draft-ietf-manet-dymo-08.txt   draft-ietf-manet-dymo-09.txt 
Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working I. Chakeres Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working I. Chakeres
Group Boeing Group Motorola
Internet-Draft C. Perkins Internet-Draft C. Perkins
Intended status: Standards Track Nokia Intended status: Standards Track Nokia
Expires: September 3, 2007 March 2, 2007 Expires: November 3, 2007 May 2, 2007
Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing
draft-ietf-manet-dymo-08 draft-ietf-manet-dymo-09
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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This Internet-Draft will expire on September 3, 2007. This Internet-Draft will expire on November 3, 2007.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
Abstract Abstract
The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol is intended for The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol is intended for
use by mobile nodes in wireless, multihop networks. It offers use by mobile nodes in wireless, multihop networks. It offers
adaptation to changing network topology and determines unicast routes adaptation to changing network topology and determines unicast routes
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Applicability Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Applicability Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1. Route Table Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Route Table Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2. DYMO Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2. DYMO Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2.1. Generalized MANET Packet and Message Structure . . . . 8 4.2.1. Generalized MANET Packet and Message Structure . . . . 8
4.2.2. Routing Messages (RM) - RREQ & RREP . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2.2. Routing Messages (RM) - RREQ & RREP . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2.3. Route Error (RERR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.2.3. Route Error (RERR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5. Detailed Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5. Detailed Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1. DYMO Sequence Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.1. DYMO Sequence Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number . . . . . . . 12 5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number . . . . . . . 12
5.1.2. Numerical Operations on OwnSeqNum . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.2. Numerical Operations on OwnSeqNum . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1.4. Actions After OwnSeqNum Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.4. Actions After OwnSeqNum Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness . . . . . . . 13 5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness . . . . . . . 13
5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New 5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New
Routing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Routing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.3. Routing Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3. Routing Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.3.1. RREQ Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3.1. RREQ Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.3.2. RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3.2. RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.3. Intermediate Node RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.3.3. Intermediate Node RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.4. RM Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.3.4. RM Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM . . . . 20 5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM . . . . 20
5.4. Route Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.4. Route Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.5. Route Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.5. Route Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes during Packet Forwarding . . 22 5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes During Packet Forwarding . . 22
5.5.3. Route Error Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.5.3. Route Error Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.5.4. Route Error Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.5.4. RERR Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.7. Advertising Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.7. Advertising Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying . . . . . . . . 24 5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying . . . . . . . . 24
5.9. Multiple Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.9. Multiple Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options . . 26 6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options . . 26
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.2. Packet TLV Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.2. Packet TLV Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.3. Address Block TLV Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7.3. Address Block TLV Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
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9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 32 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 32
1. Overview 1. Overview
The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol enables reactive, The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol enables reactive,
multihop routing between participating nodes that wish to multihop unicast routing between participating nodes that wish to
communicate. The basic operations of the DYMO protocol are route communicate. The basic operations of the DYMO protocol are route
discovery and route management. During route discovery, the discovery and route management. During route discovery, the
originating node initiates dissemination of a Route Request (RREQ) originating node initiates dissemination of a Route Request (RREQ)
throughout the network to find a route to the target node. During throughout the network to find a route to the target node. During
this hop-by-hop dissemination process, each intermediate node records this hop-by-hop dissemination process, each intermediate node records
a route to the originating node. When the target node receives the a route to the originating node. When the target node receives the
RREQ, it responds with a Route Reply (RREP) sent hop-by-hop toward RREQ, it responds with a Route Reply (RREP) sent hop-by-hop toward
the originating node. Each node that receives the RREP records a the originating node. Each node that receives the RREP records a
route to the target node, and then the RREP is unicast hop-by-hop route to the target node, and then the RREP is unicast hop-by-hop
toward the originating node. When the originating node receives the toward the originating node. When the originating node receives the
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The number of IP hops a message or piece of information has The number of IP hops a message or piece of information has
traversed. traversed.
Originating Node (OrigNode) Originating Node (OrigNode)
The originating node is the node that created a DYMO Message in an The originating node is the node that created a DYMO Message in an
effort to disseminate some information. The originating node is effort to disseminate some information. The originating node is
also referred to as a particular message's originator. also referred to as a particular message's originator.
Route Error (RERR) Route Error (RERR)
A node generates and disseminates a RERR to indicate that it does A node generates and disseminates a RERR to indicate that it does
not have forwarding route to a one or more particular addresses. not have forwarding route to one or more particular addresses.
Route Reply (RREP) Route Reply (RREP)
A RREP is used to disseminate routing information about the RREP A RREP is used to disseminate routing information about the RREP
OrigNode to the TargetNode and the nodes between them. OrigNode to the TargetNode and the nodes between them.
