draft-ietf-manet-dymo-06.txt   draft-ietf-manet-dymo-07.txt 
Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working I. Chakeres Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working I. Chakeres
Group Boeing Group Boeing
Internet-Draft C. Perkins Internet-Draft C. Perkins
Expires: April 5, 2007 Nokia Intended status: Standards Track Nokia
October 2, 2006 Expires: August 13, 2007 February 9, 2007
Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing
draft-ietf-manet-dymo-06 draft-ietf-manet-dymo-07
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
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This Internet-Draft will expire on April 5, 2007. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 13, 2007.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
Abstract Abstract
The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol is intended for The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol is intended for
use by mobile nodes in wireless, multihop networks. It offers use by mobile nodes in wireless, multihop networks. It offers
adaptation to changing network topology and determines unicast routes adaptation to changing network topology and determines unicast routes
between nodes within the network on-demand. between nodes within the network on-demand.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
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5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1.4. Actions After OwnSeqNum Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.4. Actions After OwnSeqNum Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2. DYMO Routing Table Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness . . . . . . . 13 5.2.1. Judging Routing Information's Usefulness . . . . . . . 13
5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New 5.2.2. Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry with New
Routing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Routing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2.3. Route Table Entry Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.3. Routing Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3. Routing Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.3.1. RREQ Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3.1. RREQ Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.3.2. RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.3.2. RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.3. RM Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.3.3. Intermediate Node RREP Creation . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.4. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM . . . . 20 5.3.4. RM Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.4. Route Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM . . . . 20
5.5. Route Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.4. Route Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.5. Route Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes during Packet Forwarding . . 21 5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes during Packet Forwarding . . 22
5.5.3. Route Error Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.5.3. Route Error Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.5.4. Route Error Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.5.4. Route Error Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.7. Advertising Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.7. Advertising Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying . . . . . . . . 24 5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying . . . . . . . . 24
5.9. Multiple Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.9. Multiple Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options . . 25 6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options . . 26
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.1. DYMO Message Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.2. Packet TLV Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.2. Packet TLV Type Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.3. Address Block TLV Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.3. Address Block TLV Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 32 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 32
1. Overview 1. Overview
The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol enables reactive, The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol enables reactive,
multihop routing between participating nodes that wish to multihop routing between participating nodes that wish to
communicate. The basic operations of the DYMO protocol are route communicate. The basic operations of the DYMO protocol are route
discovery and route management. During route discovery the discovery and route management. During route discovery the
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route is broken. When the source receives the RERR, it knows that it route is broken. When the source receives the RERR, it knows that it
must perform route discovery if it still has packets to deliver. must perform route discovery if it still has packets to deliver.
DYMO uses sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom [Perkins99]. DYMO uses sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom [Perkins99].
Sequence numbers enable nodes to determine the order of DYMO route Sequence numbers enable nodes to determine the order of DYMO route
discovery messages, thereby avoiding use of stale routing discovery messages, thereby avoiding use of stale routing
information. information.
2. Applicability 2. Applicability
The DYMO routing protocol is designed for mobile ad hoc networks. The DYMO routing protocol is designed for stub mobile ad hoc
DYMO handles a wide variety of mobility patterns by dynamically networks. DYMO handles a wide variety of mobility patterns by
determining routes on-demand. DYMO also handles a wide variety of dynamically determining routes on-demand. DYMO also handles a wide
traffic patterns. In large networks DYMO is best suited for traffic variety of traffic patterns. In large networks DYMO is best suited
scenarios where nodes communicate with only a portion of other the for traffic scenarios where nodes communicate with only a portion of
nodes. other the nodes.
DYMO is applicable to memory constrained devices, since little DYMO is applicable to memory constrained devices, since little
routing state needs to be maintained. Only routing information routing state needs to be maintained. Only routing information
related to active sources and destinations must be maintained, in related to active sources and destinations must be maintained, in
contrast to other routing protocols that require routing information contrast to other routing protocols that require routing information
to all nodes within the autonomous system be maintained. to all nodes within the autonomous system be maintained.
The routing algorithm in DYMO may be operated at layers other than The routing algorithm in DYMO may be operated at layers other than
the network layer, using layer-appropriate addresses. Only the network layer, using layer-appropriate addresses. Only
modification of the packet format is required. The routing algorithm modification of the packet format is required. The routing algorithm
need not change. Note that, using the DYMO algorithm with message need not change. Note that, using the DYMO algorithm with message
formats (other than those specified in this document) will not be formats (other than those specified in this document) will not be
interoperable. interoperable.
3. Terminology 3. Terminology
The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
NOT","SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
[RFC2119].
This document uses some terminology from packetbb[I-D.ietf-manet- This document uses some terminology from [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb].
packetbb].
This document defines the following terminology: This document defines the following terminology:
DYMO Sequence Number (SeqNum) DYMO Sequence Number (SeqNum)
A DYMO Sequence Number is maintained by each node. This sequence A DYMO Sequence Number is maintained by each node. This sequence
number is used by other nodes to identify the order of routing number is used by other nodes to identify the order of routing
information generated by a node and to ensure loop-free routes. information generated by a node and to ensure loop-free routes.
Forwarding Route
A route that is used to forward data packets. Forwarding routes
are generally maintained in a forwarding information base (FIB) or
the kernel forwarding/routing table.
Hop Count (HopCnt) Hop Count (HopCnt)
The number of IP hops a message or piece of information has The number of IP hops a message or piece of information has
traversed. traversed.
Originating Node (OrigNode) Originating Node (OrigNode)
The originating node is the node that created a DYMO Message in an The originating node is the node that created a DYMO Message in an
effort to disseminate some information. The originating node is effort to disseminate some information. The originating node is
also referred to as a particular message's originator. also referred to as a particular message's originator.
Route Error (RERR) Route Error (RERR)
A node generates and disseminates a RERR to indicate that it does A node generates and disseminates a RERR to indicate that it does
not have valid route to a one or more particular destinations. not have forwarding route to a one or more particular addresses.
