draft-ietf-manet-dymo-15.txt   draft-ietf-manet-dymo-16.txt 
Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working I. Chakeres Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working I. Chakeres
Group CenGen Group CenGen
Internet-Draft C. Perkins Internet-Draft C. Perkins
Intended status: Standards Track WiChorus Intended status: Standards Track WiChorus
Expires: May 20, 2009 November 16, 2008 Expires: June 8, 2009 December 5, 2008
Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing
draft-ietf-manet-dymo-15 draft-ietf-manet-dymo-16
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on May 20, 2009. This Internet-Draft will expire on June 8, 2009.
Abstract Abstract
The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol is intended for The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol is intended for
use by mobile routers in wireless, multihop networks. DYMO use by mobile routers in wireless, multihop networks. DYMO
determines unicast routes among DYMO routers within the network in an determines unicast routes among DYMO routers within the network in an
on-demand fashion, offering improved convergence in dynamic on-demand fashion, offering improved convergence in dynamic
topologies. topologies.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
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5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness . . . . . . . 15 5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness . . . . . . . 15
5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with 5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with
Received Superior Routing Information . . . . . . . . 17 Received Superior Routing Information . . . . . . . . 17
5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3. Routing Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.3. Routing Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.1. RREQ Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.3.1. RREQ Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.2. RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.3.2. RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3.3. Intermediate DYMO Router RREP Creation . . . . . . . . 20 5.3.3. Intermediate DYMO Router RREP Creation . . . . . . . . 20
5.3.4. RM Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.3.4. RM Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM . . . . 24 5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM . . . . 24
5.4. Route Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.4. Route Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.5. Route Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.5. Route Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes During Packet Forwarding . . 26 5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes During Packet Forwarding . . 26
5.5.3. RERR Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.5.3. RERR Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.5.4. RERR Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.5.4. RERR Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.7. Advertising Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.7. Advertising Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.8. Simple Internet Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.8. Simple Internet Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.9. Multiple Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.9. Multiple Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.10. DYMO Control Packet/Message Generation Limits . . . . . . 30 5.10. DYMO Control Packet/Message Generation Limits . . . . . . 31
6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options . . 31 6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options . . 31
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.2. Packet and Message TLV Type Specification . . . . . . . . 32 7.2. Packet and Message TLV Type Specification . . . . . . . . 33
7.3. Address Block TLV Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 7.3. Address Block TLV Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 37 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 38
1. Overview 1. Overview
The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol enables reactive, The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol enables reactive,
multihop unicast routing among participating DYMO routers. The basic multihop unicast routing among participating DYMO routers. The basic
operations of the DYMO protocol are route discovery and route operations of the DYMO protocol are route discovery and route
maintenance. maintenance.
During route discovery, the originator's DYMO router initiates During route discovery, the originator's DYMO router initiates
dissemination of a Route Request (RREQ) throughout the network to dissemination of a Route Request (RREQ) throughout the network to
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OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum
The DYMO sequence number of the originator's DYMO router. The DYMO sequence number of the originator's DYMO router.
A RM may optionally include the following information: A RM may optionally include the following information:
TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum
The last known DYMO sequence number of the TargetNode. The last known DYMO sequence number of the TargetNode.
TargetNode.AddTLV.Dist TargetNode.AddTLV.Dist
The last known distance to the TargetNode. The last known Distance to the TargetNode.
AddBlk.AdditionalNode.Address AddBlk.AdditionalNode.Address
The IP address of an additional node that can be reached via the The IP address of an additional node that can be reached via the
DYMO router adding this information. Each AdditionalNode.Address DYMO router adding this information. Each AdditionalNode.Address
MUST include its prefix. Each AdditionalNode.Address MUST also MUST include its prefix. Each AdditionalNode.Address MUST also
have an associated Node.SeqNum in the address TLV block. have an associated Node.SeqNum in the address TLV block.
AdditionalNode.AddTLV.SeqNum AdditionalNode.AddTLV.SeqNum
The DYMO sequence number associated with this routing information. The DYMO sequence number associated with this routing information.
