draft-ietf-manet-dymo-09.txt   draft-ietf-manet-dymo-10.txt 
Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working I. Chakeres Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working I. Chakeres
Group Motorola Group Motorola
Internet-Draft C. Perkins Internet-Draft C. Perkins
Intended status: Standards Track Nokia Intended status: Standards Track Nokia
Expires: November 3, 2007 May 2, 2007 Expires: January 6, 2008 July 5, 2007
Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing
draft-ietf-manet-dymo-09 draft-ietf-manet-dymo-10
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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This Internet-Draft will expire on November 3, 2007. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 6, 2008.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
Abstract Abstract
The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol is intended for The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol is intended for
use by mobile nodes in wireless, multihop networks. It offers use by mobile modes in wireless, multihop networks. It offers
adaptation to changing network topology and determines unicast routes adaptation to changing network topology and determines unicast routes
between nodes within the network in an on-demand fashion. between DYMO routers within the network in an on-demand fashion.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Applicability Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Applicability Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Route Table Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Route Table Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. DYMO Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2. DYMO Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2.1. Generalized MANET Packet and Message Structure . . . . 8 4.2.1. Generalized MANET Packet and Message Structure . . . . 8
4.2.2. Routing Messages (RM) - RREQ & RREP . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2.2. Routing Messages (RM) - RREQ & RREP . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2.3. Route Error (RERR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.2.3. Route Error (RERR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5. Detailed Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5. Detailed Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1. DYMO Sequence Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.1. DYMO Sequence Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number . . . . . . . 12 5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number . . . . . . . 13
5.1.2. Numerical Operations on OwnSeqNum . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.2. Numerical Operations on OwnSeqNum . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1.4. Actions After OwnSeqNum Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.4. Actions After OwnSeqNum Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness . . . . . . . 13 5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness . . . . . . . 14
5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New 5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New
Routing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Routing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.3. Routing Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3. Routing Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.1. RREQ Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3.1. RREQ Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.2. RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.3.2. RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3.3. Intermediate Node RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.3.3. Intermediate DYMO Router RREP Creation . . . . . . . . 19
5.3.4. RM Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.3.4. RM Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM . . . . 20 5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM . . . . 22
5.4. Route Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.4. Route Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.5. Route Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.5. Route Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes During Packet Forwarding . . 22 5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes During Packet Forwarding . . 24
5.5.3. Route Error Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.5.3. Route Error Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.5.4. RERR Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.5.4. RERR Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.7. Advertising Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.7. Advertising Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying . . . . . . . . 24 5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying . . . . . . . . 26
5.9. Multiple Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.9. Multiple Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options . . 26 6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options . . 28
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.2. Packet TLV Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.2. Packet and Message TLV Type Specification . . . . . . . . 30
7.3. Address Block TLV Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7.3. Address Block TLV Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 32 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 34
1. Overview 1. Overview
The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol enables reactive, The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol enables reactive,
multihop unicast routing between participating nodes that wish to multihop unicast routing between participating DYMO routers. The
communicate. The basic operations of the DYMO protocol are route basic operations of the DYMO protocol are route discovery and route
discovery and route management. During route discovery, the management. During route discovery, the originator's DYMO router
originating node initiates dissemination of a Route Request (RREQ) initiates dissemination of a Route Request (RREQ) throughout the
throughout the network to find a route to the target node. During network to find a route to the target's DYMO router. During this
this hop-by-hop dissemination process, each intermediate node records hop-by-hop dissemination process, each intermediate DYMO router
a route to the originating node. When the target node receives the records a route to the originator. When the target's DYMO router
RREQ, it responds with a Route Reply (RREP) sent hop-by-hop toward receives the RREQ, it responds with a Route Reply (RREP) sent hop-by-
the originating node. Each node that receives the RREP records a hop toward the originator. Each intermediate DYMO router that
route to the target node, and then the RREP is unicast hop-by-hop receives the RREP records a route to the target, and then the RREP is
toward the originating node. When the originating node receives the unicast hop-by-hop toward the originator. When the originator's DYMO
RREP, routes have then been established between the originating node router receives the RREP, routes have then been established between
and the target node in both directions. the originating DYMO router and the target DYMO router in both
directions.
In order to react to changes in the network topology nodes maintain In order to preserve routes in use, DYMO routers extend route
their routes and monitor links over which traffic is moving. When a lifetimes upon successfully forwarding a packet. In order to react
data packet is received for forwarding if a route for the destination to react to changes in the network topology, DYMO routers monitor
is not known or the route is broken, then the source of the packet is links over which traffic is moving. When a data packet is received
notified. A Route Error (RERR) is sent to the packet source to for forwarding if a route for the destination is not known or the
route is broken, then the DYMO router of source of the packet is
notified. A Route Error (RERR) is sent toward the packet source to
indicate the current route to a particular destination is broken. indicate the current route to a particular destination is broken.
When the source receives the RERR, it knows that it must perform When the source's DYMO router receives the RERR, it deletes the
route discovery if it still has packets to deliver to that route. If the DYMO router later receives a packet for forwarding to
destination. the same destination, it must perform route discovery again.
DYMO uses sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom [Perkins99]. DYMO uses sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom [Perkins99].
Sequence numbers enable nodes to determine the order of DYMO route Sequence numbers enable DYMO routers to determine the order of DYMO
discovery messages, thereby avoiding use of stale routing route discovery messages, thereby avoiding use of stale routing
information. information.
2. Applicability Statement 2. Applicability Statement
The DYMO routing protocol is designed for stub mobile ad hoc The DYMO routing protocol is designed for stub or disconnected mobile
networks. DYMO handles a wide variety of mobility patterns by ad hoc networks. DYMO handles a wide variety of mobility patterns by
dynamically determining routes on-demand. DYMO also handles a wide dynamically determining routes on-demand. DYMO also handles a wide
variety of traffic patterns. In large networks DYMO is best suited variety of traffic patterns. In large networks DYMO is best suited
for traffic scenarios where nodes communicate with only a portion of for traffic scenarios where nodes communicate with only a portion of
other the nodes. other the nodes.
DYMO is applicable to memory constrained devices, since little DYMO is applicable to memory constrained devices, since little
routing state needs to be maintained in each node. Only routing routing state must be maintained in each DYMO router. Only routing
information related to active sources and destinations must be information related to active sources and destinations must be
maintained, in contrast to other routing protocols that require maintained, in contrast to other routing protocols that require
routing information to all nodes within the autonomous system be routing information to all routers within the routing region be
maintained. maintained.
DYMO supports routers which have multiple interfaces participating in
the MANET. DYMO also supports nodes which have non-MANET interfaces
to which hosts can attach.
DYMO routers perform route discovery to find a route to a particular
destination. Therefore, DYMO routers must be configured to initiate
route discovery for certain destinations. When DYMO is the only
protocol interacting with the forwarding table, DYMO should be
configured to perform route discovery for all unknown unicast
destinations.
DYMO should only utilizes bidirectional links. In the case of
possible unidirectional links, either blacklists (see Section 7.2) or
other means (e.g. only accepting RM from bidirectional links as
indicated by NHDP [I-D.ietf-manet-nhdp]) of ensuring bi-
directionality should be used. Otherwise, persistent packet loss may
occur.
The routing algorithm in DYMO may be operated at layers other than The routing algorithm in DYMO may be operated at layers other than
the network layer, using layer-appropriate addresses. Only the network layer, using layer-appropriate addresses. Only
modification of the packet format is required. The routing algorithm modification of the packet format is required. The routing algorithm
need not change. Note that, using the DYMO algorithm with message need not change. Note that, using the DYMO algorithm with message
formats (other than those specified in this document) will not be formats other than those specified in this document will not be
interoperable. interoperable.
3. Terminology 3. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Additionally, this document uses some terminology from Additionally, this document uses some terminology from
[I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb].
This document defines the following terminology: This document defines the following terminology:
Distance (Dist)
A metric of the distance a message or piece of information has
traversed. The minimum value of distance is the number of IP hops
traversed.
DYMO Sequence Number (SeqNum) DYMO Sequence Number (SeqNum)
A DYMO Sequence Number is maintained by each node. This sequence A DYMO Sequence Number is maintained by each DYMO router. This
number is used by other nodes to identify the order of routing sequence number is used by other DYMO routers to identify the
information generated by a node and to ensure loop-free routes. order of routing information generated and ensure loop-free
routes.
Forwarding Route Forwarding Route
A route that is used to forward data packets. Forwarding routes A route that is used to forward data packets. Forwarding routes
are generally maintained in a forwarding information base (FIB) or are generally maintained in a forwarding information base (FIB) or
the kernel forwarding/routing table. the kernel forwarding/routing table.
Hop Count (HopCnt)
The number of IP hops a message or piece of information has
traversed.
Originating Node (OrigNode) Originating Node (OrigNode)
The originating node is the node that created a DYMO Message in an The originating node is the DYMO router that creates a DYMO
effort to disseminate some information. The originating node is Message in an effort to disseminate some information. The
also referred to as a particular message's originator. originating node is also referred to as a particular message's
originator.
Route Error (RERR) Route Error (RERR)
A node generates and disseminates a RERR to indicate that it does A RERR message is used indicate that a DYMO router does not have
not have forwarding route to one or more particular addresses. forwarding route to one or more particular addresses.
Route Reply (RREP) Route Reply (RREP)
A RREP is used to disseminate routing information about the RREP A RREP message is used to disseminate routing information about
OrigNode to the TargetNode and the nodes between them. the RREP OrigNode to the RREP TargetNode and the DYMO routers
between them.
Route Request (RREQ) Route Request (RREQ)
A node (the RREQ OrigNode) generates a RREQ to discover a valid A RREQ message is issued to discover a valid route to a particular
route to a particular destination address, called the RREQ destination address, called the RREQ TargetNode. When a DYMO
TargetNode. When a node processes a RREQ, it learns routing router processes a RREQ, it learns routing information on how to
information on how to reach the RREQ OrigNode. reach the RREQ OrigNode.