Route Reply (RREP) Route Reply (RREP)
A RREP is used to disseminate routing information about how to A RREP is used to disseminate routing information about the RREP
reach the RREQ target node, to nodes between the RREQ target node OrigNode to the TargetNode and the nodes between them.
and the RREQ originator.
Route Request (RREQ) Route Request (RREQ)
A node (the RREQ originator) generates a RREQ to discover a valid A node (the RREQ OrigNode) generates a RREQ to discover a valid
route to a particular destination, called the RREQ target node. A route to a particular destination address, called the RREQ
RREQ also provides routing information on how to reach the TargetNode. When a node processes a RREQ, it learns routing
originator of the RREQ. information on how to reach the RREQ OrigNode.
Target Node (TargetNode) Target Node (TargetNode)
The target node is the ultimate destination of a message. For The TargetNode is the ultimate destination of a message.
RREQ the target node is the desired destination, the destination
for which a valid route does not exist. For RREP the target node This Node (ThisNode)
is the RREQ originator. ThisNode corresponds to the node currently performing a
calculation or processing a message.
Type-Length-Value structure (TLV) Type-Length-Value structure (TLV)
A generic way to represent information, see packetbb [I-D.ietf- A generic way to represent information, see
manet-packetbb]. [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb].
Forwarding Route Unreachable Node (UnreachableNode)
A route that is used to forward data packets. Forwarding routes An UnreachableNode is a node for which ThisNode does not have a
are generally maintained in a forwarding information base (FIB) or forwarding route.
the kernel forwarding/routing table.
4. Data Structures 4. Data Structures
4.1. Route Table Entry 4.1. Route Table Entry
The route table entry is a conceptual data structure. The route table entry is a conceptual data structure.
Implementations may use any internal representation that conforms to Implementations may use any internal representation that conforms to
the semantics of a route as specified in this document. the semantics of a route as specified in this document.
Conceptually, a route table entry has the following fields: Conceptually, a route table entry has the following fields:
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In addition to a route table data structure, each route table entry In addition to a route table data structure, each route table entry
may have several timers associated with the information. These may have several timers associated with the information. These
timers/timeouts are discussed in Section 5.2.3. timers/timeouts are discussed in Section 5.2.3.
4.2. DYMO Messages 4.2. DYMO Messages
When describing DYMO protocol messages, it is necessary to refer to When describing DYMO protocol messages, it is necessary to refer to
fields in several distinct parts of the overall packet. These fields in several distinct parts of the overall packet. These
locations include the IP or IPv6 header, the UDP header, and fields locations include the IP or IPv6 header, the UDP header, and fields
from packetbb [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. This document uses the from [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. This document uses the following
following notation conventions. Information found in the table. notation conventions. Information found in the table.
+----------------------------+-------------------+ +----------------------------+-------------------+
| Information Location | Notational Prefix | | Information Location | Notational Prefix |
+----------------------------+-------------------+ +----------------------------+-------------------+
| IP header | IP. | | IP header | IP. |
| UDP header | UDP. | | UDP header | UDP. |
| packetbb message header | MsgHdr. | | packetbb message header | MsgHdr. |
| packetbb message TLV | MsgTLV. | | packetbb message TLV | MsgTLV. |
| packetbb address blocks | AddBlk. | | packetbb address blocks | AddBlk. |
| packetbb address block TLV | AddTLV. | | packetbb address block TLV | AddTLV. |
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blocks. Each of the address blocks may also have an associated blocks. Each of the address blocks may also have an associated
address TLV block. address TLV block.
All DYMO messages specified in this document are sent using UDP to All DYMO messages specified in this document are sent using UDP to
the destination port TBD. the destination port TBD.
Most DYMO messages are sent with the IP destination address set to Most DYMO messages are sent with the IP destination address set to
the link local multicast address LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTER unless otherwise the link local multicast address LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTER unless otherwise
stated. Unicast DYMO messages specified in this document are sent stated. Unicast DYMO messages specified in this document are sent
with the IP destination set to the Route.NextHopAddress of the route with the IP destination set to the Route.NextHopAddress of the route
to the target node. to the TargetNode.
The IP TTL (IP Hop Limit) field for DYMO messages is set to one (1) The IP TTL (IP Hop Limit) field for DYMO messages is set to one (1)
for all messages specified in this document. for all messages specified in this document.
The length of an IP address (32 bits for IPv4 and 128 bits for IPv6) The length of an IP address (32 bits for IPv4 and 128 bits for IPv6)
inside a DYMO message depends on the IP packet header containing the inside a DYMO message depends on the IP packet header containing the
DYMO message/packet. For example, if the IP header uses IPv6 DYMO message/packet. For example, if the IP header uses IPv6
addresses then all messages and addresses contained in the payload addresses then all messages and addresses contained in the payload
use IPv6 addresses. In the case of mixed IPv6 and IPv4 addresses, use IPv6 addresses. In the case of mixed IPv6 and IPv4 addresses,
IPv4 addresses are carried in IPv6 as specified in [RFC3513]. IPv4 addresses are carried in IPv6 as specified in [RFC4291].
4.2.2. Routing Messages (RM) - RREQ & RREP 4.2.2. Routing Messages (RM) - RREQ & RREP
Routing Messages (RMs) are used to disseminate routing information. Routing Messages (RMs) are used to disseminate routing information.
There are two DYMO message types that are considered to be routing There are two DYMO message types that are considered to be routing
messages (RMs): RREQ and RREP. They contain very similar information messages (RMs): RREQ and RREP. They contain very similar information
and function, but have slightly different processing rules. The main and function, but have slightly different processing rules. The main
difference between the two messages is that RREQ messages solicit a difference between the two messages is that RREQ messages solicit a
RREP, whereas a RREP is the response to RREQ. RREP, whereas a RREP is the response to RREQ.
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the IP.DestinationAddress is set to the NextHopAddress toward the the IP.DestinationAddress is set to the NextHopAddress toward the
TargetNode. TargetNode.
