draft-ietf-manet-dymo-07.txt   draft-ietf-manet-dymo-08.txt 
Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working I. Chakeres Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working I. Chakeres
Group Boeing Group Boeing
Internet-Draft C. Perkins Internet-Draft C. Perkins
Intended status: Standards Track Nokia Intended status: Standards Track Nokia
Expires: August 13, 2007 February 9, 2007 Expires: September 3, 2007 March 2, 2007
Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing
draft-ietf-manet-dymo-07 draft-ietf-manet-dymo-08
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
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have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
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This Internet-Draft will expire on August 13, 2007. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 3, 2007.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
Abstract Abstract
The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol is intended for The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol is intended for
use by mobile nodes in wireless, multihop networks. It offers use by mobile nodes in wireless, multihop networks. It offers
adaptation to changing network topology and determines unicast routes adaptation to changing network topology and determines unicast routes
between nodes within the network on-demand. between nodes within the network in an on-demand fashion.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Applicability Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1. Route Table Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Route Table Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2. DYMO Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2. DYMO Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2.1. Generalized MANET Packet and Message Structure . . . . 7 4.2.1. Generalized MANET Packet and Message Structure . . . . 8
4.2.2. Routing Messages (RM) - RREQ & RREP . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2.2. Routing Messages (RM) - RREQ & RREP . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2.3. Route Error (RERR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.2.3. Route Error (RERR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. Detailed Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5. Detailed Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1. DYMO Sequence Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.1. DYMO Sequence Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number . . . . . . . 12 5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number . . . . . . . 12
5.1.2. Incrementing OwnSeqNum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.2. Numerical Operations on OwnSeqNum . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1.4. Actions After OwnSeqNum Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.4. Actions After OwnSeqNum Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness . . . . . . . 13 5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness . . . . . . . 13
5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New 5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New
Routing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Routing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.3. Routing Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3. Routing Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.3.1. RREQ Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3.1. RREQ Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.3.2. RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.3.2. RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.3.3. Intermediate Node RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.3.3. Intermediate Node RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.4. RM Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.3.4. RM Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM . . . . 20 5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM . . . . 20
5.4. Route Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.4. Route Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.5. Route Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.5. Route Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes during Packet Forwarding . . 22 5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes during Packet Forwarding . . 22
5.5.3. Route Error Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.5.3. Route Error Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.5.4. Route Error Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.5.4. Route Error Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.7. Advertising Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.7. Advertising Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying . . . . . . . . 24 5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying . . . . . . . . 24
5.9. Multiple Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.9. Multiple Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options . . 26 6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options . . 26
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10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 32 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 32
1. Overview 1. Overview
The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol enables reactive, The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol enables reactive,
multihop routing between participating nodes that wish to multihop routing between participating nodes that wish to
communicate. The basic operations of the DYMO protocol are route communicate. The basic operations of the DYMO protocol are route
discovery and route management. During route discovery the discovery and route management. During route discovery, the
originating node initiates dissemination of a Route Request (RREQ) originating node initiates dissemination of a Route Request (RREQ)
throughout the network to find the target node. During this throughout the network to find a route to the target node. During
dissemination process, each intermediate node records a route to the this hop-by-hop dissemination process, each intermediate node records
originating node. When the target node receives the RREQ, it a route to the originating node. When the target node receives the
responds with a Route Reply (RREP) sent hop-by-hop toward the RREQ, it responds with a Route Reply (RREP) sent hop-by-hop toward
originating node. Each node that receives the RREP records a route the originating node. Each node that receives the RREP records a
to the target node, and then the RREP is unicast toward the route to the target node, and then the RREP is unicast hop-by-hop
originating node. When the originating node receives the RREP, toward the originating node. When the originating node receives the
routes have then been established between the originating node and RREP, routes have then been established between the originating node
the target node in both directions. and the target node in both directions.
In order to react to changes in the network topology nodes maintain In order to react to changes in the network topology nodes maintain
their routes and monitor links over which traffic is moving. When a their routes and monitor links over which traffic is moving. When a
data packet is received for forwarding if a route is not known or the data packet is received for forwarding if a route for the destination
route is broken, then the source of the packet is notified. A Route is not known or the route is broken, then the source of the packet is
Error (RERR) is sent to the packet source to indicate the current notified. A Route Error (RERR) is sent to the packet source to
route is broken. When the source receives the RERR, it knows that it indicate the current route to a particular destination is broken.
must perform route discovery if it still has packets to deliver. When the source receives the RERR, it knows that it must perform
route discovery if it still has packets to deliver to that
destination.
DYMO uses sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom [Perkins99]. DYMO uses sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom [Perkins99].
Sequence numbers enable nodes to determine the order of DYMO route Sequence numbers enable nodes to determine the order of DYMO route
discovery messages, thereby avoiding use of stale routing discovery messages, thereby avoiding use of stale routing
information. information.