Target Node (TargetNode) Target Node (TargetNode)
The TargetNode is the ultimate destination of a message. The TargetNode is the ultimate destination of a message.
This Node (ThisNode) This Node (ThisNode)
ThisNode corresponds to the node currently performing a ThisNode corresponds to the DYMO router currently performing a
calculation or processing a message. calculation or processing a message.
Type-Length-Value structure (TLV) Type-Length-Value structure (TLV)
A generic way to represent information, see A generic way to represent information, please see
[I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb] for additional information.
Unreachable Node (UnreachableNode) Unreachable Node (UnreachableNode)
An UnreachableNode is a node for which ThisNode does not have a An UnreachableNode is a node for which a forwarding route does not
forwarding route. exist.
4. Data Structures 4. Data Structures
4.1. Route Table Entry 4.1. Route Table Entry
The route table entry is a conceptual data structure. The route table entry is a conceptual data structure.
Implementations may use any internal representation that conforms to Implementations may use any internal representation that conforms to
the semantics of a route as specified in this document. the semantics of a route as specified in this document.
Conceptually, a route table entry has the following fields: Conceptually, a route table entry has the following fields:
Route.Address Route.Address
The IP destination address of the node associated with the routing The IP destination address of the node(s) associated with the
table entry. routing table entry.
Route.SeqNum Route.SeqNum
The DYMO SeqNum associated with this routing information. The DYMO SeqNum associated with this routing information.
Route.NextHopAddress Route.NextHopAddress
The IP address of the next node on the path toward the The IP address of the next DYMO router on the path toward the
Route.Address. Route.Address.
Route.NextHopInterface Route.NextHopInterface
The interface used to send packets toward the Route.Address. The interface used to send packets toward the Route.Address.
Route.Broken Route.Broken
A flag indicating whether this Route is broken. This flag is set A flag indicating whether this Route is broken. This flag is set
if the next hop becomes unreachable or in response to processing a if the next hop becomes unreachable or in response to processing a
RERR (see Section 5.5.4). RERR (see Section 5.5.4).
The following fields are optional: The following fields are optional:
Route.HopCnt Route.Dist
The number of intermediate node hops traversed before reaching the A metric indicating the distance traversed before reaching the
Route.Address node. Route.HopCnt assists in determining whether Route.Address node.
received routing information is better than existing known
information.
Route.Prefix Route.Prefix
Indicates that the associated address is a network address, rather Indicates that the associated address is a network address, rather
than a host address. The value is the length of the netmask/ than a host address. The value is the length of the netmask/
prefix. If an address block does not have an associated prefix. If an address block does not have an associated
PREFIX_LENGTH TLV [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb], the prefix may be PREFIX_LENGTH TLV [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb], the prefix may be
considered to have a prefix length equal to the address length (in considered to have a prefix length equal to the address length (in
bits). bits).
Not including optional information may cause performance degradation, Not including optional information may cause performance degradation,
but it will not cause the protocol to operate incorrectly otherwise. but it will not cause the protocol to operate incorrectly.
In addition to a route table data structure, each route table entry In addition to a route table data structure, each route table entry
may have several timers associated with the information. These may have several timers associated with the information. These
timers/timeouts are discussed in Section 5.2.3. timers/timeouts are discussed in Section 5.2.3.
4.2. DYMO Messages 4.2. DYMO Messages
When describing DYMO protocol messages, it is necessary to refer to When describing DYMO protocol messages, it is necessary to refer to
fields in several distinct parts of the overall packet. These fields in several distinct parts of the overall packet. These
locations include the IP or IPv6 header, the UDP header, and fields locations include the IP or IPv6 header, the UDP header, and fields
skipping to change at page 8, line 15 skipping to change at page 8, line 37
4.2.1. Generalized MANET Packet and Message Structure 4.2.1. Generalized MANET Packet and Message Structure
DYMO messages conform to the generalized packet and message format as DYMO messages conform to the generalized packet and message format as
described in [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. Here is a brief description described in [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. Here is a brief description
of the format. A packet is made up of messages. A message is made of the format. A packet is made up of messages. A message is made
up of a message header, message TLV block, and zero or more address up of a message header, message TLV block, and zero or more address
blocks. Each of the address blocks may also have an associated blocks. Each of the address blocks may also have an associated
address TLV block. address TLV block.
All DYMO messages specified in this document are sent using UDP to All DYMO messages specified in this document are sent using UDP to
the destination port TBD. the destination port MANET [I-D.ietf-manet-iana].
Most DYMO messages are sent with the IP destination address set to Most DYMO messages are sent with the IP destination address set to
the link-local multicast address LL MANET ROUTERS unless otherwise the link-local multicast address LL MANET ROUTERS unless otherwise
stated. Unicast DYMO messages specified in this document are sent stated. Therefore, all DYMO routers SHOULD subscribe to LL MANET
with the IP destination set to the Route.NextHopAddress of the route ROUTERS for receiving control packets.
to the TargetNode.
The IP TTL (IP Hop Limit) field for DYMO messages is set to one (1) Unicast DYMO messages specified in this document are sent with the IP
for all messages specified in this document. destination set to the Route.NextHopAddress of the route to the
TargetNode.
The IPv4 TTL (IPv6 Hop Limit) field for DYMO messages is set to one
(1) for all messages specified in this document.
The length of an IP address (32 bits for IPv4 and 128 bits for IPv6) The length of an IP address (32 bits for IPv4 and 128 bits for IPv6)
inside a DYMO message depends on the IP packet header containing the inside a DYMO message depends on the IP packet header containing the
DYMO message/packet. For example, if the IP header uses IPv6 DYMO message/packet. For example, if the IP header uses IPv6
addresses then all messages and addresses contained in the payload addresses then all messages and addresses contained in the payload
use IPv6 addresses. In the case of mixed IPv6 and IPv4 addresses, use IPv6 addresses. In the case of mixed IPv6 and IPv4 addresses,
IPv4 addresses are carried in IPv6 as specified in [RFC4291]. please see [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb].
If a packet contains only a single DYMO message and no packet TLVs,
it need not include a packet-header [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb].
The aggregation of multiple messages into a packet is not specified
in this document, but the IP.SourceAddress and IP.DestinationAddress
of all contained messages must be the same.
Implementations may choose to temporarily delay transmission of
messages for the purpose of aggregation (into a single packet) or to
improve performance by introducing jitter [I-D.ietf-manet-jitter].
4.2.2. Routing Messages (RM) - RREQ & RREP 4.2.2. Routing Messages (RM) - RREQ & RREP
Routing Messages (RMs) are used to disseminate routing information. Routing Messages (RMs) are used to disseminate routing information.
There are two DYMO message types that are considered to be routing There are two DYMO message types that are considered to be routing
messages (RMs): RREQ and RREP. They contain very similar information messages (RMs): RREQ and RREP. They contain very similar information
and function, but have slightly different processing rules. The main and function, but have slightly different processing rules. The main
difference between the two messages is that RREQ messages solicit a difference between the two messages is that RREQ messages generally
RREP, whereas a RREP is the response to RREQ. solicit a RREP, whereas a RREP is the response to RREQ.
RM creation and processing are described in Section 5.3. RM creation and processing are described in Section 5.3.
A RM requires the following information: A RM requires the following information:
IP.DestinationAddress IP.DestinationAddress
The IP address of the packet destination. For RREQ the The IP address of the packet destination. For RREQ the
IP.DestinationAddress is set to LL MANET ROUTERS. For RREP the IP.DestinationAddress is set to LL MANET ROUTERS. For RREP the
IP.DestinationAddress is set to the NextHopAddress toward the IP.DestinationAddress is set to the NextHopAddress toward the RREP
TargetNode. TargetNode.
UDP.DestinationPort UDP.DestinationPort
The UDP destination port is set to TBD. The UDP destination port is set to MANET [I-D.ietf-manet-iana].
MsgHdr.HopLimit MsgHdr.HopLimit
The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse. The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse.
MsgHdr.HopCnt
The number of hops this message has traversed.
AddBlk.TargetNode.Address AddBlk.TargetNode.Address
The IP address of the message TargetNode. In a RREQ the The IP address of the message TargetNode. In a RREQ the
TargetNode is the destination for which a forwarding route does TargetNode is the destination for which a forwarding route does
not exist and route discovery is being performed. In a RREP the not exist and route discovery is being performed. In a RREP the
target node is the RREQ OrigNode. The TargetNode address is the TargetNode is the RREQ OrigNode DYMO router. The TargetNode
first address in the routing message. address is the first address in a routing message.
AddBlk.OrigNode.Address AddBlk.OrigNode.Address
The IP address of the OrigNode. This address is in an address The IP address of the originator. In a RREQ the OrigNode is the
block and not in the message header to allow for address source's DYMO router for which a route discovery is being
compression and additional AddTLVs. This address is the second performed. In a RREP the OrigNode is the RREQ TargetNode's DYMO
address in the message for RREQ. router for which a RREP is being generated. This address is the
second address in the message for RREQ.
OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum
The DYMO sequence number of the OrigNode. The DYMO sequence number of the originator's DYMO router.
A RM may optionally include the following information: A RM may optionally include the following information:
TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum
The last known DYMO sequence number of the TargetNode. The last known DYMO sequence number of the TargetNode.
TargetNode.AddTLV.HopCnt TargetNode.AddTLV.Dist
The last known HopCnt to the TargetNode. The last known distance to the TargetNode.
AddBlk.AdditionalNode.Address AddBlk.AdditionalNode.Address
The IP address of an additional node that can be reached via the The IP address of an additional node that can be reached via the
node adding this information. Each AdditionalNode.Address must DYMO router adding this information. Each AdditionalNode.Address
have an associated SeqNum in the address TLV block. must have an associated Node.SeqNum in the address TLV block.