Route Request (RREQ) Route Request (RREQ)
A node (the RREQ OrigNode) generates a RREQ to discover a valid A node (the RREQ OrigNode) generates a RREQ to discover a valid
route to a particular destination address, called the RREQ route to a particular destination address, called the RREQ
TargetNode. When a node processes a RREQ, it learns routing TargetNode. When a node processes a RREQ, it learns routing
information on how to reach the RREQ OrigNode. information on how to reach the RREQ OrigNode.
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described in [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. Here is a brief description described in [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. Here is a brief description
of the format. A packet is made up of messages. A message is made of the format. A packet is made up of messages. A message is made
up of a message header, message TLV block, and zero or more address up of a message header, message TLV block, and zero or more address
blocks. Each of the address blocks may also have an associated blocks. Each of the address blocks may also have an associated
address TLV block. address TLV block.
All DYMO messages specified in this document are sent using UDP to All DYMO messages specified in this document are sent using UDP to
the destination port TBD. the destination port TBD.
Most DYMO messages are sent with the IP destination address set to Most DYMO messages are sent with the IP destination address set to
the link local multicast address LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTER unless otherwise the link-local multicast address LL MANET ROUTERS unless otherwise
stated. Unicast DYMO messages specified in this document are sent stated. Unicast DYMO messages specified in this document are sent
with the IP destination set to the Route.NextHopAddress of the route with the IP destination set to the Route.NextHopAddress of the route
to the TargetNode. to the TargetNode.
The IP TTL (IP Hop Limit) field for DYMO messages is set to one (1) The IP TTL (IP Hop Limit) field for DYMO messages is set to one (1)
for all messages specified in this document. for all messages specified in this document.
The length of an IP address (32 bits for IPv4 and 128 bits for IPv6) The length of an IP address (32 bits for IPv4 and 128 bits for IPv6)
inside a DYMO message depends on the IP packet header containing the inside a DYMO message depends on the IP packet header containing the
DYMO message/packet. For example, if the IP header uses IPv6 DYMO message/packet. For example, if the IP header uses IPv6
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and function, but have slightly different processing rules. The main and function, but have slightly different processing rules. The main
difference between the two messages is that RREQ messages solicit a difference between the two messages is that RREQ messages solicit a
RREP, whereas a RREP is the response to RREQ. RREP, whereas a RREP is the response to RREQ.
RM creation and processing are described in Section 5.3. RM creation and processing are described in Section 5.3.
A RM requires the following information: A RM requires the following information:
IP.DestinationAddress IP.DestinationAddress
The IP address of the packet destination. For RREQ the The IP address of the packet destination. For RREQ the
IP.DestinationAddress is set to LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS. For RREP IP.DestinationAddress is set to LL MANET ROUTERS. For RREP the
the IP.DestinationAddress is set to the NextHopAddress toward the IP.DestinationAddress is set to the NextHopAddress toward the
TargetNode. TargetNode.
UDP.DestinationPort UDP.DestinationPort
The UDP destination port is set to TBD. The UDP destination port is set to TBD.
MsgHdr.HopLimit MsgHdr.HopLimit
The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse. The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse.
MsgHdr.HopCnt
The number of hops this message has traversed.
AddBlk.TargetNode.Address AddBlk.TargetNode.Address
The IP address of the message TargetNode. In a RREQ the The IP address of the message TargetNode. In a RREQ the
TargetNode is the destination for which a forwarding route does TargetNode is the destination for which a forwarding route does
not exist and route discovery is being performed. In a RREP the not exist and route discovery is being performed. In a RREP the
target node is the RREQ OrigNode. The TargetNode address is the target node is the RREQ OrigNode. The TargetNode address is the
first address in the routing message. first address in the routing message.
AddBlk.OrigNode.Address AddBlk.OrigNode.Address
The IP address of the OrigNode. This address is in an address The IP address of the OrigNode. This address is in an address
block and not in the message header to allow for address block and not in the message header to allow for address
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The Node.Address is a network address with a particular prefix The Node.Address is a network address with a particular prefix
length. length.
Example IPv4 RREQ Example IPv4 RREQ
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
IP Header IP Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IP.DestinationAddress=LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS | | IP.DestinationAddress = LL MANET ROUTERS |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... ...
UDP Header UDP Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination Port=TBD | | Destination Port=TBD |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... ...
Message Header Message Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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4.2.3. Route Error (RERR) 4.2.3. Route Error (RERR)
A RERR message is used to disseminate the information that a route is A RERR message is used to disseminate the information that a route is
not available for one or more particular IP addresses. not available for one or more particular IP addresses.
RERR creation and processing are described in Section 5.5. RERR creation and processing are described in Section 5.5.
A RERR requires the following information: A RERR requires the following information:
IP.DestinationAddress IP.DestinationAddress
The IP address is set to LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS. The IP address is set to LL MANET ROUTERS.
UDP.DestinationPort UDP.DestinationPort
The UDP destination port is set to TBD. The UDP destination port is set to TBD.
MsgHdr.HopLimit MsgHdr.HopLimit
The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse. The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse.
AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address
The IP address of an UnreachableNode. Multiple unreachable The IP address of an UnreachableNode. Multiple unreachable
addresses may be included in a RERR. addresses may be included in a RERR.
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forward for which it does not have any information in its routing forward for which it does not have any information in its routing
table. table.
Example IPv4 RERR Example IPv4 RERR
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
IP Header IP Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IP.DestinationAddress=LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS | | IP.DestinationAddress = LL MANET ROUTERS |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... ...
UDP Header UDP Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination Port=TBD | | Destination Port=TBD |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... ...
Message Header Message Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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2. Loop-possible 2. Loop-possible
If Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum the incoming information may cause If Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum the incoming information may cause
loops if used; in this case additional information must be loops if used; in this case additional information must be
examined. If Route.HopCnt or Node.HopCnt is unknown or zero (0), examined. If Route.HopCnt or Node.HopCnt is unknown or zero (0),
then the routing information is loop-possible. If Node.HopCnt > then the routing information is loop-possible. If Node.HopCnt >
Route.HopCnt + 1, then the routing information is loop-possible. Route.HopCnt + 1, then the routing information is loop-possible.
Using loop-possible routing information is not allowed, otherwise Using loop-possible routing information is not allowed, otherwise
routing loops may be formed. routing loops may be formed.
(Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND (Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND
((Node.HopCnt is unknown) ((Node.HopCnt is unknown) OR
OR (Route.HopCnt is unknown) (Route.HopCnt is unknown) OR
OR (Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt + 1)) (Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt + 1))
3. Inferior 3. Inferior
If Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum the incoming information may be Information is always inferior if Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0
inferior; additional information must be examined. If Node.HopCnt (using 16-bit signed arithmetic). In case of equal SeqNum, the
>= to Route.HopCnt, the current route is not Broken, and the information is inferior, if Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt (it is a
message is a RREQ, then the new information is inferior. This longer route). In case of equal SeqNum, the information is
rule will stop RREQ propagation if the HopCnt is not shorter. If inferior, if Node.HopCnt == Route.HopCnt (equal distance route)
Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt + 1, the current route is not Broken AND Route.Broken == false AND this RM is a RREQ. This condition
and the message is RREP, then the new information is inferior. stops forwarding of RREQ with equivalent distance.
This rule will stop RREP propagation if the information is
inferior. Inferior routes will not cause routing loops if
introduced, but should not be used since better information is
already available.
(Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND (Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0) OR
(Route.Broken == false) AND ((Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND
((Node.HopCnt >= Route.HopCnt) AND (RM is RREQ)) ((Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt) OR
OR ((Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt + 1) AND (RM is RREP))) ((Node.HopCnt == Route.HopCnt) AND
(RM is RREQ) AND (Route.Broken == false))))
4. Superior 4. Superior
Incoming routing information that does not match any of the above Incoming routing information that does not match any of the above
criteria is loop-free and better than the information existing in criteria is loop-free and better than the information existing in
the routing table. This type of information is used to update the the routing table. Information is always superior if Node.SeqNum
routing table. For completeness, the following other cases are - Route.SeqNum > 0 (using 16-bit signed arithmetic). In the case
possible: of equal sequence numbers, the information is superior, if
Node.HopCnt < Route.HopCnt. In the case of equal sequence
numbers, the information is superior, if Node.HopCnt ==
Route.HopCnt AND it is a RREP (RREP with equal HopCnt are
forwarded) OR Route.Broken == true (a broken route is being
repaired). For completeness, we provide the following (optimized)
pseudo-code.
(Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum > 0) OR (Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum > 0) OR
((Node.SeqNum == Route.Seqnum) ((Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND
AND (Node.HopCnt <= Route.HopCnt + 1) ((Node.HopCnt < Route.HopCnt) OR
AND ((Route.Broken == true) ((Node.HopCnt == Route.HopCnt) AND
OR ((Node.HopCnt < Route.HopCnt) ((RM is RREP) OR (Route.Broken == true)))))
AND (RM is RREQ))))
5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New Routing 5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New Routing
Information Information
The route table entry is populated with the following information: The route table entry is populated with the following information:
1. the Route.Address is set to Node.Address, 1. the Route.Address is set to Node.Address,
2. the Route.SeqNum is set to the Node.SeqNum, 2. the Route.SeqNum is set to the Node.SeqNum,
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toward the OrigNode and enable delivery of a RREP. toward the OrigNode and enable delivery of a RREP.
If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is set to zero (0). If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is set to zero (0).
The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit should be The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit should be
set to MAX_HOPLIMIT, but may be set smaller. For RREQ, the set to MAX_HOPLIMIT, but may be set smaller. For RREQ, the
MsgHdr.HopLimit may be set in accordance with an expanding ring MsgHdr.HopLimit may be set in accordance with an expanding ring
search as described in [RFC3561] to limit the RREQ propagation to a search as described in [RFC3561] to limit the RREQ propagation to a
subset of the network and possibly reduce route discovery overhead. subset of the network and possibly reduce route discovery overhead.