2. Applicability 2. Applicability Statement
The DYMO routing protocol is designed for stub mobile ad hoc The DYMO routing protocol is designed for stub mobile ad hoc
networks. DYMO handles a wide variety of mobility patterns by networks. DYMO handles a wide variety of mobility patterns by
dynamically determining routes on-demand. DYMO also handles a wide dynamically determining routes on-demand. DYMO also handles a wide
variety of traffic patterns. In large networks DYMO is best suited variety of traffic patterns. In large networks DYMO is best suited
for traffic scenarios where nodes communicate with only a portion of for traffic scenarios where nodes communicate with only a portion of
other the nodes. other the nodes.
DYMO is applicable to memory constrained devices, since little DYMO is applicable to memory constrained devices, since little
routing state needs to be maintained. Only routing information routing state needs to be maintained in each node. Only routing
related to active sources and destinations must be maintained, in information related to active sources and destinations must be
contrast to other routing protocols that require routing information maintained, in contrast to other routing protocols that require
to all nodes within the autonomous system be maintained. routing information to all nodes within the autonomous system be
maintained.
The routing algorithm in DYMO may be operated at layers other than The routing algorithm in DYMO may be operated at layers other than
the network layer, using layer-appropriate addresses. Only the network layer, using layer-appropriate addresses. Only
modification of the packet format is required. The routing algorithm modification of the packet format is required. The routing algorithm
need not change. Note that, using the DYMO algorithm with message need not change. Note that, using the DYMO algorithm with message
formats (other than those specified in this document) will not be formats (other than those specified in this document) will not be
interoperable. interoperable.
3. Terminology 3. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
This document uses some terminology from [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. Additionally, this document uses some terminology from
[I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb].
This document defines the following terminology: This document defines the following terminology:
DYMO Sequence Number (SeqNum) DYMO Sequence Number (SeqNum)
A DYMO Sequence Number is maintained by each node. This sequence A DYMO Sequence Number is maintained by each node. This sequence
number is used by other nodes to identify the order of routing number is used by other nodes to identify the order of routing
information generated by a node and to ensure loop-free routes. information generated by a node and to ensure loop-free routes.
Forwarding Route Forwarding Route
A route that is used to forward data packets. Forwarding routes A route that is used to forward data packets. Forwarding routes
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Route.Broken Route.Broken
A flag indicating whether this Route is broken. This flag is set A flag indicating whether this Route is broken. This flag is set
if the next hop becomes unreachable or in response to processing a if the next hop becomes unreachable or in response to processing a
RERR (see Section 5.5.4). RERR (see Section 5.5.4).
The following fields are optional: The following fields are optional:
Route.HopCnt Route.HopCnt
The number of intermediate node hops traversed before reaching the The number of intermediate node hops traversed before reaching the
Route.Address node. Route.HopCnt assists in determining whether Route.Address node. Route.HopCnt assists in determining whether
received routing information is superior to existing known received routing information is better than existing known
information. information.
Route.Prefix Route.Prefix
Indicates that the associated address is a network address, rather Indicates that the associated address is a network address, rather
than a host address. The value is the length of the netmask/ than a host address. The value is the length of the netmask/
prefix. If an address block does not have an associated prefix. If an address block does not have an associated
PREFIX_LENGTH TLV [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb] , the prefix may be PREFIX_LENGTH TLV [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb] , the prefix may be
considered to have a prefix length equal to the address length (in considered to have a prefix length equal to the address length (in
bits). bits).
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not exist and route discovery is being performed. In a RREP the not exist and route discovery is being performed. In a RREP the
target node is the RREQ OrigNode. The TargetNode address is the target node is the RREQ OrigNode. The TargetNode address is the
first address in the routing message. first address in the routing message.
AddBlk.OrigNode.Address AddBlk.OrigNode.Address
The IP address of the OrigNode. This address is in an address The IP address of the OrigNode. This address is in an address
block and not in the message header to allow for address block and not in the message header to allow for address
compression and additional AddTLVs. This address is the second compression and additional AddTLVs. This address is the second
address in the message for RREQ. address in the message for RREQ.
AddTLV.OrigNode.SeqNum OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum
The DYMO sequence number of the OrigNode. The DYMO sequence number of the OrigNode.
A RM may optionally include the following information: A RM may optionally include the following information:
AddTLV.TargetNode.SeqNum TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum
The last known DYMO sequence number of the TargetNode. The last known DYMO sequence number of the TargetNode.
AddTLV.TargetNode.HopCnt TargetNode.AddTLV.HopCnt
The last known HopCnt to the TargetNode. The last known HopCnt to the TargetNode.