AdditionalNode.AddTLV.SeqNum AdditionalNode.AddTLV.SeqNum
The DYMO sequence number of an additional intermediate node's The DYMO sequence number associated with this routing information.
routing information.
Node.AddTLV.HopCnt Node.AddTLV.Dist
The number of IP hops to reach the associated Node.Address. This A metric of the distance to reach the associated Node.Address.
field is incremented at each intermediate hop, for each node This field is incremented by at least one at each intermediate
except the TargetNode's HopCnt information. DYMO router, except the TargetNode.AddTLV.Dist. The TargetNode's
distance information is not modified.
Node.AddTLV.Prefix Node.AddTLV.Prefix
The Node.Address is a network address with a particular prefix The Node.Address is a network address with a particular prefix
length. length.
Example IPv4 RREQ Example IPv4 RREQ
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
IP Header IP Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IP.DestinationAddress = LL MANET ROUTERS | | IP.DestinationAddress = LL MANET ROUTERS |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... ...
UDP Header UDP Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination Port=TBD | | Destination Port = MANET |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... ...
Message Header Message Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| RREQ-type | Resv |0|0|1| msg-size=23 | | RREQ-type | Rsv |N|1|1|0|1| msg-size=23 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| msg-hoplimit | msg-hopcnt | | msg-hoplimit |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... ...
Message Body - Message TLV Block Message Body - Message TLV Block
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| msg-tlv-block-size=0 | | msg-tlv-block-size=0 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Message Body - Address Block Message Body - Address Block
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Number Addrs=2 |0|HeadLength=3 | Head : |Number Addrs=2 | Resv |0|1|0| HeadLength=3 | Head :
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
: Head (cont) | Target.Tail | Orig.Tail |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
: (cont) | Target.Tail | Orig.Tail |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Message Body - Address Block TLV Block Message Body - Address Block TLV Block
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| tlv-block-size=6 |DYMOSeqNum-type|Resv |0|1|0|0|0| | tlv-block-size=6 |DYMOSeqNum-type|Rsv|0|1|0|0|0|0|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Index-start=1 | tlv-length=2 | Orig.SeqNum | | Index-start=1 | tlv-length=2 | Orig.SeqNum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 1 Figure 1
4.2.3. Route Error (RERR) 4.2.3. Route Error (RERR)
A RERR message is used to disseminate the information that a route is A RERR message is used to disseminate the information that a route is
not available for one or more particular IP addresses. not available for one or more particular IP addresses.
RERR creation and processing are described in Section 5.5. RERR creation and processing are described in Section 5.5.
A RERR requires the following information: A RERR requires the following information:
IP.DestinationAddress IP.DestinationAddress
The IP address is set to LL MANET ROUTERS. The IP address is set to LL MANET ROUTERS.
UDP.DestinationPort UDP.DestinationPort
The UDP destination port is set to TBD. The UDP destination port is set to MANET [I-D.ietf-manet-iana].
MsgHdr.HopLimit MsgHdr.HopLimit
The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse. The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse.
AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address
The IP address of an UnreachableNode. Multiple unreachable The IP address of an UnreachableNode. Multiple unreachable
addresses may be included in a RERR. addresses may be included in a RERR.
A Route Error may optionally include the following information: A Route Error may optionally include the following information:
UnreachableNode.AddTLV.SeqNum UnreachableNode.AddTLV.SeqNum
The last known DYMO sequence number of the unreachable node. If a The last known DYMO sequence number of the unreachable node. If a
SeqNum for an address is not included, it is assumed to be SeqNum for an address is not included, it is assumed to be
unknown. This case occurs when a node receives a message to unknown. This case occurs when a node receives a message to
forward for which it does not have any information in its routing forward to a destination for which it does not have any
table. information in its routing table.
Example IPv4 RERR Example IPv4 RERR
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
IP Header IP Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IP.DestinationAddress = LL MANET ROUTERS | | IP.DestinationAddress = LL MANET ROUTERS |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... ...
UDP Header UDP Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination Port=TBD | | Destination Port = MANET |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... ...
Message Header Message Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| RERR-type | Resv |0|0|1| msg-size=16 | | RERR-type |Resv |0|1|1|0|1| msg-size=15 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| msg-hoplimit | msg-hopcnt | | msg-hoplimit |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... ...
Message Body Message Body
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| msg-tlv-block-size=0 |Number Addrs=1 |1|HeadLength=4 | | msg-tlv-block-size=0 |Number Addrs=1 | Resv |0|1|1|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Unreachable.Address | | Unreachable.Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| TLV-blk-size=0 | | TLV-blk-size=0 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 2 Figure 2
5. Detailed Operation 5. Detailed Operation
5.1. DYMO Sequence Numbers 5.1. DYMO Sequence Numbers
DYMO sequence numbers allow nodes to judge the freshness of routing DYMO sequence numbers allow nodes to judge the freshness of routing
information and ensure loop freedom. information and ensure loop freedom.
5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number 5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number
DYMO requires that each node in the network to maintain its own DYMO DYMO requires that each DYMO router in the network to maintain its
sequence number (OwnSeqNum), a 16-bit unsigned integer. The own DYMO sequence number (OwnSeqNum), a 16-bit unsigned integer. The
circumstances for ThisNode to incrementing its OwnSeqNum are circumstances for ThisNode to incrementing its OwnSeqNum are
described in Section 5.3. described in Section 5.3.
5.1.2. Numerical Operations on OwnSeqNum 5.1.2. Numerical Operations on OwnSeqNum
When ThisNode increments its OwnSeqNum (as described in Section 5.3) When ThisNode increments its OwnSeqNum (as described in Section 5.3)
it MUST do so by treating the sequence number value as an unsigned it MUST do so by treating the sequence number value as an unsigned
number. number.
Note: The sequence number zero (0) is reserved. Note: The sequence number zero (0) is reserved.
skipping to change at page 13, line 47 skipping to change at page 14, line 47
OwnSeqNum to one (1). OwnSeqNum to one (1).
The longest a node must wait is ROUTE_AGE_MAX_TIMEOUT. At the end of The longest a node must wait is ROUTE_AGE_MAX_TIMEOUT. At the end of
the maximum waiting period a node sets its OwnSeqNum to one (1) and the maximum waiting period a node sets its OwnSeqNum to one (1) and
begins participating. begins participating.
5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations 5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations
5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness 5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness
Given a route table entry (Route.SeqNum, Route.HopCnt, and Given a route table entry (Route.SeqNum, Route.Dist, and
Route.Broken) and new incoming routing information for a particular Route.Broken) and new incoming routing information for a particular
node in a RM (Node.SeqNum, Node.HopCnt, and RM message type - RREQ/ node in a RM (Node.SeqNum, Node.Dist, and RM message type - RREQ/
RREP), the quality of the new routing information is evaluated to RREP), the quality of the new routing information is evaluated to
determine its usefulness. Incoming routing information is classified determine its usefulness. Incoming routing information is classified
as follows: as follows:
1. Stale 1. Stale
If Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0 (using signed 16-bit arithmetic) If Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0 (using signed 16-bit arithmetic)
the incoming information is stale. Using stale routing the incoming information is stale. Using stale routing
information is not allowed, since doing so might result in routing information is not allowed, since doing so might result in routing
loops. loops.
(Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0) (Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0)
2. Loop-possible 2. Loop-possible
If Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum the incoming information may cause If Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum the incoming information may cause
loops if used; in this case additional information must be loops if used; in this case additional information must be
examined. If Route.HopCnt or Node.HopCnt is unknown or zero (0), examined. If Route.Dist or Node.Dist is unknown or zero (0), then
then the routing information is loop-possible. If Node.HopCnt > the routing information is loop-possible. If Node.Dist >
Route.HopCnt + 1, then the routing information is loop-possible. Route.Dist + 1, then the routing information is loop-possible.
Using loop-possible routing information is not allowed, otherwise Using loop-possible routing information is not allowed, otherwise
routing loops may be formed. routing loops may be formed.
(Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND (Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND
((Node.HopCnt is unknown) OR ((Node.Dist is unknown) OR
(Route.HopCnt is unknown) OR (Route.Dist is unknown) OR
(Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt + 1)) (Node.Dist > Route.Dist + 1))
3. Inferior 3. Inferior
Information is always inferior if Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0 In case of known equal SeqNum, the information is inferior, if
(using 16-bit signed arithmetic). In case of equal SeqNum, the Node.Dist > Route.Dist (it is a greater distance route). In case
information is inferior, if Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt (it is a of equal SeqNum, the information is inferior, if Node.Dist ==
longer route). In case of equal SeqNum, the information is Route.Dist (equal distance route) AND Route.Broken == false AND
inferior, if Node.HopCnt == Route.HopCnt (equal distance route) this RM is a RREQ. This condition stops forwarding of RREQ with
AND Route.Broken == false AND this RM is a RREQ. This condition equivalent distance.
stops forwarding of RREQ with equivalent distance.
(Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0) OR
((Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND ((Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND
((Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt) OR ((Node.Dist > Route.Dist) OR
((Node.HopCnt == Route.HopCnt) AND ((Node.Dist == Route.Dist) AND
(RM is RREQ) AND (Route.Broken == false)))) (RM is RREQ) AND (Route.Broken == false))))
4. Superior 4. Superior
Incoming routing information that does not match any of the above Incoming routing information that does not match any of the above
criteria is loop-free and better than the information existing in criteria is loop-free and better than the information existing in
the routing table. Information is always superior if Node.SeqNum the routing table. Information is always superior if Node.SeqNum
- Route.SeqNum > 0 (using 16-bit signed arithmetic). In the case - Route.SeqNum > 0 (using 16-bit signed arithmetic). In the case
of equal sequence numbers, the information is superior, if of equal sequence numbers, the information is superior, if
Node.HopCnt < Route.HopCnt. In the case of equal sequence Node.Dist < Route.Dist. In the case of equal sequence numbers,
numbers, the information is superior, if Node.HopCnt == the information is superior, if Node.Dist == Route.Dist AND it is
Route.HopCnt AND it is a RREP (RREP with equal HopCnt are a RREP (RREP with equal distance are forwarded) OR Route.Broken ==
forwarded) OR Route.Broken == true (a broken route is being true (a broken route is being repaired). For completeness, we
repaired). For completeness, we provide the following (optimized) provide the following (optimized) pseudo-code.
pseudo-code.
(Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum > 0) OR (Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum > 0) OR
((Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND ((Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND
((Node.HopCnt < Route.HopCnt) OR ((Node.Dist < Route.Dist) OR
((Node.HopCnt == Route.HopCnt) AND ((Node.Dist == Route.Dist) AND
((RM is RREP) OR (Route.Broken == true))))) ((RM is RREP) OR (Route.Broken == true)))))
5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New Routing 5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New Routing
Information Information
The route table entry is populated with the following information: The route table entry is populated with the following information:
1. the Route.Address is set to Node.Address, 1. the Route.Address is set to Node.Address,
2. the Route.SeqNum is set to the Node.SeqNum, 2. the Route.SeqNum is set to the Node.SeqNum,
3. the Route.NextHopAddress is set to the node that transmitted this 3. the Route.NextHopAddress is set to the node that transmitted this
DYMO RM packet (i.e., the IP.SourceAddress), DYMO RM packet (i.e., the IP.SourceAddress),
4. the Route.NextHopInterface is set to the interface that this DYMO 4. the Route.NextHopInterface is set to the interface that this DYMO
packet was received on, packet was received on,
5. if known, the Route.HopCnt is set to the Node.HopCnt, 5. if known, the Route.Dist is set to the Node.Dist,
6. if known, the Route.Prefix is set to the Node.Prefix. 6. if known, the Route.Prefix is set to the Node.Prefix.
Fields without known values are not populated with any value. Fields without known values are not populated with any value.
Previous timers for this route table entry are removed. A timer for Previous timers for this route table entry are removed. A timer for
the minimum delete timeout (ROUTE_AGE_MIN) is set to the minimum delete timeout (ROUTE_AGE_MIN) is set to
ROUTE_AGE_MIN_TIMEOUT. A timer to indicate a recently learned route ROUTE_AGE_MIN_TIMEOUT. A timer to indicate a recently learned route
(ROUTE_NEW) is set to ROUTE_NEW_TIMEOUT. A timer for the maximum (ROUTE_NEW) is set to ROUTE_NEW_TIMEOUT. A timer for the maximum
delete timeout (ROUTE_AGE_MAX). ROUTE_AGE_MAX is set to delete timeout (ROUTE_AGE_MAX). ROUTE_AGE_MAX is set to
Node.AddTLV.MaxAge if included; otherwise, ROUTE_AGE_MAX is set to Node.AddTLV.MaxAge if included; otherwise, ROUTE_AGE_MAX is set to
ROUTE_AGE_MAX_TIMEOUT. The usage of these timers and others are ROUTE_AGE_MAX_TIMEOUT. The usage of these timers and others are
described in Section 5.2.3. described in Section 5.2.3.
At this point, a forwarding route should be installed. Afterward, At this point, a forwarding route should be installed. Afterward,
the route can be used to send any queued data packets and forwarding the route can be used to send any queued data packets and forward any
any incoming data packets for Route.Address. This route also incoming data packets for Route.Address. This route also fulfills
fulfills any outstanding route discovery attempts for Node.Address. any outstanding route discovery attempts for Node.Address.
5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts 5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts
5.2.3.1. Minimum Delete Timeout (ROUTE_AGE_MIN) 5.2.3.1. Minimum Delete Timeout (ROUTE_AGE_MIN)
When a node transmits a RM, other nodes expect the transmitting node When a DYMO router transmits a RM, other DYMO routers expect the
to have a forwarding route to the RM originator. After updating a transmitting DYMO router to have a forwarding route to the RM
route table entry, it should be maintained for at least originator. After updating a route table entry, it should be
ROUTE_AGE_MIN. Failure to maintain the information might result in maintained for at least ROUTE_AGE_MIN. Failure to maintain the
lost messages/packets, or in the worst case scenario several information might result in lost messages/packets, or in the worst
duplicate messages. case scenario several duplicate messages.
After the ROUTE_AGE_MIN timeout a route can safely be deleted. After the ROUTE_AGE_MIN timeout a route can safely be deleted.
5.2.3.2. Maximum Delete Timeout (ROUTE_AGE_MAX) 5.2.3.2. Maximum Delete Timeout (ROUTE_AGE_MAX)
Sequence number information is time sensitive, and must be deleted Sequence number information is time sensitive, and must be deleted
after a time in order to avoid conflicts due to reboots and after a time in order to avoid conflicts due to reboots and
rollovers. When a node has lost its sequence number (e.g, due to rollovers. When a DYMO router has lost its sequence number (e.g, due
daemon reboot or node replacement) the node must wait until routing to daemon reboot or node replacement) the DYMO router must wait until
information associated with its IP address and sequence number are no routing information associated with that IP address and sequence
longer maintained by other nodes in the network to ensure loop-free number are no longer maintained by other DYMO routers in the network
routing. to ensure loop-free routing.
After the ROUTE_AGE_MAX timeout a route must be deleted. All After the ROUTE_AGE_MAX timeout a route must be deleted. All
information about the route is deleted upon ROUTE_AGE_MAX timeout. information about the route is deleted upon ROUTE_AGE_MAX timeout.
If a forwarding route exists it is also removed. If a forwarding route exists it is also removed.
5.2.3.3. New Information Timeout (ROUTE_NEW) 5.2.3.3. New Information Timeout (ROUTE_NEW)
As time progresses the likelihood that a route remains intact As time progresses the likelihood that a route remains intact
decreases, if the network nodes are mobile. Maintaining and using decreases, if the network nodes are mobile. Maintaining and using
old routing information can lead to many DYMO messages and excess old routing information can lead to many DYMO messages and excess
skipping to change at page 17, line 18 skipping to change at page 18, line 9
useful decreases, especially if the network nodes are mobile. useful decreases, especially if the network nodes are mobile.
Therefore, old information should be deleted. Therefore, old information should be deleted.
After the ROUTE_DELETE timeout, the routing table entry should be After the ROUTE_DELETE timeout, the routing table entry should be
deleted. If a forwarding route exists, it should also be removed. deleted. If a forwarding route exists, it should also be removed.
5.3. Routing Messages 5.3. Routing Messages
5.3.1. RREQ Creation 5.3.1. RREQ Creation
When a node creates a RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum by one When a DYMO router creates a RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum
(1) according to the rules specified in Section 5.1.2. Incrementing by one (1) according to the rules specified in Section 5.1.2.
OwnSeqNum will ensure that all nodes with existing routing Incrementing OwnSeqNum will ensure that all nodes with existing
information to consider this new information fresh. If the sequence routing information to consider this new information fresh. If the
number is not incremented, certain nodes might not consider this sequence number is not incremented, certain DYMO routers might not
information useful if they have superior information already. consider this information useful if they have superior information
already.
First, the node adds the AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREQ. First, ThisNode adds the AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREQ; the
IP.DestinationAddress for which a forwarding route does not exist.
If a previous value of the TargetNode.SeqNum is known (from a routing If a previous value of the TargetNode.SeqNum is known (from a routing
table entry), it SHOULD be placed in TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum in all table entry using longest-prefix matching), it SHOULD be placed in
but the last RREQ attempt. If a TargetNode.SeqNum is not included, TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum in all but the last RREQ attempt. If a
it is assumed to be unknown by processing nodes. This operation TargetNode.SeqNum is not included, it is assumed to be unknown by
ensures that no intermediate nodes reply, and ensures that the processing nodes. This operation ensures that no intermediate DYMO
TargetNode increments its sequence number. routers reply, and ensures that the TargetNode's DYMO router
increments its sequence number.
Similarly, if a previous value of the TargetNode.HopCnt is known, it Similarly, if a previous value of the TargetNode.Dist is known, it
SHOULD be placed in TargetNode.AddTLV.HopCnt. Otherwise, the SHOULD be placed in TargetNode.AddTLV.Dist. Otherwise, the
TargetNode.AddTLV.HopCnt is not included and assumed unknown by TargetNode.AddTLV.Dist is not included and assumed unknown by
processing nodes. processing nodes.
Next, the node adds AddBlk.OrigNode.Address to the RM and the Next, the node adds AddBlk.OrigNode.Address to the RM and the
OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) in an address block TLV. The OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) in an address block TLV.
OrigNode.Address is this node's address, and it must be a routable IP
address. This information will be used by nodes to create a route
toward the OrigNode and enable delivery of a RREP.
If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is set to zero (0). The OrigNode.Address is the address of the DYMO router that is
initiating this route discovery. The OrigNode.Address must be a
routable IP address. If this DYMO router is performing route
discovery on behalf of an attached node (the source of the data
packet forcing this route discovery), it MUST advertise it's address
and prefix that contain the source address. This information will be
used by nodes to create a route toward the OrigNode, enable delivery
of a RREP, and eventually for data packets.
The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit should be If OrigNode.Dist is included it is set to zero (0).
set to MAX_HOPLIMIT, but may be set smaller. For RREQ, the
MsgHdr.HopLimit may be set in accordance with an expanding ring The MsgHdr.HopLimit should be set to MAX_HOPLIMIT, but may be set
search as described in [RFC3561] to limit the RREQ propagation to a smaller.
subset of the network and possibly reduce route discovery overhead.
For RREQ, the MsgHdr.HopLimit may be set in accordance with an
expanding ring search as described in [RFC3561] to limit the RREQ
propagation to a subset of the network and possibly reduce route
discovery overhead.
The IP.DestinationAddress for RREQ is set to LL MANET ROUTERS. The IP.DestinationAddress for RREQ is set to LL MANET ROUTERS.