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| msg-hoplimit | | msg-hoplimit |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Message TLV Block Message TLV Block
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| msg-tlv-block-size=0 | | msg-tlv-block-size=0 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Message Body - Address Block Message Body - Address Block
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Number Addrs=1 |0|0|0|0|0| Rsv | |Number Addrs=1 |0|0|0|0|0| Rsv |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Unreachable.Address | | UnreachableNode.Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Message Body - Address Block TLV Block Message Body - Address Block TLV Block
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| TLV-blk-size=0 | | TLV-blk-size=0 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 2 Figure 2
5. Detailed Operation 5. Detailed Operation
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If OwnSeqNum is not incremented the routing information might be If OwnSeqNum is not incremented the routing information might be
considered stale. In this case, the RREP might not reach the RREP considered stale. In this case, the RREP might not reach the RREP
Target. Target.
After any of the sequence number operations above, the RREP After any of the sequence number operations above, the RREP
OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) MUST also added to the RREP. OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) MUST also added to the RREP.
Other AddTLVs in the RREP for the OrigNode and TargetNode SHOULD be Other AddTLVs in the RREP for the OrigNode and TargetNode SHOULD be
included and set accordingly. If OrigNode.Dist is included it is set included and set accordingly. If OrigNode.Dist is included it is set
to a number greater than zero (0). to a number greater than zero (0) and less than 65,535. The Distance
value will influence judgment of the routing information
(Section 5.2.1) against known information at other DYMO routers that
process this RM.
The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to MSG_HOPLIMIT. The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to MSG_HOPLIMIT.
The IP.DestinationAddress for RREP is set to the IP address of the The IP.DestinationAddress for RREP is set to the IP address of the
Route.NextHopAddress for the route to the RREP TargetNode. Route.NextHopAddress for the route to the RREP TargetNode.
5.3.3. Intermediate DYMO Router RREP Creation 5.3.3. Intermediate DYMO Router RREP Creation
Sometimes a DYMO router other than the TargetNode's DYMO router (call Sometimes a DYMO router other than the TargetNode's DYMO router (call
it an "intermediate DYMO router") has routing information that can it an "intermediate DYMO router") has routing information that can
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AddBlk.OrigNode.Address using longest-prefix matching [RFC1812]. If AddBlk.OrigNode.Address using longest-prefix matching [RFC1812]. If
a route with a valid Route.SeqNum does not exist, then the new a route with a valid Route.SeqNum does not exist, then the new
routing information is considered fresh and a new route table entry routing information is considered fresh and a new route table entry
is created and updated as described in Section 5.2.2. If a route is created and updated as described in Section 5.2.2. If a route
table entry does exists and it has a valid Route.SeqNum, the incoming table entry does exists and it has a valid Route.SeqNum, the incoming
routing information is compared with the route table entry following routing information is compared with the route table entry following
the procedure described in Section 5.2.1. If the incoming routing the procedure described in Section 5.2.1. If the incoming routing
information is considered superior, the route table entry is updated information is considered superior, the route table entry is updated
as described in Section 5.2.2. as described in Section 5.2.2.
For each address (except the TargetNode) in the RM that includes
AddTLV.Dist information, the AddTLV.Dist information MAY be
incremented. The updated Distance value will influence judgment of
the routing information (Section 5.2.1).
If the resulting Distance value for the OrigNode is greater than
65,535, the message is discarded. If the resulting Distance value
for another node is greater than 65,535, the associated address and
its information are removed from the RM.
After processing the OrigNode's routing information, then each After processing the OrigNode's routing information, then each
address that is not the TargetNode should be considered for creating address that is not the TargetNode should be considered for creating
and updating routes. Creating and updating routes to other nodes can and updating routes. Creating and updating routes to other nodes can
eliminate RREQ for those IP destinations, in the event that data eliminate RREQ for those IP destinations, in the event that data
needs to be forwarded to the IP destination(s) now or in the near needs to be forwarded to the IP destination(s) now or in the near
future. future.