UDP.DestinationPort UDP.DestinationPort
The UDP destination port is set to TBD. The UDP destination port is set to TBD.
MsgHdr.HopLimit MsgHdr.HopLimit
The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse. The remaining number of hops this message is allowed to traverse.
AddBlk.TargetNode.Address AddBlk.TargetNode.Address
The IP address of the message target node. In a RREQ the target The IP address of the message TargetNode. In a RREQ the
node is the destination for which a forwarding route does not TargetNode is the destination for which a forwarding route does
exist and route discovery is being performed. In a RREP the not exist and route discovery is being performed. In a RREP the
target node is the RREQ originator. The target node address is target node is the RREQ OrigNode. The TargetNode address is the
the first address in the routing message. first address in the routing message.
AddBlk.OrigNode.Address AddBlk.OrigNode.Address
The IP address of the node originating this message. This address The IP address of the OrigNode. This address is in an address
is in an address block and not in the message header to allow for block and not in the message header to allow for address
address compression and additional AddTLVs. This address is the compression and additional AddTLVs. This address is the second
second address in the message for RREQ. address in the message for RREQ.
AddTLV.OrigNode.SeqNum AddTLV.OrigNode.SeqNum
The DYMO sequence number of the originating node. The DYMO sequence number of the OrigNode.
A RM may optionally include the following information: A RM may optionally include the following information:
AddTLV.TargetNode.SeqNum AddTLV.TargetNode.SeqNum
The last known DYMO sequence number of the target node. The last known DYMO sequence number of the TargetNode.
AddTLV.TargetNode.HopCnt AddTLV.TargetNode.HopCnt
The last known HopCnt to the target node. The last known HopCnt to the TargetNode.
AddBlk.AdditionalNode.Address AddBlk.AdditionalNode.Address
The IP address of an additional node that can be reached via the The IP address of an additional node that can be reached via the
node adding this information. Each AdditionalNode.Address must node adding this information. Each AdditionalNode.Address must
have an associated SeqNum in the address TLV block. have an associated SeqNum in the address TLV block.
AddTLV.AdditionalNode.SeqNum AddTLV.AdditionalNode.SeqNum
The DYMO sequence number of an additional intermediate node's The DYMO sequence number of an additional intermediate node's
routing information. routing information.
AddTLV.Node.HopCnt AddTLV.Node.HopCnt
The number of IP hops to reach the associated Node.Address. This The number of IP hops to reach the associated Node.Address. This
field is incremented at each intermediate hop, for each node field is incremented at each intermediate hop, for each node
except the target node's HopCnt information. except the TargetNode's HopCnt information.
AddTLV.Node.Prefix AddTLV.Node.Prefix
The Node.Address is a network address with a particular prefix The Node.Address is a network address with a particular prefix
length. length.
Example IPv4 RREQ Example IPv4 RREQ
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
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5.1. DYMO Sequence Numbers 5.1. DYMO Sequence Numbers
DYMO sequence numbers allow nodes to judge the freshness of routing DYMO sequence numbers allow nodes to judge the freshness of routing
information and ensure loop freedom. information and ensure loop freedom.
5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number 5.1.1. Maintaining A Node's Own Sequence Number
DYMO requires that each node in the network to maintain its own DYMO DYMO requires that each node in the network to maintain its own DYMO
sequence number (OwnSeqNum), a 16-bit unsigned integer. The sequence number (OwnSeqNum), a 16-bit unsigned integer. The
circumstances for a node to incrementing its OwnSeqNum are described circumstances for ThisNode to incrementing its OwnSeqNum are
in Section 5.3. described in Section 5.3.
5.1.2. Incrementing OwnSeqNum 5.1.2. Incrementing OwnSeqNum
When a node increments its OwnSeqNum (as described in Section 5.3) it When ThisNode increments its OwnSeqNum (as described in Section 5.3)
MUST do so by treating the sequence number value as an unsigned it MUST do so by treating the sequence number value as an unsigned
number. A node starts with its OwnSeqNum equal to one (1). The number.
sequence number zero (0) is reserved.
Note: The sequence number zero (0) is reserved.
5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover 5.1.3. OwnSeqNum Rollover
If the sequence number has been assigned to be the largest possible If the sequence number has been assigned to be the largest possible
number representable as a 16-bit unsigned integer (i.e., 65535), then number representable as a 16-bit unsigned integer (i.e., 65535), then
the sequence number is set to 256 when incremented. Setting the the sequence number is set to 256 when incremented. Setting the
sequence number to 256 allows other nodes to detect that the number sequence number to 256 allows other nodes to detect that the number
has rolled over and the node has not lost its sequence number. has rolled over and the node has not lost its sequence number.
5.1.4. Actions After OwnSeqNum Loss 5.1.4. Actions After OwnSeqNum Loss
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5.3.1. RREQ Creation 5.3.1. RREQ Creation
When a node creates a RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum by one When a node creates a RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum by one
(1) according to the rules specified in Section 5.1.2. Incrementing (1) according to the rules specified in Section 5.1.2. Incrementing
OwnSeqNum will ensure that all nodes with existing routing OwnSeqNum will ensure that all nodes with existing routing
information to consider this new information fresh. If the sequence information to consider this new information fresh. If the sequence
number is not incremented, certain nodes might not consider this number is not incremented, certain nodes might not consider this
information useful if they have better information already. information useful if they have better information already.
First, the node adds the AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RM. First, the node adds the AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREQ.
If a previous value of the TargetNode.SeqNum is known (from a routing If a previous value of the TargetNode.SeqNum is known (from a routing
table entry), it should be placed in AddTLV.TargetNode.SeqNum. If a table entry), it SHOULD be placed in AddTLV.TargetNode.SeqNum in the
TargetNode.SeqNum is not included, it is assumed to be unknown by first few RREQ attempts. If a TargetNode.SeqNum is not included, it
processing nodes. is assumed to be unknown by processing nodes, ensures no intermediate
nodes reply, and ensures that the TargetNode increments its sequence
number.
