   Appendix F.2. Integrity  . . . . . . 61
       F.1.1.  Periodic message generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
       F.1.2.  Externally triggered message generation . . 72
   Appendix F.3. Interaction with External Routing Domains  . . . . . 62
       F.1.3.  Message forwarding 73
   Appendix F.4. Node Identity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
       F.1.4.  Maximum Jitter Determination . 74
   Appendix G.   Flow and Congestion Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 75
   Appendix G.   Security Considerations  . . . . . . . H.   Contributors . . . . . . . 65
   Appendix G.1. Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
   Appendix I.   Acknowledgements . . . . . 65
   Appendix G.2. Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . 65
   Appendix G.3. Interaction with External Routing Domains . . . . . 66
   Appendix G.4. Node Identity . . . . . . . . . . . 78
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 67
   Appendix H.   Flow and Congestion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
   Appendix I.   Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
   Appendix J.   Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 72 79

1.  Introduction

   The Optimized Link State Routing protocol version 2 (OLSRv2) is an
   update to OLSRv1 as published in RFC3626 [1]. [8].  Compared to RFC3626,
   OLSRv2 retains the same basic mechanisms and algorithms, while
   providing a more flexible signaling framework and some simplification
   of the messages being exchanged.  Also, OLSRv2 accommodates both IPv4
   and IPv6 addresses in a compact manner.

   OLSRv2 is developed for mobile ad hoc networks.  It operates as a
   table driven, proactive protocol, i.e. it exchanges topology
   information with other nodes in the network regularly.  Each node
   selects a set of its neighbor nodes as "MultiPoint Relays" (MPRs).
   Control traffic may be diffused through the network using hop by hop
   forwarding; a node only needs to forward control traffic directly
   received from its MPR selectors (nodes which have selected it as an
   MPR).  MPRs thus provide an efficient mechanism for diffusing control
   traffic by reducing the number of transmissions required.

   Nodes selected as MPRs also have a special responsibility when
   declaring link state information in the network.  A sufficient
   requirement for OLSRv2 to provide shortest path routes to all
   destinations is that nodes declare link state information for their
   MPR selectors, if any.  Additional available link state information
   may be transmitted, e.g. for redundancy.  Thus, as well as being used
   to facilitate efficient flooding, MPRs are also allow the reduction
   of the number and size of link state messages.  MPRs are also thus
   used as intermediate nodes in multi-hop route calculations.

   A node selects MPRs from among its one hop neighbors connected by
   "symmetric", i.e. bi-directional, links.  Therefore, selecting routes
   through MPRs automatically avoids the problems associated with data
   packet transfer over uni-directional links (such as the problem of
   not getting link layer acknowledgments at each hop, for link layers
   employing this technique).

   OLSRv2 is developed to work independently from other protocols.
   (Parts of OLSRv2 have been published separately as [1], [2], [3] and
   [4] for wider use.)  Likewise, OLSRv2 makes no assumptions about the
   underlying link layer.  However, OLSRv2 may use link layer
   information and notifications when available and applicable, as
   described in [4].

   OLSRv2, as OLSRv1, inherits its concept of forwarding and relaying
   from HIPERLAN (a MAC layer protocol) which is standardized by ETSI
   [6], [7].
   [10], [11].

2.  Terminology

   The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [2]. [5].

   MANET specific terminology is to be interpreted as described in [3] [1]
   and [4].

   Additionally, this document uses the following terminology:

   Node  - A MANET router which implements the Optimized Link State
      Routing protocol version 2 as specified in this document.

   OLSRv2 interface  - A MANET interface, running OLSRv2.

   Symmetric strict 2-hop neighbor  - A symmetric 2-hop neighbor which
      is not a symmetric 1-hop neighbor and is not a 2-hop neighbor only
      through a symmetric 1-hop neighbor with willingness WILL_NEVER.  A
      node Z is a symmetric strict 2-hop neighbor of a node X if it is
      not a symmetric 1-hop neighbor of node X and if there is a node Y
      with willingness not equal to WILL_NEVER and such that there is a
      symmetric link from node X to node Y, and a symmetric link from
      node Y to node Z. A node Z is a symmetric strict 2-hop neighbor of
      a node X by an OLSRv2 interface I of node X if in addition the
      link from node X to node Y uses interface I.

   Symmetric strict 2-hop neighborhood  - The set of the symmetric
      strict 2-hop neighbors of a node.

   Multipoint relay (MPR)  - A node which is selected by its symmetric
      1-hop neighbor, node X, to "re-transmit" all the broadcast
      messages that it receives from node X, provided that the message
      is not a duplicate, and that the hop limit field of the message is
      greater than one.

   MPR selector  - A node which has selected its symmetric 1-hop
      neighbor, node X, as one of its MPRs is an MPR selector of node X.

3.  Applicability Statement

   OLSRv2 is a proactive routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks
   (MANETs).
   (MANETs) [13].  The larger and more dense a network, the more
   optimization can be achieved by using MPRs compared to the classic
   link state algorithm.  OLSRv2 enables hop-by-hop routing, i.e. each
   node using its local information provided by OLSRv2 to route packets.

   As OLSRv2 continuously maintains routes to all destinations in the
   network, the protocol is beneficial for traffic patterns where the
   traffic is random and sporadic between a large subset of nodes, and
   where the [source, destination] pairs are changing over time: no time.  No
   additional control traffic need be generated in this situation case since
   routes are maintained for all known destinations at all times.  Also,
   since routes are maintained continuously, traffic is subject to no
   delays due to buffering or to route discovery.

   OLSRv2 supports nodes which have multiple interfaces which
   participate in the MANET using OLSRv2.  As described in [4], each
   OLSRv2 interface may have one or more network addresses (which may
   have prefix lengths).  OLSRv2, additionally, supports nodes which
   have non-OLSRv2 interfaces which may be local or can serve as
   gateways towards other networks.

   OLSRv2 uses the format specified in [3] [1] for all messages and packets.
   OLSRv2 is thereby able to allow for extensions via "external" and
   "internal" extensibility.  External extensibility allows a protocol
   extension to specify and exchange new message types, which can be
   forwarded and delivered correctly even by nodes which do not support
   that extension.  Internal extensibility allows a protocol extension
   to define additional attributes to be carried embedded in the
   standard OLSRv2 control messages detailed in this specification (or
   any new message types defined by other protocol extensions) using the
   TLV mechanism specified in [3], [1], while still allowing nodes not
   supporting that extension to forward messages including the extension
   and to process messages ignoring the extension.

   The OLSRv2 neighborhood discovery protocol using HELLO messages is
   specified in [4]; note that all references to MANET interfaces in [4]
   refer to OLSRv2 interfaces when using [4] as part of OLSRv2.  This
   neighborhood discovery protocol serves to ensure that each OLSRv2
   node has available continuously updated information repositories
   describing the node's 1-hop and symmetric 2-hop neighbors.  This
   neighborhood discovery protocol, which also uses [3], [1], is extended in
   this document by the addition of MPR information.

4.  Protocol Overview and Functioning

   OLSRv2 is a proactive routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks.
   The protocol inherits the stability of a link state algorithm and has
   the advantage of having routes immediately available when needed due
   to its proactive nature.  OLSRv2 is an optimization of the classical
   link state protocol, tailored for mobile ad hoc networks.  The main
   tailoring and optimizations of OLSRv2 are:

   o  periodic, unacknowledged transmission of all control messages;

   o  optimized flooding for global link state information diffusion;

   o  partial topology maintenance - each node knows only a subset of
      the links in the network, sufficient for a minimum hop route to
      all destinations.

   The optimized flooding and partial topology maintenance are based on
   the concept on MultiPoint Relays (MPRs), selected independently by
   nodes based on the symmetric 1-hop and 2-hop neighbor information
   maintained using [4].

   Using the message exchange format [3] [1] and the neighborhood discovery
   protocol [4], OLSRv2 also contains the following main components:

   o  A TLV, to be included within the HELLO messages of [4], allowing a
      node to signal MPR selection.

   o  An optimized flooding mechanism for global information exchange,
      denoted "MPR flooding".

   o  A specification of global signaling, denoted TC (Topology Control)
      messages.  TC messages in OLSRv2 serve to:

      *  inject link state information into the entire network;

      *  inject addresses of hosts and networks for which they may serve
         as a gateway into the entire network.

      TC messages are emitted periodically, thereby allowing nodes to
      continuously track global changes in the network.  Incomplete TC
      messages may be used to report additions to advertised information
      without repeating unchanged information.  Some TC messages may be
      flooded over only part of the network, allowing a node to ensure
      that nearer nodes are kept more up to date than distant nodes.

   Each node in the network selects an MPR Set. a set of MPRs.  The MPR Set MPRs of a node X
   may be any subset of its the willing nodes in node X's symmetric 1-hop
   neighborhood such that every node in the symmetric strict 2-hop
   neighborhood of node X has a symmetric link to a node in the MPR Set at least one of node X.
   X's MPRs.  The MPR Set MPRs of a node may thus be said to "cover" the node's
   symmetric strict 2-hop neighborhood.  Each node also maintains
   information about the set of symmetric 1-hop neighbors that have
   selected it as MPR.  This set is
   called the MPR, its MPR Selector Set of the node. selectors.

   Note that as long as the condition above is satisfied, any algorithm
   selecting MPR Sets MPRs is acceptable in terms of implementation
   interoperability.  However if smaller MPR Sets sets of MPRs are selected then
   the greater the efficiency gains that are possible.  Note that [8] [12]
   gives an analysis and example of MPR selection algorithms.

   In OLSRv2, actual efficiency gains are based on the sizes of each
   node's Relay Set, the set of symmetric 1-hop neighbors for which it
   is to relay broadcast traffic, and its Advertised Neighbor Set, the
   set of symmetric 1-hop neighbors for which it is to advertise link
   state information into the network in TC messages.  Each of these
   sets MUST contain all the nodes in the MPR Selector Set selectors, and MAY contain additional
   nodes.  If the Advertised Neighbor Set is empty, TC messages are not
   generated by that node, unless needed for gateway reporting, or for a
   short period to accelerate the removal of unwanted links.

   OLSRv2 is designed to work in a completely distributed manner and
   does not depend on any central entity.  The protocol does not require
   reliable transmission of control messages: each node sends control
   messages periodically, and can therefore sustain a reasonable loss of
   some such messages.  Such losses may occur frequently in radio
   networks due to collisions or other transmission problems.  OLSRv2
   may use "jitter", randomized adjustments to message transmission
   times, to reduce the incidence of collisions. collisions [3].

   OLSRv2 does not require sequenced delivery of messages.  Each control
   message contains a sequence number which is incremented for each
   message.  Thus the recipient of a control message can, if required,
   easily identify which information is more recent - even if messages
   have been re-ordered while in transmission.

   OLSRv2 does not require any changes to the format of IP packets, any
   existing IP stack can be used as is: OLSRv2 only interacts with
   routing table management.  OLSR sends its control messages using UDP.

5.  Local Information Base

   A node maintains a Local Information Base that records information
   about its OLSRv2 interfaces,  Protocol Parameters and its non-OLSRv2 interfaces that can
   serve as gateways to other networks. Constants

   The former is maintained using
   a Local Interface Set, as described parameters and constants used in [4]. this specification are those
   defined in [4] plus those defined in this section.  The latter separation in
   [4] into interface parameters, node parameters and constants is maintained
   using a Local Attached Network Set. All addresses also
   used in OLSRv2, however all but one (RX_HOLD_TIME) of the parameters
   added in this section are node parameters.  They may be classified
   into the Local
   Information Base have an associated prefix length; if an address
   otherwise does not have following categories:

   o  Message intervals

   o  Advertised information validity times

   o  Received message validity times

   o  Jitter times

   o  Hop limits

   o  Willingness

   In addition constants for particular cases of a prefix length then it is set equal node's willingness to the
   address length.  Two addresses
   be an MPR are considered equal if defined.  These parameters and only if
   their associated prefix lengths constants are also equal.

   The Local Information Base is not modified by detailed
   in the following sections.  As for the parameters in [4], parameters
   defined in this protocol.  This
   protocol document may respond be changed dynamically by a node, and
   need not be the same on different nodes.

5.1.  Message Intervals

   The following interface parameters regulate TC message transmissions
   by a node.  TC messages are usually sent periodically, but MAY also
   be sent in response to changes of this Local Information Base which
   MUST reflect corresponding changes in the node's status.  It is not
   the responsibility of OLSRv2 to maintain routes to networks recorded
   in the Local Attached Network Set in that node.

5.1.  Local Attached Network Set

   A node's Local Attached Network Advertised Neighbor Set records its local non-OLSRv2
   interfaces. that can act as gateways to other networks.  It consists
   of
   and Local Attached Network Tuples:

      (AL_net_addr, AL_dist)

   where:

   AL_net_addr  is the network address Set. With a larger value of an attached network which can
      be reached via this node.

   AL_dist  is the number parameter
   TC_INTERVAL, and a smaller value of hops to the network with address
      AL_net_addr from this node.

   Attached networks with AL_dist == 0 MUST parameter TC_MIN_INTERVAL, TC
   messages may often be local transmitted in response to this changes in a highly
   dynamic network.  However because a node and
   MUST NOT be attached to any other node.  Attached networks with
   AL_dist > 0 MAY be attached has no knowledge of, for
   example, nodes remote to other nodes.

   Attached networks with AL_dist > 0 it joining the network, TC messages MUST NOT
   be advertised in sent purely responsively.

   TC_INTERVAL  - is the maximum time between the transmission of two
      successive TC messages
   generated by this node, this may result node.  When no TC messages are sent
      in response to local network changes (by design, or because the node originating
      local network is not changing) then TC messages when it has no other reason to do so.  Attached networks
   with AL_dist == 0 MAY SHOULD be advertised sent at
      a regular interval TC_INTERVAL, possibly modified by jitter as
      specified in HELLO messages (which causes [3].

   TC_MIN_INTERVAL  - is the MPRs minimum interval between transmission of this node to advertise them in their
      two successive TC messages) or messages by this node.  (This minimum interval
      MAY be advertised modified by jitter, as defined in [3].)

   The following constraints apply to these parameters:

   o  TC_INTERVAL > 0

   o  TC_MIN_INTERVAL >= 0

   o  TC_INTERVAL >= TC_MIN_INTERVAL

   o  If INTERVAL_TIME TLVs as defined in [2] are included in TC messages; they
      messages, then TC_INTERVAL MUST be advertised representable as described in one type
      [2].

5.2.  Advertised Information Validity Times

   The following parameters manage the validity time of
   message and SHOULD NOT be information
   advertised in both.  If a node TC messages:

   T_HOLD_TIME  - is sending used to define the minimum value in the
      VALIDITY_TIME TLV included in all TC messages for any other reason, sent by this node.
      If a single value of parameter TC_HOP_LIMIT is used then advertising attached networks this will
      be the only value in TC messages that TLV.

   A_HOLD_TIME  - is more efficient.  A node MAY decide the period during which form of
   advertisement TC messages are sent after
      they no longer have any advertised information to use depending on its circumstances.

6.  Processing and Forwarding Repositories

   The following data structures report, but are employed
      sent in order to ensure that a accelerate outdated information removal by other
      nodes.

   The following constraints apply to these parameters:

   o  T_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  A_HOLD_TIME >= 0

   o  If TC messages can be lost then both SHOULD be significantly
      greater than TC_INTERVAL.

   o  T_HOLD_TIME MUST be representable as described in [2].

5.3.  Received Message Validity Times

   The following parameters manage the validity time of recorded
   received message information:

   RX_HOLD_TIME  - is processed at most once an interface parameter, and is forwarded at most once per
   interface the period after
      receipt of a node.

6.1.  Received Set

   A node's Received Sets, one per OLSRv2 interface, each record message by the
   signatures appropriate OLSRv2 interface of messages this
      node for which have been received over that interface.
   Each consists of Received Tuples:

      (RX_type, RX_orig_addr, RX_seq_number, RX_time)

   where:

   RX_type information is recorded in order that the received message type, or zero if the received
      message sequence number is not type-specific;

   RX_orig_addr is the originator address of the recognized as having been previously received message;

   RX_seq_number on this
      OLSRv2 interface.

   P_HOLD_TIME  - is the message sequence number of the received
      message;

   RX_time  specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

6.2.  Processed Set

   A node's Processed Set records signatures period after receipt of messages a message which have been is
      processed by the node.  It consists of Processed Tuples:

      (P_type, P_orig_addr, P_seq_number, P_time)

   where:

   P_type this node for which that information is recorded in
      order that the processed message type, or zero if the processed message sequence number is not type-specific;

   P_orig_addr  is the originator address of the processed message;

   P_seq_number again if received again.

   F_HOLD_TIME  - is the message sequence number period after receipt of the processed
      message;

   P_time  specifies the time at a message which is
      forwarded by this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

6.3.  Forwarded Set

   A node's Forwarded Set records signatures of messages node for which have been
   processed by the node.  It consists of Forwarded Tuples:

      (F_type, F_orig_addr, F_seq_number, F_time)

   where:

   F_type that information is recorded in
      order that the forwarded message type, or zero if the forwarded message sequence number is not type-specific;

   F_orig_addr  is the originator address of the forwarded message;

   F_seq_number  is the message sequence number again if received again.

   The following constraints apply to these parameters:

   o  RX_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  P_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  F_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  All of these parameters SHOULD be greater than the forwarded
      message;

   F_time  specifies the maximum
      variation in time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

6.4.  Relay Set

   A node's Relay Set records the neighbor interface addresses for which
   it is to relay flooded messages.  It consists of Relay Tuples:

      (RY_iface_addr)

   where:

   RY_iface_addr  is the address of that a neighbor interface for which message may take to traverse the
      node SHOULD relay flooded messages.  This MUST include a prefix
      length.

7.  Packet Processing MANET,
      taking into account any message forwarding jitter as well as
      propagation, queuing, and Message Forwarding

   On receiving a packet, processing delays.

5.4.  Jitter

   If jitter, as defined in [3], a node examines is used then these parameters are as
   follows:

   TP_MAXJITTER  - represents the packet
   header and each value of MAXJITTER used in [3] for
      periodically generated TC messages sent by this node.

   TT_MAXJITTER  - represents the message headers.  If value of MAXJITTER used in [3] for
      externally triggered TC messages sent by this node.

   F_MAXJITTER  - represents the message type is known default value of MAXJITTER used in [3]
      for messages forwarded by this node.  However before using
      F_MAXJITTER a node MAY attempt to the node, deduce a more appropriate value
      of MAXJITTER, for example based on any INTERVAL_TIME or
      VALIDITY_TIME TLVs contained in the message is processed locally according to the
   specifications for that message type. be forwarded.

   For constraints on these parameters see [3].

5.5.  Hop Limit Parameter

   The message parameter TC_HOP_LIMIT is also
   independently evaluated for forwarding.

7.1.  Actions when Receiving an OLSRv2 Packet

   On receiving a packet, a node MUST perform the following tasks:

   1.  The packet hop limit set in each TC message.
   TC_HOP_LIMIT MAY be fully parsed on reception, a single fixed value, or the packet and
       its messages MAY be parsed only as required.  (It is possible to
       parse the packet header, or determine its absence, without
       parsing any messages.  It is possible to divide the packet into different in TC
   messages without even fully parsing their headers.  It is
       possible to determine whether sent by the same node.  However each other node SHOULD see a message is to be forwarded,
   regular pattern of TC messages, in order that meaningful values of
   INTERVAL_TIME and
       to forward it, without parsing its body.  It is possible to
       determine whether a message is to be processed without parsing
       its body.)

   2.  If parsing fails VALIDITY_TIME TLVs at any point the relevant entity (packet or
       message) MUST each hop count distance can
   be silently discarded, other parts included as defined in [2].  Thus the pattern of TC_HOP_LIMIT
   SHOULD be defined to have this property.  For example the packet
       (up repeating
   pattern (255 4 4) satisfies this property (having period TC_INTERVAL
   at hop counts up to 4, inclusive, and 3 x TC_INTERVAL at hop counts
   greater than 4), but the whole packet) MAY be silently discarded;

   3.  Otherwise if repeating pattern (255 255 4 4) does not
   satisfy this property.

   The maximum value of TC_HOP_LIMIT used MUST least equal the packet header network
   diameter in hops, a value of 255 is present and it contains RECOMMENDED.  All values of
   TC_HOP_LIMIT MUST satisfy TC_HOP_LIMIT >= 2.