The IP.DestinationAddress for RREQ is set to LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS. The IP.DestinationAddress for RREQ is set to LL MANET ROUTERS.
5.3.2. RREP Creation 5.3.2. RREP Creation
When ThisNode creates a RREP, if the ThisNode.SeqNum was not included When ThisNode creates a RREP, if the ThisNode.SeqNum was not included
in the RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum by one (1) according to in the RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum by one (1) according to
the rules specified in Section 5.1.2. the rules specified in Section 5.1.2.
If ThisNode.SeqNum is included in the RM and ThisNode.SeqNum from the If ThisNode.SeqNum is included in the RM and ThisNode.SeqNum from the
RM is less than OwnSeqNum, OwnSeqNum SHOULD be incremented by one (1) RM is less than OwnSeqNum, OwnSeqNum SHOULD be incremented by one (1)
according to the rules specified in Section 5.1.2. according to the rules specified in Section 5.1.2.
If OwnSeqNum is not incremented the routing information might be If OwnSeqNum is not incremented the routing information might be
considered stale. In this case, the RREP would not reach the RREP considered stale. In this case, the RREP would not reach the RREP
Target. Target.
Since RREP messages are not broadcast throughout the network, changes
to the sequence number are unlikely to reach most nodes in the
network. Therefore, it is important to avoid incrementing the
sequence number when issuing a RREP is an important mechanism to
reduce the unnecessary devaluing of good routing information, and the
ability to issue intermediate node replies. When intermediate node
replies are coupled with expanding ring search, route discovery cost
can be reduced.
ThisNode first adds the RREP AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREP. ThisNode first adds the RREP AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREP.
The TargetNode is the ultimate destination of this RREP. The TargetNode is the ultimate destination of this RREP.
ThisNode then adds the RREP AddBlk.OrigNode.Address ThisNode then adds the RREP AddBlk.OrigNode.Address
(ThisNode.Address) and the RREP OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) to (ThisNode.Address) and the RREP OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) to
the RREP. the RREP.
Other AddTLVs in the RREP for the OrigNode and TargetNode SHOULD be Other AddTLVs in the RREP for the OrigNode and TargetNode SHOULD be
included and set accordingly. If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is included and set accordingly. If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is
set to zero (0). set to zero (0).
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TargetNode, so that the RREQ TargetNode receives routing information TargetNode, so that the RREQ TargetNode receives routing information
on how to reach the RREQ OrigNode. on how to reach the RREQ OrigNode.
When an intermediate node creates a gratuitous RREP, it sends a RREP When an intermediate node creates a gratuitous RREP, it sends a RREP
to the RREQ TargetNode with additional routing information (Address, to the RREQ TargetNode with additional routing information (Address,
SeqNum, etc.) about the RREQ OrigNode. SeqNum, etc.) about the RREQ OrigNode.
5.3.4. RM Processing 5.3.4. RM Processing
Before processing a RM, a node checks the IP.Destination to ensure Before processing a RM, a node checks the IP.Destination to ensure
that it is a link local packet. that it is a link-local packet.
When a RM is received the MsgHdr.HopLimit is decremented by one (1) When a RM is received the MsgHdr.HopLimit is decremented by one (1)
and MsgHdr.HopCnt is incremented by one (1). and MsgHdr.HopCnt is incremented by one (1).
For each address (except the TargetNode) in the RM that includes For each address (except the TargetNode) in the RM that includes
AddTLV.HopCnt information, the AddTLV.HopCnt information is AddTLV.HopCnt information, the AddTLV.HopCnt information is
incremented by one (1). incremented by one (1).
Next, this node checks whether AddBlk.OrigNode.Address is its own
address. If this node is the originator, the RM is dropped.
Next, this node checks whether its routing table has an entry to the Next, this node checks whether its routing table has an entry to the
AddBlk.OrigNode.Address using longest-prefix matching [RFC1812]. If AddBlk.OrigNode.Address using longest-prefix matching [RFC1812]. If
a route does not exist, the new routing information is considered a route does not exist and the address is a unicast address, then the
fresh and a new route table entry is created and updated as described new routing information is considered fresh and a new route table
in Section 5.2.2. If a route table entry does exists, the new node's entry is created and updated as described in Section 5.2.2. If a
information is compared with the route table entry following the route table entry does exists, the new node's information is compared
procedure described in Section 5.2.1. If the new node's routing with the route table entry following the procedure described in
information is considered superior, the route table entry is updated Section 5.2.1. If the new node's routing information is considered
as described in Section 5.2.2. superior, the route table entry is updated as described in
Section 5.2.2.
After processing the OrigNode's routing information, then each After processing the OrigNode's routing information, then each
address that is not the TargetNode should be considered for creating address that is not the TargetNode should be considered for creating
and updating routes. Creating and updating routes to other nodes can and updating routes. Creating and updating routes to other nodes can
eliminate RREQ for those IP destinations, in the event that data eliminate RREQ for those IP destinations, in the event that data
needs to be forwarded to the IP destination(s) in the near future. needs to be forwarded to the IP destination(s) in the near future.