Similarly, if a previous value of the TargetNode.HopCnt is known, it Similarly, if a previous value of the TargetNode.HopCnt is known, it
should be placed in AddTLV.TargetNode.HopCnt. Otherwise, the SHOULD be placed in AddTLV.TargetNode.HopCnt. Otherwise, the
AddTLV.TargetNode.HopCnt is not included and assumed unknown by AddTLV.TargetNode.HopCnt is not included and assumed unknown by
processing nodes. processing nodes.
These AddTLVs associated with the target node should be set to
improve protocol efficiency, but they may be omitted.
Next, the node adds AddBlk.OrigNode.Address to the RM and the Next, the node adds AddBlk.OrigNode.Address to the RM and the
AddTLV.OrigNode.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) in an address block TLV. The AddTLV.OrigNode.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) in an address block TLV. The
OrigNode.Address is this node's primary addresses/identifier, and it OrigNode.Address is this node's address, and it must be a routable IP
must be a routable IP address. This information will be used by address. This information will be used by nodes to create a route
nodes to create a route toward the OrigNode and enable delivery of a toward the OrigNode and enable delivery of a RREP.
RREP.
Other AddTLVs for the OrigNode should be set to improve protocol If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is set to zero (0).
efficiency, but they may be omitted. If OrigNode.HopCnt is included
it is set to zero (0).
The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit should be The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit should be
set to NET_DIAMETER, but may be set smaller. For RREQ, the set to NET_DIAMETER, but may be set smaller. For RREQ, the
MsgHdr.HopLimit may be set in accordance with an expanding ring MsgHdr.HopLimit may be set in accordance with an expanding ring
search as described in [RFC3561] to limit the RREQ propagation to a search as described in [RFC3561] to limit the RREQ propagation to a
subset of the network and possibly reduce route discovery overhead. subset of the network and possibly reduce route discovery overhead.
The IP.DestinationAddress for RREQ is set to the The IP.DestinationAddress for RREQ is set to LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS.
LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS.
5.3.2. RREP Creation 5.3.2. RREP Creation
When a node creates a RREP in response to a RREQ, it increments its When ThisNode creates a RREP, if the ThisNode.SeqNum was not included
OwnSeqNum by one (1) according to the rules specified in in the RREQ it SHOULD increment its OwnSeqNum by one (1) according to
Section 5.1.2. If OwnSeqNum is not incremented the routing the rules specified in Section 5.1.2.
information might be considered stale. In this case, the RREP would
not reach the originating node.
Note: We are currently discussing and investigating mechanisms to If ThisNode.SeqNum is included in the RM and ThisNode.SeqNum from the
avoid incrementing the sequence number before issuing a route reply. RM is less than OwnSeqNum, OwnSeqNum SHOULD be incremented by one (1)
An update to this behavior will likely happen in the next revision. according to the rules specified in Section 5.1.2.
Avoiding incrementation of the sequence number when issuing a RREP is
an important mechanism to reduce the unnecessary devaluing of good
routing information, and the ability to issue intermediate node
replies. Further when intermediate node replies are coupled with
expanding ring search, route discovery cost can be further reduced.
The node then adds the AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREP. The If OwnSeqNum is not incremented the routing information might be
TargetNode.Address is copied from the incoming RREQ considered stale. In this case, the RREP would not reach the RREP
AddBlk.OrigNode.Address. Target.
Next, the node adds the AddBlk.OrigNode.Address to the RREP and the Since RREP messages are not broadcast throughout the network, changes
AddTLV.OrigNode.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) in an address block TLV. The to the sequence number are unlikely to reach most nodes in the
OrigNode.Address is copied from the incoming RREQ network. Therefore, it is important to avoid incrementing the
AddBlk.TargetNode.Address. sequence number when issuing a RREP is an important mechanism to
reduce the unnecessary devaluing of good routing information, and the
ability to issue intermediate node replies. When intermediate node
replies are coupled with expanding ring search, route discovery cost
can be reduced.
Other AddTLVs for the OrigNode and TargetNode should be set to ThisNode first adds the RREP AddBlk.TargetNode.Address to the RREP.
improve protocol efficiency, but they may be omitted. If The TargetNode is the ultimate destination of this RREP.
OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is set to zero (0).
ThisNode then adds the RREP AddBlk.OrigNode.Address
(ThisNode.Address) and the RREP AddTLV.OrigNode.SeqNum (OwnSeqNum) to
the RREP.
Other AddTLVs in the RREP for the OrigNode and TargetNode SHOULD be
included and set accordingly. If OrigNode.HopCnt is included it is
set to zero (0).
The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to zero (0). The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to
NET_DIAMETER. NET_DIAMETER.
The IP.DestinationAddress for RREP is set to the IP address of the The IP.DestinationAddress for RREP is set to the IP address of the
Route.NextHopAddress for the route to the RREP TargetNode. Route.NextHopAddress for the route to the RREP TargetNode.
5.3.3. RM Processing 5.3.3. Intermediate Node RREP Creation
Sometimes a node other than the TargetNode (call it an "intermediate
node") has routing information that can satisfy an incoming RREQ.
When an intermediate node originates a RREP in response to a RREQ, it
sends the RREP to the RREQ OrigNode with additional routing
information (Address, SeqNum, etc.) about the RREQ TargetNode.
Appending additional routing information is described in
Section 5.3.5.
The Intermediate Node SHOULD also issue a gratuitous RREP to the RREQ
TargetNode, so that the RREQ TargetNode receives routing information
on how to reach the RREQ OrigNode.
When an intermediate node creates a gratuitous RREP, it sends a RREP
to the RREQ TargetNode with additional routing information (Address,
SeqNum, etc.) about the RREQ OrigNode.
5.3.4. RM Processing
Before processing a RM, a node checks the IP.Destination to ensure
that it is a link local packet.
When a RM is received the MsgHdr.HopLimit is decremented by one (1) When a RM is received the MsgHdr.HopLimit is decremented by one (1)
and MsgHdr.HopCnt is incremented by one (1). and MsgHdr.HopCnt is incremented by one (1).