5.6.  Willingness

   Each node has a
       packet TLV block, then each TLV WILLINGNESS parameter, which MUST be in it is processed according the range
   WILL_NEVER to WILL_ALWAYS, inclusive, and represents its type if recognized, otherwise the TLV is ignored;

   4.  Otherwise each message in the packet, if any, is treated
       according willingness
   to Section 7.2.

7.2.  Actions when Receiving be an OLSRv2 Message

   A MPR, and hence its willingness to forward messages and be an
   intermediate node MUST perform the following tasks for each received OLSRv2
   message:

   1. on routes.  If the received a node has WILLINGNESS == WILL_NEVER
   it does not perform these tasks.  A MANET using OLSRv2 message header cannot with too many
   nodes with WILLINGNESS == WILL_NEVER will not function; it MUST be correctly parsed
       according to the specification in [3],
   ensured, by administrative or if other means, that this does not happen.
   Nodes MAY have different WILLINGNESS values; however the node recognizes
       from three
   constants WILL_NEVER, WILL_DEFAULT and WILL_ALWAYS MUST have the originator address
   values defined in Section 16.6.  (Use of the message WILLINGNESS == WILL_DEFAULT
   allows a node to avoid including a WILLINGNESS TLV in its TC
   messages, use of WILLINGNESS == WILL_ALWAYS means that a node will
   always be selected as an MPR by all symmetric 1-hop neighbors.)

5.7.  Parameter Change Constraints

   This section presents guidelines, applicable if protocol parameters
   are changed dynamically.

   TC_INTERVAL

      *  If the message is
       one which the receiving TC_INTERVAL for a node itself originated, increases, then the next TC
         message generated by this node MUST be silently discarded;

   2.  Otherwise:

       1. generated according to
         the previous, shorter, TC_INTERVAL.  Additional subsequent TC
         messages MAY be generated according to the previous, shorter,
         TC_INTERVAL.

      *  If the received message is of TC_INTERVAL for a known type node decreases, then the message
           is considered for processing following TC
         messages from this node SHOULD be generated according to Section 7.3, AND;
       2.  If for the received message (<hop-limit> + <hop-count>) > 1,
         current, shorter, TC_INTERVAL.

   T_HOLD_TIME

      *  If T_HOLD_TIME changes, then the message is considered T_time for forwarding according to
           Section 7.4.

7.3.  Message Considered all Topology Tuples,
         AN_time for Processing

   If a message (the "current message") is considered all Attached Network Tuples and AR_time for processing,
   the following tasks MUST all
         Advertising Remote Node Tuples SHOULD be performed:

   1. changed.

   RX_HOLD_TIME

      *  If RX_HOLD_TIME for an entry exists in the OLSRv2 interface changes, then RX_time
         for all Received Tuples for that OLSRv2 interface MAY be
         changed.

   P_HOLD_TIME

      *  If P_HOLD_TIME changes, then P_time for all Processed Set where: Tuples
         MAY be changed.

   F_HOLD_TIME

      *  P_type == the message type of the current message, or 0 if the
          typedep bit in the message semantics octet (in the message
          header) of  If F_HOLD_TIME changes, then F_time for all Forwarded Tuples
         MAY be changed.

   TP_MAXJITTER

      *  If TP_MAXJITTER changes, then the current periodic TC message is cleared ('0'), AND; schedule
         on this node MAY be changed immediately.

   TT_MAXJITTER

      *  P_orig_addr == the originator address of the current message,
          AND;  If TT_MAXJITTER changes, then externally triggered TC messages
         on this node MAY be rescheduled.

   F_MAXJITTER

      *  P_seq_number == the message sequence number of the current
          message.  If F_MAXJITTER changes, then the current message MUST NOT TC messages waiting to be processed.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  Create an entry in
         forwarded with a delay based on this parameter MAY be
         rescheduled.

   TC_HOP_LIMIT

      *  If TC_HOP_LIMIT changes, and the Processed Set with:

           +  P_type = node uses multiple values
         after the change, then message type of the current message, or 0 if
              the typedep bit intervals and validity times
         included in the message semantics octet (in the
              message header) of the current message TC messages MUST be respected.  The simplest way to
         do this is cleared ('0');

           +  P_orig_addr = originator address to start any new repeating pattern of the current message;

           +  P_seq_number = sequence number TC_HOP_LIMIT
         values with its largest value.

6.  Information Repositories

   The purpose of OLSRv2 is to determine the current message;

           +  P_time = current time + P_HOLD_TIME.

       2.  Process the message according Routing Set, which may be
   used to its type.

7.4.  Message Considered for Forwarding

   If a message is considered update IP's Routing Table, providing "next hop" routing
   information for forwarding, and it is either IP datagrams.  OLSRv2 maintains four information
   repositories:

   Local Information Base  - as defined in [4], extended by the addition
      of a
   message type Local Attached Network Set, defined in this document or of an unknown message type,
   then it MUST use the following algorithm.  A message type not Section 6.1.1.

   Neighborhood Information Base  - as defined in this document MAY specify [4], extended by the use
      addition of this, or another algorithm.
   (Such an other algorithm MAY use the Received Set for the receiving
   interface, it SHOULD use the Forwarded Set similarly 3 elements to the following
   algorithm.)
   If a message each Neighbor Tuple, as defined in
      Section 6.2.

   Topology Information Base  - this information base is considered for forwarding according specific to
      OLSRv2, defined in Section 6.3.

   Processing and Forwarding Information Base  - this
   algorithm, information base
      is specific to OLSRv2, defined in Section 6.4.

   All addresses, other than originator addresses, recorded in the following tasks
   information repositories MUST all be performed:

   1.  If the sending interface (as indicated by the source interface of
       the IP datagram containing the message) does not match (taking
       into account any address recorded with prefix of) any N_neighbor_iface_addr lengths, in
       any Symmetric Neighbor Tuple, then the message MUST be silently
       discarded.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  If an entry exists
   order to allow comparison with addresses received in HELLO and TC
   messages.

   The ordering of sequence numbers, when considering which is the Received Set for the receiving
           interface, where:

           +  RX_type == the message type, or 0 if the typedep bit
   greatest, is as defined in
              the message semantics octet (in the message header) Section 17.

6.1.  Local Information Base

   The Local Information Base as defined in [4] is
              cleared ('0'), AND;

           +  RX_orig_addr == the originator address of the received
              message, AND;

           +  RX_seq_number == extended by the sequence number
   addition of the received
              message.

           then the message MUST be silently discarded.

       2.  Otherwise:

           1.  Create an entry a Local Attached Network Set, defined in the Received Section 6.1.1.

6.1.1.  Local Attached Network Set

   A node's Local Attached Network Set records its local non-OLSRv2
   interfaces that can act as gateways to other networks.  The Local
   Attached Network Set for the receiving
               interface with:

               -  RX_type = the message type, or 0 if the typedep bit in
                  the message semantics octet (in the message header) is
                  cleared ('0');

               -  RX_orig_addr = originator address of the message;

               -  RX_seq_number = sequence number of not modified by this protocol.  This protocol
   MAY respond to changes to the message;

               -  RX_time = current time + RX_HOLD_TIME.

           2.  If an entry exists Local Attached Network Set, which MUST
   reflect corresponding changes in the Forwarded Set node's status.  It consists of
   Local Attached Network Tuples:

      (AL_net_addr, AL_dist)

   where:

               -  F_type == the message type, or 0 if the typedep bit in
                  the message semantics octet (in the message header)

   AL_net_addr  is
                  cleared ('0');
               -  F_orig_addr == the originator network address of an attached network which can
      be reached via this node.

   AL_dist  is the received
                  message, AND;

               -  F_seq_number == the sequence number of hops to the received
                  message.

               then the message network with address
      AL_net_addr from this node.

   Attached networks with AL_dist == 0 MUST be silently discarded.

           3.  Otherwise if a Relay Tuple exists whose RY_iface_addr
               matches (taking into account local to this node and
   MUST NOT be attached to any address prefix) the
               sending interface (as indicated other node.  Attached networks with
   AL_dist > 0 MAY also be attached to other nodes.

   Attached networks with AL_dist > 0 MUST be advertised in TC messages
   generated by the source interface
               of the IP datagram containing the message):

               1.  Create an entry this node, this may result in the Forwarded Set with:

                   o  F_type = the message type, or node originating TC
   messages when it has no other reason to do so.  Attached networks
   with AL_dist == 0 if the typedep bit MAY be advertised in HELLO messages (which causes
   the message semantics octet (in the message
                      header) is cleared ('0');

                   o  F_orig_addr = originator address MPRs of the message;

                   o  F_seq_number = sequence number this node to advertise them in their TC messages) or MAY
   be advertised in TC messages; they MUST be advertised in one type of the message;

                   o  F_time = current time + F_HOLD_TIME.

               2.  The
   message header is modified as follows:

                   o  Decrement <hop-limit> and SHOULD NOT be advertised in the message header by 1;

                   o  Increment <hop-count> both.  If a node is sending
   TC messages for any other reason, then advertising attached networks
   in the message header by 1;

               3.  Transmit the message on all OLSRv2 interfaces TC messages is more efficient.  A node MAY decide which form of
   advertisement to use depending on its circumstances.

   It is not the
                   node.

   Messages are retransmitted in the format specified by [3] with the
   ALL-MANET-NEIGHBORS address (see [4]) as destination IP address.

8.  Information Repositories

   The purpose responsibility of OLSRv2 is to determine the Routing Set, which may be
   used to update IP's Routing Table, providing "next hop" routing
   information for IP datagrams.  In order maintain routes to accomplish this, OLSRv2
   uses a number of protocol sets: the Neighborhood Information Base,
   provided by [4], is in OLSRv2 augmented by information allowing MPR
   selection and signaling.  Additionally, OLSRv2 specifies a Topology
   Information Base, which describes the information used for and
   acquired through TC message exchange - in other words: the Topology
   Information Base represents the network topology graph as seen from
   each node.

   Addresses (other than originator addresses) networks
   recorded in the Local Attached Network Set.

6.2.  Neighborhood Information Base and the Topology Information Base MUST
   all be recorded with prefix lengths,

   Each Neighbor Tuple in order the Neighbor Set has these additional
   elements:

   N_willingness  is the node's willingness to allow comparison
   with addresses received be selected as an MPR, in HELLO and TC messages.

8.1.  Neighborhood Information Base

   The Neighborhood Information Base stores information about links
   between local interfaces and interfaces on adjacent nodes.  In
   addition to
      the sets described in [4], OLSRv2 adds an element to each
   Link Tuple range from WILL_NEVER to allow WILL_ALWAYS, both inclusive;

   N_mpr  is a node to record boolean flag, describing if the willingness of a 1-hop neighbor node to be is selected as
      an MPR.  Also, OLSRv2 adds an MPR Set
   and by this node;

   N_mpr_selector  is a boolean flag, describing if this neighbor has
      selected this node as an MPR, i.e. is an MPR Selector Set to the Neighborhood selector of this
      node.

6.3.  Topology Information Base. Base

   The
   MPR Topology Information Base stores information required for the
   generation and processing of TC messages, and received in TC
   messages.  The Advertised Neighbor Set is used by a node to record which contains interface addresses
   of its symmetric 1-hop neighbors are selected as MPRs, and the MPR Selector Set is used by a
   node to record which of its symmetric 1-hop neighbors have selected
   it as MPR.  Thus, in addition to what is specified in [4], the MPR
   Set is used when generating HELLO messages, and the MPR Selector Set
   is populated when processing HELLO messages.

8.1.1.  Link Set

   Link Tuples are as specified in [4], augmented with:

   L_willingness  is the node's willingness to be selected as an MPR;

8.1.2.  MPR Set

   A node's MPR Set contains OLSRv2 interface addresses with which the
   node has a symmetric link and which are of 1-hop symmetric neighbors
   which the node has selected as MPRs:

      (MP_neighbor_iface_addr)

8.1.3.  MPR Selector Set

   A node's MPR Selector Set records the nodes which have selected this
   node as an MPR.  It consists of MPR Selector Tuples:

      (MS_neighbor_iface_addr, MS_time)

   where:

   MS_neighbor_iface_addr  is an OLSRv2 interface address with which
      this node has a symmetric link and which is of a 1-hop symmetric
      neighbor which has selected this node as an MPR;

   MS_time  specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

8.2.  Topology Information Base

   The Topology Information Base stores information, required for the
   generation and processing of TC messages.  The Advertised Neighbor
   Set contains OLSRv2 interface addresses of symmetric 1-hop neighbors
   which which are to be reported in TC messages.
   The Topology Set and Attached Network Set both record information
   received through in TC messages.  Thus the Advertised Neighbor  The Advertising Remote Node Set is both
   used for generating TC
   messages, while the Topology Set and Attached Network Set are populated when processing TC messages.

   Additionally, a Routing Set is maintained, derived from the
   information recorded in the Neighborhood Information Base, Topology
   Set and
   Set, Attached Network Set and Advertising Remote Node Set.

8.2.1.

6.3.1.  Advertised Neighbor Set

   A node's Advertised Neighbor Set contains OLSRv2 interface addresses of
   symmetric 1-hop neighbors which are to be advertised through TC
   messages:

      (A_neighbor_iface_addr)

      {A_neighbor_iface_addr}

   In addition, an Advertised Neighbor Set Sequence Number (ANSN) is
   maintained.  Each time the Advertised Neighbor Set is updated, the
   ANSN MUST be incremented.  The ANSN MUST also be incremented if there
   is a change to the set of Local Attached Network Tuples that are to
   be advertised in the node's TC messages.

8.2.2.  ANSN History

6.3.2.  Advertising Remote Node Set

   A node's ANSN History Advertising Remote Node Set records information about the freshness of
   the topology information received from describing
   each other node. remote node in the network that transmits TC messages.  It
   consists of ANSN History Advertising Remote Node Tuples:

      (AH_orig_addr, AH_seq_number, AH_time)

      (AR_orig_addr, AR_seq_number, AR_iface_addr_list, AR_time)

   where:

   AH_orig_addr

   AR_orig_addr  is the originator address of a received TC message,
      note that this does not include a prefix length;

   AH_seq_number

   AR_seq_number  is the highest greatest ANSN in any TC message received which
      originated from AH_orig_addr;

   AH_time the node with originator address AR_orig_addr;

   AR_iface_addr_list  is the list of the interface addresses of the
      node with originator address AR_orig_addr;

   AR_time  is the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be removed.

8.2.3.

6.3.3.  Topology Set

   A node's Topology Set records topology information about the network.
   It consists of Topology Tuples:

      (T_dest_iface_addr, T_last_iface_addr, T_orig_addr, T_seq_number, T_time)

   where:

   T_dest_iface_addr  is an OLSRv2 interface address of a destination node,
      which may be reached in one hop from the node with the
      OLSRv2 interface originator
      address T_last_iface_addr;

   T_last_iface_addr  is, conversely, an OLSRv2 interface T_orig_addr;

   T_orig_addr  is the originator address of a node which is the last
      hop on a path towards the node with OLSRv2 interface address T_dest_iface_addr.
      T_dest_iface_addr, note that this does not include a prefix
      length;

   T_seq_number  is the highest greatest received ANSN associated with the
      information contained in this Topology Tuple;

   T_time  specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

8.2.4.

6.3.4.  Attached Network Set

   A node's Attached Network Set records information about networks
   attached to other nodes.  It consists of Attached Network Tuples:

      (AN_net_addr, AN_gw_iface_addr, AN_orig_addr, AN_dist, AN_seq_number, AN_time)

   where:

   AN_net_addr  is the network address of an attached network, which may
      be reached via the node with the OLSRv2 interface originator address
      AN_gw_iface_addr;

   AN_gw_iface_addr AN_orig_addr;

   AN_orig_addr  is the originator address of an OLSRv2 interface of a node which can act as
      gateway to the network with address AN_net_addr; AN_net_addr, note that this
      does not include a prefix length;

   AN_dist  is the number of hops to the network with address
      AL_net_addr
      AN_net_addr from the node with originator address AN_gw_iface_addr. AN_orig_addr;

   AN_seq_number  is the highest greatest received ANSN associated with the
      information contained in this Attached Network Tuple;

   AN_time  specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

8.2.5.

6.3.5.  Routing Set

   A node's Routing Set records the selected path to each destination
   for which a route is known.  It consists of Routing Tuples:

      (R_dest_addr, R_next_iface_addr, R_dist, R_local_iface_addr)

   where:

   R_dest_addr  is the address of the destination, either the address of
      an OLSRv2 interface of a destination node, or the network address of an
      attached network;

   R_next_iface_addr  is the OLSRv2 interface address of the "next hop"
      on the selected path to the destination;

   R_dist  is the number of hops on the selected path to the
      destination;

   R_local_iface_addr  is the address of the local interface over which
      a packet MUST be sent to reach the destination.

9.  Control Message Structures

   Nodes using OLSRv2 exchange information through messages.  One or
   more messages sent destination by the selected
      path.

6.4.  Processing and Forwarding Information Base

   The Processing and Forwarding Information Base records information
   required to ensure that a node message is processed at the same time SHOULD be combined into most once and is
   forwarded at most once per interface of a single packet.  These node.

6.4.1.  Received Set

   A node's Received Sets, one per local OLSRv2 interface, each record
   the signatures of messages may which have originated at been received over that
   interface.  Each consists of Received Tuples:

      (RX_type, RX_orig_addr, RX_seq_number, RX_time)

   where:

   RX_type  is the sending
   node, received message type, or have originated zero if the received
      message sequence number is not type-specific;
   RX_orig_addr  is the originator address of the received message;

   RX_seq_number  is the message sequence number of the received
      message;

   RX_time  specifies the time at another node which this Tuple expires and are forwarded MUST be
      removed.

6.4.2.  Processed Set

   A node's Processed Set records signatures of messages which have been
   processed by the
   sending node.  Messages with different originators may be combined in  It consists of Processed Tuples:

      (P_type, P_orig_addr, P_seq_number, P_time)

   where:

   P_type  is the same packet.

   The packet and processed message format used by OLSRv2 is defined in [3].
   However this specification contains some options which are not used
   by OLSRv2.  In particular (using type, or zero if the syntactical entities defined in
   [3]):

   o  All OLSRv2 packets, not limited to those defined in this document,
      include a <packet-header>.

   o  All OLSRv2 packets, processed
      message sequence number is not limited to those defined in this document,
      have type-specific;

   P_orig_addr  is the pseqnum bit originator address of <packet-semantics> cleared ('0'), i.e.
      they include a packet the processed message;

   P_seq_number  is the message sequence number.

   o  OLSRv2 packets MAY include packet TLVs, however OLSRv2 itself does
      not specify any packet TLVs.

   o  All OLSRv2 messages, not limited to those defined in this
      document, include a full <msg-header> and hence have number of the processed
      message;

   P_time  specifies the noorig time at which this Tuple expires and nohops bits MUST be
      removed.

6.4.3.  Forwarded Set

   A node's Forwarded Set records signatures of <msg-semantics> cleared ('0').

   o  All OLSRv2 message defined in this document messages which have been
   processed by the typedep bit
      of <msg-semantics> cleared ('0').

   Other options defined in [3] may be freely used, in particular any
   other values node.  It consists of <packet-semantics>, <addr-semantics> Forwarded Tuples:

      (F_type, F_orig_addr, F_seq_number, F_time)

   where:

   F_type  is the forwarded message type, or <tlv-
   semantics> consistent with its specification.

   The remainder of this section defines, within zero if the framework forwarded
      message sequence number is not type-specific;

   F_orig_addr  is the originator address of [3], the forwarded message;
   F_seq_number  is the message types sequence number of the forwarded
      message;

   F_time  specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and TLVs specific to OLSRv2.