AddBlk.AdditionalNode.Address AddBlk.AdditionalNode.Address
The IP address of an additional node that can be reached via the The IP address of an additional node that can be reached via the
node adding this information. Each AdditionalNode.Address must node adding this information. Each AdditionalNode.Address must
have an associated SeqNum in the address TLV block. have an associated SeqNum in the address TLV block.
AddTLV.AdditionalNode.SeqNum AdditionalNode.AddTLV.SeqNum
The DYMO sequence number of an additional intermediate node's The DYMO sequence number of an additional intermediate node's
routing information. routing information.
AddTLV.Node.HopCnt Node.AddTLV.HopCnt
The number of IP hops to reach the associated Node.Address. This The number of IP hops to reach the associated Node.Address. This
field is incremented at each intermediate hop, for each node field is incremented at each intermediate hop, for each node
except the TargetNode's HopCnt information. except the TargetNode's HopCnt information.
AddTLV.Node.Prefix Node.AddTLV.Prefix
The Node.Address is a network address with a particular prefix The Node.Address is a network address with a particular prefix
length. length.
Example IPv4 RREQ Example IPv4 RREQ
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
IP Header IP Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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MsgHdr.HopLimit MsgHdr.HopLimit
The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse. The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse.
AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address
The IP address of an UnreachableNode. Multiple unreachable The IP address of an UnreachableNode. Multiple unreachable
addresses may be included in a RERR. addresses may be included in a RERR.
A Route Error may optionally include the following information: A Route Error may optionally include the following information:
AddTLV.UnreachableNode.SeqNum UnreachableNode.AddTLV.SeqNum
The last known DYMO sequence number of the unreachable node. If a The last known DYMO sequence number of the unreachable node. If a
SeqNum for an address is not included, it is assumed to be SeqNum for an address is not included, it is assumed to be
unknown. This case occurs when a node receives a message to unknown. This case occurs when a node receives a message to
forward for which it does not have any information in its routing forward for which it does not have any information in its routing
table. table.
Example IPv4 RERR Example IPv4 RERR
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
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DYMO sequence numbers allow nodes to judge the freshness of routing DYMO sequence numbers allow nodes to judge the freshness of routing
information and ensure loop freedom. information and ensure loop freedom.
5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number 5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number
DYMO requires that each node in the network to maintain its own DYMO DYMO requires that each node in the network to maintain its own DYMO
sequence number (OwnSeqNum), a 16-bit unsigned integer. The sequence number (OwnSeqNum), a 16-bit unsigned integer. The
circumstances for ThisNode to incrementing its OwnSeqNum are circumstances for ThisNode to incrementing its OwnSeqNum are
described in Section 5.3. described in Section 5.3.
5.1.2. Incrementing OwnSeqNum 5.1.2. Numerical Operations on OwnSeqNum
When ThisNode increments its OwnSeqNum (as described in Section 5.3) When ThisNode increments its OwnSeqNum (as described in Section 5.3)
it MUST do so by treating the sequence number value as an unsigned it MUST do so by treating the sequence number value as an unsigned
number. number.
Note: The sequence number zero (0) is reserved. Note: The sequence number zero (0) is reserved.
5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover 5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover
If the sequence number has been assigned to be the largest possible If the sequence number has been assigned to be the largest possible
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The longest a node must wait is ROUTE_AGE_MAX_TIMEOUT. At the end of The longest a node must wait is ROUTE_AGE_MAX_TIMEOUT. At the end of
the maximum waiting period a node sets its OwnSeqNum to one (1) and the maximum waiting period a node sets its OwnSeqNum to one (1) and
begins participating. begins participating.
5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations 5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations
5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness 5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness
Given a route table entry (Route.SeqNum, Route.HopCnt, and Given a route table entry (Route.SeqNum, Route.HopCnt, and
Route.Broken) and new routing information for a particular node in a Route.Broken) and new incoming routing information for a particular
RM (Node.SeqNum, Node.HopCnt, and RM message type - RREQ/RREP), the node in a RM (Node.SeqNum, Node.HopCnt, and RM message type - RREQ/
quality of the new routing information is evaluated to determine its RREP), the quality of the new routing information is evaluated to
usefulness. Incoming routing information is classified as follows: determine its usefulness. Incoming routing information is classified
as follows:
1. Stale 1. Stale
If Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0 (using signed 16-bit arithmetic) If Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0 (using signed 16-bit arithmetic)
the information is stale. Using stale routing information is not the incoming information is stale. Using stale routing
allowed, since doing so might result in routing loops. information is not allowed, since doing so might result in routing
loops.
(Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0) (Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum < 0)
2. Loop-possible 2. Loop-possible
If Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum the information may cause loops if If Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum the incoming information may cause
used; in this case additional information must be examined. If loops if used; in this case additional information must be
Route.HopCnt or Node.HopCnt is unknown or zero (0), then the examined. If Route.HopCnt or Node.HopCnt is unknown or zero (0),
routing information is loop-possible. If Node.HopCnt > then the routing information is loop-possible. If Node.HopCnt >
Route.HopCnt + 1, then the routing information is loop-possible. Route.HopCnt + 1, then the routing information is loop-possible.
Using loop-possible routing information is not allowed, otherwise Using loop-possible routing information is not allowed, otherwise
routing loops may be formed. routing loops may be formed.
(Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND (Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND
((Node.HopCnt is unknown) ((Node.HopCnt is unknown)
OR (Route.HopCnt is unknown) OR (Route.HopCnt is unknown)
OR (Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt +1)) OR (Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt +1))
3. Inferior 3. Inferior
If Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum the information may be inferior; If Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum the incoming information may be
additional information must be examined. If Node.HopCnt >= to inferior; additional information must be examined. If Node.HopCnt
Route.HopCnt, the current route is not Broken, and the message is >= to Route.HopCnt, the current route is not Broken, and the
a RREQ, then the new information is inferior. If Node.HopCnt > message is a RREQ, then the new information is inferior. This
Route.HopCnt + 1, the current route is not Broken and the message rule will stop RREQ propagation if the HopCnt is not shorter. If
is RREP, then the new information is inferior. Inferior routes Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt + 1, the current route is not Broken
will not cause routing loops if introduced, but should not be used and the message is RREP, then the new information is inferior.
since better information is already available. This rule will stop RREP propagation if the information is
inferior. Inferior routes will not cause routing loops if
introduced, but should not be used since better information is
already available.
(Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND (Node.SeqNum == Route.SeqNum) AND
(Route.Broken == false) AND (Route.Broken == false) AND
((Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt) AND (RM is RREQ)) ((Node.HopCnt >= Route.HopCnt) AND (RM is RREQ))
OR ((Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt + 1) AND (RM is RREP))) OR ((Node.HopCnt > Route.HopCnt + 1) AND (RM is RREP)))
4. Superior 4. Superior
Routing information that does not match any of the above criteria Incoming routing information that does not match any of the above
is loop-free and better than the information existing in the criteria is loop-free and better than the information existing in
routing table. This type of information is used to update the the routing table. This type of information is used to update the
routing table. For completeness, the following other cases are routing table. For completeness, the following other cases are
possible: possible:
(Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum > 0) OR (Node.SeqNum - Route.SeqNum > 0) OR
((Node.SeqNum == Route.Seqnum) ((Node.SeqNum == Route.Seqnum)
AND ((Node.HopCnt == Route.HopCnt + 1) AND (Node.HopCnt <= Route.HopCnt + 1)
OR (Node.HopCnt == Route.HopCnt)) AND ((Route.Broken == true)
AND (((Route.Broken == true) AND (RM is RREQ)) OR ((Node.HopCnt < Route.HopCnt)
OR ((Route.Broken == false) AND (RM is RREP)))) OR AND (RM is RREQ))))
((Node.HopCnt < Route.HopCnt + 1) AND (Route.Broken == false))
5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New Routing 5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New Routing
Information Information
The route table entry is populated with the following information: The route table entry is populated with the following information:
1. the Route.Address is set to Node.Address, 1. the Route.Address is set to Node.Address,
2. the Route.SeqNum is set to the Node.SeqNum, 2. the Route.SeqNum is set to the Node.SeqNum,
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5.3. Routing Messages 5.3. Routing Messages
5.3.1. RREQ Creation 5.3.1. RREQ Creation
When a node creates a RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum by one When a node creates a RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum by one
(1) according to the rules specified in Section 5.1.2. Incrementing (1) according to the rules specified in Section 5.1.2. Incrementing
OwnSeqNum will ensure that all nodes with existing routing OwnSeqNum will ensure that all nodes with existing routing
information to consider this new information fresh. If the sequence information to consider this new information fresh. If the sequence
number is not incremented, certain nodes might not consider this number is not incremented, certain nodes might not consider this
information useful if they have better information already. information useful if they have superior information already.
First, the node adds the AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREQ. First, the node adds the AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREQ.
If a previous value of the TargetNode.SeqNum is known (from a routing If a previous value of the TargetNode.SeqNum is known (from a routing
table entry), it SHOULD be placed in AddTLV.TargetNode.SeqNum in the table entry), it SHOULD be placed in TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum in all
first few RREQ attempts. If a TargetNode.SeqNum is not included, it but the last RREQ attempt. If a TargetNode.SeqNum is not included,
is assumed to be unknown by processing nodes, ensures no intermediate it is assumed to be unknown by processing nodes. This operation
nodes reply, and ensures that the TargetNode increments its sequence ensures that no intermediate nodes reply, and ensures that the
number. TargetNode increments its sequence number.