For each of the additional addresses considered, if the routing table For each of the additional addresses considered, if address is a
does not have a matching route using longest-prefix matching, then a unicast address and the routing table does not have a matching route
route is created and updated as described in Section 5.2.2. If a using longest-prefix matching, then a route is created and updated as
route table entry exists, the new node's information is compared with described in Section 5.2.2. If a route table entry exists, the new
the route table entry following the procedure described in node's information is compared with the route table entry following
Section 5.2.1. If the new node's routing information is considered the procedure described in Section 5.2.1. If the new node's routing
superior, the route table entry is updated as described in information is considered superior, the route table entry is updated
Section 5.2.2. as described in Section 5.2.2.
If the routing information for an AdditionalNode.Address is not If the routing information for an AdditionalNode.Address is not
considered superior, then it is removed from the RM. Removing this considered superior, then it is removed from the RM. Removing this
information ensures that the information is not propagated. information ensures that the information is not propagated.
At this point, if the routing information for the OrigNode was not At this point, if the routing information for the OrigNode was not
superior then this RM should be discarded and no further processing superior then this RM should be discarded and no further processing
of this message is performed. of this message is performed.
If the ThisNode is the TargetNode and this RM is a RREQ, then If the ThisNode is the TargetNode and this RM is a RREQ, then
ThisNode responds with a RREQ flood (a RREQ addressed to oneself) or ThisNode responds with a RREQ flood (a RREQ addressed to oneself) or
a RREP to the RREQ OrigNode (the new RREP's TargetNode). The a RREP to the RREQ OrigNode (the new RREP's TargetNode). The
procedure for issuing a new RREP is described in Section 5.3.2. procedure for issuing a new RREP is described in Section 5.3.2.
Note: it is important that when creating the RREP, the RREP Note: it is important that when creating the RREP, the RREP
OrigNode.Address be the same as the RREQ TargetNode.Address, if OrigNode.Address be the same as the RREQ TargetNode.Address, if
ThisNode has several addresses. At this point, ThisNode need not ThisNode has several addresses. At this point, ThisNode need not
perform any more operations for this RM. perform any more operations for this RM.
If ThisNode is not the TargetNode, this RM is a RREQ, the RREQ If ThisNode is not the TargetNode, this RM is a RREQ, the RREQ
contains the TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum, and ThisNode has an forwarding contains the TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum, and ThisNode has a forwarding
route to the TargetNode with a SeqNum (Route.TargetNode.SeqNum) route to the TargetNode with a SeqNum (Route.TargetNode.SeqNum)
greater than or equal to the RREQ TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum; then this greater than or equal to the RREQ TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum; then this
node MAY respond with an intermediate node RREP. The procedure for node MAY respond with an intermediate node RREP. The procedure for
performing intermediate node RREP is described in Section 5.3.3. At performing intermediate node RREP is described in Section 5.3.3. At
this point, ThisNode need not perform any more operations for this this point, ThisNode need not perform any more operations for this
RM. RM.
After processing a RM or creating a new RM, a node can append After processing a RM or creating a new RM, a node can append
additional routing information to the RM, according to the procedure additional routing information to the RM, according to the procedure
described in Section 5.3.5. The additional routing information can described in Section 5.3.5. The additional routing information can
help reduce route discoveries at the expense of increased message help reduce route discoveries at the expense of increased message
size. size.
If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1), If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1),
ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREQ, then the ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREQ, then the
current RM (altered by the procedure defined above) is sent to the current RM (altered by the procedure defined above) is sent to the LL
LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS IP.DestinationAddress. MANET ROUTERS IP.DestinationAddress.
If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1), If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1),
ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREP, then the ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREP, then the
current RM is sent to the Route.NextHopAddress for the RREP's current RM is sent to the Route.NextHopAddress for the RREP's
TargetNode.Address. If no forwarding route exists to Target.Address, TargetNode.Address. If no forwarding route exists to Target.Address,
then a RERR is issued to the OrigNode of the RREP. then a RERR is issued to the OrigNode of the RREP.
5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM 5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM
Appending routing information can alleviate route discovery attempts Appending routing information can alleviate route discovery attempts
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routing information can help alleviate future RREQ. This option routing information can help alleviate future RREQ. This option
should be administratively configurable. should be administratively configurable.
Prior to appending its own address to a RM, ThisNode MAY increment Prior to appending its own address to a RM, ThisNode MAY increment
its OwnSeqNum as defined in Section 5.1.2. If OwnSeqNum is not its OwnSeqNum as defined in Section 5.1.2. If OwnSeqNum is not
incremented the appended routing information might not be considered incremented the appended routing information might not be considered
fresh, when received by nodes with existing routing information. fresh, when received by nodes with existing routing information.