For each address (except the TargetNode) in the RM that includes For each address (except the TargetNode) in the RM that includes
AddTLV.HopCnt information, the AddTLV.HopCnt information is AddTLV.HopCnt information, the AddTLV.HopCnt information is
incremented by one (1). incremented by one (1).
Next, this node checks whether its routing table has an entry to the Next, this node checks whether its routing table has an entry to the
AddBlk.OrigNode.Address using longest-prefix matching [RFC1812]. If AddBlk.OrigNode.Address using longest-prefix matching [RFC1812]. If
skipping to change at page 19, line 34 skipping to change at page 20, line 11
Section 5.2.2. Section 5.2.2.
If the routing information for an AdditionalNode.Address is not If the routing information for an AdditionalNode.Address is not
considered superior, then it is removed from the RM. Removing this considered superior, then it is removed from the RM. Removing this
information ensures that the information is not propagated. information ensures that the information is not propagated.
At this point, if the routing information for the OrigNode was not At this point, if the routing information for the OrigNode was not
superior then this RM should be discarded and no further processing superior then this RM should be discarded and no further processing
of this message is performed. of this message is performed.
If the receiving node is the TargetNode AND this RM is a RREQ, then If the ThisNode is the TargetNode and this RM is a RREQ, then
this node responds with a RREP. The procedure for creating a new ThisNode responds with a RREQ flood (a RREQ addressed to oneself) or
RREP is described in Section 5.3.2. a RREP to the RREQ OrigNode (the new RREP's TargetNode). The
procedure for issuing a new RREP is described in Section 5.3.2.
Note: it is important that when creating the RREP, the RREP
OrigNode.Address be the same as the RREQ TargetNode.Address, if
ThisNode has several addresses. At this point, ThisNode need not
perform any more operations for this RM.
If ThisNode is not the TargetNode, this RM is a RREQ, the RREQ
contains the AddBlk.TargetNode.SeqNum, and ThisNode has an forwarding
route to the TargetNode with a SeqNum (Route.TargetNode.SeqNum)
greater than or equal to the RREQ AddBlk.TargetNode.SeqNum; then this
node MAY respond with an intermediate node RREP. The procedure for
performing intermediate node RREP is described in Section 5.3.3. At
this point, ThisNode need not perform any more operations for this
RM.
After processing a RM or creating a new RM, a node can append After processing a RM or creating a new RM, a node can append
additional routing information to the RM, according to the procedure additional routing information to the RM, according to the procedure
described in Section 5.3.4. The additional routing information can described in Section 5.3.5. The additional routing information can
help reduce route discoveries at the expense of increased message help reduce route discoveries at the expense of increased message
size. size.
If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than one (1), this node is If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than one (1), ThisNode is not
not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREQ, then the current RM the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREQ, then the current RM (altered
(altered by the procedure defined above) is sent to the by the procedure defined above) is sent to the LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS
LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS IP.DestinationAddress. IP.DestinationAddress.
If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than one (1), this node is
not the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREP, then the current RM is
sent to the Route.NextHopAddress for the RREP's TargetNode.Address.
If no forwarding route exists to Target.Address, then a RERR is
issued to the originator of the RREP.
If this node is the TargetNode of the RM, the current RM is not If this RM's MsgHdr.HopLimit is greater than one (1), ThisNode is not
retransmitted. the TargetNode, AND this RM is a RREP, then the current RM is sent to
the Route.NextHopAddress for the RREP's TargetNode.Address. If no
forwarding route exists to Target.Address, then a RERR is issued to
the OrigNode of the RREP.
5.3.4. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM 5.3.5. Adding Additional Routing Information to a RM
Appending routing information can alleviate route discovery attempts Appending routing information can alleviate route discovery attempts
to the nodes whose information is included, if other nodes use this to the nodes whose information is included, if other nodes use this
information to update their routing tables. information to update their routing tables.
Nodes can append routing information to a RM, and should if the node Nodes can append routing information to a RM, and should if ThisNode
believes that this additional routing information will alleviate believes that the additional routing information will alleviate
future RREQ. This option should be administratively configured. future RREQ. This option should be administratively configurable.
Prior to appending its own address to a RM, a node should increment Prior to appending its own address to a RM, ThisNode MAY increment
its OwnSeqNum as defined in Section 5.1.2. If OwnSeqNum is not its OwnSeqNum as defined in Section 5.1.2. If OwnSeqNum is not
incremented the appended routing information might not be considered incremented the appended routing information might not be considered
fresh, when received by nodes with existing routing information. fresh, when received by nodes with existing routing information.
Incrementation of the sequence number when appending information to Incrementation of the sequence number when appending information to
an RM in transit should be administratively configured. an RM in transit should be administratively configurable.
If included the Node.HopCnt for this node is included, it is set to If included the Node.HopCnt for ThisNode is included, it is set to
zero (0). Additional information about the address(es) can also be zero (0). Additional information about the address(es) can also be
appended, such as a PREFIX_LENGTH AddTLV. appended, such as a PREFIX_LENGTH AddTLV.
5.4. Route Discovery 5.4. Route Discovery
A node creates and sends a RREQ (described in Section 5.3.1) to A node creates and sends a RREQ (described in Section 5.3.1) to
discover a route to a particular destination (TargetNode) for which discover a route to a particular destination (TargetNode) for which
it does not currently have a forwarding route. it does not currently have a forwarding route.
After issuing a RREQ, the OrigNode waits for a route to be created to After issuing a RREQ, the OrigNode waits for a route to be created to
the TargetNode. If a route is not created within RREQ_WAIT_TIME, the TargetNode. If a route is not created within RREQ_WAIT_TIME,
this node may again try to discover a route by issuing another RREQ. ThisNode may again try to discover a route by issuing another RREQ.