Similarly, if a previous value of the TargetNode.HopCnt is known, it Similarly, if a previous value of the TargetNode.HopCnt is known, it
SHOULD be placed in AddTLV.TargetNode.HopCnt. Otherwise, the SHOULD be placed in TargetNode.AddTLV.HopCnt. Otherwise, the
AddTLV.TargetNode.HopCnt is not included and assumed unknown by TargetNode.AddTLV.HopCnt is not included and assumed unknown by
processing nodes. processing nodes.
Next, the node adds AddBlk.OrigNode.Address to the RM and the Next, the node adds AddBlk.OrigNode.Address to the RM and the
AddTLV.OrigNode.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) in an address block TLV. The OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) in an address block TLV. The
OrigNode.Address is this node's address, and it must be a routable IP OrigNode.Address is this node's address, and it must be a routable IP
address. This information will be used by nodes to create a route address. This information will be used by nodes to create a route
toward the OrigNode and enable delivery of a RREP. toward the OrigNode and enable delivery of a RREP.
If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is set to zero (0). If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is set to zero (0).
The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit should be The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit should be
set to NET_DIAMETER, but may be set smaller. For RREQ, the set to MAX_HOPLIMIT, but may be set smaller. For RREQ, the
MsgHdr.HopLimit may be set in accordance with an expanding ring MsgHdr.HopLimit may be set in accordance with an expanding ring
search as described in [RFC3561] to limit the RREQ propagation to a search as described in [RFC3561] to limit the RREQ propagation to a
subset of the network and possibly reduce route discovery overhead. subset of the network and possibly reduce route discovery overhead.
The IP.DestinationAddress for RREQ is set to LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS. The IP.DestinationAddress for RREQ is set to LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS.
5.3.2. RREP Creation 5.3.2. RREP Creation
When ThisNode creates a RREP, if the ThisNode.SeqNum was not included When ThisNode creates a RREP, if the ThisNode.SeqNum was not included
in the RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum by one (1) according to in the RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum by one (1) according to
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sequence number when issuing a RREP is an important mechanism to sequence number when issuing a RREP is an important mechanism to
reduce the unnecessary devaluing of good routing information, and the reduce the unnecessary devaluing of good routing information, and the
ability to issue intermediate node replies. When intermediate node ability to issue intermediate node replies. When intermediate node
replies are coupled with expanding ring search, route discovery cost replies are coupled with expanding ring search, route discovery cost
can be reduced. can be reduced.
ThisNode first adds the RREP AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREP. ThisNode first adds the RREP AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREP.
The TargetNode is the ultimate destination of this RREP. The TargetNode is the ultimate destination of this RREP.
ThisNode then adds the RREP AddBlk.OrigNode.Address ThisNode then adds the RREP AddBlk.OrigNode.Address
(ThisNode.Address) and the RREP AddTLV.OrigNode.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) to (ThisNode.Address) and the RREP OrigNode.AddTLV.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) to
the RREP. the RREP.
Other AddTLVs in the RREP for the OrigNode and TargetNode SHOULD be Other AddTLVs in the RREP for the OrigNode and TargetNode SHOULD be
included and set accordingly. If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is included and set accordingly. If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is
set to zero (0). set to zero (0).
The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to
NET_DIAMETER. MAX_HOPLIMIT.
The IP.DestinationAddress for RREP is set to the IP address of the The IP.DestinationAddress for RREP is set to the IP address of the
Route.NextHopAddress for the route to the RREP TargetNode. Route.NextHopAddress for the route to the RREP TargetNode.
5.3.3. Intermediate Node RREP Creation 5.3.3. Intermediate Node RREP Creation
Sometimes a node other than the TargetNode (call it an "intermediate Sometimes a node other than the TargetNode (call it an "intermediate
node") has routing information that can satisfy an incoming RREQ. node") has routing information that can satisfy an incoming RREQ.
When an intermediate node originates a RREP in response to a RREQ, it When an intermediate node originates a RREP in response to a RREQ, it
sends the RREP to the RREQ OrigNode with additional routing sends the RREP to the RREQ OrigNode with additional routing
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If the ThisNode is the TargetNode and this RM is a RREQ, then If the ThisNode is the TargetNode and this RM is a RREQ, then
ThisNode responds with a RREQ flood (a RREQ addressed to oneself) or ThisNode responds with a RREQ flood (a RREQ addressed to oneself) or
a RREP to the RREQ OrigNode (the new RREP's TargetNode). The a RREP to the RREQ OrigNode (the new RREP's TargetNode). The
procedure for issuing a new RREP is described in Section 5.3.2. procedure for issuing a new RREP is described in Section 5.3.2.