9.1.  HELLO Messages MUST be
      removed.

6.4.4.  Relay Set

   A HELLO message in OLSRv2 is generated as specified in [4].
   Additionally, an node's Relay Sets, one per local OLSRv2 node:

   o  MUST include TLV(s) with Type == MPR associated with all interface, each records the
   OLSRv2 interface addresses included in of symmetric 1-hop neighbors, such that
   the HELLO message with a TLV with
      Type == LINK_STATUS and Value == SYMMETRIC node is to forward messages received from those neighbor's OLSRv2
   interfaces, on that local OLSRv2 interface, if not otherwise excluded
   from forwarding that address is also
      included message (e.g. by it having been previously
   forwarded):

      {RY_neighbor_iface_addr}

7.  Packet Processing and Message Forwarding

   On receiving a packet, as defined in [1], a node examines the node's MPR Set (if there is more than one copy packet
   header and each of the address, this applies message headers.  If the message type is known
   to the specific copy of node, the address message is processed locally according to
      which the LINK_STATUS TLV is associated);

   o  MUST NOT include any TLVs with Type == MPR associated with any
      other addresses;

   o  MAY include a
   specifications for that message TLV with Type == WILLINGNESS, indicating the
      node's willingness to be selected as type.  The message is also
   independently evaluated for forwarding.

7.1.  Actions when Receiving an MPR.

9.1.1.  HELLO Message TLVs

   In OLSRv2 Packet

   On receiving a HELLO message, packet, a node MAY include a WILLINGNESS message TLV as
   specified in Table MUST perform the following tasks:

   1.

   +----------------+------+-------------------+-----------------------+
   |      Name      | Type |       Length      | Value                 |
   +----------------+------+-------------------+-----------------------+
   |   WILLINGNESS  |  TBD |       8 bits      |  The node's            |
   |                |      |                   | willingness to packet MAY be     |
   |                |      |                   | selected as MPR;      |
   |                |      |                   | unused bits (based fully parsed on |
   |                |      |                   | reception, or the maximum           |
   |                |      |                   | willingness value     |
   |                |      |                   | WILL_ALWAYS) are      |
   |                |      |                   | RESERVED packet and SHOULD   |
   |                |      |                   |
       its messages MAY be set parsed only as required.  (It is possible to zero        |
   +----------------+------+-------------------+-----------------------+

                                  Table 1

   A node's willingness
       parse the packet header, or determine its absence, without
       parsing any messages.  It is possible to be selected as MPR ranges from WILL_NEVER
   (indicating that divide the packet into
       messages without even fully parsing their headers.  It is
       possible to determine whether a node MUST NOT message is to be selected as MPR by any node) forwarded, and
       to
   WILL_ALWAYS (indicating that forward it, without parsing its body.  It is possible to
       determine whether a node MUST always message is to be selected as MPR). processed without parsing
       its body.)

   2.  If parsing fails at any point the relevant entity (packet or
       message) MUST be silently discarded, other parts of the packet
       (up to the whole packet) MAY be silently discarded;

   3.  Otherwise if the packet header is present and it contains a node does not advertise a Willingness
       packet TLV block, then each TLV in HELLO messages, it is processed according to
       its type if recognized, otherwise the TLV is ignored;

   4.  Otherwise each message in the packet, if any, is treated
       according to Section 7.2.

7.2.  Actions when Receiving an OLSRv2 Message

   A node MUST perform the following tasks for each received message:

   1.  If the message header cannot be assumed correctly parsed according to have a willingness of WILL_DEFAULT.

9.1.2.  HELLO Message Address Block TLVs

   In a HELLO message, a the
       specification in [1], or if the node MAY include MPR recognizes from the
       originator address block TLV(s) as
   specified in Table 2.

   +----------------+------+-------------------+----------------------+
   |      Name      | Type |       Length      | Value                |
   +----------------+------+-------------------+----------------------+
   |       MPR      |  TBD |       0 bits      | None                 |
   +----------------+------+-------------------+----------------------+

                                  Table 2

9.2.  TC Messages

   A TC of the message that the message is one which
       the receiving node itself originated, then the message MUST contain:

   o  A be
       silently discarded.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  If the message TLV with Type == CONT_SEQ_NUM, as specified in is a HELLO message, then the message is
           processed according to Section 9.2.1.

   o  A 10.

       2.  Otherwise:

           1.  If the message TLV with Type == VALIDITY_TIME, as specified in
      Appendix E.

   o  A first address block containing all is of a known type, then the node's OLSRv2
      interface addresses.  This message is similar
               considered for processing according to Section 7.3, AND;

           2.  If for the Local Interface Block
      included in HELLO messages as specified in [4], however in message (<hop-limit> + <hop-count>) > 1, then
               the message is considered for forwarding according to
               Section 7.4.

7.3.  Message Considered for Processing

   If a TC message these addresses (the "current message") is considered for processing,
   then the following tasks MUST be included in performed:

   1.  If a Processed Tuple exists with:

       *  P_type == the same order in all
      copies message type of a given TC the current message, regardless or 0 if the
          typedep bit in the message semantics octet in the message
          header of which OLSRv2 interface
      it the current message is transmitted on, and no OTHER_IF address block TLVs are
      required.

   o  Additional cleared ('0'), AND;

       *  P_orig_addr == the originator address block(s) containing all addresses of the current message,
          AND;

       *  P_seq_number == the message sequence number of the current
          message;

       then the current message MUST NOT be processed.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  Create a Processed Tuple with:

           +  P_type = the message type of the current message, or 0 if
              the typedep bit in the
      Advertised Address Set and selected addresses message semantics octet in the Local
      Attached Network Set,
              message header of the latter (only) with associated GATEWAY current message is cleared ('0');

           +  P_orig_addr = the originator address block TLV(s), as specified in Section 9.2.2.

   A TC of the current
              message;

           +  P_seq_number = the sequence number of the current message;

           +  P_time = current time + P_HOLD_TIME.

       2.  Process the current message MAY contain:

   o  A according to its type.

7.4.  Message Considered for Forwarding

   If a message TLV with Type == INTERVAL_TIME, as specified in
      Appendix E.

   o  A is considered for forwarding, and it is either of a
   message TLV with Type == INCOMPLETE, as specified type defined in
      Section 9.2.1.

9.2.1.  TC Message TLVs

   In this document (i.e. is a TC message, a node message) or of an
   unknown message type, then it MUST include a CONT_SEQ_NUM use the following algorithm.  A
   message TLV, and
   MAY contain an INCOMPLETE of a message TLV, as specified type not defined in Table 3.

   +----------------+------+-------------------+-----------------------+
   |      Name      | Type |       Length      | Value                 |
   +----------------+------+-------------------+-----------------------+
   |  CONT_SEQ_NUM  |  TBD |       8 bits      | The ANSN contained this document MAY, in |
   |                |      |                   | an
   extension to this protocol, specify the Advertised        |
   |                |      |                   | Neighbor Set          |
   |                |      |                   |                       |
   |   INCOMPLETE   |  TBD |       0 bits      | None                  |
   +----------------+------+-------------------+-----------------------+

                                  Table 3

9.2.2.  TC Message Address Block TLVs

   In a TC message, a node MAY include GATEWAY address block TLV(s) as
   specified in Table 4.

   +----------------+------+-------------------+-----------------------+
   |      Name      | Type |       Length      | Value                 |
   +----------------+------+-------------------+-----------------------+
   |     GATEWAY    |  TBD |       8 bits      | Number use of hops to     |
   |                |      |                   | attached network      |
   +----------------+------+-------------------+-----------------------+

                                  Table 4

10.  HELLO Message Generation

   An OLSRv2 HELLO message is composed as defined in [4], with this, or another
   algorithm.  (Such an other algorithm MAY use the
   following additions:

   o  A message TLV with Type == WILLINGNESS and Value == Received Set for the node's
      willingness
   receiving interface, it SHOULD use the Forwarded Set similarly to act as an MPR, MAY be included.

   o  For each address which is included in the
   following algorithm.)

   If a message with an
      associated TLV with Type == LINK_STATUS, and is of an MPR (i.e. (the "current message") is
      an MP_neighbor_iface_addr), an address TLV with Type == MPR MUST
      be included; considered for forwarding
   according to this TLV algorithm, the following tasks MUST be associated with the same copy of performed:

   1.  If the sending interface address as is the TLV with Type == LINK_STATUS.

   o  For (the source address which is included in of the message and is IP
       datagram containing the current message) does not of match (taking
       into account any address prefix of) an MPR
      (i.e. is not OLSRv2 interface address
       in an MP_neighbor_iface_addr) or is not associated with L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a TLV Link Tuple, with Type L_status
       == LINK_STATUS, an address TLV with Type == MPR SYMMETRIC, in the Link Set for the OLSRv2 interface on which
       the current message was received (the "receiving interface") then
       the current message MUST NOT be included.

   o  For each Local Attached Tuple with AL_dist == 0, silently discarded.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  If a node MAY
      include AL_net_addr Received Tuple exists in the Local Interface Block of Received Set for the message,
      with an associated TLV with Type
           receiving interface, with:

           +  RX_type == OTHER_IF.

10.1.  HELLO Message: Transmission

   HELLO messages are included in packets as specified in [3].  These
   packets may contain other messages, including TC messages.

11.  HELLO Message Processing

   Subsequent to the processing message type of HELLO messages, as specified in [4], the node MUST:

   1.  Determine current message, or 0
              if the willingness of typedep bit in the originating node to be an MPR
       by:

       *  if message semantics octet in the HELLO
              message contains a header of the current message TLV with Type is cleared ('0'),
              AND;

           +  RX_orig_addr ==
          WILLINGNESS then the willingness is originator address of the value current
              message, AND;

           +  RX_seq_number == the sequence number of that TLV,
          ignoring the reserved bits in that field;

       *  otherwise current
              message;

           then the willingness is WILL_DEFAULT. current message MUST be silently discarded.

       2.  Update each Link  Otherwise:

           1.  Create a Received Tuple in the Received Set for which any address the
               receiving interface with:

               -  RX_type = the message type of the current message, or
                  0 if the typedep bit in its
       L_neighbor_iface_addr_list is present the message semantics octet in
                  the Local Interface
       Block message header of the HELLO message, with:

       *  L_willingness current message is cleared
                  ('0');

               -  RX_orig_addr = originator address of the willingness current
                  message;

               -  RX_seq_number = sequence number of the originating node.

   3.  Update its MPR Selector Set, according to Section 11.1.

11.1.  Populating the MPR Selector Set

   On receiving a HELLO message:

   1. current
                  message;

               -  RX_time = current time + RX_HOLD_TIME.

           2.  If a node finds one of its OLSRv2 interface addresses with an
       associated TLV with Type Forwarded Tuple exists with:

               -  F_type == MPR in the HELLO message (indicating
       that type of the originator node has selected current message, or
                  0 if the receiving node as an
       MPR), typedep bit in the MPR Selector Set MUST be updated as follows:

       1.  For each address, henceforth neighbor address, message semantics octet in
                  the Local
           Interface Block message header of the received HELLO message, where the
           neighbor address current message is present as an N_neighbor_iface_addr in a
           Symmetric Neighbor Tuple with N_STATUS == SYMMETRIC:

           1.  If there exists no MPR Selector Tuple with: cleared
                  ('0');

               -  MS_neighbor_iface_addr  F_orig_addr == neighbor address

               then a new MPR Selector Tuple is created with:

               -  MS_neighbor_iface_addr = neighbor the originator address

           2.  The MPR Selector Tuple (new or otherwise) with: of the current
                  message, AND;

               -  MS_neighbor_iface_addr  F_seq_number == neighbor address
               is the sequence number of the current
                  message.

               then modified as follows:

               -  MS_time = the current time + validity time

   2. message MUST be silently discarded.

           3.  Otherwise if a node finds one of its own the sending interface addresses with address matches
               (taking account of any address prefix of) an associated TLV with Type == LINK_STATUS and Value == SYMMETRIC
               RY_neighbor_iface_addr in the HELLO message, the MPR Selector Relay Set MUST be updated as
       follows:

       1.  All MPR Selector Tuples whose MS_neighbor_iface_addr is in for the Local Interface Block of receiving
               interface, then:

               1.  Create a Forwarded Tuple with:

                   o  F_type = the HELLO message are removed.

   MPR Selector Tuples are also removed upon expiration type of MS_time, the current message,
                      or
   upon symmetric link breakage as described 0 if the typedep bit in Section 11.2.

11.2.  Symmetric Neighborhood and 2-Hop Neighborhood Changes

   A node MUST also perform the following:

   1.  If a Link Tuple with L_STATUS == SYMMETRIC is removed, or its
       L_STATUS changes from SYMMETRIC to HEARD or LOST, and for each
       address message semantics
                      octet in that Link Tuple's L_neighbor_iface_addr_list, if it is
       an MS_neighbor_iface_addr the message header of an MPR Selector Tuple, then that MPR
       Selector Tuple MUST be removed.

   2.  If any of:

       *  a Link Tuple is added with L_STATUS == SYMMETRIC, OR;

       *  a Link Tuple with L_STATUS == SYMMETRIC is removed, or its
          L_STATUS changes from SYMMETRIC to HEARD or LOST, or vice
          versa, OR;

       *  a 2-Hop Neighbor Tuple is added or removed, OR;

       * the Neighbor Address Association Set current message
                      is changed such that the
          subset of any NA_neighbor_iface_addr_list consisting cleared ('0');

                   o  F_orig_addr = originator address of those
          addresses which are in the L_neighbor_iface_addr_list current
                      message;

                   o  F_seq_number = sequence number of a
          Link Tuple with L_STATUS == SYMMETRIC is changed, including the cases of removal or addition current
                      message;

                   o  F_time = current time + F_HOLD_TIME.

               2.  The message header of a Neighbor Address
          Association Tuple containing any such addresses;

       then the MPR Set MUST be recalculated.

   An additional HELLO current message MAY be sent when the MPR Set changes, is modified
                   by:

                   o  decrement <hop-limit> in
   addition to the cases specified message header by 1;

                   o  increment <hop-count> in [4], and subject to the same
   constraints.

12.  TC Message Generation

   A node with one or more message header by 1.

               3.  For each OLSRv2 interfaces, and with a non-empty
   Advertised Neighbor Set or which acts as interface of the node, include the
                   message in a gateway to an associated
   network which is packet to be advertised in the MANET, MUST generate TC
   messages.  A node with an empty Advertised Neighbor Set and which is
   not acting transmitted on that OLSRv2
                   interface, as such a gateway SHOULD also generate "empty" TC described in Section 8.  This packet
                   may contain other forwarded messages
   for a period A_HOLD_TIME after it last generated a non-empty TC
   message.  TC and/or messages (non-empty and empty) are
                   generated according
   to the following:

   1.  The message hop count MUST by this node.  Forwarded messages may be set to zero.

   2.
                   jittered as described in [3].  The value of MAXJITTER
                   used in jittering a forwarded message hop limit MAY be set to based on
                   information in that message (in particular any positive value, this
                   INTERVAL_TIME or VALIDITY_TIME TLVs in that message)
                   or otherwise SHOULD be at least two. with maximum delay of
                   F_MAXJITTER.  A node MAY:

       *  use MAY reduce the same hop limit in all TC messages, this MUST be at
          least equal jitter applied to the network diameter in hops,
                   a value of 255 is
          RECOMMENDED message in this case; OR

       *  use different hop limits order to more efficiently combine
                   messages in TC messages, this MUST regularly
          include packets.

8.  Packets and Messages

   Nodes using OLSRv2 exchange information through messages.  One or
   more messages with hop limit sent by a node at least equal to the network
          diameter, a value of 255 is RECOMMENDED for these messages;
          other hop limits same time SHOULD use a regular pattern with be combined into
   a regular
          interval single packet.  These messages may have originated at any given number of hops distance.

   3.  The message MUST contain a message TLV with Type == CONT_SEQ_NUM
       and Value == ANSN from the Advertised Neighbor Set.

   4.  The message MUST contain a message TLV with Type ==
       VALIDITY_TIME, as specified in Appendix E.2.  If all TC messages
       are sent with the same hop limit (usually 255) then this TLV MUST sending
   node, or have Value == T_HOLD_TIME.  If TC messages originated at another node and are sent forwarded by the
   sending node.  Messages with different hop limits, then this TLV MUST specify times which vary
       with the number of hops distance appropriate to the chosen
       pattern of TC message hop limits, these times SHOULD originators MAY be
       appropriate multiples of T_HOLD_TIME.

   5.  The message combined in
   the same packet.  Messages from other protocols defined using [1] MAY contain a message TLV with Type == INTERVAL_TIME,
       as specified
   be combined in Appendix E.2.  If all TC messages are sent with the same hop limit (usually 255) then this TLV MUST have Value ==
       TC_INTERVAL.  If TC messages packet.

   OLSRv2 packets are sent with different hop limits,
       then this TLV MUST specify times which vary with using UDP, on the number of
       hops distance appropriate to port "manet" defined in
   [6].  Their IP datagrams are transmitted using the chosen pattern of TC message hop
       limits, these times SHOULD be appropriate multiples of
       TC_INTERVAL.

   6. well-known
   multicast address "LL MANET Routers" defined in [6].

   The packet and message MUST contain the addresses of all of its format used by OLSRv2
       interfaces is defined in its first address block, note that the TC message
       generated on all OLSRv2 interfaces MUST be identical (including
       having identical message sequence number) and hence these
       addresses [1].
   However this specification contains some options which are not ordered or otherwise identified according to
       the interface on which used
   by OLSRv2.  In particular (using the TC message is transmitted.

   7.  The message MUST contain, syntactical entities defined in address blocks other than its first:

       1.  A_neighbor_iface_addr from each Advertised Neighbor Tuple;

       2.  AL_net_addr from each Local Attached Neighbor Tuple with
           AL_dist > 0, each associated with
   [1]):

   o  All OLSRv2 packets, not limited to those defined in this document,
      include a TLV with Type == GATEWAY
           and Value == AL_dist.

   8.  The message MAY contain, <packet-header>.

   o  All OLSRv2 packets, not limited to those defined in address blocks other than its first:

       1.  AL_net_addr from each Local Attached Neighbor Tuple with
           AL_dist == 0, each associated with this document,
      have the pseqnum bit of <packet-semantics> cleared ('0'), i.e.
      they include a TLV with Type == GATEWAY
           and Value == 0.

12.1.  TC Message: Transmission

   TC messages are generated and transmitted periodically on all packet sequence number.

   o  OLSRv2
   interfaces, with packets MAY include packet TLVs, however OLSRv2 itself does
      not specify any packet TLVs.

   o  All OLSRv2 messages, not limited to those defined in this
      document, include a default interval between two consecutive TC
   emissions by full <msg-header> and hence have the same node noorig,
      nohoplimit, nohopcount and noseqnum bits of TC_INTERVAL.

   TC <msg-semantics>
      cleared ('0').

   o  All OLSRv2 messages MAY be generated defined in response to a change this document have the typedep bit
      of contents,
   indicated by a change <msg-semantics> cleared ('0').

   o  All references in ANSN.  In this case a node MAY send a
   complete TC message, document to specific TLVs in generating and
      processing HELLO and if so MAY re-start its TC message schedule.
   Alternatively a node MAY send only new content in its address blocks
   (with appropriate associated TLVs) messages refer to TLVs with Subtype == 0.
      TLVs with nonzero subtype are treated as of unknown type when
      processing messages, i.e. they are ignored.

   Other options defined in which case it [1] may be freely used, in particular any
   other values of <packet-semantics>, <addr-semantics> or <tlv-
   semantics> consistent with their specifications.

   The remainder of this section defines, within the framework of [1],
   message types and TLVs specific to OLSRv2.

8.1.  HELLO Messages

   A HELLO message in OLSRv2 is generated as specified in [4].
   Additionally, an OLSRv2 node:

   o  MUST include a TLV(s) with Type == MPR associated with all OLSRv2
      interface addresses included in the HELLO message with a TLV with
      Type == INCOMPLETE, LINK_STATUS and MUST NOT re-start its TC
   message schedule.  This TC message MUST include its usual message
   TLVs.  Note Value == SYMMETRIC if that a node cannot report removal address is also
      included in Neighbor Tuple with N_mpr == true.  (If there is more
      than one copy of advertised content
   using such an incomplete TC message.

   When sending a TC message address in response the HELLO message, then this
      applies to a change of contents, a node
   must respect a minimum interval the specific copy of TC_MIN_INTERVAL between generated
   TC messages.  Sending an incomplete TC message the address with which the
      LINK_STATUS TLV is associated.)

   o  MUST NOT cause include any TLVs with Type == MPR associated with any
      other addresses.

   o  MAY include a message TLV with Type == WILLINGNESS, indicating the
   interval between complete TC messages
      node's willingness to be increased, and thus selected as an MPR.