5.3.2. RREP Creation 5.3.2. RREP Creation
When ThisNode creates a RREP, if the ThisNode.SeqNum was not included When the TargetNode's DYMO router creates a RREP, if the
in the RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum by one (1) according to TargetNode.SeqNum was not included in the RREQ it MUST increment its
the rules specified in Section 5.1.2. OwnSeqNum by one (1) according to the rules specified in
Section 5.1.2.
If ThisNode.SeqNum is included in the RM and ThisNode.SeqNum from the If TargetNode.SeqNum is included in the RM and TargetNode.SeqNum from
RM is less than OwnSeqNum, OwnSeqNum SHOULD be incremented by one (1) the RM is less than OwnSeqNum, OwnSeqNum SHOULD be incremented by one
according to the rules specified in Section 5.1.2. (1) according to the rules specified in Section 5.1.2.
If OwnSeqNum is not incremented the routing information might be If OwnSeqNum is not incremented the routing information might be
considered stale. In this case, the RREP would not reach the RREP considered stale. In this case, the RREP would not reach the RREP
Target. Target.
ThisNode first adds the RREP AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREP. First, the AddBlk.TargetNode.Address is added to the RREP. The
The TargetNode is the ultimate destination of this RREP. TargetNode is the ultimate destination of this RREP; the RREQ
OrigNode.Address.
ThisNode then adds the RREP AddBlk.OrigNode.Address Next, AddBlk.OrigNode.Address is added to the RREP. The
(ThisNode.Address) and the RREP OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) to AddBlk.OrigNode.Address must be a routable IP address. If the RREQ
the RREP. TargetNode is this DYMO router, its address added to the RREP as the
OrigNode.Address. If the RREQ TargetNode is attached to this DYMO
router, it MUST advertise its address and prefix that contain the
RREQ TargetNode.Address. The RREP OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum)
must also added to the RREP.
Other AddTLVs in the RREP for the OrigNode and TargetNode SHOULD be Other AddTLVs in the RREP for the OrigNode and TargetNode SHOULD be
included and set accordingly. If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is included and set accordingly. If OrigNode.Dist is included it is set
set to zero (0). to zero (0).
The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to MAX_HOPLIMIT.
MAX_HOPLIMIT.
The IP.DestinationAddress for RREP is set to the IP address of the The IP.DestinationAddress for RREP is set to the IP address of the
Route.NextHopAddress for the route to the RREP TargetNode. Route.NextHopAddress for the route to the RREP TargetNode.
5.3.3. Intermediate Node RREP Creation 5.3.3. Intermediate DYMO Router RREP Creation
Sometimes a node other than the TargetNode (call it an "intermediate Sometimes a DYMO router other than the TargetNode's DYMO router (call
node") has routing information that can satisfy an incoming RREQ. it an "intermediate DYMO router") has routing information that can
When an intermediate node originates a RREP in response to a RREQ, it satisfy an incoming RREQ. When an intermediate DYMO router
sends the RREP to the RREQ OrigNode with additional routing originates a RREP in response to a RREQ on behalf of the TargetNode,
it sends the RREP to the RREQ OrigNode with additional routing
information (Address, SeqNum, etc.) about the RREQ TargetNode. information (Address, SeqNum, etc.) about the RREQ TargetNode.
Appending additional routing information is described in Appending additional routing information is described in
Section 5.3.5. Section 5.3.5.
The Intermediate Node SHOULD also issue a gratuitous RREP to the RREQ The Intermediate DYMO router SHOULD also issue a RREP to the RREQ
TargetNode, so that the RREQ TargetNode receives routing information TargetNode, so that the RREQ TargetNode receives routing information
on how to reach the RREQ OrigNode. on how to reach the RREQ OrigNode.
When an intermediate node creates a gratuitous RREP, it sends a RREP When an intermediate DYMO router creates this RREP, it sends a RREP
to the RREQ TargetNode with additional routing information (Address, to the RREQ TargetNode with additional routing information (Address,
SeqNum, etc.) about the RREQ OrigNode. SeqNum, etc.) about the RREQ OrigNode.
5.3.4. RM Processing 5.3.4. RM Processing
Before processing a RM, a node checks the IP.Destination to ensure Before processing a RM, the DYMO router checks the IP.Destination to
that it is a link-local packet. ensure that it was sent to LL MANET ROUTERS.
When a RM is received the MsgHdr.HopLimit is decremented by one (1) When a RM is received the MsgHdr.HopLimit is decremented by one (1)
and MsgHdr.HopCnt is incremented by one (1).
For each address (except the TargetNode) in the RM that includes For each address (except the TargetNode) in the RM that includes
AddTLV.HopCnt information, the AddTLV.HopCnt information is AddTLV.Dist information, the AddTLV.Dist information is incremented
incremented by one (1). by one (1).
Next, this node checks whether AddBlk.OrigNode.Address is its own Next, ThisNode checks whether AddBlk.OrigNode.Address is an address
address. If this node is the originator, the RM is dropped. handled by this DYMO router. If this node is the originating DYMO
router, the RM is dropped.
Next, this node checks whether its routing table has an entry to the Next, ThisNode checks whether its routing table has an entry to the
AddBlk.OrigNode.Address using longest-prefix matching [RFC1812]. If AddBlk.OrigNode.Address using longest-prefix matching [RFC1812]. If
a route does not exist and the address is a unicast address, then the a route does not exist and the address is a unicast address, then the
new routing information is considered fresh and a new route table new routing information is considered fresh and a new route table
entry is created and updated as described in Section 5.2.2. If a entry is created and updated as described in Section 5.2.2. If a
route table entry does exists, the new node's information is compared route table entry does exists, the incoming routing information is
with the route table entry following the procedure described in compared with the route table entry following the procedure described
Section 5.2.1. If the new node's routing information is considered in Section 5.2.1. If the incoming routing information is considered
superior, the route table entry is updated as described in superior, the route table entry is updated as described in
Section 5.2.2. Section 5.2.2.
After processing the OrigNode's routing information, then each After processing the OrigNode's routing information, then each
address that is not the TargetNode should be considered for creating address that is not the TargetNode should be considered for creating
and updating routes. Creating and updating routes to other nodes can and updating routes. Creating and updating routes to other nodes can
eliminate RREQ for those IP destinations, in the event that data eliminate RREQ for those IP destinations, in the event that data
needs to be forwarded to the IP destination(s) in the near future. needs to be forwarded to the IP destination(s) in the near future.
For each of the additional addresses considered, if address is a For each of the additional addresses considered, if the address is a
unicast address and the routing table does not have a matching route unicast address and the routing table does not have a matching route
using longest-prefix matching, then a route is created and updated as using longest-prefix matching, then a route is created and updated as
described in Section 5.2.2. If a route table entry exists, the new described in Section 5.2.2. If a route table entry exists, the
node's information is compared with the route table entry following incoming routing information is compared with the route table entry
the procedure described in Section 5.2.1. If the new node's routing following the procedure described in Section 5.2.1. If the incoming
information is considered superior, the route table entry is updated routing information is considered superior, the route table entry is
as described in Section 5.2.2. updated as described in Section 5.2.2.
If the routing information for an AdditionalNode.Address is not If the routing information for an AdditionalNode.Address is not a
considered superior, then it is removed from the RM. Removing this unicast address and considered superior, then it is removed from the
information ensures that the information is not propagated. RM. Removing this information ensures that the information is not
propagated.
At this point, if the routing information for the OrigNode was not At this point, if the routing information for the OrigNode was not
superior then this RM should be discarded and no further processing superior then this RM should be discarded and no further processing
of this message is performed. of this message is performed.
If the ThisNode is the TargetNode and this RM is a RREQ, then If the ThisNode is the DYMO router for the TargetNode and this RM is
ThisNode responds with a RREQ flood (a RREQ addressed to oneself) or a RREQ, then ThisNode responds with a RREQ flood (a RREQ addressed to
a RREP to the RREQ OrigNode (the new RREP's TargetNode). The oneself) or a RREP to the RREQ OrigNode (the new RREP's TargetNode).
procedure for issuing a new RREP is described in Section 5.3.2. The procedure for issuing a new RREP is described in Section 5.3.2.
Note: it is important that when creating the RREP, the RREP Note: it is important that when creating the RREP, the RREP
OrigNode.Address be the same as the RREQ TargetNode.Address, if OrigNode.Address be the same as the RREQ TargetNode.Address, if
ThisNode has several addresses. At this point, ThisNode need not ThisNode is responsible for several addresses. At this point,
perform any more operations for this RM. ThisNode need not perform any more operations for this RM.
If ThisNode is not the TargetNode, this RM is a RREQ, the RREQ If ThisNode is not the TargetNode, this RM is a RREQ, the RREQ
contains the TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum, and ThisNode has a forwarding contains the TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum, and ThisNode has a forwarding
route to the TargetNode with a SeqNum (Route.TargetNode.SeqNum) route to the TargetNode with a SeqNum (Route.TargetNode.SeqNum)
greater than or equal to the RREQ TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum; then this greater than or equal to the RREQ TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum; then this
node MAY respond with an intermediate node RREP. The procedure for node MAY respond with an intermediate DYMO router RREP. The
performing intermediate node RREP is described in Section 5.3.3. At procedure for performing intermediate DYMO router RREP is described
this point, ThisNode need not perform any more operations for this in Section 5.3.3. At this point, ThisNode need not perform any more
RM. operations for this RM.
After processing a RM or creating a new RM, a node can append After processing a RM or creating a new RM, a node can append
additional routing information to the RM, according to the procedure additional routing information to the RM, according to the procedure
described in Section 5.3.5. The additional routing information can described in Section 5.3.5. The additional routing information can
help reduce route discoveries at the expense of increased message help reduce route discoveries at the expense of increased message
size. size.