Note: it is important that when creating the RREP, the RREP Note: it is important that when creating the RREP, the RREP
OrigNode.Address be the same as the RREQ TargetNode.Address, if OrigNode.Address be the same as the RREQ TargetNode.Address, if
ThisNode has several addresses. At this point, ThisNode need not ThisNode has several addresses. At this point, ThisNode need not
perform any more operations for this RM. perform any more operations for this RM.
If ThisNode is not the TargetNode, this RM is a RREQ, the RREQ If ThisNode is not the TargetNode, this RM is a RREQ, the RREQ
contains the AddBlk.TargetNode.SeqNum, and ThisNode has an forwarding contains the TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum, and ThisNode has an forwarding
route to the TargetNode with a SeqNum (Route.TargetNode.SeqNum) route to the TargetNode with a SeqNum (Route.TargetNode.SeqNum)
greater than or equal to the RREQ AddBlk.TargetNode.SeqNum; then this greater than or equal to the RREQ TargetNode.AddTLV.SeqNum; then this
node MAY respond with an intermediate node RREP. The procedure for node MAY respond with an intermediate node RREP. The procedure for
performing intermediate node RREP is described in Section 5.3.3. At performing intermediate node RREP is described in Section 5.3.3. At
this point, ThisNode need not perform any more operations for this this point, ThisNode need not perform any more operations for this
RM. RM.
After processing a RM or creating a new RM, a node can append After processing a RM or creating a new RM, a node can append
additional routing information to the RM, according to the procedure additional routing information to the RM, according to the procedure
described in Section 5.3.5. The additional routing information can described in Section 5.3.5. The additional routing information can
help reduce route discoveries at the expense of increased message help reduce route discoveries at the expense of increased message
size. size.
If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than one (1), ThisNode is not If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1),
the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREQ, then the current RM (altered ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREQ, then the
by the procedure defined above) is sent to the LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS current RM (altered by the procedure defined above) is sent to the
IP.DestinationAddress. LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS IP.DestinationAddress.
If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than one (1), ThisNode is not If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than or equal to one (1),
the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREP, then the current RM is sent to ThisNode is not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREP, then the
the Route.NextHopAddress for the RREP's TargetNode.Address. If no current RM is sent to the Route.NextHopAddress for the RREP's
forwarding route exists to Target.Address, then a RERR is issued to TargetNode.Address. If no forwarding route exists to Target.Address,
the OrigNode of the RREP. then a RERR is issued to the OrigNode of the RREP.
5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM 5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM
Appending routing information can alleviate route discovery attempts Appending routing information can alleviate route discovery attempts
to the nodes whose information is included, if other nodes use this to the nodes whose information is included, if other nodes use this
information to update their routing tables. information to update their routing tables.
Nodes can append routing information to a RM, and should if ThisNode Nodes can append routing information to a RM. Appending additional
believes that the additional routing information will alleviate routing information can help alleviate future RREQ. This option
future RREQ. This option should be administratively configurable. should be administratively configurable.
Prior to appending its own address to a RM, ThisNode MAY increment Prior to appending its own address to a RM, ThisNode MAY increment
its OwnSeqNum as defined in Section 5.1.2. If OwnSeqNum is not its OwnSeqNum as defined in Section 5.1.2. If OwnSeqNum is not
incremented the appended routing information might not be considered incremented the appended routing information might not be considered
fresh, when received by nodes with existing routing information. fresh, when received by nodes with existing routing information.
Incrementation of the sequence number when appending information to Incrementation of the sequence number when appending information to
an RM in transit should be administratively configurable. an RM in transit should be administratively configurable.
If included the Node.HopCnt for ThisNode is included, it is set to If included the Node.HopCnt for ThisNode is included, it is set to
zero (0). Additional information about the address(es) can also be zero (0). Additional information about the address(es) can also be
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For example, the first time a node issues a RREQ, it waits For example, the first time a node issues a RREQ, it waits
RREQ_WAIT_TIME for a route to the TargetNode. If a route is not RREQ_WAIT_TIME for a route to the TargetNode. If a route is not
found within that time, the node MAY send another RREQ. If a route found within that time, the node MAY send another RREQ. If a route
is not found within two (2) times the current waiting time, another is not found within two (2) times the current waiting time, another
RREQ may be sent, up to a total of RREQ_TRIES. For each additional RREQ may be sent, up to a total of RREQ_TRIES. For each additional
attempt, the waiting time for the previous RREQ is multiplied by two attempt, the waiting time for the previous RREQ is multiplied by two
(2) so that the waiting time conforms to a binary exponential (2) so that the waiting time conforms to a binary exponential
backoff. backoff.
Data packets awaiting a route should be buffered. This buffer should Data packets awaiting a route should be buffered at the source. This
have a fixed limited size (BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS or BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES) buffer should have a fixed limited size (BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS or
and older data packets SHOULD be discarded first. BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES) and older data packets SHOULD be discarded first.