8.1.1.  HELLO Message TLVs

   In a HELLO message, a node MUST NOT send an incomplete TC MAY include a WILLINGNESS message if within TC_MIN_INTERVAL
   of the next scheduled complete TC message.

   The generation of TC messages, whether scheduled or triggered by a
   change of contents, and the forwarding of TC messages, MAY be
   jittered TLV as described
   specified in Appendix F.  The values of MAXJITTER used
   SHOULD be:

   o  TP_MAXJITTER for periodic TC message generation;

   o  TT_MAXJITTER for triggered TC message generation;

   o  TF_MAXJITTER for TC Table 1.  A node MUST NOT include more than one
   WILLINGNESS message forwarding;

   TC messages are included in packets TLV.

   +-------------+------+---------+--------+---------------------------+
   |     Name    | Type | Subtype | Length | Value                     |
   +-------------+------+---------+--------+---------------------------+
   | WILLINGNESS |  TBD |    0    | 8 bits | The node's willingness to |
   |             |      |         |        | be selected as specified in [3].  These
   packets may contain other messages, including HELLO messages and TC
   messages with different originator addresses.  TC messages MPR;       |
   |             |      |         |        | unused bits (based on the |
   |             |      |         |        | maximum willingness value |
   |             |      |         |        | WILL_ALWAYS) are
   forwarded according RESERVED |
   |             |      |         |        | and SHOULD be set to the specification in Section 7.4.

13.  TC Message Processing

   When according zero |
   +-------------+------+---------+--------+---------------------------+

                                  Table 1

   A node's willingness to Section 7.3 be selected as MPR ranges from WILL_NEVER
   (indicating that a TC message is to node MUST NOT be processed
   according selected as MPR by any node) to its type, this means that:

   o  if the message
   WILL_ALWAYS (indicating that a node MUST always be selected as MPR).

   If a node does not contain advertise a message Willingness TLV with Type ==
      INCOMPLETE, in HELLO messages,
   then processing according to Section 13.1 and then
      according to Section 13.2 is carried out;

   o  if the message contains node MUST be assumed to have a willingness of WILL_DEFAULT.

8.1.2.  HELLO Message Address Block TLVs

   In a HELLO message, a node MAY include MPR address block TLV(s) as
   specified in Table 2.

                +------+------+---------+--------+-------+
                | Name | Type | Subtype | Length | Value |
                +------+------+---------+--------+-------+
                |  MPR |  TBD |    0    | 0 bits | None  |
                +------+------+---------+--------+-------+

                                  Table 2

8.2.  TC Messages

   A TC message MUST contain:

   o  A message TLV with Type == INCOMPLETE,
      then only processing according to Section 13.1 is carried out.

   For all processing purposes, "ANSN" is defined CONT_SEQ_NUM, as being the value of
   the specified in
      Section 8.2.1.

   o  A message TLV with Type == CONT_SEQ_NUM VALIDITY_TIME, as specified in [2].

   o  A first address block (the Local Address Block) containing all of
      the TC message.  If node's interface addresses.  This is similar to the Local
      Interface Block included in HELLO messages as specified in [4],
      however in a TC message has no such TLV then it these addresses MUST NOT be processed.

13.1.  Initial TC Message Processing

   For included in the purposes
      same order in all copies of this section, note the following:

   o  "validity time" a given TC message, regardless of
      which OLSRv2 interface it is calculated from the VALIDITY_TIME transmitted on, and no OTHER_IF
      address block TLVs are required.

   o  Except when they would be empty, or when including a message TLV
      in
      with Type == INCOMPLETE (in which case the TC message according to does not
      satisfy the specification necessary transmission constraints defined by
      TC_INTERVAL and T_HOLD_TIME), address block(s) (Advertised Address
      Blocks) containing addresses in Appendix E.2;

   o  "originator address" refers to the originator address Advertised Address Set and
      selected addresses in the TC
      message header;

   o  comparisons of sequence numbers are carried out Local Attached Network Set, the latter
      (only) with associated GATEWAY address block TLV(s), as specified
      in Section 18.

   The 8.2.2.

   A TC message is processed MAY contain:

   o  A message TLV with Type == INTERVAL_TIME, as follows:

   1.  the ANSN History Set is updated according to Section 13.1.1; if
       the TC specified in [2].

   o  A message is indicated TLV with Type == INCOMPLETE, as discarded specified in that processing then
       the following steps are not carried out;

   2.  the Topology Set is updated according to Section 13.1.2;

   3.  the Attached Network Set is updated according to
      Section 13.1.3.

13.1.1.  Populating the ANSN History Set

   The 8.2.1.

8.2.1.  TC Message TLVs

   In a TC message, a node MUST update its ANSN History Set as follows:

   1.  If there is include a CONT_SEQ_NUM message TLV, and
   MAY contain an ANSN History Tuple with:

       *  AH_orig_addr == originator address; AND
       *  AH_seq_number > ANSN

       then the TC INCOMPLETE message MUST be discarded.

   2.  Otherwise

       1.  If there is no ANSN History Tuple such that:

           +  AH_orig_addr == originator address;

           then create a new ANSN History Tuple with:

           +  AH_orig_addr = originator address.

       2.  This ANSN History Tuple (existing or new) is then modified TLV, as
           follows:

           +  AH_seq_number = ANSN;

           +  AH_time = current time + validity time.

13.1.2.  Populating the Topology Set

   The specified in Table 3.  A
   node MUST update its Topology Set as follows:

   1.  For each address, henceforth local address, in the first address
       block in the TC message:

       1.  For each address, henceforth advertised address, in an
           address block other NOT include more than the first in the TC message, and
           which does not have an associated TLV with Type == GATEWAY:

           1.  If there is no Topology Tuple such that:

               -  T_dest_iface_addr == advertised address; AND

               -  T_last_iface_addr == local address

               then create a new Topology Tuple with:

               -  T_dest_iface_addr = advertised address;

               -  T_last_iface_addr = local address.

           2.  This Topology Tuple (existing one CONT_SEQ_NUM message TLV or new) is then modified as
               follows:

               -  T_seq_number = ANSN;

               -  T_time = current time + validity time.

13.1.3.  Populating the Attached Network Set
   INCOMPLETE message TLV.

   +--------------+------+---------+--------+--------------------------+
   |     Name     | Type | Subtype | Length | Value                    |
   +--------------+------+---------+--------+--------------------------+
   | CONT_SEQ_NUM |  TBD |    0    | 8 bits | The node MUST update its Attached Network Set as follows:

   1.  For each address, henceforth gateway address, ANSN contained in    |
   |              |      |         |        | the first Advertised Neighbor  |
   |              |      |         |        | Set                      |
   |              |      |         |        |                          |
   |  INCOMPLETE  |  TBD |    0    | 0 bits | None                     |
   +--------------+------+---------+--------+--------------------------+

                                  Table 3

8.2.2.  TC Message Address Block TLVs

   In a TC message, a node MAY include GATEWAY address block TLV(s) as
   specified in the TC message:

       1.  For each address, henceforth Table 4.

   +---------+------+---------+--------+-------------------------------+
   |   Name  | Type | Subtype | Length | Value                         |
   +---------+------+---------+--------+-------------------------------+
   | GATEWAY |  TBD |    0    | 8 bits | Number of hops to attached    |
   |         |      |         |        | network address, in an address
           block other than the first                       |
   +---------+------+---------+--------+-------------------------------+

                                  Table 4

9.  HELLO Message Generation

   An OLSRv2 HELLO message is composed as defined in [4], with the TC message, and which has
           an associated
   following additions:

   o  A message TLV with Type == GATEWAY:

           1.  If there is no Attached Network Tuple such that:

               -  AN_net_addr == network address; AND

               -  AN_gw_iface_addr WILLINGNESS and Value == gateway the node's
      willingness to act as an MPR, MAY be included.

   o  For each address

               then create a new Attached Network Tuple with:

               -  AN_net_addr = network address;

               -  AN_gw_iface_addr = gateway address.

           2.  This Attached Network Tuple (existing or new) which is then
               modified as follows:

               -  AN_dist = the value of included in the associated GATEWAY TLV;

               -  AN_seq_number = ANSN;

               -  AN_time = current time + validity time.

13.2.  Completing TC Message Processing

   The TC message with an
      associated TLV with Type == LINK_STATUS and Value == SYMMETRIC,
      and is processed as follows:

   1.  the Topology Set is updated according to Section 13.2.1;

   2. of an MPR (i.e. the Attached Network Set address is updated according to Section 13.2.2.

13.2.1.  Purging the Topology Set

   The Topology Set MUST be updated as follows:

   1.  for each address, henceforth local address, in the first
      N_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Neighbor Tuple with N_mpr ==
      true), an address block of the TC message, all Topology Tuples with:

       *  T_last_iface_addr TLV with Type == local address; AND

       *  T_seq_number < ANSN MPR MUST be removed.

13.2.2.  Purging the Attached Network Set

   The Attached Network Set included;
      this TLV MUST be updated associated with the same copy of the address as follows:

   1.  for
      is the TLV with Type == LINK_STATUS.

   o  For each address, henceforth local address, address which is included in the first address
       block message and is not
      associated with a TLV with Type == LINK_STATUS and Value ==
      SYMMETRIC, or is not of an MPR (i.e. the TC message, all Attached Network Tuples with:

       *  AN_gw_iface_addr address is not in the
      N_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Neighbor Tuple with N_mpr ==
      true), an address block TLV with Type == local address; AND

       *  AN_seq_number < ANSN

       MUST be removed.

14.  Populating the MPR Set

   Each node MUST select, from among its symmetric 1-hop neighbors, a
   subset of nodes as MPRs.  This subset MUST NOT be selected such that
      associated wit this address.

   o  For each Local Attached Tuple with AL_dist == 0, a
   message transmitted by node MAY
      include AL_net_addr in the node, and retransmitted by all its MPRs,
   will be received by all Local Interface Block of its symmetric strict 2-hop neighbors.

   Each node selects its MPR Set individually, utilizing the information message,
      with an associated TLV with Type == OTHER_IF.

9.1.  HELLO Message: Transmission

   HELLO messages are included in packets as specified in [1].  These
   packets may contain other messages, including TC messages.

10.  HELLO Message Processing

   Subsequent to the processing of HELLO messages, as specified in [4],
   the node MUST identify the Symmetric Neighbor Set, Tuple which was created or
   updated by the 2-Hop processing specified in [4] (the "current Neighbor Set
   Tuple") and update N_willingness as described in Section 10.1 and
   N_mpr_selector as described in Section 10.2.

10.1.  Updating Willingness

   N_willingness in the
   Neighborhood Address Association Set. Initially these sets will be
   empty, current Neighbor Tuple is updated as will be follows:

   1.  if the MPR Set. A node SHOULD recalculate its MPR Set
   when HELLO message contains a relevant change message TLV with Type ==
       WILLINGNESS then N_willingness is made set to the Symmetric Neighbor Set, the
   2-Hop Neighbor Set or the Neighborhood Address Association Set.

   More specifically, a node MUST calculate MPRs per interface, the
   union value of the that TLV;

   2.  otherwise, N_willingness is set to WILL_DEFAULT.

10.2.  Updating MPR Sets Selectors

   N_mpr_selector is updated as follows:

   1.  If a node finds one of each its local OLSRv2 interface make up the MPR Set for the
   node.  All OLSRv2 interfaces of nodes selected as MPRs addresses with which
       an associated TLV with Type == MPR in the HELLO message
       (indicating that the originator node has a symmetric link MUST be added to selected the MPR Set. Also
   symmetric 1-hop neighbor nodes with willingness WILL_NEVER (as
   recorded receiving
       node as an MPR), then N_mpr_selector in the Link Set) MUST NOT be considered as MPRs.

   MPRs are used to flood control messages from current Neighbor
       Tuple is set true.

   2.  Otherwise, if a node into the network
   while reducing the number finds one of retransmissions that will occur its own interface addresses
       with an associated TLV with Type == LINK_STATUS and Value ==
       SYMMETRIC in a
   region.  Thus, the concept of MPR is an optimization of a classical
   flooding mechanism.  While it is not essential that HELLO message, then N_mpr_selector in the MPR Set is
   minimal, it
       current Neighbor Tuple is essential that all symmetric strict 2-hop neighbors
   can be reached through the selected MPR nodes. set false.

10.3.  Symmetric 1-Hop and 2-Hop Neighborhood Changes

   A node MUST select an
   MPR Set such that any strict 2-hop neighbor is "covered" by at least
   one MPR node.  A node MAY select additional MPRs beyond the minimum
   set.  Keeping the MPR Set small ensures that also perform the overhead following:

   1.  If N_symmetric of OLSRv2
   is kept at a minimum.

   Appendix C contains an example heuristic for selecting MPRs.

15.  Populating Derived Sets

   The Relay Set and the Advertised Neighbor Set of OLSRv2 are denoted
   derived sets, since updates to these sets are not directly a function
   of message exchanges, but rather are derived Tuple changes from updates true to other
   sets, in particular the MPR Selector Set.

15.1.  Populating the Relay Set

   The Relay Set contains the set of OLSRv2 interface addresses false,
       then N_mpr_selector of those
   symmetric 1-hop neighbors for which a node is supposed to relay
   broadcast traffic.  This set that Neighbor Tuple MUST at least contain all addresses in
   the MPR Selector Set (i.e. all MS_neighbor_iface_addr).  This be set MAY
   contain additional symmetric 1-hop neighbor OLSRv2 interface
   addresses.

15.2.  Populating the Advertised Neighbor Set false.

   2.  The Advertised Neighbor Set contains the set of OLSRv2 interface
   addresses MPRs of those 1-hop neighbors to which a node advertises a
   symmetric link in TC messages.  This set MUST at least contain all
   addresses in the MPR Selector Set (i.e. all MS_neighbor_iface_addr).
   This set MAY contain additional symmetric 1-hop neighbor OLSRv2
   interface addresses.

   Whenever an address is added to or removed from the Advertised
   Neighbor Set, the ANSN MUST be incremented.

16.  Routing Table Calculation

   The Routing Set recalculated if:

       *  a Link Tuple is updated when added with L_status == SYMMETRIC, OR;

       *  a change (an entry appearing or
   disappearing, or changing between Link Tuple with L_status == SYMMETRIC and LOST) is detected in:

   o  the removed, OR;

       *  a Link Set, Tuple with L_status == SYMMETRIC changes to having
          L_status == HEARD or L_status == LOST, OR;

   o  the Neighbor Address Association Set,
       *  a Link Tuple with L_status == HEARD or L_status == LOST
          changes to having L_status == SYMMETRIC, OR;

   o  the

       *  a 2-Hop Neighbor Set, OR;

   o  the Topology Set, Tuple is added or removed, OR;

   o

       *  the Attached Network Set.

   Note that some changes to these sets do not necessitate N_willingness of a change to
   the Routing Set, in particular Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true
          changes from WILL_NEVER to any other value, OR;

       *  the Link Set which do not
   involve Link Tuples N_willingness of a Neighbor Tuple with L_STATUS N_symmetric == SYMMETRIC (either before or
   after the change), true
          and similar N_mpr == true changes to the Neighbor Address
   Association Set. A node MAY avoid updating the Routing Set in such
   cases.

   Updates to the Routing Set do not generate or trigger WILL_NEVER from any messages to
   be transmitted.  The state of the Routing Set SHOULD, however, be
   reflected in other value,
          OR;

       *  the IP routing table by adding N_willingness of a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true
          and removing entries N_mpr == false changes to WILL_ALWAYS from any other
          value.

   3.  Otherwise the routing table as appropriate.

   To construct the Routing Set set of MPRs of node X, a shortest path algorithm is
   run on the directed graph containing

   o node MAY be recalculated if the arcs X -> Y where there exists
       N_willingness of a Link Neighbor Tuple with Y N_symmetric == true
       changes in the
      L_neighbor_iface_addr_list any other way; it SHOULD be recalculated if N_mpr ==
       false and L_STATUS this is an increase in N_willingness or if N_mpr == SYMMETRIC (i.e.  Y
       true and this is a decrease in N_willingness.

   If the set of MPRs of a node is recalculated, this MUST be as
   described in Section 13.  Before that calculation the N_mpr of all
   Neighbor Tuples are set false, after that calculation the N_mpr of
   all Neighbor Tuples representing symmetric 1-hop neighbor neighbors which are
   chosen as MPRs, are set true.

   An additional HELLO message MAY be sent when the node's set of X), AND;

   o MPRs
   changes, in addition to the arcs Y -> Z where Y is added as above cases specified in [4], and subject to
   the Link Tuple same constraints.

11.  TC Message Generation

   A node with
      Y in its L_neighbor_iface_addr_list has L_willingness not equal to
      WILL_NEVER, one or more OLSRv2 interfaces, and there exists with a 2-Hop non-empty
   Advertised Neighbor Tuple with Y as
      N2_neighbor_iface_addr and Z Set or which acts as N2_2hop_iface_addr (i.e.  Z is a
      symmetric 2-hop neighbor of Z through Y, which does not have
      willingness WILL_NEVER), AND;

   o gateway to an attached
   network which is to be advertised in the arcs U -> V, where there exists a Topology Tuple MANET by this node, MUST
   generate TC messages.  A node with U as
      T_last_iface_addr an empty Advertised Neighbor Set
   and V which is not acting as T_dest_iface_addr (i.e. such a gateway SHOULD also generate
   "empty" TC messages for a period A_HOLD_TIME after it last generated
   a non-empty TC message.  TC messages (non-empty and empty) are
   generated according to the following:

   1.  The message hop count MUST be set to zero.

   2.  The message hop limit MAY be set to any positive value, this is an
      advertised link
       SHOULD be at least two.  A node MAY:

       *  use the same hop limit TC_HOP_LIMIT in all TC messages, this
          MUST be at least equal to the network diameter in hops; OR

       *  use different values of the network). hop limit TC_HOP_LIMIT in TC
          messages, this MUST regularly include messages with hop limit
          as defined above, other, lower, hop limits SHOULD use a
          regular pattern with a regular message interval at any given
          number of hops distance.

   3.  The graph is complemented with:

   o  arcs Y -> W where there exists message MUST contain a Link Tuple message TLV with Y in its
      L_neighbor_iface_addr_list and L_STATUS Type == SYMMETRIC CONT_SEQ_NUM
       and Value == ANSN from the Advertised Neighbor Set.

   4.  The message MUST contain a
      Neighborhood Address Association Tuple message TLV with Y and W both contained Type ==
       VALIDITY_TIME, as specified in its NA_neighbor_iface_addr_list (i.e.  Y and W [2].  If all TC messages are both
      addresses of sent
       with the same symmetric 1-hop neighbor), AND;

   o  arcs U -> T where there exists an Attached Network Tuple hop limit then this TLV MUST have Value ==
       T_HOLD_TIME.  If TC messages are sent with U as
      AN_net_addr and T as AN_gw_iface_addr (i.e.  U is a gateway different hop limits,
       then this TLV MUST specify times which vary with the number of
       hops distance appropriate to
      network T).

   The following procedure is given as an example for calculating the
   Routing Set using a variation chosen pattern of Dijkstra's algorithm.  Thus:

   1.  All Routing Tuples are removed.

   2.  For each Link Tuple TC message hop
       limits, these times SHOULD be appropriate multiples of
       T_HOLD_TIME.

   5.  The message MAY contain a message TLV with L_STATUS Type == SYMMETRIC, and for each
       address (henceforth neighbor address) INTERVAL_TIME,
       as specified in that Link Tuple's
       L_neighbor_iface_addr_list, a new Routing Tuple is added with:

       *  R_dest_addr = neighbor address;

       *  R_next_iface_addr = neighbor address;

       *  R_dist = 1;

       *  R_local_iface_addr = neighbor address.

   3.  For each Neighbor Address Association Tuple, for which two
       addresses A1 and A2 [2].  If all TC messages are in NA_neighbor_iface_addr_list where:

       *  there is a Routing Tuple with:

          +  R_dest_addr == A1

       *  and there is no Routing Tuple with:

          +  R_dest_addr sent with the same
       hop limit then this TLV MUST have Value == A2 TC_INTERVAL.  If TC
       messages are sent with different hop limits, then a Routing Tuple is added with:

       *  R_dest_addr = A2;

       *  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of the Routing Tuple in this TLV MUST
       specify times which R_dest_addr == A1;

       *  R_dist = 1;
       *  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr vary with the number of hops distance
       appropriate to the Routing Tuple
          in which R_dest_addr == A1.