For each address (except the TargetNode) in the RM that includes
AddTLV.Dist information, the AddTLV.Dist information is incremented
by a cost value. Advice regarding the cost value is not included in
this specification, it is left up to the implementation.
The updated distance value will be an measure in determining whether
the routing information is inferior or superior to known information
at other DYMO routers that process this RM.
If the resulting distance value for the OrigNode is greater than 254,
the message is discarded. If the resulting distance value for
another node is greater than 254, the associated address and its
information are removed from the RM.
If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1), If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1),
ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREQ, then the ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREQ, then the
current RM (altered by the procedure defined above) is sent to the LL current RM (altered by the procedure defined above) SHOULD be sent to
MANET ROUTERS IP.DestinationAddress. the LL MANET ROUTERS IP.DestinationAddress.
By sending the RM ThisNode is advertising that it will provide
routing for IP addresses contained in the outgoing RM based on the
information enclosed. ThisNode MAY choose not to send the RM, though
not resending this RM could decrease connectivity in the network or
result in a non-shortest distance path.
Some examples of why ThisNode might choose to not send the RM are: if
ThisNode does not want to advertise routing for the contained IP
addresses because it is already congested; if ThisNode has already
issued nearly identical routing information (e.g. ThisNode had
recently issued a RM with nearly the same distance); or if ThisNode
is low on energy and does not want to expend energy for control
message sending or packet forwarding. This type of advanced behavior
is not defined in this specification.
If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1), If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1),
ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREP, then the ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREP, then the
current RM is sent to the Route.NextHopAddress for the RREP's current RM is sent to the Route.NextHopAddress for the RREP's
TargetNode.Address. If no forwarding route exists to Target.Address, TargetNode.Address. If no forwarding route exists to Target.Address,
then a RERR is issued to the OrigNode of the RREP. then a RERR is issued to the OrigNode of the RREP.
5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM 5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM
Appending routing information can alleviate route discovery attempts Appending routing information can alleviate route discovery attempts
to the nodes whose information is included, if other nodes use this to the nodes whose information is included, if other DYMO routers use
information to update their routing tables. this information to update their routing tables.
Nodes can append routing information to a RM. Appending additional DYMO routers can append routing information to a RM. This option
routing information can help alleviate future RREQ. This option
should be administratively configurable. should be administratively configurable.
Prior to appending its own address to a RM, ThisNode MAY increment Prior to appending an address controlled by this DYMO router to a RM,
its OwnSeqNum as defined in Section 5.1.2. If OwnSeqNum is not ThisNode MAY increment its OwnSeqNum as defined in Section 5.1.2. If
incremented the appended routing information might not be considered OwnSeqNum is not incremented the appended routing information might
fresh, when received by nodes with existing routing information. not be considered fresh, when received by nodes with existing routing
Incrementation of the sequence number when appending information to information. Incrementation of the sequence number when appending
an RM in transit should be administratively configurable. information to an RM in transit should be administratively
configurable.
If included ThisNode.HopCnt, it is set to zero (0). Additional If an address controlled by this DYMO router is included
information about the address(es) can also be appended, such as a ThisNode.Dist, it is set to zero (0). Additional information about
PREFIX_LENGTH AddTLV. the address(es) can also be appended, such as a PREFIX_LENGTH AddTLV.
5.4. Route Discovery 5.4. Route Discovery
When a node originates a data packet and does not have a forwarding When a source's DYMO router needs to forward a data packet and it
route to the IP.DestinationAddress, it sends a RREQ (described in does not have a forwarding route to the IP.DestinationAddress, it
Section 5.3.1) to discover a route to the particular destination sends a RREQ (described in Section 5.3.1) to discover a route to the
(TargetNode). particular destination (TargetNode).
After issuing a RREQ, the OrigNode waits for a route to be created to After issuing a RREQ, the OrigNode DYMO router waits for a route to
the TargetNode. If a route is not created within RREQ_WAIT_TIME, be created to the TargetNode. If a route is not created within
ThisNode may again try to discover a route by issuing another RREQ. RREQ_WAIT_TIME, ThisNode may again try to discover a route by issuing
another RREQ.
To reduce congestion in a network, repeated attempts at route To reduce congestion in a network, repeated attempts at route
discovery for a particular TargetNode should utilize an exponential discovery for a particular TargetNode should utilize an exponential
backoff. backoff.
For example, the first time a node issues a RREQ, it waits For example, the first time a DYMO router issues a RREQ, it waits
RREQ_WAIT_TIME for a route to the TargetNode. If a route is not RREQ_WAIT_TIME for a route to the TargetNode. If a route is not
found within that time, the node MAY send another RREQ. If a route found within that time, the DYMO router MAY send another RREQ. If a
is not found within two (2) times the current waiting time, another route is not found within two (2) times the current waiting time,
RREQ may be sent, up to a total of RREQ_TRIES. For each additional another RREQ may be sent, up to a total of RREQ_TRIES. For each
attempt, the waiting time for the previous RREQ is multiplied by two additional attempt, the waiting time for the previous RREQ is
(2) so that the waiting time conforms to a binary exponential multiplied by two (2) so that the waiting time conforms to a binary
backoff. exponential backoff.
Data packets awaiting a route should be buffered at the source. This Data packets awaiting a route should be buffered by the source's DYMO
buffer should have a fixed limited size (BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS or router. This buffer should have a fixed limited size
BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES) and older data packets SHOULD be discarded first. (BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS or BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES) and older data packets
SHOULD be discarded first.
Buffering of data packets may have positive or negative impact, and
therefore must be administratively configurable.
If a route discovery has been attempted RREQ_TRIES times without If a route discovery has been attempted RREQ_TRIES times without
receiving a route to the TargetNode, all data packets destined for receiving a route to the TargetNode, all data packets destined for
the corresponding TargetNode are dropped from the buffer and a the corresponding TargetNode are dropped from the buffer and a
Destination Unreachable ICMP message should be delivered to the Destination Unreachable ICMP message should be delivered to the
application. source.
5.5. Route Maintenance 5.5. Route Maintenance
A RERR MUST be issued if a data packet is to be forwarded and it A RERR MUST be issued if a data packet is to be forwarded and it
cannot be delivered to the next hop because no forwarding route for cannot be delivered to the next hop because no forwarding route for
the IP.Destination exists; RERR generation is described in the IP.Destination exists; RERR generation is described in
Section 5.5.3. In this case, an ICMP Destination Unreachable message Section 5.5.3.
SHOULD NOT be generated, unless this router is responsible for the
IP.Destination and the IP.Destination is not reachable. Upon this condition, an ICMP Destination Unreachable message SHOULD
NOT be generated unless this router is responsible for the
IP.Destination and that IP.Destination is known to be unreachable.
In addition to inability to forward a data packet, a RERR SHOULD be In addition to inability to forward a data packet, a RERR SHOULD be
issued immediately after detecting a broken link of an forwarding issued immediately after detecting a broken link of an forwarding
route to quickly notify nodes that a link break occurred and that route to quickly notify DYMO routers that a link break occurred and
certain routes are no longer available. If the route with the broken that certain routes are no longer available. If the route with the
link has not been used recently (indicated by ROUTE_USED), the RERR broken link has not been used recently (indicated by ROUTE_USED), the
SHOULD NOT be generated. RERR SHOULD NOT be generated.
5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring 5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring
Nodes MUST monitor next hop links on forwarding routes. This Nodes MUST monitor next hop links on forwarding routes. This
monitoring can be accomplished by one or several mechanisms, monitoring can be accomplished by one or several mechanisms,
including: including:
o Link layer feedback o Link layer feedback
o Neighborhood discovery [I-D.ietf-manet-nhdp] o Neighborhood discovery [I-D.ietf-manet-nhdp]
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timer for ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is removed. timer for ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is removed.
To avoid removing the forwarding route to the IP.DestinationAddress To avoid removing the forwarding route to the IP.DestinationAddress
that is being used, a node SHOULD set a timeout (ROUTE_USED) to that is being used, a node SHOULD set a timeout (ROUTE_USED) to
ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT for the route to the IP.DestinationAddress upon ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT for the route to the IP.DestinationAddress upon
sending a data packet. If a timer for ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is sending a data packet. If a timer for ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is
removed. removed.
5.5.3. Route Error Generation 5.5.3. Route Error Generation
A RERR informs the IP.SourceAddress or RREP.OrigNode.Address that the A RERR informs DYMO routers that a route to certain destinations is
route does not exist, and a route is not available through this node. not available through this node.
When creating a new RERR, the address of first UnreachableNode When creating a new RERR, the address of first UnreachableNode
(IP.DestinationAddress from the data packet or (IP.DestinationAddress from a data packet or RREP.TargetNode.Address)
RREP.TargetNode.Address) is inserted into an Address Block is inserted into an Address Block AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address. If
AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address. If a value for the UnreachableNode's a value for the UnreachableNode's SeqNum
SeqNum (UnreachableNode.AddTLV.SeqNum) is known, it SHOULD be placed (UnreachableNode.AddTLV.SeqNum) is known, it SHOULD be placed in the
in the RERR. The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to MAX_HOPLIMIT. The RERR. The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to MAX_HOPLIMIT.
MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to one (1).
Additional UnreachableNodes that require the same unavailable link Additional UnreachableNodes that require the same unavailable link
(routes with the same Route.NextHopAddress and (routes with the same Route.NextHopAddress and
Route.NextHopInterface) SHOULD be added to the RERR, as additional Route.NextHopInterface) SHOULD be added to the RERR, as additional
AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address. The SeqNum if known SHOULD also be AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address. The SeqNum if known SHOULD also be
included. Appending UnreachableNode information notifies each included. Appending UnreachableNode information notifies each
processing node of additional routes that are no longer available. processing node of additional routes that are no longer available.
This option SHOULD be administratively configurable. This option SHOULD be administratively configurable.