Incrementation of the sequence number when appending information to Incrementation of the sequence number when appending information to
an RM in transit should be administratively configurable. an RM in transit should be administratively configurable.
If included the Node.HopCnt for ThisNode is included, it is set to If included ThisNode.HopCnt, it is set to zero (0). Additional
zero (0). Additional information about the address(es) can also be information about the address(es) can also be appended, such as a
appended, such as a PREFIX_LENGTH AddTLV. PREFIX_LENGTH AddTLV.
5.4. Route Discovery 5.4. Route Discovery
A node creates and sends a RREQ (described in Section 5.3.1) to When a node originates a data packet and does not have a forwarding
discover a route to a particular destination (TargetNode) for which route to the IP.DestinationAddress, it sends a RREQ (described in
it does not currently have a forwarding route. Section 5.3.1) to discover a route to the particular destination
(TargetNode).
After issuing a RREQ, the OrigNode waits for a route to be created to After issuing a RREQ, the OrigNode waits for a route to be created to
the TargetNode. If a route is not created within RREQ_WAIT_TIME, the TargetNode. If a route is not created within RREQ_WAIT_TIME,
ThisNode may again try to discover a route by issuing another RREQ. ThisNode may again try to discover a route by issuing another RREQ.
To reduce congestion in a network, repeated attempts at route To reduce congestion in a network, repeated attempts at route
discovery for a particular TargetNode should utilize an exponential discovery for a particular TargetNode should utilize an exponential
backoff. backoff.
For example, the first time a node issues a RREQ, it waits For example, the first time a node issues a RREQ, it waits
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BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES) and older data packets SHOULD be discarded first. BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES) and older data packets SHOULD be discarded first.
If a route discovery has been attempted RREQ_TRIES times without If a route discovery has been attempted RREQ_TRIES times without
receiving a route to the TargetNode, all data packets destined for receiving a route to the TargetNode, all data packets destined for
the corresponding TargetNode are dropped from the buffer and a the corresponding TargetNode are dropped from the buffer and a
Destination Unreachable ICMP message should be delivered to the Destination Unreachable ICMP message should be delivered to the
application. application.
5.5. Route Maintenance 5.5. Route Maintenance
A RERR MUST be issued if a data packet is received and it cannot be A RERR MUST be issued if a data packet is to be forwarded and it
delivered to the next hop when no forwarding route exists; RERR cannot be delivered to the next hop because no forwarding route for
generation is described in Section 5.5.3. the IP.Destination exists; RERR generation is described in
Section 5.5.3. In this case, an ICMP Destination Unreachable message
SHOULD NOT be generated, unless this router is responsible for the
IP.Destination and the IP.Destination is not reachable.
In addition to inability to deliver a data packet, a RERR SHOULD be In addition to inability to forward a data packet, a RERR SHOULD be
issued immediately after detecting a broken link of an forwarding issued immediately after detecting a broken link of an forwarding
route to quickly notify nodes that a link break occurred and that route to quickly notify nodes that a link break occurred and that
certain routes are no longer available. If the route with the broken certain routes are no longer available. If the route with the broken
link has not been used recently (indicated by ROUTE_USED), the RERR link has not been used recently (indicated by ROUTE_USED), the RERR
SHOULD NOT be generated. SHOULD NOT be generated.
5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring 5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring
Nodes MUST monitor next hop links on forwarding routes. This Nodes MUST monitor next hop links on forwarding routes. This
monitoring can be accomplished by one or several mechanisms, monitoring can be accomplished by one or several mechanisms,
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o Route timeout o Route timeout
o Other monitoring mechanisms or heuristics o Other monitoring mechanisms or heuristics
Upon detecting a link break (or an unreachable next hop) ThisNode Upon detecting a link break (or an unreachable next hop) ThisNode
must remove the affected forwarding routes (those with an unreachable must remove the affected forwarding routes (those with an unreachable
next hop). ThisNode also flags these routes as Broken. For each next hop). ThisNode also flags these routes as Broken. For each
broken route a timer for ROUTE_DELETE is set to ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT. broken route a timer for ROUTE_DELETE is set to ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT.
5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes during Packet Forwarding 5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes During Packet Forwarding
To avoid removing forwarding routes that are being used, a node To avoid removing the forwarding route to reach the IP.SourceAddress,
SHOULD set a timeout (ROUTE_USED) to ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT for the route a node SHOULD set a timeout (ROUTE_USED) to ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT for
to the IP.SourceAddress upon receiving a data packet. If a timer for the route to the IP.SourceAddress upon receiving a data packet. If a
ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is removed. timer for ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is removed.
To avoid removing forwarding routes that are being used, a node To avoid removing the forwarding route to the IP.DestinationAddress
SHOULD set a timeout (ROUTE_USED) to ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT for the route that is being used, a node SHOULD set a timeout (ROUTE_USED) to
to the IP.DestinationAddress upon sending a data packet. If a timer ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT for the route to the IP.DestinationAddress upon
for ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is removed. sending a data packet. If a timer for ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is
removed.