For each of the additional addresses considered, ThisNode first For each of the additional addresses considered, ThisNode first
checks the that the address is a multihop-capable unicast IP address. checks the that the address is a multihop-capable unicast IP address.
If the address is not a unicast IP address, the address and all If the address is not a unicast IP address, the address and all
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RM. RM.
After processing a RM or creating a new RM, a node can append After processing a RM or creating a new RM, a node can append
additional routing information to the RM, according to the procedure additional routing information to the RM, according to the procedure
described in Section 5.3.5. The additional routing information can described in Section 5.3.5. The additional routing information can
help reduce route discoveries at the expense of increased message help reduce route discoveries at the expense of increased message
size. size.
For each address (except the TargetNode) in the RM that includes For each address (except the TargetNode) in the RM that includes
AddTLV.Dist information, the AddTLV.Dist information is incremented AddTLV.Dist information, the AddTLV.Dist information is incremented
by at least one (1). The updated distance value will influence by at least one (1). The updated Distance value will influence
judgment of the routing information (Section 5.2.1) against known judgment of the routing information (Section 5.2.1) against known
information at other DYMO routers that process this RM. information at other DYMO routers that process this RM.
If the resulting distance value for the OrigNode is greater than If the resulting Distance value for the OrigNode is greater than
65,535, the message is discarded. If the resulting distance value 65,535, the message is discarded. If the resulting Distance value
for another node is greater than 65,535, the associated address and for another node is greater than 65,535, the associated address and
its information are removed from the RM. its information are removed from the RM.
Next, the MsgHdr.HopLimit is decremented by one (1). If this RM's Next, the MsgHdr.HopLimit is decremented by one (1). If this RM's
MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1), ThisNode is not MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1), ThisNode is not
the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREQ, then the current RM (altered the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREQ, then the current RM (altered
by the procedure defined above) SHOULD be sent to the by the procedure defined above) SHOULD be sent to the
IP.DestinationAddress LL-MANET-ROUTERS [I-D.ietf-manet-iana]. If the IP.DestinationAddress LL-MANET-ROUTERS [I-D.ietf-manet-iana]. If the
RREQ is unicast, the IP.DestinationAddress is set to the RREQ is unicast, the IP.DestinationAddress is set to the
NextHopAddress. NextHopAddress.
If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1), If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1),
ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREP, then the ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREP, then the
current RM is sent to the Route.NextHopAddress for the RREP's current RM is sent to the Route.NextHopAddress for the RREP's
TargetNode.Address. If no forwarding route exists to Target.Address, TargetNode.Address. If no forwarding route exists to Target.Address,
then a RERR is issued to the OrigNode of the RREP. then a RERR SHOULD be issued to the OrigNode of the RREP.
By sending the updated RM ThisNode is advertising that it will By sending the updated RM ThisNode is advertising that it will
provide routing for IP addresses contained in the outgoing RM based provide routing for IP addresses contained in the outgoing RM based
on the information enclosed. ThisNode MAY choose not to send the RM, on the information enclosed. ThisNode MAY choose not to send the RM,
though not resending this RM could decrease connectivity in the though not resending this RM could decrease connectivity in the
network or result in a non-shortest distance path. network or result in a non-shortest distance path.
Some examples of why ThisNode might choose to not re-issue a RM are: Some examples of why ThisNode might choose to not re-issue a RM are:
if ThisNode does not want to advertise routing for the contained IP if ThisNode does not want to advertise routing for the contained IP
addresses because it is already heavily loaded; if ThisNode has addresses because it is already heavily loaded; if ThisNode has
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IP.SourceAddress. IP.SourceAddress.
3. The Route.NextHopInterface is the same as the interface on which 3. The Route.NextHopInterface is the same as the interface on which
the RERR was received. the RERR was received.
4. The Route.SeqNum is zero (0), unknown, OR the 4. The Route.SeqNum is zero (0), unknown, OR the
UnreachableNode.SeqNum is zero (0), unknown, OR Route.SeqNum - UnreachableNode.SeqNum is zero (0), unknown, OR Route.SeqNum -
UnreachableNode.SeqNum <= 0 (using signed 16-bit arithmetic). UnreachableNode.SeqNum <= 0 (using signed 16-bit arithmetic).