   4.  The following procedure, which adds Routing Tuples for
       destination nodes h+1 hops away, MUST chosen pattern of TC message hop limits, these
       times SHOULD be executed for each value appropriate multiples of h, starting with h=2 and incrementing by 1 for each iteration. TC_INTERVAL.

   6.  The execution MUST stop if no new Routing Tuples are added in an
       iteration.

       1.  For each Topology Tuple, if

           +  T_dest_iface_addr is not equal to R_dest_addr of any
              Routing Tuple, AND;

           +  T_last_iface_addr is equal to R_dest_addr of a Routing
              Tuple whose R_dist == h;

           then a new Routing Tuple message MUST be added, with:

           +  R_dest_addr = T_dest_iface_addr;

           +  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of contain the Routing Tuple
              whose R_dest_addr == T_last_iface_addr;

           +  R_dist = h+1;

           +  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr addresses of the Routing
              Tuple whose R_dest_addr == T_last_iface_addr.

           Several Topology Tuples may be used to select a next hop
           R_next_iface_addr for reaching the all of its interfaces
       in its first address R_dest_addr.  When
           h == 1, ties should be broken such block (the "Local Address Block").  Note
       that nodes with highest
           willingness are preferred, the TC message generated on all OLSRv2 interfaces MUST be
       identical (including having identical message sequence number)
       and between nodes of equal
           willingness, MPR selectors hence these addresses are preferred over non-MPR
           selectors.

       2.  After the above iteration has completed, if h == 1, for each
           2-Hop Neighbor Tuple where:

           +  N2_2hop_iface_addr is not equal ordered or otherwise identified
       according to R_dest_addr of any
              Routing Tuple, AND;

           +  N2_neighbor_iface_addr has a willingness (i.e. the
              L_willingness of the Link Tuple whose
              L_neighbor_iface_addr_list contains
              N2_neighbor_iface_addr) interface on which is not equal to WILL_NEVER;

           a Routing Tuple is added with:

           +  R_dest_addr = N2_2hop_iface_addr of the 2-Hop Neighbor
              Tuple;

           +  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of the Routing Tuple
              in which R_dest_addr == N2_neighbor_iface_addr;

           +  R_dist = 2;

           +  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr of the Routing
              Tuple TC message is
       transmitted.

   7.  The message MUST contain, in which R_dest_addr == N2_neighbor_iface_addr.

   5.  For address blocks other than its first
       ("Advertised Address Blocks"):

       1.  A_neighbor_iface_addr from each Attached Network Tuple, if

       *  AN_net_addr is not equal to R_dest_addr of any Routing Tuple,
          AND;

       *  AN_gw_iface_addr is equal to R_dest_addr of a Routing Advertised Neighbor Tuple;

       then a new Routing Tuple MUST be added, with:

       *  R_dest_addr = AN_net_addr;

       *  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of the Routing Tuple
          whose R_dest_addr == AN_gw_iface_addr;

       *  R_dist = (R_dist of the Routing

       2.  AL_net_addr from each Local Attached Neighbor Tuple whose R_dest_addr with
           AL_dist > 0, each associated with a TLV with Type ==
          AN_gw_iface_addr) + AN_dist;

       *  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr of the Routing Tuple
          whose R_dest_addr GATEWAY
           and Value == AN_gw_iface_addr.

       If more AL_dist.

   8.  The message MAY contain, in address blocks other than one its first:

       1.  AL_net_addr from each Local Attached Network Tuple has the same AN_net_addr,
       then more than one Routing Neighbor Tuple MUST NOT be added, with
           AL_dist == 0, each associated with a TLV with Type == GATEWAY
           and the added
       Routing Tuple MUST have minimum R_dist.

17.  Proposed Values for Constants

   This section list the values for the constants used in the
   description of the protocol.  These proposed values are appropriate
   to the case where all Value == 0.

11.1.  TC Message: Transmission

   TC messages are sent generated and transmitted periodically on all OLSRv2
   interfaces, with a default interval between two consecutive TC
   emissions by the same hop limit
   (usually 255).

17.1.  Neighborhood Discovery Constants

   The constants HELLO_INTERVAL, REFRESH_INTERVAL, HELLO_MIN_INTERVAL,
   H_HOLD_TIME, L_HOLD_TIME, N_HOLD_TIME, HP_MAXJITTER, HT_MAXJITTER and
   C are used as in [4].

17.2.  Message Intervals

   o  TC_INTERVAL = 5 seconds

   o  TC_MIN_INTERVAL = TC_INTERVAL/4

17.3.  Holding Times

   o  T_HOLD_TIME = 3 x TC_INTERVAL

   o  A_HOLD_TIME = T_HOLD_TIME

   o  P_HOLD_TIME = 30 seconds

   o  RX_HOLD_TIME = 30 seconds

   o  F_HOLD_TIME = 30 seconds

17.4.  Jitter Times

   o  TP_MAXJITTER = HP_MAXJITTER

   o  TT_MAXJITTER = HT_MAXJITTER

   o  TF_MAXJITTER = TT_MAXJITTER

17.5.  Willingness

   o  WILL_NEVER = 0

   o  WILL_DEFAULT = 3

   o  WILL_ALWAYS = 7

18.  Sequence Numbers

   Sequence numbers are used in OLSRv2 with the purpose node of discarding
   "old" information, i.e. TC_INTERVAL.

   TC messages received out of order.  However with MAY be generated in response to a limited number change of bits for representing sequence numbers, wrap-
   around (that the sequence number is incremented from the maximum
   possible value to zero) will occur.  To prevent contents,
   indicated by a change in ANSN.  In this from interfering case a node MAY send a
   complete TC message, and if so MAY re-start its TC message schedule.
   Alternatively a node MAY send only new content in its address blocks
   (with appropriate associated TLVs) in which case it MUST include a
   message TLV with the operation of OLSRv2, the following Type == INCOMPLETE, and MUST be observed when
   determining the ordering NOT re-start its TC
   message schedule.  This TC message MUST include its usual message
   TLVs.  Note that a node cannot report removal of sequence numbers.

   The term MAXVALUE designates advertised content
   using an incomplete TC message.

   When sending a TC message in the following one more than the
   largest possible value for response to a sequence number.  For change of contents, a 16 bit sequence
   number (as are those defined in this specification) MAXVALUE is
   65536.

   The sequence number S1 is said node
   must respect a minimum interval of TC_MIN_INTERVAL between generated
   TC messages.  Sending an incomplete TC message MUST NOT cause the
   interval between complete TC messages to be "greater than" the sequence
   number S2 if:

   o  S1 > S2 AND S1 - S2 < MAXVALUE/2 OR

   o  S2 > S1 AND S2 - S1 > MAXVALUE/2

   When sequence numbers S1 increased, and S2 differ thus a
   node MUST NOT send an incomplete TC message if within TC_MIN_INTERVAL
   of the next scheduled complete TC message.

   The generation of TC messages, whether scheduled or triggered by MAXVALUE/2 their ordering
   cannot be determined.  In this case, which should not occur, either
   ordering may a
   change of contents MAY be assumed.

   Thus when comparing two messages, it is possible - even jittered as described in the
   presence [3].  The values
   of wrap-around - to determine which MAXJITTER used SHOULD be:

   o  TP_MAXJITTER for periodic TC message contains generation;

   o  TT_MAXJITTER for triggered TC message generation.

   TC messages are included in packets as specified in [1].  These
   packets may contain other messages, including HELLO messages and TC
   messages with different originator addresses.  TC messages are
   forwarded according to the
   most recent information.

19.  IANA Considerations

19.1. specification in Section 7.4.

12.  TC Message Types

   OLSRv2 defines one Processing

   When according to Section 7.3 a TC message type, which must is to be allocated from processed
   according to its type, this means that:

   o  if the
   "Assigned Message Types" repository of [3].

   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+
   |      Mnemonic      | Value | Description                          |
   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+
   |         TC         |  TBD  | Topology Control (global signaling)  |
   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+

                                  Table 5

19.2. message does not contain a message TLV Types

   OLSRv2 defines three with Type ==
      INCOMPLETE, then processing according to Section 12.1 and then
      according to Section 12.2 is carried out;

   o  if the message contains a message TLV types, which must with Type == INCOMPLETE,
      then only processing according to Section 12.1 is carried out.

   For all processing purposes, "ANSN" is defined as being the value of
   the message TLV with Type == CONT_SEQ_NUM in the TC message.  If a TC
   message has no such TLV then it MUST NOT be allocated processed.

12.1.  Initial TC Message Processing

   For the purposes of this section, note the following:

   o  "validity time" is calculated from the "Assigned VALIDITY_TIME message TLV Types" repository of [3].

   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+
   |      Mnemonic      | Value | Description                          |
   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+
   |     WILLINGNESS    |  TBD  | Specifies
      in the originating node's     |
   |                    |       | willingness TC message according to act as a relay and the specification in [2];

   o  "originator address" refers to |
   |                    |       | partake the originator address in network formation         |
   |                    |       |                                      |
   |    CONT_SEQ_NUM    |  TBD  | Specifies a content sequence number  |
   |                    |       | for this message                     |
   |                    |       |                                      |
   |     INCOMPLETE     |  TBD  | Specifies that this the TC
      message is       |
   |                    |       | incomplete                           |
   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+

                                  Table 6

   OLSRv2 defines two header;

   o  "Local Address Block" refers to the Local Address Block TLV types, which must be allocated
   from (i.e. the "Assigned
      first address block TLV Types" repository block) in the TC message;

   o  "sending address list" refers to the list of [3].

   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+
   |      Mnemonic      | Value | Description                          |
   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+
   |         MPR        |  TBD  | Specifies that a given addresses in the
      Local Address Block.

   o  "Advertised Address Block" refers to an Advertised Address Block
      (i.e. the an address block other than the first address block) in
      the TC message;

   o  comparisons of sequence numbers are carried out as specified in
      Section 17.

   The TC message is    |
   |                    |       | selected processed as MPR                      |
   |                    |       |                                      |
   |       GATEWAY      |  TBD  | Specifies follows:

   1.  the Advertising Remote Node Set is updated according to
       Section 12.1.1; if the TC message is indicated as discarded in
       that a given address processing then the following steps are not carried out;

   2.  the Topology Set is    |
   |                    |       | reached via a gateway on updated according to Section 12.1.2;
   3.  the         |
   |                    |       | originating Attached Network Set is updated according to Section 12.1.3.

12.1.1.  Populating the Advertising Remote Node Set

   The node                     |
   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+

                                  Table 7

20.  References

20.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Clausen, T. and P. Jacquet, "The Optimized Link State Routing
        Protocol", RFC 3626, October 2003.

   [2]  Bradner, S., "Key words MUST update its Advertising Remote Node Set as follows:

   1.  If there is an Advertising Remote Node Tuple with:

       *  AR_orig_addr == originator address; AND

       *  AR_seq_number > ANSN

       then the TC message MUST be discarded.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  If there is no Advertising Remote Node Tuple such that:

           +  AR_orig_addr == originator address;

           then create an Advertising Remote Node Tuple with:

           +  AR_orig_addr = originator address.

       2.  This Advertising Remote Node Tuple (existing or new, the
           "current tuple") is then modified as follows:

           +  AR_seq_number = ANSN;

           +  AR_time = current time + validity time.

           +  AR_iface_addr_list = sending address list

       3.  for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997.

   [3]  Clausen, T., Dean, J., Dearlove, C., and C. Adjih, "Generalized
        MANET Packet/Message Format", work in
        progress draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-03.txt, January 2007.

   [4]  Clausen, T., Dean, J., and C. Dearlove, "MANET Neighborhood
        Discovery Protocol (NHDP)", work in
        progress draft-ietf-manet-nhdp-01.txt, February 2007.

20.2.  Informative References

   [5]  Atkins, D., Stallings, W., and P. Zimmermann, "PGP Message
        Exchange Formats", RFC 1991, August 1996.

   [6]  ETSI, "ETSI STC-RES10 Committee. Radio equipment and systems:
        HIPERLAN type 1, functional specifications ETS 300-652",
        June 1996.

   [7]  Jacquet, P., Minet, P., Muhlethaler, P., and N. Rivierre,
        "Increasing reliability in cable free radio LANs: Low level
        forwarding in HIPERLAN.", 1996.

   [8]  Qayyum, A., Viennot, L., and A. Laouiti, "Multipoint relaying:
        An efficient technique for flooding in mobile wireless
        networks.", 2001.

Appendix A.  Node Configuration

   OLSRv2 does not make any assumption about node addresses, other than
   that each node is assumed to have at least one unique and routable IP
   address for each interface that it has which participates each other Advertising Remote Node Tuple (with a
           different AR_orig_addr, the "other tuple") whose
           AR_iface_addr_list contains any address in the
   MANET.

   When applicable, a recommended way
           AR_iface_addr_list of connecting an OLSRv2 network to
   an existing IP routing domain is to assign an IP prefix (under the
   authority current tuple:

           1.  remove all Topology Tuples with T_orig_addr ==
               AR_orig_addr of the nodes/gateways connecting the MANET other tuple;

           2.  remove all Attached Network Tuples with AN_orig_addr ==
               AR_orig_addr of the routing
   domain) exclusively to other tuple;

           3.  remove the OLSRv2 area, and to configure other tuple.

12.1.2.  Populating the gateways
   statically to advertise routes to that IP sequence to nodes Topology Set

   The node MUST update its Topology Set as follows:

   1.  For each address (henceforth advertised address) in the
   existing routing domain.

Appendix B.  Protocol and Port Number

   Packets in OLSRv2 are communicated using UDP.  Port 698 has been
   assigned by IANA for exclusive usage by the OLSR (v1 and v2)
   protocol.

Appendix C.  Example Heuristic for Calculating MPRs

   The following specifies a proposed heuristic for selection of MPRs.

   In graph theory terms, MPR computation is a "set cover" problem,
   which is a difficult optimization problem, but for which an easy and
   efficient heuristics exist: the so-called "Greedy Heuristic", a
   variant of Advertised
       Address Block which is described here.  In simple terms, MPR computation
   constructs does not have an MPR Set that enables associated TLV with Type ==
       GATEWAY:

       1.  If there is no Topology Tuple such that:

           +  T_dest_iface_addr == advertised address; AND

           +  T_orig_addr == originator address

           then create a node to reach any symmetric
   2-hop neighbors by relaying through an MPR node.

   There are several peripheral issues that the algorithm needs to new Topology Tuple with:

           +  T_dest_iface_addr = advertised address;

           +  T_orig_addr = originator address.  The first one is that some nodes have some willingness
   WILL_NEVER.  The second one

       2.  This Topology Tuple (existing or new) is that some nodes may have several
   interfaces. then modified as
           follows:

           +  T_seq_number = ANSN;

           +  T_time = current time + validity time.

12.1.3.  Populating the Attached Network Set

   The algorithm hence can be summarized by:

   o  All 1-hop neighbor nodes with willingness equal to WILL_NEVER node MUST
      ignored in the following algorithm: they are not considered as
      1-hop neighbors (hence not used update its Attached Network Set as MPRs).

   o  Because link sensing is performed by interface, the local follows:

   1.  For each address (henceforth network
      topology is best described address) in terms of links: hence the algorithm an Advertised
       Address Block which has an associated TLV with Type == GATEWAY:

       1.  If there is considering 1-hop neighbor OLSRv2 interfaces, and 2-hop
      neighbor OLSRv2 interfaces (and their addresses).  Additionally,
      asymmetric links are ignored. no Attached Network Tuple such that:

           +  AN_net_addr == network address; AND

           +  AN_orig_addr == originator address

           then create a new Attached Network Tuple with:

           +  AN_net_addr = network address;

           +  AN_orig_addr = originator address
       2.  This Attached Network Tuple (existing or new) is reflected in then
           modified as follows:

           +  AN_dist = the
      definitions below.

   o  MPR computation is performed on each interface value of the node: on
      each interface I, associated GATEWAY TLV;

           +  AN_seq_number = ANSN;

           +  AN_time = current time + validity time.

12.2.  Completing TC Message Processing

   The TC message is processed as follows:

   1.  the Topology Set is updated according to Section 12.2.1;

   2.  the Attached Network Set is updated according to Section 12.2.2.

12.2.1.  Purging the Topology Set

   The Topology Set MUST be updated as follows:

   Any Topology Tuples with:

   o  T_orig_addr == originator address; AND

   o  T_seq_number < ANSN

   MUST be removed.

12.2.2.  Purging the Attached Network Set

   The Attached Network Set MUST be updated as follows:

   1.  Any Attached Network Tuples with:

       *  AN_orig_addr == originator address; AND

       *  AN_seq_number < ANSN

       MUST be removed.

13.  Selecting MPRs

   Each node MUST select some neighbor interfaces,
      so that all 2-hop neighbor interfaces select, from among its symmetric 1-hop neighbors, a
   subset of nodes as MPRs.  MPRs are reached.

   From now on, MPR calculation will be described for one interface I on used to flood control messages
   from a node into the node, and network while reducing the following terminology number of
   retransmissions that will be used occur in describing a region.  Thus, the heuristics:

   neighbor interface (of I)  - An OLSRv2 interface concept of
   MPR is an optimization of a 1-hop neighbor
      to which there exist a symmetric link using interface I.

   N  - classical flooding mechanism.  MPRs MAY
   also be used to reduce the shared topology information in the
   network.  Consequently, while it is not essential that the set of such neighbor interfaces

   2-hop neighbor interface (of I)  An interface
   MPRs is minimal, keeping the number of MPRs small ensures that the
   overhead of OLSRv2 is kept at a minimum.

   A node MUST select MPRs for each of its OLSRv2 interfaces, but then
   forms the union of those sets as its single set of MPRs.  This union
   MUST include all symmetric strict
      2-hop neighbor 1-hop neighbors with willingness
   WILL_ALWAYS.  Only this overall set of MPRs is relevant and recorded,
   the MPR relationship is one of nodes, not interfaces.  Nodes MAY
   select their MPRs by any process which satisfies the conditions which
   follow.  Nodes can be reached from a neighbor interface for
      I.

   N2 - freely interoperate whether they use the same or
   different MPR selection algorithms.

   For each OLSRv2 interface a node MUST select a set of such 2-hop neighbor interfaces

   D(y):  - MPRs which have
   the degree property that none of them have willingness WILL_NEVER, and that
   if the node successfully sends a 1-hop neighbor message on that OLSRv2 interface,
   and that message is then successfully forwarded by all of the
   selected MPRs, that all symmetric strict 2-hop neighbors of the node
   by that OLSRv2 interface y (where y will receive that message on a symmetric
   link.

   Note that it is always possible to select a
      member valid set of N), is defined as MPRs, the number
   set of all symmetric neighbor
      interfaces 1-hop neighbors of a node y which are in N2

   MPR Set  - the do not have
   willingness WILL_NEVER is a (maximal) valid set of the neighbor interfaces selected as MPRs.

   The proposed heuristic selects iteratively some interfaces from N as
   MPRs in order to cover 2-hop  A node
   SHOULD NOT select a symmetric 1-hop neighbor interfaces from N2, as follows:

   1.  Start with an MPR Set made of all members of N with L_willingness willingness not
   equal to WILL_ALWAYS

   2.  Calculate D(y), where y is a member of N, for all interfaces in
       N.

   3.  Add to the MPR Set those interfaces in N, which are the *only*
       nodes to provide reachability to as an interface in N2.  For
       example, MPR if interface B in N2 can be reached only through there are no symmetric strict 2-hop
   neighbors with a symmetric link to interface that symmetric 1-hop neighbor.
   Thus a node with no symmetric 1-hop neighbors with willingness
   WILL_ALWAYS and no symmetric strict 2-hop neighbors SHOULD NOT select
   any MPRs.

   A in N, then add node MAY select its MPRs for each OLSRv2 interface B to the independently,
   or it MAY coordinate its MPR Set. Remove selections across its OLSRv2 interfaces,
   as long as the interfaces required condition is satisfied for each OLSRv2
   interface.  Each node MAY select its MPRs independently from N2 which are now covered by a
       interface in the MPR Set.