5.5.3. Route Error Generation 5.5.3. Route Error Generation
A RERR informs the IP.SourceAddress or RREP.OrigNode.Address that the A RERR informs the IP.SourceAddress or RREP.OrigNode.Address that the
route does not exist, and a route is not available through this node. route does not exist, and a route is not available through this node.
When creating a new RERR, the address of first UnreachableNode When creating a new RERR, the address of first UnreachableNode
(IP.DestinationAddress from the data packet or (IP.DestinationAddress from the data packet or
RREP.TargetNode.Address) is inserted into an Address Block RREP.TargetNode.Address) is inserted into an Address Block
AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address. If a value for the UnreachableNode's AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address. If a value for the UnreachableNode's
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Route.NextHopInterface) SHOULD be added to the RERR, as additional Route.NextHopInterface) SHOULD be added to the RERR, as additional
AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address. The SeqNum if known SHOULD also be AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address. The SeqNum if known SHOULD also be
included. Appending UnreachableNode information notifies each included. Appending UnreachableNode information notifies each
processing node of additional routes that are no longer available. processing node of additional routes that are no longer available.
This option SHOULD be administratively configurable. This option SHOULD be administratively configurable.
If SeqNum information is not known or not included in the RERR, all If SeqNum information is not known or not included in the RERR, all
nodes processing the RERR will assume their routing information nodes processing the RERR will assume their routing information
associated with the UnreachableNode is no longer valid. associated with the UnreachableNode is no longer valid.
The RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS. The RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL MANET ROUTERS.
Sending the RERR to the LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS address notifies nearby Sending the RERR to the LL MANET ROUTERS address notifies nearby
nodes that might depend on the now broken link. nodes that might depend on the now broken link.
The packet or message that forced generation of this RERR is The packet or message that forced generation of this RERR is
discarded. discarded.
5.5.4. Route Error Processing 5.5.4. RERR Processing
Before processing a RERR, a node checks the IP.Destination to ensure Before processing a RERR, a node checks the IP.Destination to ensure
that it is a link local packet. that it is a link-local packet.
When a node processes a RERR, it processes each UnreachableNode's When a node processes a RERR, it processes each UnreachableNode's
information. The processing node removes the forwarding route and information. The processing node removes the forwarding route and
sets the broken flag for each UnreachableNode.Address found using sets the broken flag for each UnreachableNode.Address found using
longest prefix matching that meet all of the following conditions: longest prefix matching that meet all of the following conditions:
1. The Route.NextHopAddress is the same as the RERR 1. The UnreachableNode.Address is a unicast address.
2. The Route.NextHopAddress is the same as the RERR
IP.SourceAddress. IP.SourceAddress.
2. The Route.NextHopInterface is the same as the interface on which 3. The Route.NextHopInterface is the same as the interface on which
the RERR was received. the RERR was received.
3. The Route.SeqNum is zero (0), unknown, OR the 4. The Route.SeqNum is zero (0), unknown, OR the
UnreachableNode.SeqNum is zero (0), unknown, OR UnreachableNode.SeqNum is zero (0), unknown, OR Route.SeqNum -
UnreachableNode.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum <= 0 (using signed 16-bit UnreachableNode.SeqNum <= 0 (using signed 16-bit arithmetic).
arithmetic).
Each UnreachableNode that did not result in a broken route is removed Each UnreachableNode that did not result in a broken route is removed
from the RERR, since propagation of this information will not result from the RERR, since propagation of this information will not result
in any benefit. Any other information (AddTLVs) associated with the in any benefit. Any other information (AddTLVs) associated with the
removed address(es) is also removed. removed address(es) is also removed.
If no UnreachableNode addresses remain in the RERR, no other If no UnreachableNode addresses remain in the RERR, no other
processing is required and the RERR is discarded. processing is required and the RERR is discarded.
If this RERR's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than one (1) and at least If this RERR's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than one (1) and at least
one unreachable node address remains in the RERR, then the updated one unreachable node address remains in the RERR, then the updated
RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS. RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL MANET ROUTERS.
5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types 5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types
If a message with an unknown type is received, the message is If a message with an unknown type is received, the message is
discarded. discarded.
If a message contains TLVs of an unknown type, a node ignores these If a message contains TLVs of an unknown type, a node ignores these
during processing. The processing node can remove these TLVs from during processing. The processing node can remove these TLVs from
any resulting transmitted messages. The behavior for unknown TLV any resulting transmitted messages. The behavior for unknown TLV
types should be administratively configurable. types should be administratively configurable.