To reduce congestion in a network, repeated attempts at route To reduce congestion in a network, repeated attempts at route
discovery for a particular target node should utilize an exponential discovery for a particular TargetNode should utilize an exponential
backoff. backoff.
For example, the first time a node issues a RREQ, it waits For example, the first time a node issues a RREQ, it waits
RREQ_WAIT_TIME for a route to the target node. If a route is not RREQ_WAIT_TIME for a route to the TargetNode. If a route is not
found within that time, the node MAY send another RREQ. If a route found within that time, the node MAY send another RREQ. If a route
is not found within two (2) times the current waiting time, another is not found within two (2) times the current waiting time, another
RREQ may be sent, up to a total of RREQ_TRIES. For each additional RREQ may be sent, up to a total of RREQ_TRIES. For each additional
attempt, the waiting time for the previous RREQ is multiplied by two attempt, the waiting time for the previous RREQ is multiplied by two
(2) so that the waiting time conforms to a binary exponential (2) so that the waiting time conforms to a binary exponential
backoff. backoff.
Data packets awaiting a route should be buffered. This buffer should Data packets awaiting a route should be buffered. This buffer should
have a fixed limited size (BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS or BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES) have a fixed limited size (BUFFER_SIZE_PACKETS or BUFFER_SIZE_BYTES)
and older data packets should be discarded first. and older data packets SHOULD be discarded first.
If a route discovery has been attempted RREQ_TRIES times without If a route discovery has been attempted RREQ_TRIES times without
receiving a route to the target node, all data packets destined for receiving a route to the TargetNode, all data packets destined for
the corresponding target node are dropped from the buffer and a the corresponding TargetNode are dropped from the buffer and a
Destination Unreachable ICMP message should be delivered to the Destination Unreachable ICMP message should be delivered to the
application. application.
5.5. Route Maintenance 5.5. Route Maintenance
A RERR MUST be issued if a data packet is received and it cannot be A RERR MUST be issued if a data packet is received and it cannot be
delivered to the next hop when no forwarding route exists; RERR delivered to the next hop when no forwarding route exists; RERR
generation is described in Section 5.5.3. generation is described in Section 5.5.3.
In addition to inability to deliver a data packet, A RERR should be In addition to inability to deliver a data packet, a RERR SHOULD be
issued immediately after detecting a broken link of an forwarding issued immediately after detecting a broken link of an forwarding
route to quickly notify nodes that a link break occurred and that route to quickly notify nodes that a link break occurred and that
certain routes are no longer available. If the route with the broken certain routes are no longer available. If the route with the broken
link has not been used recently (indicated by ROUTE_USED), the RERR link has not been used recently (indicated by ROUTE_USED), the RERR
should not be generated. SHOULD NOT be generated.
5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring 5.5.1. Active Link Monitoring
Nodes MUST monitor next hop links on forwarding routes. This Nodes MUST monitor next hop links on forwarding routes. This
monitoring can be accomplished by one or several mechanisms, monitoring can be accomplished by one or several mechanisms,
including: including:
o Link layer feedback o Link layer feedback
o Neighborhood discovery [I-D.ietf-manet-nhdp] o Neighborhood discovery [I-D.ietf-manet-nhdp]
o Route timeout o Route timeout
o Other monitoring mechanisms or heuristics o Other monitoring mechanisms or heuristics
Upon detecting a link break (or an unreachable next hop) the Upon detecting a link break (or an unreachable next hop) ThisNode
detecting node must remove the affected forwarding routes (those with must remove the affected forwarding routes (those with an unreachable
an unreachable next hop). The node also flags these routes as next hop). ThisNode also flags these routes as Broken. For each
Broken. For each broken route a timer for ROUTE_DELETE is set to broken route a timer for ROUTE_DELETE is set to ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT.
ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT.
5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes during Packet Forwarding 5.5.2. Updating Route Lifetimes during Packet Forwarding
To avoid removing forwarding routes that are being used, a node To avoid removing forwarding routes that are being used, a node
SHOULD set a timeout (ROUTE_USED) to ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT for the route SHOULD set a timeout (ROUTE_USED) to ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT for the route
to the IP.SourceAddress upon receiving a data packet. If a timer for to the IP.SourceAddress upon receiving a data packet. If a timer for
ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is removed. ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is removed.
To avoid removing forwarding routes that are being used, a node To avoid removing forwarding routes that are being used, a node
SHOULD set a timeout (ROUTE_USED) to ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT for the route SHOULD set a timeout (ROUTE_USED) to ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT for the route
to the IP.DestinationAddress upon sending a data packet. If a timer to the IP.DestinationAddress upon sending a data packet. If a timer
for ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is removed. for ROUTE_DELETE is set, it is removed.
5.5.3. Route Error Generation 5.5.3. Route Error Generation
When a data packet is received for a destination without a valid A RERR informs the IP.SourceAddress or RREP.OrigNode.Address that the
route table entry, a RERR MUST be generated. When a RREP is being route does not exist, and a route is not available through this node.
transmitted and no forwarding route to the TargetNode exists, a RERR
MUST be generated. A RERR informs the IP.SourceAddress or
RREP.OrigNode.Address that the route does not exist, and a route is
not available through this node.
When creating a new RERR, the address of first unreachable node When creating a new RERR, the address of first UnreachableNode
(IP.DestinationAddress from the data packet or (IP.DestinationAddress from the data packet or
RREP.TargetNode.Address) is inserted. If a value for the unreachable RREP.TargetNode.Address) is inserted. If a value for the
node's SeqNum (AddTLV.UnreachableNode.SeqNum) is known, it should be UnreachableNode's SeqNum (AddTLV.UnreachableNode.SeqNum) is known, it
placed in the RERR. The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to NET_DIAMETER. The SHOULD be placed in the RERR. The MsgHdr.HopLimit is set to
MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to one (1). NET_DIAMETER. The MsgHdr.HopCnt is set to one (1).