During processing if Route.SeqNum is zero (0) or unknown and During processing if Route.SeqNum is zero (0) or unknown and
Unreachable.SeqNum exists in the RERR, then Route.SeqNum MAY be set UnreachableNode.SeqNum exists in the RERR, then Route.SeqNum MAY be
to Unreachable.SeqNum. Setting Route.SeqNum can reduce future RRER set to UnreachableNode.SeqNum. Setting Route.SeqNum can reduce
processing and forwarding. future RRER processing and forwarding.
Each UnreachableNode that did not result in a broken route is removed Each UnreachableNode that did not result in a broken route is removed
from the RERR, since propagation of this information will not result from the RERR, since propagation of this information will not result
in any benefit. Any other information (AddTLVs) associated with the in any benefit.
removed address(es) is also removed.
After processing if Route.SeqNum is known and an Unreachable.SeqNum Each UnreachableNode that did result in a broken route SHOULD remain
is not included in the RERR, then Route.SeqNum (i.e. in the RERR.
Unreachable.SeqNum) MAY be added to the RERR. Including
Unreachable.SeqNum can reduce future RRER processing and forwarding. If any UnreachableNode was removed, all other information (AddTLVs)
associated with the removed address(es) MUST also removed.
After processing if Route.SeqNum is known and an
UnreachableNode.SeqNum is not included in the RERR, then Route.SeqNum
(i.e. UnreachableNode.SeqNum) MAY be added to the RERR. Including
UnreachableNode.SeqNum can reduce future RRER processing and
forwarding.
If no UnreachableNode addresses remain in the RERR, no other If no UnreachableNode addresses remain in the RERR, no other
processing is required and the RERR is discarded. processing is required and the RERR is discarded.
If processing continues, the MsgHdr.HopLimit is decremented by one If processing continues, the MsgHdr.HopLimit is decremented by one
(1). Further, if this RERR's new MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than one (1). Further, if this RERR's new MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than one
(1) and at least one unreachable node address remains in the RERR, (1) and at least one unreachable node address remains in the RERR,
then the updated multicast RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress then the updated RERR SHOULD be sent.
LL-MANET-ROUTERS [I-D.ietf-manet-iana]. If the RERR is unicast, the
A multicast RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL-MANET-
ROUTERS [I-D.ietf-manet-iana]. If the RERR is unicast, the
IP.DestinationAddress is set to the NextHopAddress. IP.DestinationAddress is set to the NextHopAddress.
5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types 5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types
If a message with an unknown type is received, the message is If a message with an unknown type is received, the message is
discarded. discarded.
For processing of messages that contain unknown TLV types, operation For processing of messages that contain unknown TLV types, operation
should be administratively controlled. should be administratively controlled.
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10.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-manet-iana] [I-D.ietf-manet-iana]
Chakeres, I., "IANA Allocations for MANET Protocols", Chakeres, I., "IANA Allocations for MANET Protocols",
draft-ietf-manet-iana-07 (work in progress), draft-ietf-manet-iana-07 (work in progress),
November 2007. November 2007.
[I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb] [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]
Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Dean, J., and C. Adjih, Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Dean, J., and C. Adjih,
"Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format", "Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format",
draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-16 (work in progress), draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-17 (work in progress),
September 2008. November 2008.
[I-D.ietf-manet-timetlv] [I-D.ietf-manet-timetlv]
Clausen, T. and C. Dearlove, "Representing multi-value Clausen, T. and C. Dearlove, "Representing multi-value
time in MANETs", draft-ietf-manet-timetlv-08 (work in time in MANETs", draft-ietf-manet-timetlv-08 (work in
progress), September 2008. progress), September 2008.
[RFC1812] Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers", [RFC1812] Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
RFC 1812, June 1995. RFC 1812, June 1995.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
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