If a route discovery has been attempted RREQ_TRIES times without If a route discovery has been attempted RREQ_TRIES times without
receiving a route to the TargetNode, all data packets destined for receiving a route to the TargetNode, all data packets destined for
the corresponding TargetNode are dropped from the buffer and a the corresponding TargetNode are dropped from the buffer and a
Destination Unreachable ICMP message should be delivered to the Destination Unreachable ICMP message should be delivered to the
application. application.
5.5. Route Maintenance 5.5. Route Maintenance
A RERR MUST be issued if a data packet is received and it cannot be A RERR MUST be issued if a data packet is received and it cannot be
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to the IP.DestinationAddress upon sending a data packet. If a timer to the IP.DestinationAddress upon sending a data packet. If a timer
for ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is removed. for ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is removed.
5.5.3. Route Error Generation 5.5.3. Route Error Generation
A RERR informs the IP.SourceAddress or RREP.OrigNode.Address that the A RERR informs the IP.SourceAddress or RREP.OrigNode.Address that the
route does not exist, and a route is not available through this node. route does not exist, and a route is not available through this node.
When creating a new RERR, the address of first UnreachableNode When creating a new RERR, the address of first UnreachableNode
(IP.DestinationAddress from the data packet or (IP.DestinationAddress from the data packet or
RREP.TargetNode.Address) is inserted. If a value for the RREP.TargetNode.Address) is inserted into an Address Block
UnreachableNode's SeqNum (AddTLV.UnreachableNode.SeqNum) is known, it AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address. If a value for the UnreachableNode's
SHOULD be placed in the RERR. The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to SeqNum (UnreachableNode.AddTLV.SeqNum) is known, it SHOULD be placed
NET_DIAMETER. The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to one (1). in the RERR. The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to MAX_HOPLIMIT. The
MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to one (1).
Additional UnreachableNodes that require the same unavailable link Additional UnreachableNodes that require the same unavailable link
(routes with the same Route.NextHopAddress and (routes with the same Route.NextHopAddress and
Route.NextHopInterface) SHOULD be added to the RERR. The SeqNum if Route.NextHopInterface) SHOULD be added to the RERR, as additional
known SHOULD also be included. Appending UnreachableNode information AddBlk.UnreachableNode.Address. The SeqNum if known SHOULD also be
notifies each processing node of additional routes that are no longer included. Appending UnreachableNode information notifies each
available. This option SHOULD be administratively configurable. processing node of additional routes that are no longer available.
This option SHOULD be administratively configurable.
If SeqNum information is not known or not included in the RERR, all If SeqNum information is not known or not included in the RERR, all
nodes processing the RERR will assume their routing information nodes processing the RERR will assume their routing information
associated with the UnreachableNode is no longer valid. associated with the UnreachableNode is no longer valid.
The RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS. The RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS.
Sending the RERR to the LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS address notifies nearby Sending the RERR to the LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS address notifies nearby
nodes that might depend on the now broken link. nodes that might depend on the now broken link.
The packet or message that forced generation of this RERR is The packet or message that forced generation of this RERR is
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Internet destinations and maintaining their associated sequence Internet destinations and maintaining their associated sequence
numbers. numbers.
For an Internet gateway and other nodes that maintain the sequence For an Internet gateway and other nodes that maintain the sequence
number on behalf of other nodes, these routers must be number on behalf of other nodes, these routers must be
administratively configurable to know the IP addresses for which they administratively configurable to know the IP addresses for which they
must generate DYMO messages and maintain OwnSeqNum. must generate DYMO messages and maintain OwnSeqNum.
5.9. Multiple Interfaces 5.9. Multiple Interfaces
DYMO will often be used with multiple interfaces; therefore, the DYMO may be used with multiple interfaces; therefore, the particular
particular interface over which packets arrive must be known whenever interface over which packets arrive must be known whenever a packet
a packet is received. Whenever a new route is created, the interface is received. Whenever a new route is created, the interface through
through which the Route.Address can be reached is also recorded in which the Route.Address can be reached is also recorded in the route
the route table entry. table entry.
When multiple interfaces are available, a node transmitting a packet When multiple interfaces are available, a node transmitting a packet
with IP.DestinationAddress set to LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS SHOULD send with IP.DestinationAddress set to LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS SHOULD send
the packet on all interfaces that have been configured for DYMO the packet on all interfaces that have been configured for DYMO
operation. operation.
5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits 5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits
To avoid congestion, a node's rate of packet/message generation To avoid congestion, a node's rate of packet/message generation
should be limited. The rate and algorithm for limiting messages is should be limited. The rate and algorithm for limiting messages is
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Messages should be discarded in the following order of preferences Messages should be discarded in the following order of preferences
RREQ, RREP, and finally RERR. RREQ, RREP, and finally RERR.