If SeqNum information is not known or not included in the RERR, all If SeqNum information is not known or not included in the RERR, all
nodes processing the RERR will assume their routing information nodes processing the RERR will assume their routing information
associated with the UnreachableNode is no longer valid. associated with the UnreachableNode is no longer valid and flags
those routes as broken.
The RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL MANET ROUTERS. The RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL MANET ROUTERS.
Sending the RERR to the LL MANET ROUTERS address notifies nearby Sending the RERR to the LL MANET ROUTERS address notifies nearby
nodes that might depend on the now broken link. nodes that might depend on the now broken link.
The packet or message that forced generation of this RERR is The packet or message that forced generation of this RERR is
discarded. discarded.
5.5.4. RERR Processing 5.5.4. RERR Processing
Before processing a RERR, a node checks the IP.Destination to ensure Before processing a RERR, the DYMO router checks the IP.Destination
that it is a link-local packet. to ensure that it is addressed to LL MANET ROUTERS.
When a node processes a RERR, it processes each UnreachableNode's When a DYMO router processes a RERR, it processes each
information. The processing node removes the forwarding route and UnreachableNode's information. The processing DYMO router removes
sets the broken flag for each UnreachableNode.Address found using the forwarding route and sets the broken flag for each
longest prefix matching that meet all of the following conditions: UnreachableNode.Address found using longest prefix matching that meet
all of the following conditions:
1. The UnreachableNode.Address is a unicast address. 1. The UnreachableNode.Address is a unicast address.
2. The Route.NextHopAddress is the same as the RERR 2. The Route.NextHopAddress is the same as the RERR
IP.SourceAddress. IP.SourceAddress.
3. The Route.NextHopInterface is the same as the interface on which 3. The Route.NextHopInterface is the same as the interface on which
the RERR was received. the RERR was received.
4. The Route.SeqNum is zero (0), unknown, OR the 4. The Route.SeqNum is zero (0), unknown, OR the
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If a message with an unknown type is received, the message is If a message with an unknown type is received, the message is
discarded. discarded.
If a message contains TLVs of an unknown type, a node ignores these If a message contains TLVs of an unknown type, a node ignores these
during processing. The processing node can remove these TLVs from during processing. The processing node can remove these TLVs from
any resulting transmitted messages. The behavior for unknown TLV any resulting transmitted messages. The behavior for unknown TLV
types should be administratively configurable. types should be administratively configurable.
5.7. Advertising Network Addresses 5.7. Advertising Network Addresses
Any node can advertise a network address by using a PREFIX_LENGTH TLV Any DYMO router advertises a network address by using a PREFIX_LENGTH
[I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. Any nodes (other than the advertising TLV [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. Any nodes (other than the advertising
node) within the advertised prefix SHOULD NOT participate in the DYMO DYMO router) within the advertised prefix SHOULD NOT participate in
protocol directly and these nodes MUST be reachable by forwarding the DYMO protocol directly and these nodes MUST be reachable by
packets to the node advertising connectivity. Nodes other than the forwarding packets to the DYMO router advertising connectivity.
advertising node that do participate in DYMO must forward the DYMO Nodes other than the advertising DYMO router that do participate in
control packets to the advertising node. For example, A.B.C.1 with a DYMO must forward the DYMO control packets to the advertising DYMO
prefix length of 24 indicates all nodes with the matching A.B.C.X are router. For example, A.B.C.1 with a prefix length of 24 indicates
reachable through the node with address A.B.C.1. all nodes with the matching A.B.C.X are reachable through the DYMO
router with address A.B.C.1.
5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying 5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying
Simple Internet attachment consists of a network of MANET nodes Simple Internet attachment consists of a stub network of MANET router
connected to the Internet via a single Internet gateway node. The connected to the Internet via a single Internet gateway node. The
gateway is responsible for responding to RREQs for TargetNodes gateway is responsible for responding to RREQs for TargetNodes
outside its configured DYMO prefix, as well as delivering packets to outside its configured DYMO prefix, as well as delivering packets to
destinations outside the MANET. destinations outside the MANET.
/--------------------------\ /--------------------------\
/ Internet \ / Internet \
\ / \ /
\------------+-------------/ \------------+-------------/
Gateway's | Gateway's |
Advertised | A.B.C.X Advertised | A.B.C.X/24
Prefix | Prefix |
+-----+-----+ +-----+-----+
| DYMO | | DYMO |
/------| Internet |------\ /------| Internet |--------\
/ | Gateway | \ / | Gateway | \
/ | A.B.C.1 | \ / | A.B.C.1 | \
| +-----------+ | | +-----------+ |
| DYMO Region | | DYMO Region |
| | | |
| +------------+ | | +--------------+ |
| | DYMO Node | | | | DYMO Router | |
| | A.B.C.2 | | | | A.B.C.2 | |
| +------------+ | | +--------------+ |
| +------------+ | | +--------------+ |
| | DYMO Node | | | | DYMO Router | |
| | A.B.C.3 | | | | A.B.C.3 | |
\ +------------+ / \ +--------------+ /
\ / \ /
\-------------------------/ \---------------------------/
Figure 7: Simple Internet Attachament Example Figure 7: Simple Internet Attachament Example
DYMO nodes wishing to be reachable from nodes in the Internet MUST DYMO routers wishing to be reachable from nodes in the Internet MUST
have IP addresses within the gateway's configured and advertised have IP addresses within the gateway's configured and advertised
prefix. Given a node with a globally routeable address or care-of prefix. Given a node with a globally routeable address or care-of
address handled by the gateway, the gateway is responsible for address handled by the gateway, the gateway is responsible for
routing and forwarding packets received from the Internet destined routing and forwarding packets received from the Internet destined
for nodes inside its MANET. for nodes inside its MANET.
When nodes within the MANET want to send messages to nodes in the When DYMO router within the MANET want to send messages to nodes in
Internet, they simply issue RREQ for those IP.DestinationAddresses. the Internet, they simply issue RREQ for those
The gateway is responsible for responding to RREQ on behalf of the IP.DestinationAddresses. The gateway is responsible for responding
Internet destinations and maintaining their associated sequence to RREQ on behalf of the Internet destinations and maintaining their
numbers. associated sequence number.
For an Internet gateway and other nodes that maintain the sequence For an Internet gateway and other DYMO routers that maintain the
number on behalf of other nodes, these routers must be sequence number on behalf of other nodes, these routers must be
administratively configurable to know the IP addresses for which they administratively configurable to know the IP addresses for which they
must generate DYMO messages and maintain OwnSeqNum. must generate DYMO messages and maintain OwnSeqNum.
5.9. Multiple Interfaces 5.9. Multiple Interfaces
DYMO may be used with multiple interfaces; therefore, the particular DYMO may be used with multiple interfaces; therefore, the particular
interface over which packets arrive must be known whenever a packet interface over which packets arrive must be known whenever a packet
is received. Whenever a new route is created, the interface through is received. Whenever a new route is created, the interface through
which the Route.Address can be reached is also recorded in the route which the Route.Address can be reached is also recorded in the route
table entry. table entry.
When multiple interfaces are available, a node transmitting a packet When multiple interfaces are available, a node transmitting a packet
with IP.DestinationAddress set to LL MANET ROUTERS SHOULD send the with IP.DestinationAddress set to LL MANET ROUTERS SHOULD send the
packet on all interfaces that have been configured for DYMO packet on all interfaces that have been configured for DYMO
operation. operation.
Similarly, DYMO routers should subscribe to LL MANET ROUTERS on all
their DYMO interfaces.
5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits 5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits
To avoid congestion, a node's rate of packet/message generation To avoid congestion, a node's rate of packet/message generation
should be limited. The rate and algorithm for limiting messages is should be limited. The rate and algorithm for limiting messages is
left to the implementor and should be administratively configurable. left to the implementor and should be administratively configurable.
Messages should be discarded in the following order of preferences Messages should be discarded in the following order of preferences
RREQ, RREP, and finally RERR. RREQ, RREP, and finally RERR.
6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options 6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options
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exist. The following table enumerates several of the options and exist. The following table enumerates several of the options and
suggested values. suggested values.
Suggested Options Settings Suggested Options Settings
+-------------------------------------+----------------------------+ +-------------------------------------+----------------------------+
| Name | Value | | Name | Value |
+-------------------------------------+----------------------------+ +-------------------------------------+----------------------------+
| RESPONSIBLE_ADDRESSES | Self or Prefix | | RESPONSIBLE_ADDRESSES | Self or Prefix |
| DYMO_INTERFACES | User Specified | | DYMO_INTERFACES | User Specified |
| INCLUDE_INFORMATION | Yes-SeqNum,HopCnt,Prefix | | INCLUDE_INFORMATION | Yes-SeqNum,Dist,Prefix |
| APPEND_ADDRESS | Yes - RREQ & RREP | | APPEND_ADDRESS | Yes - RREQ & RREP |
| APPEND_OWN_ADDRESS_INCREMENT_SEQNUM | Yes for RREQ | | APPEND_OWN_ADDRESS_INCREMENT_SEQNUM | Yes for RREQ |
| GENERATE_RERR_IMMEDIATELY | No | | GENERATE_RERR_IMMEDIATELY | No |
| RERR_INCLUDE_ALL_UNREACHABLES | Yes | | RERR_INCLUDE_ALL_UNREACHABLES | Yes |
| UNKNOWN_TYPE_HANDLING | Ignore | | UNKNOWN_TYPE_HANDLING | Ignore |
| BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS | 50 packets | | BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS | 50 packets |
| BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES | 1500 * BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS | | BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES | 1500 * BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS |
+-------------------------------------+----------------------------+ +-------------------------------------+----------------------------+
Table 3 Table 3
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
DYMO requires a UDP port number to carry protocol packets - TBD. DYMO requires a UDP port number to carry protocol packets - MANET
DYMO also requires the link-local multicast address LL MANET ROUTERS; [I-D.ietf-manet-iana]. DYMO also requires the link-local multicast
IPv4 TBD, IPv6 TBD [I-D.chakeres-manet-iana]. address LL MANET ROUTERS [I-D.ietf-manet-iana].