Additional UnreachableNodes that require the same unavailable link Additional UnreachableNodes that require the same unavailable link
(routes with the same Route.NextHopAddress and (routes with the same Route.NextHopAddress and
Route.NextHopInterface) may be added to the RERR. The SeqNum if Route.NextHopInterface) SHOULD be added to the RERR. The SeqNum if
known should also be included. Appending UnreachableNode information known SHOULD also be included. Appending UnreachableNode information
notifies each processing node of additional routes that are no longer notifies each processing node of additional routes that are no longer
available. This option should be administratively configured. available. This option SHOULD be administratively configurable.
If SeqNum information is not known or not included in the RERR, all If SeqNum information is not known or not included in the RERR, all
nodes processing the RERR will assume their routing information nodes processing the RERR will assume their routing information
associated with the UnreachableNode is no longer valid. associated with the UnreachableNode is no longer valid.
The RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS. The RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS.
Sending the RERR to the LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS address notifies nearby Sending the RERR to the LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS address notifies nearby
nodes that might depend on the now broken link. nodes that might depend on the now broken link.
The packet or message that forced generation of this RERR is The packet or message that forced generation of this RERR is
discarded. discarded.
5.5.4. Route Error Processing 5.5.4. Route Error Processing
Before processing a RERR, a node checks the IP.Destination to ensure
that it is a link local packet.
When a node processes a RERR, it processes each UnreachableNode's When a node processes a RERR, it processes each UnreachableNode's
information. The processing node removes the forwarding route and information. The processing node removes the forwarding route and
sets the broken flag for each UnreachableNode.Address found using sets the broken flag for each UnreachableNode.Address found using
longest prefix matching that meet all of the following conditions: longest prefix matching that meet all of the following conditions:
1. The Route.NextHopAddress is the same as the RERR 1. The Route.NextHopAddress is the same as the RERR
IP.SourceAddress. IP.SourceAddress.
2. The Route.NextHopInterface is the same as the interface on which 2. The Route.NextHopInterface is the same as the interface on which
the RERR was received. the RERR was received.
skipping to change at page 23, line 37 skipping to change at page 24, line 22
RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS. RERR is sent to the IP.DestinationAddress LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS.
5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types 5.6. Unknown Message & TLV Types
If a message with an unknown type is received, the message is If a message with an unknown type is received, the message is
discarded. discarded.
If a message contains TLVs of an unknown type, a node ignores these If a message contains TLVs of an unknown type, a node ignores these
during processing. The processing node can remove these TLVs from during processing. The processing node can remove these TLVs from
any resulting transmitted messages. The behavior for unknown TLV any resulting transmitted messages. The behavior for unknown TLV
types should be administratively configured. types should be administratively configurable.
5.7. Advertising Network Addresses 5.7. Advertising Network Addresses
Any node can advertise a network address by using a PREFIX_LENGTH TLV Any node can advertise a network address by using a PREFIX_LENGTH TLV
[I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. Any nodes (other than the advertising [I-D.ietf-manet-packetbb]. Any nodes (other than the advertising
node) within the advertised prefix SHOULD NOT participate in the DYMO node) within the advertised prefix SHOULD NOT participate in the DYMO
protocol directly and these nodes MUST be reachable by forwarding protocol directly and these nodes MUST be reachable by forwarding
packets to the node advertising connectivity. Nodes other than the packets to the node advertising connectivity. Nodes other than the
advertising node that do participate in DYMO must forward the DYMO advertising node that do participate in DYMO must forward the DYMO
control packets to the advertising node. For example, A.B.C.1 with a control packets to the advertising node. For example, A.B.C.1 with a
prefix length of 24 indicates all nodes with the matching A.B.C.X are prefix length of 24 indicates all nodes with the matching A.B.C.X are
reachable through the node with address A.B.C.1. reachable through the node with address A.B.C.1.
5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying 5.8. Simple Internet Attachment and Gatewaying
Simple Internet attachment consists of a network of MANET nodes Simple Internet attachment consists of a network of MANET nodes
connected to the Internet via a single Internet gateway node. The connected to the Internet via a single Internet gateway node. The
gateway is responsible for responding to RREQs for target nodes gateway is responsible for responding to RREQs for TargetNodes
outside its configured DYMO prefix, as well as delivering packets to outside its configured DYMO prefix, as well as delivering packets to
destinations outside the MANET. destinations outside the MANET.
/--------------------------\ /--------------------------\
/ Internet \ / Internet \
\ / \ /
\------------+-------------/ \------------+-------------/
Gateway's | Gateway's |
Advertised | A.B.C.X Advertised | A.B.C.X
Prefix | Prefix |
skipping to change at page 25, line 7 skipping to change at page 25, line 48
for nodes inside its MANET. for nodes inside its MANET.
When nodes within the MANET want to send messages to nodes in the When nodes within the MANET want to send messages to nodes in the
Internet, they simply issue RREQ for those IP.DestinationAddresses. Internet, they simply issue RREQ for those IP.DestinationAddresses.
The gateway is responsible for responding to RREQ on behalf of the The gateway is responsible for responding to RREQ on behalf of the
Internet destinations and maintaining their associated sequence Internet destinations and maintaining their associated sequence
numbers. numbers.
For an Internet gateway and other nodes that maintain the sequence For an Internet gateway and other nodes that maintain the sequence
number on behalf of other nodes, these routers must be number on behalf of other nodes, these routers must be
administratively configured to know the IP addresses for which they administratively configurable to know the IP addresses for which they
must generate DYMO messages and maintain OwnSeqNum. must generate DYMO messages and maintain OwnSeqNum.
5.9. Multiple Interfaces 5.9. Multiple Interfaces
DYMO will often be used with multiple interfaces; therefore, the DYMO will often be used with multiple interfaces; therefore, the
particular interface over which packets arrive must be known whenever particular interface over which packets arrive must be known whenever
a packet is received. Whenever a new route is created, the interface a packet is received. Whenever a new route is created, the interface
through which the Route.Address can be reached is also recorded in through which the Route.Address can be reached is also recorded in
the route table entry. the route table entry.