   4.  While there exist interfaces in N2 which
   selection by other nodes, or it MAY, for example, give preference to
   nodes that either are, or are not covered not, already selected as MPRs by at
       least one interface in the MPR Set:

       1.  For other
   nodes.

   The set of MPRs for each OLSRv2 interface in N, calculate the reachability, i.e., can be selected using
   information from the number Link Set and 2-Hop Set of interfaces in N2 which are not yet covered by
           at least one node in the MPR Set, that OLSRv2 interface,
   and which are reachable
           through this neighbor interface;

       2.  Select as an MPR the interface with highest L_willingness
           among the interfaces in N with non-zero reachability.  In
           case Neighbor Set of multiple choice select the interface which provides
           reachability to node (specifically the maximum number N_willingness
   elements).  The selection of interfaces MPRs (overall, not per OLSRv2 interface)
   is recorded in N2.  In
           case of multiple interfaces providing the same amount Neighbor Set of
           reachability, select the interface as MPR whose D(y) is
           greater.  Remove the interfaces from N2 which are now covered
           by an interface in node (using the N_mpr
   elements).  A selected MPR Set.

   Other algorithms, as well as improvements over this algorithm, are
   possible.  For example:

   o  Assume that MUST be in a multiple interface scenario there exists more
      than one link between nodes 'a' the node's symmetric 1-hop
   neighborhood (i.e. the corresponding N_symmetric == true) and 'b'.  If node 'a' has selected MUST
   not have the corresponding N_willingness == WILL_NEVER.

   A node 'b' as MPR for one of MUST recalculate its interfaces, then node 'b' can be
      selected as MPR with minimal performance loss by any other
      interfaces on node 'a'.

   o  In a multiple interface scenario MPRs are whenever the currently selected for each
      interface set
   of MPRs does not still satisfy the selecting node, providing full coverage of all
      2-hop nodes accessible through that interface.  The overall MPR
      Set is then required conditions.  It MAY
   recalculate its MPRs if the union current set of these sets.  These sets do not however
      have to MPRs is still valid, but
   could be selected independently, if more efficient.  It is sufficient to recalculate a node node's
   MPRs when there is selected as an MPR
      for one interface it may be automatically added a change to any of the MPR
      selection for other interfaces.

Appendix D.  Packet and Message Layout

   This appendix illustrates node's Link Sets affecting
   the translation symmetry of any link (addition or removal of a Link Tuple with
   L_status == SYMMETRIC, or change of any L_status to or from the abstract
   descriptions
   SYMMETRIC), any change to any of packets employed in the protocol specification, and the bit-layout packets actually exchanged between node's 2-Hop Sets, or a change
   of the nodes.

Appendix D.1.  Packet and Message Options

   The basic layout N_willingness (to or from WILL_NEVER or to WILL_ALWAYS is
   sufficient) of an OLSRv2 packet any Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true.

   An algorithm that creates a set of MPRs that satisfies the required
   conditions is as described given in [3].  However
   the following points should be noted.

   In Appendix B.

14.  Populating Derived Sets

   The Relay Sets and the following figures, reserved bits marked Reserved or Resv MUST
   be cleared ('0').  Octets indicated as Padding Advertised Neighbor Set of a node are denoted
   derived sets, since updates to these sets are optional and MAY
   be omitted; if not omitted they SHOULD be used directly a function
   of message exchanges, but rather are derived from updates to pad other
   sets, in particular to a 32 bit
   boundary and MUST all be zero. the MPR selector status of other nodes
   recorded in the Neighbor Set.

14.1.  Populating the Relay Set

   The Relay Set for an OLSRv2 uses interface contains the set of OLSRv2
   interface addresses of those symmetric 1-hop neighbors for which this
   OLSRv2 interface is to relay broadcast traffic.  It MUST contain only packets with a packet header including a packet
   sequence number, either
   addresses of OLSRv2 interfaces with or without which this OLSRv2 interface has a packet TLV block.  Thus
   symmetric link.  It MUST include all such addresses of all such
   OLSRv2 packets have the layout interfaces of either

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0| Reserved  |0|0|    Packet Sequence Number     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   or
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0| Reserved  |1|0|    Packet Sequence Number     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Packet TLV Block                        |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |            Padding            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ nodes which are MPR selectors of this node.  The
   Relay Set for an OLSRv2 uses only messages interface of this node is thus created by:

   1.  For each Link Tuple in the Link Set for this OLSRv2 interface
       with a complete message header.  Thus all L_status == SYMMETRIC, and the corresponding Neighbor Tuple
       with N_neighbor_iface_addr_list containing
       L_neighbor_iface_addr_list:

       1.  All addresses from L_neighbor_iface_addr_list MUST be
           included in the Relay Set of this OLSRv2 messages, plus padding interface if any, have
           N_mpr_selector == true, and otherwise MAY be so included.

14.2.  Populating the following layout.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Message Type  |  Resv   |N|0|0|         Message Size          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Originator Address                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Hop Limit   |   Hop Count   |    Message Sequence Number    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                         Message Body                          |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |            Padding            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   In standard OLSRv2 messages (HELLO and TC) the type dependent
   sequence number bit marked N MUST be cleared ('0'). Advertised Neighbor Set

   The layouts Advertised Neighbor Set of the message body, address block, TLV block and TLV are
   as in [3], allowing all options.  Standard (HELLO and TC) messages
   contain a first address block which node contains local interface address
   information, all other address blocks contain neighbor interface
   address information (or for a TC message address information for
   which it is a gateway) specific
   addresses of those symmetric 1-hop neighbors to which the message type.

Appendix D.2.  Example HELLO Message

   An example HELLO message, using IPv4 (four octet) node
   advertises a link in its TC messages.  This set MUST at least contain
   all addresses is as
   follows. in all MPR selector of this node.  The overall message length Advertised
   Neighbor Set for this node is 58 octets.  The message has a
   hop limit of 1 thus created by:

   1.  For each Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true:

       1.  All addresses from N_neighbor_iface_addr_list MUST be
           included in the Advertised Neighbor Set if N_mpr_selector ==
           true, and a hop count of 0, as sent by otherwise MAY be so included.

   Whenever address(es) are added to or removed from the Advertised
   Neighbor Set, its originator. ANSN MUST be incremented.

15.  Routing Set Calculation

   The message has Routing Set of a message TLV block node is populated with content length 12 octets
   containing three message TLVs.  These TLVs Routing Tuples that
   represent message validity
   time, message interval time and willingness.  Each uses a TLV with
   semantics value 4, indicating no start and stop indexes paths from that node to all destinations in the network.
   These paths are included, calculated based on the Network Topology Graph, which
   is constructed from information in the information repositories,
   obtained via HELLO and each has a value length of 1 octet.

   The first address block contains 1 local interface address. TC message exchange.

15.1.  Network Topology Graph

   The
   semantics octet 2 indicates it has no tail section.  It has head
   length 4, this Network Topology Graph is equal to formed from information taken from the address length, it thus has no mid
   section.  This address block has no TLVs (TLV block content length is
   0 octets).

   The second,
   node's Link Sets, Neighbor Set, Topology Set and last, address block includes 4 neighbor interface
   addresses. Attached Network
   Set. The semantics octet 2 indicates they have no tail
   section. Network Topology Graph SHOULD also use information taken
   from the node's 2-Hop Sets.  The addresses have head length 3 octets, thus each mid
   section is Network Topology Graph forms that
   node's topological view of length one octet.  The the network in form of a directed graph,
   containing the following arcs:

   o  Local symmetric links - all arcs X -> Y such that:

      *  X is an address TLV block
   (content length 11 octets) includes two TLVs.

   The first of these TLVs reports in the link status I_local_iface_addr_list of all four neighbors a Local
         Interface Tuple of this node, AND;

      *  Y is an address in the L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a single multivalue TLV, Link
         Tuple in the first two addresses are HEARD, corresponding (to the
   last two addresses are OLSRv2 interface of that
         I_local_iface_addr_list) Link Set which has L_status ==
         SYMMETRIC.  The TLV semantics octet value

   o  2-hop symmetric links - all arcs Y -> Z such that:

      *  Y is an address in the L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of
   20 indicates, a Link
         Tuple, in addition any of the node's Link Sets, which has L_status ==
         SYMMETRIC, AND;

      *  the Neighbor Tuple with Y in its N_neighbor_iface_addr_list has
         N_willingness not equal to that this WILL_NEVER, AND;

      *  Z is the N2_2hop_iface_addr of a multivalue TLV, 2-Hop Tuple in the 2-Hop Set
         corresponding to the OLSRv2 interface of the chosen Link Set.

   o  Advertised symmetric links - all arcs U -> V such that no
   start index there
      exists a Topology Tuple and stop index are included, hence values for all
   addresses are included.  The TLV value length a corresponding Advertising Remote
      Node Tuple (i.e. with AR_orig_addr == T_orig_addr) with:

      *  U is in the AR_iface_addr_list of 4 octets indicates
   one octet per value per address.

   The second the Advertising Remote Node
         Tuple, AND;

      *  V is the T_dest_iface_addr of these TLVs indicates that the last address (start index
   3, stop index 3) Topology Tuple.

   o  Symmetric 1-hop neighbor addresses - all arcs Y -> W such that:

      *  Y is, and W is not, an MPR.  This TLV address in the
         L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Link Tuple, in any of the
         node's Link Sets, which has no value, or value length,
   fields, as indicated by its semantics octet being equal to 2.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     HELLO     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Originator Address                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0| L_status == SYMMETRIC, AND;

      *  W and Y are included in the same N_neighbor_iface_addr_list
         (i.e. the one in the Neighbor Tuple whose
         N_neighbor_iface_addr_list contains the
         L_neighbor_iface_addr_list that includes Y).

   o  Attached network addresses - all arcs U -> T such that there
      exists an Attached Network Tuple and a corresponding Advertising
      Remote Node Tuple (i.e. with AR_orig_addr == AN_orig_addr) with:

      *  U is in the AR_iface_addr_list of the Advertising Remote Node
         Tuple, AND;

      *  T is the AN_net_addr of the Attached Network Tuple.

   All links in the first three cases above have a hop count of one, the
   symmetric 1-hop neighbor addresses have a hop count of zero, and the
   attached network addresses have a hop count given by the appropriate
   value of AN_dist.

15.2.  Populating the Routing Set

   The Routing Set MUST contain the shortest paths for all destinations
   from all local OLSRv2 interfaces using the Network Topology Graph.
   This calculation MAY use any algorithm, including any means of
   choosing between paths of equal length.

   Using the notation of Section 15.1, each path will have as its first
   arc a local symmetric link X -> Y. There will be a path for each
   terminating Y, Z, V, W and T which can be connected to local OLSRv2
   interface address X using the indicated arcs.  The corresponding
   Routing Tuple for this path will have:

   o  R_dest_addr = the terminating Y, Z, V, W or T;

   o  R_next_iface_addr = the first arc's Y;

   o  R_dist = the total hop count of the path;

   o  R_local_iface_addr = the first arc's X.

   An example algorithm for calculating the Routing Set of a node is
   given in Appendix C.

15.3.  Routing Set Updates

   The Routing Set MUST be updated when changes in the Neighborhood
   Information Base or the Topology Information Base indicate a change
   of the known symmetric links and/or attached networks in the MANET.
   It is sufficient to consider only changes which affect at least one
   of:

   o  The Link Set of any OLSRv2 interface, and to consider only Link
      Tuples which have, or just had, L_status == SYMMETRIC (including
      removal of such Link Tuples).

   o  The Neighbor Set of the node, and to consider only Neighbor Tuples
      that have, or just had, N_symmetric == true.

   o  The 2-Hop Set of any OLSRv2 interface.

   o  The Topology Set of the node.

   o  The Attached Network Set of the node.

   Updates to the Routing Set do not generate or trigger any messages to
   be transmitted.  The state of the Routing Set SHOULD, however, be
   reflected in the IP routing table by adding and removing entries from
   the IP routing table as appropriate.

16.  Proposed Values for Parameters and Constants

   OLSRv2 uses all parameters and constants defined in [4] and
   additional parameters and constants defined in this document.  All
   but one (RX_HOLD_TIME) of these additional parameters are node
   parameters as defined in [4].  These proposed values of the
   additional parameters are appropriate to the case where all
   parameters (including those defined in [4]) have a single value.
   Proposed values for parameters defined in [4] are given in that
   document.

16.1.  Message Sequence Number    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0| VALIDITY_TIME |0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|     Value     | INTERVAL_TIME |0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 Interval Parameters

   o  TC_INTERVAL = 5 seconds

   o  TC_MIN_INTERVAL = TC_INTERVAL/4

16.2.  Advertised Information Validity Time Parameters

   o  T_HOLD_TIME = 3 x TC_INTERVAL

   o  A_HOLD_TIME = T_HOLD_TIME

16.3.  Received Message Validity Time Parameters

   o  RX_HOLD_TIME = 30 seconds

   o  P_HOLD_TIME = 30 seconds

   o  F_HOLD_TIME = 30 seconds

16.4.  Jitter Time Parameters

   o  TP_MAXJITTER = HP_MAXJITTER

   o  TT_MAXJITTER = HT_MAXJITTER

   o  F_MAXJITTER = TT_MAXJITTER

16.5.  Hop Limit Parameter

   o  TC_HOP_LIMIT = 255

16.6.  Willingness Parameter and Constants

   o  WILLINGNESS = WILL_DEFAULT
   o  WILL_NEVER = 0 1|     Value

   o  WILL_DEFAULT = 3

   o  WILL_ALWAYS = 7

17.  Sequence Numbers

   Sequence numbers are used in OLSRv2 with the purpose of discarding
   "old" information, i.e. messages received out of order.  However with
   a limited number of bits for representing sequence numbers, wrap-
   around (that the sequence number is incremented from the maximum
   possible value to zero) will occur.  To prevent this from interfering
   with the operation of OLSRv2, the following MUST be observed when
   determining the ordering of sequence numbers.

   The term MAXVALUE designates in the following one more than the
   largest possible value for a sequence number.  For a 16 bit sequence
   number (as are those defined in this specification) MAXVALUE is
   65536.

   The sequence number S1 is said to be "greater than" the sequence
   number S2 if:

   o  S1 > S2 AND S1 - S2 < MAXVALUE/2 OR

   o  S2 > S1 AND S2 - S1 > MAXVALUE/2

   When sequence numbers S1 and S2 differ by MAXVALUE/2 their ordering
   cannot be determined.  In this case, which should not occur, either
   ordering may be assumed.

   Thus when comparing two messages, it is possible - even in the
   presence of wrap-around - to determine which message contains the
   most recent information.

18.  IANA Considerations

18.1.  Message Types

   OLSRv2 defines one message type, which must be allocated from the
   "Assigned Message Types" repository of [1].

          +------+-------+--------------------------------------+
          | Name |  WILLINGNESS  |0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1| Value     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|                     Head |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Description                          |  Head (cont)  |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|             Head
          +------+-------+--------------------------------------+
          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  TC  |  Head (cont)  TBD  |      Mid Topology Control (global signaling)  |      Mid
          +------+-------+--------------------------------------+

                                  Table 5

18.2.  TLV Types

   OLSRv2 defines three message TLV types, which must be allocated from
   the "Assigned message TLV Types" repository of [1].

   +--------------+------+---------+-----------------------------------+
   |      Mid     Name     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Type |      Mid      |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1|  LINK_STATUS Subtype | Description                       |
   +--------------+------+---------+-----------------------------------+
   |  WILLINGNESS |  TBD |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 1    0 0|     HEARD    |     HEARD Specifies the originating node's  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   SYMMETRIC              |   SYMMETRIC      |      MPR      |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix D.3.  Example TC Message

   An example TC message, using IPv4 (four octet) addresses, is as
   follows.  The overall message length is 67 octets.

   The message has a message TLV block with content length 13 octets
   containing three TLVs.  The first two TLVs are validity and interval
   times         | willingness to act as for the HELLO message above.  The third TLV is a relay and |
   |              |      |         | to partake in network formation   |
   |              |      |         |                                   |
   |              |  TBD |  1-255  | RESERVED                          |
   |              |      |         |                                   |
   | CONT_SEQ_NUM |  TBD |    0    | Specifies a content sequence      |
   |              |      |         | number TLV used to carry the 2 octet ANSN.  The semantics
   value is also 4.

   The for this message has three address blocks.  The first address block
   contains 3 local interface addresses (with semantics octet 2, hence
   no tail section, head length 2 octets, and hence mid sections with
   length two octets) and has no TLVs (TLV block content length 0
   octets).

   The other two address blocks contain neighbor interface addresses.
   The first contains 3 addresses (semantics octet 2, no tail section,
   head length 2 octets, hence mid sections length two octets) and has
   no TLVs (TLV block content length           |
   |              |      |         |                                   |
   |              |  TBD |  1-255  | RESERVED                          |
   |              |      |         |                                   |
   |  INCOMPLETE  |  TBD |    0 octets).  The second contains 1
   address, with semantics octet 4 indicating that the tail section,
   length 2 octets, consists of zero valued octets (not included).  The
   following TLV block (content length 6 octets) includes two TLVs, the
   first (semantics value 4 indicating no indexes are needed) indicates    | Specifies that the address has a netmask, with length given this message is    |
   |              |      |         | incomplete                        |
   |              |      |         |                                   |
   |              |  TBD |  1-255  | RESERVED                          |
   +--------------+------+---------+-----------------------------------+

                                  Table 6

   Subtypes indicated as RESERVED may be allocated by the value (of
   length 1 octet) of 16.  Thus this address is Head.0.0/16.  The second standards action,
   as specified in [7].

   OLSRv2 defines two Address Block TLV indicates that types, which must be allocated
   from the originating node is a gateway to this network,
   at a given number of hops distance.  The "Assigned address block TLV semantics value Types" repository of 4
   indicates that no indexes are needed.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ [1].

   +---------+------+---------+----------------------------------------+
   |      TC       |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+   Name  |                      Originator Address Type |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Subtype |   Hop Limit Description                            |   Hop Count
   +---------+------+---------+----------------------------------------+
   |    Message Sequence Number   MPR   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1| VALIDITY_TIME |0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|     Value  TBD | INTERVAL_TIME |0 0 0 0 0 1    0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|     Value    | CONT_SEQ_NUM  |0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|         Value (ANSN)          |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Specifies that a given address is of a |     0x02      |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|             Head
   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+         |              Mid      |              Mid         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ node selected as an MPR                |
   |         |      |         |              Mid              |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|     0x02      |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|     Head                                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Head (cont)         |              Mid  TBD |  1-255  | RESERVED                               |
   |         |      Mid      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+         |  Mid (cont)                                        |              Mid              |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |             Head              |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1| PREFIX_LENGTH |0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0| GATEWAY    |0 0 0 0 |  TBD |    0 1    | Specifies that a given address is      |
   |         |      |         | reached via a gateway on the           |
   |         |      |         | originating node                       |
   |         |      |         |                                        |
   |         |  TBD |  1-255  | RESERVED                               |
   +---------+------+---------+----------------------------------------+

                                  Table 7

   Subtypes indicated as RESERVED may be allocated by standards action,
   as specified in [7].

19.  References

19.1.  Normative References

   [1]   Clausen, T., Dean, J., Dearlove, C., and C. Adjih, "Generalized
         MANET Packet/Message Format", work in
         progress draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-08.txt, July 2007.

   [2]   Clausen, T. and C. Dearlove, "Representing multi-value time in
         MANETs", Work In Progress draft-ietf-manet-timetlv-01.txt,
         June 2007.

   [3]   Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and B. Adamson, "Jitter
         considerations in MANETs", Work In
         Progress draft-ietf-manet-jitter-01.txt, June 2007.

   [4]   Clausen, T., Dean, J., and C. Dearlove, "MANET Neighborhood
         Discovery Protocol (NHDP)", work in
         progress draft-ietf-manet-nhdp-04.txt, June 2007.

   [5]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997.

   [6]   Chakeres, I., "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
         Allocations for the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) Working
         Group", Work In Progress draft-ietf-manet-iana-05.txt,
         June 2007.

   [7]   Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
         Considerations Section in RFCs", October 1998.

19.2.  Informative References

   [8]   Clausen, T. and P. Jacquet, "The Optimized Link State Routing
         Protocol", RFC 3626, October 2003.

   [9]   Atkins, D., Stallings, W., and P. Zimmermann, "PGP Message
         Exchange Formats", RFC 1991, August 1996.

   [10]  ETSI, "ETSI STC-RES10 Committee. Radio equipment and systems:
         HIPERLAN type 1, functional specifications ETS 300-652",
         June 1996.