This section specifies several messages types, message tlv-types, and This section specifies several messages types, message tlv-types, and
address tlv-types. address tlv-types.
Future types will be allocated using standard actions as described in Future types will be allocated using standard actions as described in
[RFC2434]. [RFC2434].
7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification 7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification
DYMO Message Types DYMO Message Types
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+------------------------+----------+ +------------------------+----------+
| Name | Type | | Name | Type |
+------------------------+----------+ +------------------------+----------+
| Route Request (RREQ) | 10 - TBD | | Route Request (RREQ) | 10 - TBD |
| Route Reply (RREP) | 11 - TBD | | Route Reply (RREP) | 11 - TBD |
| Route Error (RERR) | 12 - TBD | | Route Error (RERR) | 12 - TBD |
+------------------------+----------+ +------------------------+----------+
Table 4 Table 4
7.2. Packet TLV Type Specification 7.2. Packet and Message TLV Type Specification
Packet TLV Types Packet TLV Types
+-------------------+------+--------+-------------------------------+ +-------------------+------+--------+-------------------------------+
| Name | Type | Length | Value | | Name | Type | Length | Value |
+-------------------+------+--------+-------------------------------+ +-------------------+------+--------+-------------------------------+
| Unicast Response | 10 - | 0 | Indicates to the processing | | Unicast Response | 10 - | 0 | Indicates to the processing |
| Request | TBD | | node that the previous hop | | Request | TBD | | node that the previous hop |
| | | | (IP.SourceAddress) expects a | | | | | (IP.SourceAddress) expects a |
| | | | unicast message within | | | | | unicast message within |
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| | | | and may blacklist the link to | | | | | and may blacklist the link to |
| | | | this node. | | | | | this node. |
+-------------------+------+--------+-------------------------------+ +-------------------+------+--------+-------------------------------+
Table 5 Table 5
7.3. Address Block TLV Specification 7.3. Address Block TLV Specification
Address Block TLV Types Address Block TLV Types
+----------------+------+---------+---------------------------------+ +----------------+-------+--------+---------------------------------+
| Name | Type | Length | Value | | Name | Type | Length | Value |
+----------------+------+---------+---------------------------------+ +----------------+-------+--------+---------------------------------+
| DYMOSeqNum | 10 - | 16 bits | The DYMO sequence num | | DYMOSeqNum | 10 - | 16 | The DYMO sequence num |
| | TBD | | associated with this address. | | | TBD | bits | associated with this address. |
| | | | The sequence number may be the | | | | | The sequence number may be the |
| | | | last known sequence number. | | | | | last known sequence number. |
| HopCount | 11 - | 8 bits | The number of hops traversed by | | Distance | 11 - | 8 bits | A metric of the distance |
| | TBD | | the information associated with | | | TBD | | traversed by the information |
| | | | this address. | | | | | associated with this address. |
| MaxAge | 12 - | Any | The maximum number of | | MaxAge | 12 - | | The maximum amount of time that |
| | TBD | length | milliseconds that the | | | TBD | | information can be maintained |
| | | | associated routing information | | | | | before being deleted. This TLV |
| | | | can be kept before being | | | | | conforms to |
| | | | deleted. | | | | | [I-D.ietf-manet-timetlv] |
+----------------+------+---------+---------------------------------+ | | | | VALIDITY_TIME TLV, except that |
| | | | the TLV is attached to |
| | | | addresses. |
+----------------+-------+--------+---------------------------------+
Table 6 Table 6
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
Currently, DYMO does not specify any special security measures. Currently, DYMO does not specify any special security measures.
Routing protocols, however, are prime targets for impersonation
attacks. In networks where the node membership is not known, it is
difficult to determine the occurrence of impersonation attacks, and
security prevention techniques are difficult at best. However, when
the network membership is known and there is a danger of such
attacks, DYMO messages must be protected by the use of authentication
techniques, such as those involving generation of unforgeable and
cryptographically strong message digests or digital signatures.
While DYMO does not place restrictions on the authentication
mechanism used for this purpose, IPsec Authentication Message (AH) is
an appropriate choice for cases where the nodes share an appropriate
security association that enables the use of AH.
In particular, RM messages SHOULD be authenticated to avoid creation In situations where confidentiality o DYMO messages is important,
of spurious routes to a destination. Otherwise, an attacker could traditional cryptographic techniques can be applied.
masquerade as that destination and maliciously deny service to the
destination and/or maliciously inspect and consume traffic intended
for delivery to the destination. RERR messages SHOULD be
authenticated in order to prevent malicious nodes from disrupting
active routes between communicating nodes.
If the mobile nodes in the ad hoc network have pre-established Securing routing information integrity will likely require DYMO
security associations, the purposes for which the security routers to authenticate DYMO messages upon reception. Also, since
associations are created should include that of authorizing the routing information is distributed hop-by-hop, DYMO routers will also
processing of DYMO control packets. Given this understanding, the likely need to authenticate the source of the routing information,
mobile nodes should be able to use the same authentication mechanisms the source's DYMO router.
based on their IP addresses as they would have used otherwise.
Note that is important that any confidentiality and integrity
algorithms used permit multiple receivers to process the message,
since all DYMO messaging is multicast.
9. Acknowledgments 9. Acknowledgments
DYMO is a descendant of the design of previous MANET reactive DYMO is a descendant of the design of previous MANET reactive
protocols, especially AODV [RFC3561] and DSR [Johnson96]. Changes to protocols, especially AODV [RFC3561] and DSR [RFC4728]. Changes to
previous MANET reactive protocols stem from research and previous MANET reactive protocols stem from research and
implementation experiences. Thanks to Elizabeth Belding-Royer for implementation experiences. Thanks to Elizabeth Belding-Royer for
her long time authorship of DYMO. Additional thanks to Luke Klein- her long time authorship of DYMO. Additional thanks to Luke Klein-
Berndt, Pedro Ruiz, Fransisco Ros, Koojana Kuladinithi, Ramon Berndt, Pedro Ruiz, Fransisco Ros, Koojana Kuladinithi, Ramon
Caceres, Thomas Clausen, Christopher Dearlove, Seung Yi, Romain Caceres, Thomas Clausen, Christopher Dearlove, Seung Yi, Romain
Thouvenin, Tronje Krop and Henner Jakob for reviewing of DYMO, as Thouvenin, Tronje Krop, Henner Jakob and Alexandru Petrescu for
well as several specification suggestions. reviewing of DYMO, as well as several specification suggestions.
10. References 10. References
10.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-manet-iana]
Chakeres, I., "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
Allocations for the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET)
Working Group", draft-ietf-manet-iana-05 (work in
progress), June 2007.
[I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb] [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]
Clausen, T., "Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format", Clausen, T., "Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format",
draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-03 (work in progress), draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-07 (work in progress),
January 2007. July 2007.
[I-D.ietf-manet-timetlv]
Clausen, T. and C. Dearlove, "Representing multi-value
time in MANETs", draft-ietf-manet-timetlv-01 (work in
progress), July 2007.
[RFC1812] Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers", [RFC1812] Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
RFC 1812, June 1995. RFC 1812, June 1995.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2434] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC2434] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
October 1998. October 1998.
[RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing [RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006. Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.
10.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[I-D.chakeres-manet-iana] [I-D.ietf-manet-jitter]
Chakeres, I., "MANET IANA Needs", Clausen, T., "Jitter considerations in MANETs",
draft-chakeres-manet-iana-02 (work in progress), draft-ietf-manet-jitter-01 (work in progress), July 2007.
October 2006.
[I-D.ietf-manet-nhdp] [I-D.ietf-manet-nhdp]
Clausen, T., "MANET Neighborhood Discovery Protocol Clausen, T., "MANET Neighborhood Discovery Protocol
(NHDP)", draft-ietf-manet-nhdp-01 (work in progress), (NHDP)", draft-ietf-manet-nhdp-04 (work in progress),
February 2007. July 2007.
[Johnson96] [Johnson96]
Johnson, D. and D. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) in Johnson, D. and D. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) in
Ad hoc Networks", In Mobile Computing, Chapter 5, pp. 153- Ad hoc Networks", In Mobile Computing, Chapter 5, pp. 153-
181, 1996. 181, 1996.
[Perkins99] [Perkins99]
Perkins, C. and E. Belding-Royer, "Ad hoc On-Demand Perkins, C. and E. Belding-Royer, "Ad hoc On-Demand
Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", Proceedings of the 2nd Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", Proceedings of the 2nd
IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and
Applications, New Orleans, LA, pp. 90-100, Applications, New Orleans, LA, pp. 90-100,
February 1999. February 1999.
[RFC3561] Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., and S. Das, "Ad hoc On- [RFC3561] Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., and S. Das, "Ad hoc On-
Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", RFC 3561, Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", RFC 3561,
July 2003. July 2003.
[RFC4728] Johnson, D., Hu, Y., and D. Maltz, "The Dynamic Source
Routing Protocol (DSR) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for
IPv4", RFC 4728, February 2007.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Ian D Chakeres Ian D Chakeres
Motorola Motorola
Bangalore Bangalore
India India
Email: ian.chakeres@gmail.com Email: ian.chakeres@gmail.com
URI: http://www.ianchak.com/
Charles E. Perkins Charles E. Perkins
Palo Alto Systems Research Center Palo Alto Systems Research Center
975 Page Mill Road, Suite 200 975 Page Mill Road, Suite 200
Palo Alto, CA 94304-1003 Palo Alto, CA 94304-1003
USA USA
Phone: +1-650-496-4402 Phone: +1-650-496-4402
Fax: +1-650-739-0779 Fax: +1-650-739-0779
Email: charles.perkins@nokia.com Email: charles.perkins@nokia.com
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