6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options 6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options
Suggested Parameter Values Suggested Parameter Values
+------------------------------+------------------------+ +------------------------------+------------------------+
| Name | Value | | Name | Value |
+------------------------------+------------------------+ +------------------------------+------------------------+
| NET_DIAMETER | 10 hops | | MAX_HOPLIMIT | 10 hops |
| NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME | 1000 milliseconds | | NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME | 1000 milliseconds |
| ROUTE_TIMEOUT | 5 seconds | | ROUTE_TIMEOUT | 5 seconds |
| ROUTE_AGE_MIN_TIMEOUT | NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME | | ROUTE_AGE_MIN_TIMEOUT | NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME |
| ROUTE_AGE_MAX_TIMEOUT | 60 seconds | | ROUTE_AGE_MAX_TIMEOUT | 60 seconds |
| ROUTE_NEW_TIMEOUT | ROUTE_TIMEOUT | | ROUTE_NEW_TIMEOUT | ROUTE_TIMEOUT |
| ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT | ROUTE_TIMEOUT | | ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT | ROUTE_TIMEOUT |
| ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT | 2 * ROUTE_TIMEOUT | | ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT | 2 * ROUTE_TIMEOUT |
| ROUTE_RREQ_WAIT_TIME | 2 * NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME | | ROUTE_RREQ_WAIT_TIME | 2 * NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME |
| RREQ_TRIES | 3 tries | | RREQ_TRIES | 3 tries |
| UNICAST_MESSAGE_SENT_TIMEOUT | 1 second | | UNICAST_MESSAGE_SENT_TIMEOUT | 1 second |
skipping to change at page 30, line 20 skipping to change at page 30, line 20
based on their IP addresses as they would have used otherwise. based on their IP addresses as they would have used otherwise.
9. Acknowledgments 9. Acknowledgments
DYMO is a descendant of the design of previous MANET reactive DYMO is a descendant of the design of previous MANET reactive
protocols, especially AODV [RFC3561] and DSR [Johnson96]. Changes to protocols, especially AODV [RFC3561] and DSR [Johnson96]. Changes to
previous MANET reactive protocols stem from research and previous MANET reactive protocols stem from research and
implementation experiences. Thanks to Elizabeth Belding-Royer for implementation experiences. Thanks to Elizabeth Belding-Royer for
her long time authorship of DYMO. Additional thanks to Luke Klein- her long time authorship of DYMO. Additional thanks to Luke Klein-
Berndt, Pedro Ruiz, Fransisco Ros, Koojana Kuladinithi, Ramon Berndt, Pedro Ruiz, Fransisco Ros, Koojana Kuladinithi, Ramon
Caceres, Thomas Clausen, Christopher Dearlove, and Seung Yi for Caceres, Thomas Clausen, Christopher Dearlove, Seung Yi, and Romain
reviewing of DYMO, as well as several specification suggestions. Thouvenin for reviewing of DYMO, as well as several specification
suggestions.
10. References 10. References
10.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb] [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]
Clausen, T., "Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format", Clausen, T., "Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format",
draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-02 (work in progress), draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-03 (work in progress),
July 2006. January 2007.
[RFC1812] Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers", [RFC1812] Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
RFC 1812, June 1995. RFC 1812, June 1995.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2434] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC2434] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
October 1998. October 1998.
skipping to change at page 31, line 7 skipping to change at page 31, line 8
10.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[I-D.chakeres-manet-iana] [I-D.chakeres-manet-iana]
Chakeres, I., "MANET IANA Needs", Chakeres, I., "MANET IANA Needs",
draft-chakeres-manet-iana-02 (work in progress), draft-chakeres-manet-iana-02 (work in progress),
October 2006. October 2006.
[I-D.ietf-manet-nhdp] [I-D.ietf-manet-nhdp]
Clausen, T., "MANET Neighborhood Discovery Protocol Clausen, T., "MANET Neighborhood Discovery Protocol
(NHDP)", draft-ietf-manet-nhdp-00 (work in progress), (NHDP)", draft-ietf-manet-nhdp-01 (work in progress),
June 2006. February 2007.
[Johnson96] [Johnson96]
Johnson, D. and D. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) in Johnson, D. and D. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) in
Ad hoc Networks", In Mobile Computing, Chapter 5, pp. 153- Ad hoc Networks", In Mobile Computing, Chapter 5, pp. 153-
181, 1996. 181, 1996.
[Perkins99] [Perkins99]
Perkins, C. and E. Belding-Royer, "Ad hoc On-Demand Perkins, C. and E. Belding-Royer, "Ad hoc On-Demand
Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", Proceedings of the 2nd Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", Proceedings of the 2nd
IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and
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