   [11]  Jacquet, P., Minet, P., Muhlethaler, P., and N. Rivierre,
         "Increasing reliability in cable free radio LANs: Low level
         forwarding in HIPERLAN.", 1996.

   [12]  Qayyum, A., Viennot, L., and A. Laouiti, "Multipoint relaying:

         An efficient technique for flooding in mobile wireless
         networks.", 2001.

   [13]  Macker, J. and S. Corson, "Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET):
         Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation
         Considerations", RFC 2501, January 1999.

Appendix A.  Node Configuration

   OLSRv2 does not make any assumption about node addresses, other than
   that each node is assumed to have at least one unique and routable IP
   address for each interface that it has which participates in the
   MANET.

   When applicable, a recommended way of connecting an OLSRv2 network to
   an existing IP routing domain is to assign an IP prefix (under the
   authority of the nodes/gateways connecting the MANET with the routing
   domain) exclusively to the OLSRv2 area, and to configure the gateways
   statically to advertise routes to that IP sequence to nodes in the
   existing routing domain.

Appendix B.  Example Algorithm for Calculating MPRs

   The following specifies an algorithm which MAY be used to select
   MPRs.  MPRs are calculated per OLSRv2 interface, but then a single
   set of MPRs is formed from the union of the MPRs for all OLSRv2
   interfaces.  A node's MPRs are recorded using the element N_mpr in
   Neighbor Tuples.

   If using this algorithm then the following steps MUST be executed in
   order for a node to select its MPRs:

   1.  Set N_mpr = false in all Neighbor Tuples;

   2.  For each Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true and
       N_willingness == WILL_ALWAYS, set N_mpr = true;

   3.  For each OLSRv2 interface of the node, use the algorithm in
       Appendix B.2.  Note that this sets N_mpr = true for some Neighbor
       Tuples, these nodes are already selected as MPRs when using the
       algorithm for following OLSRv2 interfaces.

   4.  OPTIONALLY, consider each selected MPR in turn, and if the set of
       selected MPRs without that node still satisfies the necessary
       conditions, for all OLSRv2 interfaces, then that node MAY be
       removed from the set of MPRs.  This process MAY be repeated until
       no MPRs are removed.  Nodes MAY be considered in order of
       increasing N_willingness.

   Symmetric 1-hop neighbor nodes with N_willingness == WILL_NEVER MUST
   NOT be selected as MPRs, and MUST be ignored in the following
   algorithm, as MUST be symmetric 2-hop neighbor nodes which are also
   symmetric 1-hop neighbor nodes (i.e. when considering 2-Hop Tuples,
   ignore any 2-Hop Tuples whose N2_2hop_iface_addr is in the
   N_neighbor_iface_addr_list of any Neighbor Tuple, or whose
   N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list is included in the
   N_neighbor_iface_addr_list of any Neighbor Tuple with N_willingness
   == WILL_NEVER).

B.1.  Terminology

   The following terminology will be used when selecting MPRs for the
   OLSRv2 interface I:

   N(I)  - The set of symmetric 1-hop neighbors which have a symmetric
      link to I.

   N2(I)  - The set of addresses of interfaces of a node with a
      symmetric link to a node in N(I) (i.e. the set of
      N2_2hop_iface_addr in 2-Hop Tuples in the 2-Hop Set for OLSRv2
      interface I).

   Connected to I via Y  - An address A in D2(I) is connected to I via a
      node Y in N(I) if A is an address of an interface of a symmetric
      1-hop neighbor of Y (i.e.  A is the N2_2hop_iface_addr in a 2-Hop
      Tuple in the 2-Hop Set for OLSRv2 interface I, and whose
      N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list is contained in the set of interface
      addresses of Y).

   D(Y, I)  - For a node Y in N(I), the number of addresses in D2(I)
      which are connected to I via Y.

   R(Y, I):  - For a node Y in N(I), the number of addresses in D2(I)
      which are connected to I via Y, but are not connected to I via any
      node which has already been selected as an MPR.

B.2.  MPR Selection Algorithm for each OLSRv2 Interface

   When selecting MPRs for the OLSRv2 interface I:

   1.  For each address A in N2(I) for which there is only one node Y in
       N(I) such that A is connected to I via Y, select that node Y as
       an MPR (i.e. set N_mpr = true in the Neighbor Tuple corresponding
       to Y).

   2.  While there exists any node Y in N(I) with R(Y, I) > 0:

       1.  Select a node Y in N(I) with R(Y, I) > 0 0|  Number Hops  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ in the following
           order of priority:

           +  greatest N_willingness in the Neighbor Tuple corresponding
              to Y, THEN;

           +  greatest R(Y, I), THEN;

           +  greatest D(Y, I), THEN;

           +  any choice.

       2.  Select Y as an MPR (i.e. set N_mpr = true in the Neighbor
           Tuple corresponding to Y).

Appendix E.  Time TLVs

   This appendix specifies a general time TLV structure C.  Example Algorithm for expressing
   either single time values or Calculating the Routing Set

   The following procedure is given as an example for calculating the
   Routing Set using a set variation of time values Dijkstra's algorithm.  First all
   Routing Tuples are removed, and then the procedures in the following
   sections are applied in turn.

C.1.  Add Local Symmetric Links

   1.  For each Local Interface Tuple in the Local Interface Set:

       1.  For each address A in I_local_iface_addr_list:

           1.  For each Link Tuple in the Link Set for this local
               interface, with L_status == SYMMETRIC:

               1.  For each value
   associated address, B, in that Link Tuple's
                   L_neighbor_iface_addr_list, add a new Routing Tuple
                   with:

                   o  R_dest_addr = B;

                   o  R_next_iface_addr = B;

                   o  R_dist = 1;

                   o  R_local_iface_addr = A.

   2.  For each Neighbor Tuple, for which there is an address B in
       N_neighbor_iface_addr_list, for which there is a Routing Tuple
       (the "previous Routing Tuple") with R_dest_addr == B:

       1.  For each address C in N_neighbor_iface_addr_list for which
           there is no Routing Tuple with R_dest_addr == C, add a range
           Routing Tuple with:

           +  R_dest_addr = C;

           +  R_next_iface_addr = B;

           +  R_dist = 1;

           +  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr of distances.  Furthermore, using this
   general time TLV structure, this document specifies the INTERVAL_TIME
   and VALIDITY_TIME TLVs, previous
              Routing Tuple.

C.2.  Add Remote Symmetric Links

   The following procedure, which are used adds Routing Tuples for destination
   nodes h+1 hops away, MUST be executed for each value of h, starting
   with h = 1 and incrementing by OLSRv2.

E.1.  Representing Time

   This document specifies a TLV structure in which time values 1 for each iteration.  The execution
   MUST stop if no new Routing Tuples are each
   represented added in an 8 bit time code, one or more iteration.

   1.  For each Topology Tuple, if:

       *  T_dest_iface_addr is not equal to R_dest_addr of which may be used
   in a TLV's value field.  Of these 8 bits, the least significant four
   bits represent any Routing
          Tuple, AND;

       *  for the mantissa (a), and Advertising Remote Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr ==
          T_orig_addr, there is an address in the most significant four bits
   represent AR_iface_addr_list
          which is equal to the exponent (b), so that:

   o  time value R_dest_addr of a Routing Tuple (the
          "previous Routing Tuple") whose R_dist == h

       then add a new Routing Tuple, with:

       *  R_dest_addr = (1 + a/16) T_dest_iface_addr;

       * 2^b  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of the previous Routing
          Tuple;

       * C

   o  time code  R_dist = 16 h+1;

       * b + a

   All nodes in the network MUST use the same value of C, which will be
   specified in seconds, hence so will be all time values.  Note that
   ascending values  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr of the time code represent ascending time values,
   time values previous
          Routing Tuple.

       More than one Topology Tuple may thus be compared by comparison of time codes.

   An algorithm for computing the time code representing the smallest
   representable time value not less than usable to select the time value t is:

   1.  find next hop
       R_next_iface_addr for reaching the largest integer b address R_dest_addr.  When h
       == 1, ties should be broken such that t/C >= 2^b; nodes with greater
       willingness are preferred, and between nodes of equal
       willingness, MPR selectors are preferred over non-MPR selectors.

   2.  set  After the above iteration has completed, if h == 1, for each
       2-Hop Neighbor Tuple where:

       *  N2_2hop_iface_addr is not equal to R_dest_addr of any Routing
          Tuple, AND;

       *  The Neighbor Tuple whose N_neighbor_iface_addr_list contains
          N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list has N_willingness not equal to
          WILL_NEVER

       select a Routing Tuple (the "previous Routing Tuple") whose
       R_dest_addr is contained in N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list, and add
       a = 16 new Routing Tuple with:

       * (t / (C  R_dest_addr = N2_2hop_iface_addr;

       * 2^b) - 1), rounded up to  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of the nearest
       integer;

   3.  if a == 16 then set b previous Routing
          Tuple;

       *  R_dist = b + 1 and set a 2;

       *  R_local_iface_addr = 0;

   4.  if a and b are in the range 0 and 15 then R_local_iface_addr of the required time value
       can be represented by previous
          Routing Tuple.

C.3.  Add Attached Networks

   1.  For each Attached Network Tuple, if for the time code 16 * b + a, otherwise it can
       not.

   The minimum time value that can be represented in this manner Advertising Remote
       Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr == AN_orig_addr, there is C.
   The maximum time value that can be represented an address
       in this manner the AR_iface_addr_list which is
   63488 * C.

E.2.  General Time TLV Structure

   A Time TLV may be equal to the R_dest_addr of a packet, message or address block TLV.
       Routing Tuple (the "previous Routing Tuple"), then:

       1.  If it there is a
   packet or message TLV no Routing Tuple with R_dest_addr == AN_net_addr,
           then it must be add a single value TLV as defined
   in [3]; new Routing Tuple with:

           +  R_dest_addr = AN_net_addr;

           +  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of the previous
              Routing Tuple;

           +  R_dist = (R_dist of the previous Routing Tuple) + AN_dist;

           +  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr of the previous
              Routing Tuple.

       2.  Otherwise if it is an address block TLV the Routing Tuple with R_dest_addr ==
           AN_net_addr (the "current Routing Tuple") has R_dist >
           (R_dist of the previous Routing Tuple) + AN_dist, then it may be single value or
   multivalue TLV.  The specific Time TLVs specified in this document,
   in modify
           the current Routing Tuple by:

           +  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of the previous
              Routing Tuple;

           +  R_dist = (R_dist of the previous Routing Tuple) + AN_dist;

           +  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr of the previous
              Routing Tuple.

Appendix E.3 are message, D.  Packet and hence single value, TLVs.  Note that
   even a single value Time TLV may contain a multiple octet <value>
   field.

   The purpose of a single value Time TLV is to allow a single time
   value to be determined by a node receiving an entity containing Message Layout

   This appendix illustrates the
   Time TLV, based on its distance translation from the entity's originator.  The
   Time TLV may contain information that allows that time value to be a
   function abstract
   descriptions of distance, packets employed in the protocol specification, and thus different receiving nodes may
   determine different time values.  If a receiving node will not be
   able to determine its distance from
   the originating node, then bit-layout packets actually exchanged between the
   form nodes.

Appendix D.1.  Packet and Message Options

   The basic layout of this Time TLV with a single time code an OLSRv2 packet is as described in a <value> field (or
   single value subfield) [1].  However
   the following points should be noted.

   In the following figures, reserved bits marked Reserved or Resv MUST
   be cleared ('0').  Octets indicated as Padding are optional and MAY
   be omitted; if not omitted they SHOULD be used.

   The <value> field of used to pad to a single value Time TLV is specified, using the
   regular expression syntax of [3], by:

       <value> = {<time><distance>}*<time>

   where:

   <time>  is an 8 32 bit field containing
   boundary and MUST all be zero.

   OLSRv2 uses only packets with a time code as defined in
      Appendix E.1.

   <distance>  is an 8 bit field specifying packet header including a distance from the message
      originator, in hops.

   A single value <value> field thus consists of an odd number of
   octets; packet
   sequence number, either with or without a repetition factor of n in the regular expression
   syntax it contains 2n+1 octets, thus packet TLV block.  Thus all
   OLSRv2 packets have the <length> field layout of a single
   value Time TLV, which MUST always be present, is given by:

   o  <length> = 2n+1

   A single value <value> field may be thus represented by:

       <t_1><d_1><t_2><d_2> ... <t_i><d_i> either

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0| Reserved  |0|0|    Packet Sequence Number     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...  <t_n><d_n><t_default>

   <d_1>,                              :
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   or
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0| Reserved  |1|0|    Packet Sequence Number     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Packet TLV Block                        |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |            Padding            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     :                              ... <d_n>, if present, MUST be                              :
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   OLSRv2 uses only messages with a strictly increasing sequence.
   Then, at the receiving node's distance from the originator node, the
   time value indicated is that represented by the time code:

   o  <t_1>, complete message header.  Thus all
   OLSRv2 messages, plus padding if n > any, have the following layout.

      0 and distance <= <d_1>;

   o  <t_i+1>, if n >                   1 and <d_i> < distance <= <d_i+1> for some i such
      that                   2                   3
      0 1 <= i < n;
   o  <t_default> otherwise, i.e. if n == 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 or distance > <d_n>.

   In a multivalue Time TLV, each single value subfield of the
   multivalue Time TLV is defined as above.  Note that [3] requires that
   each single value subfield has the same length (i.e. the same value
   of n) but they need not use the same values of <d_1> to <d_n>.

E.3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Message TLVs

   Two message TLVs are defined, for signaling message validity time
   (VALIDITY_TIME) and message interval (INTERVAL_TIME).

E.3.1.  VALIDITY_TIME TLV

   A VALIDITY TIME TLV is a message TLV that defines the validity time
   of the information carried in the message in which the TLV is
   contained.  After this time the receiving node MUST consider the
   message content to no longer be valid (unless repeated in a later
   message).  The validity time of a message MAY be specified to depend
   on the distance from its originator.  (This is appropriate if Type  | Rsv |N|0|0|0|0|         Message Size          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Originator Address                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Hop Limit   |   Hop Count   |    Message Sequence Number    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                         Message Body                          |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |            Padding            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   In standard OLSRv2 messages are sent with different hop limits, so that receiving nodes
   at greater distances receive information less frequently (HELLO and must
   treat is as valid for longer.)

   A VALIDITY_TIME TLV is an example TC) the type dependent
   sequence number bit marked N MUST be cleared ('0').

   The layouts of a Time the message body, address block, TLV specified block and TLV are
   as in
   Appendix E.1.

E.3.2.  INTERVAL_TIME TLV

   An INTERVAL_TIME TLV [1], allowing all options.  Standard (HELLO and TC) messages
   contain a first address block which contains local interface address
   information, all other address blocks contain neighbor interface
   address information (or, for a TC message, address information for
   which it is a message TLV that defines the maximum time
   before another message of the same type as this message from the same
   originator should be received.  This interval time MAY be specified gateway) specific to depend on the distance from the originator.  (This is appropriate
   if messages are sent with different hop limits, so that receiving
   nodes at greater distances have an increased interval time.) message type.

Appendix D.2.  Example HELLO Message

   An INTERVAL_TIME TLV is an example of a Time TLV specified HELLO message, using IPv4 (four octet) addresses is as in
   Appendix E.1.

Appendix F.  Message Jitter

   Since NHDP employs periodic
   follows.  The overall message transmission in order to detect
   neighborhoods, and since NHDP length is a building block for MANET routing
   protocols employing other triggered or periodic 58 octets.  The message exchanges,
   this appendix presents global concerns pertaining to jittering of
   MANET control traffic.

F.1.  Jitter

   In order to prevent nodes in has a MANET from simultaneous transmission,
   whilst retaining the MANET characteristic
   hop limit of maximum node autonomy, 1 and a
   randomization of the transmission time hop count of packets by nodes, known 0, as
   jitter, MAY be employed.  Three jitter mechanisms, which target
   different aspects of this problem, MAY be employed, sent by its originator.

   The message has a message TLV block with the aim of
   reducing the likelihood of simultaneous transmission, and, if it
   occurs, preventing it from continuing.

   Three cases exist:

   o  Periodic content length 12 octets
   containing three message generation;

   o  Externally triggered TLVs.  These TLVs represent message generation;

   o  Message forwarding. validity
   time, message interval time and willingness.  Each of these cases uses a parameter, denoted MAXJITTER, for the
   maximum timing variation that it introduces.  If more than one of
   these cases is used by a protocol, it MAY use the same or TLV with
   semantics value 8, indicating no start and stop indexes are included,
   and each has a different value length of MAXJITTER for each case. 1 octet.

   The first address block contains 1 local interface address.  The
   semantics octet 2 indicates it has no tail section.  It also MAY use the same or
   different values of MAXJITTER according to message type, and under
   different circumstances - in particular if other parameters (such as
   message interval) vary.

   Issues relating has head
   length 4, this is equal to the value address length, it thus has no mid
   section.  This address block has no TLVs (TLV block content length is
   0 octets).

   The second, and last, address block includes 4 neighbor interface
   addresses.  The semantics octet 2 indicates they have no tail
   section.  The addresses have head length 3 octets, thus each mid
   section is of MAXJITTER are considered in
   Appendix F.1.4.

F.1.1.  Periodic message generation

   When a node generates a message periodically, two successive messages
   will be separated by a well-defined interval, denoted
   MESSAGE_INTERVAL.  A node MAY maintain more than length one such interval,
   e.g. for different message types or in different circumstances (such
   as backing off transmissions to avoid congestion).  Jitter MAY be
   applied by reducing this delay by a random amount, so that octet.  The following address TLV block
   (content length 11 octets) includes two TLVs.

   The first of these TLVs reports the delay
   between consecutive transmissions link status of all four neighbors
   in a messages of the same type is
   equal to (MESSAGE_INTERVAL - jitter), where jitter is single multivalue TLV, the random
   value.

   Subtraction of first two addresses are HEARD, the random
   last two addresses are SYMMETRIC.  The TLV semantics octet value from the message interval ensures
   that the message interval never exceeds MESSAGE_INTERVAL, and does
   not adversely affect timeouts or other mechanisms which may be based
   on message late arrival or failure to arrive.  By basing the message
   transmission time on the previous transmission time, rather than by
   jittering a fixed clock, nodes can become completely desynchronized,
   which minimizes their probability of repeated collisions.  This
   40 indicates, in addition to that this is
   particularly useful when combined with externally triggered message
   generation a multivalue TLV, that no
   start index and rescheduling. stop index are included, hence values for all
   addresses are included.  The jitter TLV value SHOULD be taken from a uniform distribution between
   zero and MAXJITTER.

   Note that a node will know its own MESSAGE_INTERVAL length of 4 octets indicates
   one octet per value and can
   readily ensure per address.

   The second of these TLVs indicates that any MAXJITTER value used satisfies the conditions
   in last address (start index
   3, stop index 3) is an MPR.  This TLV has no value, or value length,
   fields, as indicated by its semantics octet being equal to 4.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     HELLO     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Originator Address                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|    Message Sequence Number    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0| VALIDITY_TIME |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|     Value     | INTERVAL_TIME |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|     Value     |  WILLINGNESS  |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|     Value     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|                     Head                      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Head (cont)  |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|             Head              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Head (cont)  |      Mid      |      Mid      |      Mid      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      Mid      |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1|  LINK_STATUS  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|     HEARD     |     HEARD     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   SYMMETRIC   |   SYMMETRIC   |      MPR      |0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix F.1.4.

F.1.2.  Externally triggered message generation D.3.  Example TC Message

   An internal or external condition or event MAY trigger example TC message, using IPv4 (four octet) addresses, is as
   follows.  The overall message
   generation by length is 67 octets.

   The message has a node.  Depending upon message TLV block with content length 13 octets
   containing three TLVs.  The first two TLVs are validity and interval
   times as for the protocol, this condition
   MAY trigger generation of a single message, initiation of a new
   periodic HELLO message schedule, or rescheduling of existing periodic
   messaging.  Collision between externally triggered messages is made
   more likely if more than one node above.  The third TLV is likely to respond a content
   sequence number TLV used to carry the same
   event.  To reduce this likelihood, an externally triggered message
   MAY be jittered by delaying it by a random duration; an internally
   triggered message MAY 2 octet ANSN.  The semantics
   value is also be so jittered if appropriate.  This delay
   SHOULD be generated uniformly in an interval between zero 8.