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5.9. Multiple Interfaces 5.9. Multiple Interfaces
DYMO may be used with multiple interfaces; therefore, the particular DYMO may be used with multiple interfaces; therefore, the particular
interface over which packets arrive must be known whenever a packet interface over which packets arrive must be known whenever a packet
is received. Whenever a new route is created, the interface through is received. Whenever a new route is created, the interface through
which the Route.Address can be reached is also recorded in the route which the Route.Address can be reached is also recorded in the route
table entry. table entry.
When multiple interfaces are available, a node transmitting a packet When multiple interfaces are available, a node transmitting a packet
with IP.DestinationAddress set to LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS SHOULD send with IP.DestinationAddress set to LL MANET ROUTERS SHOULD send the
the packet on all interfaces that have been configured for DYMO packet on all interfaces that have been configured for DYMO
operation. operation.
5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits 5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits
To avoid congestion, a node's rate of packet/message generation To avoid congestion, a node's rate of packet/message generation
should be limited. The rate and algorithm for limiting messages is should be limited. The rate and algorithm for limiting messages is
left to the implementor and should be administratively configurable. left to the implementor and should be administratively configurable.
Messages should be discarded in the following order of preferences Messages should be discarded in the following order of preferences
RREQ, RREP, and finally RERR. RREQ, RREP, and finally RERR.
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| UNKNOWN_TYPE_HANDLING | Ignore | | UNKNOWN_TYPE_HANDLING | Ignore |
| BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS | 50 packets | | BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS | 50 packets |
| BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES | 1500 * BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS | | BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES | 1500 * BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS |
+-------------------------------------+----------------------------+ +-------------------------------------+----------------------------+
Table 3 Table 3
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
DYMO requires a UDP port number to carry protocol packets - TBD. DYMO requires a UDP port number to carry protocol packets - TBD.
DYMO also requires the link-local multicast address DYMO also requires the link-local multicast address LL MANET ROUTERS;
LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS; IPv4 TBD, IPv6 TBD [I-D.chakeres-manet-iana]. IPv4 TBD, IPv6 TBD [I-D.chakeres-manet-iana].
This section specifies several messages types, message tlv-types, and This section specifies several messages types, message tlv-types, and
address tlv-types. address tlv-types.
Future types will be allocated using standard actions as described in Future types will be allocated using standard actions as described in
[RFC2434]. [RFC2434].
7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification 7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification
DYMO Message Types DYMO Message Types
skipping to change at page 30, line 20 skipping to change at page 30, line 20
based on their IP addresses as they would have used otherwise. based on their IP addresses as they would have used otherwise.
9. Acknowledgments 9. Acknowledgments
DYMO is a descendant of the design of previous MANET reactive DYMO is a descendant of the design of previous MANET reactive
protocols, especially AODV [RFC3561] and DSR [Johnson96]. Changes to protocols, especially AODV [RFC3561] and DSR [Johnson96]. Changes to
previous MANET reactive protocols stem from research and previous MANET reactive protocols stem from research and
implementation experiences. Thanks to Elizabeth Belding-Royer for implementation experiences. Thanks to Elizabeth Belding-Royer for
her long time authorship of DYMO. Additional thanks to Luke Klein- her long time authorship of DYMO. Additional thanks to Luke Klein-
Berndt, Pedro Ruiz, Fransisco Ros, Koojana Kuladinithi, Ramon Berndt, Pedro Ruiz, Fransisco Ros, Koojana Kuladinithi, Ramon
Caceres, Thomas Clausen, Christopher Dearlove, Seung Yi, and Romain Caceres, Thomas Clausen, Christopher Dearlove, Seung Yi, Romain
Thouvenin for reviewing of DYMO, as well as several specification Thouvenin, Tronje Krop and Henner Jakob for reviewing of DYMO, as
suggestions. well as several specification suggestions.
10. References 10. References
10.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb] [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]
Clausen, T., "Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format", Clausen, T., "Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format",
draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-03 (work in progress), draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-03 (work in progress),
January 2007. January 2007.
skipping to change at page 31, line 29 skipping to change at page 31, line 29
IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and
Applications, New Orleans, LA, pp. 90-100, Applications, New Orleans, LA, pp. 90-100,
February 1999. February 1999.
[RFC3561] Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., and S. Das, "Ad hoc On- [RFC3561] Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., and S. Das, "Ad hoc On-
Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", RFC 3561, Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", RFC 3561,
July 2003. July 2003.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Ian Chakeres Ian D Chakeres
Boeing Phantom Works Motorola
The Boeing Company Bangalore
P.O. Box 3707 Mailcode 7L-49 India
Seattle, WA 98124-2207
USA
Email: ian.chakeres@gmail.com Email: ian.chakeres@gmail.com
Charles E. Perkins Charles E. Perkins
Palo Alto Systems Research Center Palo Alto Systems Research Center
975 Page Mill Road, Suite 200 975 Page Mill Road, Suite 200
Palo Alto, CA 94304-1003 Palo Alto, CA 94304-1003
USA USA
Phone: +1-650-496-4402 Phone: +1-650-496-4402
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