When multiple interfaces are available, a node transmitting a packet When multiple interfaces are available, a node transmitting a packet
with IP.DestinationAddress set to LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS SHOULD send with IP.DestinationAddress set to LL_ALL_MANET_ROUTERS SHOULD send
the packet on all interfaces that have been configured for DYMO the packet on all interfaces that have been configured for DYMO
operation. operation.
5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits 5.10. Packet/Message Generation Limits
To avoid congestion, a node's rate of packet/message generation To avoid congestion, a node's rate of packet/message generation
should be limited. The rate and algorithm for limiting messages is should be limited. The rate and algorithm for limiting messages is
left to the implementor and should be administratively configured. left to the implementor and should be administratively configurable.
Messages should be discarded in the following order of preferences Messages should be discarded in the following order of preferences
RREQ, RREP, and finally RERR. RREQ, RREP, and finally RERR.
6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options 6. Configuration Parameters and Other Administrative Options
Suggested Parameter Values Suggested Parameter Values
+------------------------------+------------------------+ +------------------------------+------------------------+
| Name | Value | | Name | Value |
+------------------------------+------------------------+ +------------------------------+------------------------+
skipping to change at page 26, line 4 skipping to change at page 26, line 47
| ROUTE_AGE_MAX_TIMEOUT | 60 seconds | | ROUTE_AGE_MAX_TIMEOUT | 60 seconds |
| ROUTE_NEW_TIMEOUT | ROUTE_TIMEOUT | | ROUTE_NEW_TIMEOUT | ROUTE_TIMEOUT |
| ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT | ROUTE_TIMEOUT | | ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT | ROUTE_TIMEOUT |
| ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT | 2 * ROUTE_TIMEOUT | | ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT | 2 * ROUTE_TIMEOUT |
| ROUTE_RREQ_WAIT_TIME | 2 * NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME | | ROUTE_RREQ_WAIT_TIME | 2 * NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME |
| RREQ_TRIES | 3 tries | | RREQ_TRIES | 3 tries |
| UNICAST_MESSAGE_SENT_TIMEOUT | 1 second | | UNICAST_MESSAGE_SENT_TIMEOUT | 1 second |
+------------------------------+------------------------+ +------------------------------+------------------------+
Table 2 Table 2
These suggested values work well for small and medium well connected These suggested values work well for small and medium well connected
networks with infrequent topology changes. These parameters should networks with infrequent topology changes. These parameters should
be administratively configured for the network where DYMO is used. be administratively configurable for the network where DYMO is used.
Ideally, for networks with frequent topology changes the DYMO Ideally, for networks with frequent topology changes the DYMO
parameters should be adjusted using either experimentally determined parameters should be adjusted using either experimentally determined
values or dynamic adaptation. For example, in networks with values or dynamic adaptation. For example, in networks with
infrequent topology changes ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT may be set to a much infrequent topology changes ROUTE_USED_TIMEOUT may be set to a much
larger value. larger value.
In addition to the parameters above several administrative options In addition to the parameters above several administrative options
exist. The following table enumerates several of the options and exist. The following table enumerates several of the options and
suggested values. suggested values.
skipping to change at page 29, line 42 skipping to change at page 30, line 42
[RFC1812] Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers", [RFC1812] Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
RFC 1812, June 1995. RFC 1812, June 1995.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2434] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC2434] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
October 1998. October 1998.
[RFC3513] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "Internet Protocol Version 6 [RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
(IPv6) Addressing Architecture", RFC 3513, April 2003. Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.
[RFC3561] Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., and S. Das, "Ad hoc On-
Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", RFC 3561,
July 2003.
10.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[I-D.chakeres-manet-iana] [I-D.chakeres-manet-iana]
Chakeres, I., "MANET IANA Needs", Chakeres, I., "MANET IANA Needs",
draft-chakeres-manet-iana-01 (work in progress), draft-chakeres-manet-iana-02 (work in progress),
September 2006. October 2006.
[I-D.ietf-manet-nhdp] [I-D.ietf-manet-nhdp]
Clausen, T., "MANET Neighborhood Discovery Protocol Clausen, T., "MANET Neighborhood Discovery Protocol
(NHDP)", draft-ietf-manet-nhdp-00 (work in progress), (NHDP)", draft-ietf-manet-nhdp-00 (work in progress),
June 2006. June 2006.
[Johnson96] [Johnson96]
Johnson, D. and D. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) in Johnson, D. and D. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) in
Ad hoc Networks", In Mobile Computing, Chapter 5, pp. 153- Ad hoc Networks", In Mobile Computing, Chapter 5, pp. 153-
181, 1996. 181, 1996.
[Perkins99] [Perkins99]
Perkins, C. and E. Belding-Royer, "Ad hoc On-Demand Perkins, C. and E. Belding-Royer, "Ad hoc On-Demand
Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", Proceedings of the 2nd Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", Proceedings of the 2nd
IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and
Applications, New Orleans, LA, pp. 90-100, Applications, New Orleans, LA, pp. 90-100,
February 1999. February 1999.
[RFC3561] Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., and S. Das, "Ad hoc On-
Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", RFC 3561,
July 2003.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Ian Chakeres Ian Chakeres
Boeing Phantom Works Boeing Phantom Works
The Boeing Company The Boeing Company
P.O. Box 3707 Mailcode 7L-49 P.O. Box 3707 Mailcode 7L-49
Seattle, WA 98124-2207 Seattle, WA 98124-2207
USA USA
Email: ian.chakeres@gmail.com Email: ian.chakeres@gmail.com
Charlie Perkins Charles E. Perkins
Nokia Research Center Palo Alto Systems Research Center
313 Fairchild Drive 975 Page Mill Road, Suite 200
Mountain View, CA 94043 Palo Alto, CA 94304-1003
USA USA
Phone: +1-650-625-2986 Phone: +1-650-496-4402
Fax: +1-650-625-2502 Fax: +1-650-739-0779
Email: charles.perkins@nokia.com Email: charles.perkins@nokia.com
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