   The message has three address blocks.  The first address block
   contains 3 local interface addresses (with semantics octet 2, hence
   no tail section, head length 2 octets, and
   MAXJITTER.  If periodically transmitted messages are rescheduled,
   then this SHOULD be based on this delayed time, hence mid sections with subsequent
   messages treated as described in Appendix F.1.1.

   When messages are triggered, whether or not they are also
   periodically transmitted, a protocol MAY impose a minimum interval
   between messages
   length two octets) and has no TLVs (TLV block content length 0
   octets).

   The other two address blocks contain neighbor interface addresses.
   The first contains 3 addresses (semantics octet 2, no tail section,
   head length 2 octets, hence mid sections length two octets) and has
   no TLVs (TLV block content length 0 octets).  The second contains 1
   address, with semantics octet 4 indicating that the tail section,
   length 2 octets, consists of zero valued octets (not included).  The
   following TLV block (content length 6 octets) includes two TLVs, the same type, denoted MESSAGE_MIN_INTERVAL.  It
   is however appropriate to also allow this interval to be reduced by
   jitter, so
   first (semantics value 8 indicating no indexes are needed) indicates
   that when the address has a message netmask, with length given by the value (of
   length 1 octet) of 16.  Thus this address is transmitted Head.0.0/16.  The second
   TLV indicates that the next message originating node is
   allowed after a time (MESSAGE_MIN_INTERVAL - jitter), where jitter
   SHOULD be generated uniformly in an interval between zero and
   MAXJITTER (using gateway to this network,
   at a given number of hops distance.  The TLV semantics value of MAXJITTER appropriate to periodic message
   transmission).  This is because otherwise, when external triggers 8
   indicates that no indexes are
   more frequent than MESSAGE_MIN_INTERVAL, it takes the role of
   MESSAGE_INTERVAL and the arguments applying to jittering of the
   latter also apply to needed.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      TC       |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Originator Address                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Hop Limit   |   Hop Count   |    Message Sequence Number    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1| VALIDITY_TIME |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|     Value     | INTERVAL_TIME |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|     Value     | CONT_SEQ_NUM  |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|         Value (ANSN)          |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     0x02      |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|             Head              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid              |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid              |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|     0x02      |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|     Head      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Head (cont)  |              Mid              |      Mid      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Mid (cont)   |              Mid              |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |             Head              |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1| PREFIX_LENGTH |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0|    GATEWAY    |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|  Number Hops  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix E.  Constraints

   Any process which updates the former.  This also permits
   MESSAGE_MIN_INTERVAL to equal MESSAGE_INTERVAL even when jitter is
   used.

F.1.3.  Message forwarding

   When a node forwards a message, it may be jittered by delaying it by
   a random duration.  This delay SHOULD be generated uniformly in an
   interval between zero and MAXJITTER.

   Unlike Local Information Base, the cases of periodically generated and externally triggered
   messages, a node is not automatically aware of
   Neighborhood Information Base or the message
   originator's value of MESSAGE_INTERVAL, which is required to select a
   value of MAXJITTER which is known to be valid.  This may require
   prior agreement Topology Information Base MUST
   ensure that all constraints specified in this appendix are
   maintained, as to the value (or minimum value) of
   MESSAGE_INTERVAL, may well as those specified in [4].

   In each Local Attached Network Tuple:

   o  AL_net_addr MUST NOT be by inclusion in the message I_local_iface_addr_list of
   MESSAGE_INTERVAL (the time until the next relevant message, rather any
      Local Interface Tuple.

   o  AL_dist MUST NOT be less than zero.

   In each Link Tuple:

   o  L_neighbor_iface_addr_list MUST NOT contain the time since the last message) or be by any other protocol
   specific mechanism, which may include estimation AL_net_addr of any
      Local Attached Network Tuple.

   o  If L_status == SYMMETRIC and the value of
   MESSAGE_INTERVAL based on received message times.

   For several possible reasons (differing parameters, message
   rescheduling, extreme random values) a node may receive a message
   while still waiting to forward Neighbor Tuple whose
      N_neighbor_iface_addr_list contains L_neighbor_iface_addr_list has
      N_mpr_selector == true, then, for each address in this
      L_neighbor_iface_addr_list, there MUST be an earlier message of the same type
   originating from the same node.  This is possible without jitter, but
   may occur more often with it.  The appropriate action to take is
   protocol specific (typically to discard equal
      RY_neighbor_iface_addr in the earlier message or to
   forward both, possible modifying timing to maintain message order). Relay Set associated with the same
      OLSRv2 interface.

   In many cases, including [1] and protocols using each Neighbor Tuple:

   o  N_neighbor_iface_addr_list MUST NOT contain the full
   functionality AL_net_addr of [3], messages are transmitted hop by hop any
      Local Attached Network Tuple.

   o  If N_willingness MUST be in
   potentially multi-message packets, and some or all of those messages
   may need the range from WILL_NEVER to
      WILL_ALWAYS, inclusive.

   o  If N_mpr == true, then N_symmetric MUST be forwarded.  For efficiency true and N_willingness
      MUST NOT equal WILL_NEVER.

   o  If N_symmetric == true and N_mpr == false, then N_willingness MUST
      NOT equal WILL_ALWAYS.

   o  If N_mpr_selector == true, then N_symmetric MUST be true.

   o  If N_mpr_selector == true, then, for each address in this should
      N_neighbor_iface_addr_list, there MUST be an equal
      A_neighbor_iface_addr in a single
   packet, and hence the forwarding jitter Advertised Neighbor Set.

   In each Lost Neighbor Tuple:

   o  NL_neighbor_iface_addr MUST NOT equal the AL_net_addr of all messages received in a
   single packet should any Local
      Attached Network Tuple.

   In each 2-Hop Tuple:

   o  N2_2hop_iface_addr MUST NOT equal the AL_net_addr of any Local
      Attached Network Tuple.

   In each Received Tuple:

   o  RX_orig_addr SHOULD NOT be in the same.  (This also requires that a single
   value I_local_iface_addr_list of MAXJITTER is used any
      Local Interface Tuple.

   o  RX_orig_addr SHOULD NOT equal the AL_net_addr of any Local
      Attached Network Tuple.

   o  Each ordered triple (RX_type, RX_orig_addr, RX_seq_number) SHOULD
      NOT equal the corresponding triple in any other Received Tuple in this case.)  For this to have
      the
   intended uniform distribution it is necessary to choose a single
   random jitter for all messages.  It is not appropriate to give same Received Set.

   In each
   message a random jitter and then to use Processed Tuple:

   o  P_orig_addr SHOULD NOT be in the smallest I_local_iface_addr_list of these jitter
   values, as that produces a jitter with a non-uniform distribution and
   a reduced mean value.

   In addition, any
      Local Interface Tuple.

   o  P_orig_addr SHOULD NOT equal the AL_net_addr of any Local Attached
      Network Tuple.

   o  Each ordered triple (P_type, P_orig_addr, P_seq_number) SHOULD NOT
      equal the protocol may permit messages received corresponding triple in different
   packets to any other Processed Tuple.

   In each Forwarded Tuple:

   o  F_orig_addr SHOULD NOT be combined, possibly also with locally generated messages
   (periodically generated or triggered).  However in this case the
   purpose I_local_iface_addr_list of the jitter will be accomplished by choosing any of
      Local Interface Tuple.

   o  F_orig_addr SHOULD NOT equal the
   independently scheduled times for these events as AL_net_addr of any Local Attached
      Network Tuple.

   o  Each ordered triple (F_type, F_orig_addr, F_seq_number) SHOULD NOT
      equal the single
   forwarding time; this may have to corresponding triple in any other Forwarded Tuple.

   In each Relay Set:

   o  Each RY_neighbor_iface_addr SHOULD NOT equal any other
      RY_neighbor_iface_addr.

   o  Each RY_neighbor_iface_addr MUST be in the earliest time to achieve all
   constraints.  This is because without combining messages,
      L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a
   transmission was due at this time anyway.

F.1.4.  Maximum Jitter Determination Link Tuple with L_status ==
      SYMMETRIC.

   In considering how the maximum jitter (one or more instances of
   parameter MAXJITTER) may Advertised Neighbor Set:

   o  Each A_neighbor_iface_addr MUST NOT equal any other
      A_neighbor_iface_addr.

   o  Each A_neighbor_iface_addr MUST be determined, in the following points may
      N_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric ==
      true.

   In each Advertising Remote Node Tuple:

   o  AR_orig_addr SHOULD NOT be
   noted: in the I_local_iface_addr_list of any
      Local Interface Tuple.

   o  While jitter may resolve  AR_orig_addr SHOULD NOT equal the problem AL_net_addr of simultaneous
      transmissions, any Local
      Attached Network Tuple.

   o  Each AR_orig_addr MUST NOT equal the timing changes (in particular AR_orig_addr in any other
      ANSN History Tuple.

   o  AR_iface_addr_list MUST NOT contain any address which is in the delays) it
      introduces will otherwise only have a negative impact on a well-
      designed protocol.  Thus MAXJITTER should always be minimized,
      subject to acceptably achieving its intent.
      I_local_iface_addr_list of any Local Interface Tuple.

   o  When messages are periodically generated, all  AR_iface_addr_list MUST NOT contain any address which is the
      AL_net_addr of any Local Attached Network Tuple.

   In each Topology Tuple:

   o  T_dest_iface_addr MUST NOT be in the I_local_iface_addr_list of
      any Local Interface Tuple.

   o  T_dest_iface_addr MUST NOT equal the following
      that are relevant apply to each instance AL_net_addr of MAXJITTER:

      *  it any Local
      Attached Network Tuple.

   o  There MUST NOT be greater than MESSAGE_INTERVAL/2;

      *  it SHOULD be significantly less than MESSAGE_INTERVAL;

      *  it an Advertising Remote Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr
      == T_orig_addr.

   o  T_dest_iface_addr MUST NOT be greater than MESSAGE_MIN_INTERVAL;

      *  it SHOULD in the AR_iface_addr_list of the
      Advertising Remote Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr == T_orig_addr.

   o  T_seq_number MUST NOT be greater than MESSAGE_MIN_INTERVAL/2.

   o  As well as AR_seq_number of the decision as to whether to use jitter being
      dependent on
      Advertising Remote Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr == T_orig_addr.

   o  The ordered pair (T_dest_iface_addr, T_orig_addr) MUST NOT equal
      the medium access control and lower layers, corresponding pair in any other Topology Tuple.

   In each Attached Network Tuple:

   o  AN_net_addr MUST NOT be in the
      selection I_local_iface_addr_list of any
      Local Interface Tuple.

   o  AN_net_addr MUST NOT equal the MAXJITTER parameter should AL_net_addr of any Local Attached
      Network Tuple.

   o  There MUST be appropriate to
      those mechanisms. an Advertising Remote Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr
      == AN_orig_addr.

   o  As jitter is intended to reduce collisions,  AN_seq_number MUST NOT be greater jitter, i.e.
      an increased value of MAXJITTER, is appropriate when the chance than AR_seq_number of
      collisions is greater.  This is particularly the case
      Advertising Remote Node Tuple with
      increased node density, where node density should AR_orig_addr == AN_orig_addr.

   o  AN_dist MUST NOT be considered
      relative to (the square of) the interference range rather less than
      useful signal range. zero.

   o  The choice of MAXJITTER used when forwarding messages may also
      take into account the expected number of times that the message
      may be sequentially forwarded, up to ordered pair (AN_net_addr, AN_orig_addr) MUST NOT equal the network diameter
      corresponding pair in hops. any other Attached Network Tuple.

Appendix G. F.  Security Considerations

   Currently, OLSRv2 does not specify any special security measures.  As
   a proactive routing protocol, OLSRv2 makes a target for various
   attacks.  The various possible vulnerabilities are discussed in this
   section.

Appendix G.1. F.1.  Confidentiality

   Being a proactive protocol, OLSRv2 periodically diffuses topological
   information.  Hence, if used in an unprotected wireless network, the
   network topology is revealed to anyone who listens to OLSRv2 control
   messages.

   In situations where the confidentiality of the network topology is of
   importance, regular cryptographic techniques, such as exchange of
   OLSRv2 control traffic messages encrypted by PGP [5] [9] or encrypted by
   some shared secret key, can be applied to ensure that control traffic
   can be read and interpreted by only those authorized to do so.

Appendix G.2. F.2.  Integrity

   In OLSRv2, each node is injecting topological information into the
   network through transmitting HELLO messages and, for some nodes, TC
   messages.  If some nodes for some reason, malicious or malfunction,
   inject invalid control traffic, network integrity may be compromised.
   Therefore, message authentication is recommended.

   Different such situations may occur, for instance:

   1.  a node generates TC messages, advertising links to non-neighbor
       nodes;

   2.  a node generates TC messages, pretending to be another node;

   3.  a node generates HELLO messages, advertising non-neighbor nodes;

   4.  a node generates HELLO messages, pretending to be another node;

   5.  a node forwards altered control messages;

   6.  a node does not forward control messages;

   7.  a node does not select multipoint relays correctly;

   8.  a node forwards broadcast control messages unaltered, but does
       not forward unicast data traffic;
   9.  a node "replays" previously recorded control traffic from another
       node.

   Authentication of the originator node for control messages (for
   situations 2, 4 and 5) and on the individual links announced in the
   control messages (for situations 1 and 3) may be used as a
   countermeasure.  However to prevent nodes from repeating old (and
   correctly authenticated) information (situation 9) temporal
   information is required, allowing a node to positively identify such
   delayed messages.

   In general, digital signatures and other required security
   information may be transmitted as a separate OLSRv2 message type,
   thereby allowing that "secured" and "unsecured" nodes can coexist in
   the same network, if desired, or
   signatures and security information may be transmitted within the
   OLSRv2 HELLO and TC messages, using the TLV mechanism.  Either option
   permits that "secured" and "unsecured" nodes can coexist in the same
   network, if desired,

   Specifically, the authenticity of entire OLSRv2 control messages can
   be established through employing IPsec authentication headers,
   whereas authenticity of individual links (situations 1 and 3) require
   additional security information to be distributed.

   An important consideration is, that all control messages in OLSRv2
   are transmitted either to all nodes in the neighborhood (HELLO
   messages) or broadcast to all nodes in the network (TC messages).

   For example, a control message in OLSRv2 is always a point-to-
   multipoint transmission.  It is therefore important that the
   authentication mechanism employed permits that any receiving node can
   validate the authenticity of a message.  As an analogy, given a block
   of text, signed by a PGP private key, then anyone with the
   corresponding public key can verify the authenticity of the text.

Appendix G.3. F.3.  Interaction with External Routing Domains

   OLSRv2 does, through the use of TC messages, provide a basic
   mechanism for injecting external routing information to the OLSRv2
   domain.  Appendix A also specifies that routing information can be
   extracted from the topology table or the routing table of OLSRv2 and,
   potentially, injected into an external domain if the routing protocol
   governing that domain permits.

   Other than as described in Appendix A, when operating nodes, nodes
   connecting OLSRv2 to an external routing domain, care MUST be taken
   not to allow potentially insecure and untrustworthy information to be
   injected from the OLSRv2 domain to external routing domains.  Care
   MUST be taken to validate the correctness of information prior to it
   being injected as to avoid polluting routing tables with invalid
   information.

   A recommended way of extending connectivity from an existing routing
   domain to an OLSRv2 routed MANET is to assign an IP prefix (under the
   authority of the nodes/gateways connecting the MANET with the exiting
   routing domain) exclusively to the OLSRv2 MANET area, and to
   configure the gateways statically to advertise routes to that IP
   sequence to nodes in the existing routing domain.

Appendix G.4. F.4.  Node Identity

   OLSRv2 does not make any assumption about node addresses, other than
   that each node is assumed to have at least one a unique and routable
   IP address for each interface that it has which participates in the
   MANET.

Appendix H. G.  Flow and Congestion Control

   Due to its proactive nature, the OLSRv2 protocol has a natural
   control over the flow of its control traffic.  Nodes transmit control
   messages at predetermined rates specified and bounded by message
   intervals.

   OLSRv2 employs [4] for local signalling, signaling, embedding MPR selection
   advertisement through a simple address block TLV, and node
   willingness advertisement (if any) as a single message TLV.  OLSRv2
   local signalling, signaling, therefore, shares the characteristics and
   constraints of [4].

   Furthermore, the MPR optimization greatly constrains global
   signalling signaling
   overhead from link state diffusion in two ways.  First, the messages
   that advertise the topology need only contain MPR selectors, reducing
   their size as compared to full link state.  Second, the cost of
   diffusing these messages throughout the network is greatly reduced as
   compared to when using classic flooding, since only MPRs need to
   forward broadcast messages.  In dense networks, the reduction of
   control traffic can be of several orders of magnitude compared to
   routing protocols using classical flooding [8]. [12].  This feature
   naturally provides more bandwidth for useful data traffic and pushes
   further the frontier of congestion.

   Since the control traffic is continuous and periodic, it keeps the
   quality of the links used in routing more stable.  However, using
   certain OLSRv2 options, some control messages (HELLO messages or TC
   messages) may be intentionally sent in advance of their deadline in
   order to increase the responsiveness of the protocol to topology
   changes.  This may cause a small, temporary temporary, and local increase of
   control traffic, however this is at all times bounded by the use of
   minimum message intervals.

Appendix I. H.  Contributors

   This specification is the result of the joint efforts of the
   following contributors -- listed alphabetically.

   o  Cedric Adjih, INRIA, France, <Cedric.Adjih@inria.fr>

   o  Emmanuel Baccelli, Hitachi Labs Europe, INRIA , France, <Emmanuel.Baccelli@inria.fr>

   o  Thomas Heide Clausen, PCRI, France<T.Clausen@computer.org> LIX, France, <T.Clausen@computer.org>

   o  Justin Dean, NRL, USA<jdean@itd.nrl.navy.mil>

   o  Christopher Dearlove, BAE Systems, UK,
      <Chris.Dearlove@baesystems.com>

   o  Satoh Hiroki, Hitachi SDL, Japan, <h-satoh@sdl.hitachi.co.jp> <hiroki.satoh.yj@hitachi.com>

   o  Philippe Jacquet, INRIA, France, <Philippe.Jacquet@inria.fr>

   o  Monden Kazuya, Hitachi SDL, Japan, <monden@sdl.hitachi.co.jp> <kazuya.monden.vw@hitachi.com>

   o  Kenichi Mase, Niigata University, Japan, <mase@ie.niigata-u.ac.jp>

   o  Ryuji Wakikawa, KEIO University, Japan, <ryuji@sfc.wide.ad.jp>

Appendix J. I.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge the team behind OLSRv1,
   specified in RFC3626, including Anis Laouiti, Pascale Minet, Laurent
   Viennot (all at INRIA, France), and Amir Qayyum (Center for Advanced
   Research in Engineering, Pakistan) for their contributions.

   The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the following people
   for intense technical discussions, early reviews and comments on the
   specification and its components: Li Li (CRC), Louise Lamont (CRC),
   Joe Macker (NRL), Alan Cullen (BAE Systems), Philippe Jacquet
   (INRIA), Khaldoun Al Agha (LRI), Richard Ogier (SRI), Song-Yean Cho
   (Samsung Software Center), Shubhranshu Singh (Samsung AIT) AIT), Charles
   E. Perkins (Nokia) and the entire IETF MANET working group.

Authors' Addresses

   Thomas Heide Clausen
   LIX, Ecole Polytechnique, France

   Phone: +33 6 6058 9349
   Email: T.Clausen@computer.org
   URI:   http://www.lix.polytechnique.fr/Labo/Thomas.Clausen/   http://www.ThomasClausen.org/

   Christopher M. Dearlove
   BAE Systems Advanced Technology Centre

   Phone: +44 1245 242194
   Email: chris.dearlove@baesystems.com
   URI:   http://www.baesystems.com/ocs/sharedservices/atc/   http://www.baesystems.com/

   Philippe Jacquet
   Project Hipercom, INRIA

   Phone: +33 1 3963 5263
   Email: philippe.jacquet@inria.fr
   URI:   http://hipercom.inria.fr/test/Jacquet.htm

   The OLSRv2 Design Team
   MANET Working Group

Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND
   THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS
   OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
   THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Intellectual Property

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at
   ietf-ipr@ietf.org.

Acknowledgment

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
   Administrative Support Activity (IASA).