draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-12.txt   draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-13.txt 
Network Working Group J. Jeong, Ed. Network Working Group J. Jeong, Ed.
Internet-Draft P. Lingga Internet-Draft P. Lingga
Intended status: Standards Track Sungkyunkwan University Intended status: Standards Track Sungkyunkwan University
Expires: 21 May 2022 S. Hares Expires: 30 July 2022 S. Hares
L. Xia L. Xia
Huawei Huawei
H. Birkholz H. Birkholz
Fraunhofer SIT Fraunhofer SIT
17 November 2021 26 January 2022
I2NSF NSF Monitoring Interface YANG Data Model I2NSF NSF Monitoring Interface YANG Data Model
draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-12 draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-13
Abstract Abstract
This document proposes an information model and the corresponding This document proposes an information model and the corresponding
YANG data model of an interface for monitoring Network Security YANG data model of an interface for monitoring Network Security
Functions (NSFs) in the Interface to Network Security Functions Functions (NSFs) in the Interface to Network Security Functions
(I2NSF) framework. If the monitoring of NSFs is performed with the (I2NSF) framework. If the monitoring of NSFs is performed with the
NSF monitoring interface in a comprehensive way, it is possible to NSF monitoring interface in a comprehensive way, it is possible to
detect the indication of malicious activity, anomalous behavior, the detect the indication of malicious activity, anomalous behavior, the
potential sign of denial of service attacks, or system overload in a potential sign of denial of service attacks, or system overload in a
skipping to change at page 1, line 46 skipping to change at page 1, line 46
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This Internet-Draft will expire on 21 May 2022. This Internet-Draft will expire on 30 July 2022.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Use Cases for NSF Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Use Cases for NSF Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Classification of NSF Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Classification of NSF Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1. Retention and Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Retention and Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2. Notifications, Events, and Records . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2. Notifications, Events, and Records . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.3. Unsolicited Poll and Solicited Push . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.3. Unsolicited Poll and Solicited Pull . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5. Basic Information Model for Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Basic Information Model for Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . 9
6. Extended Information Model for Monitoring Data . . . . . . . 9 6. Extended Information Model for Monitoring Data . . . . . . . 10
6.1. System Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.1. System Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.1.1. Memory Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.1.1. Memory Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.1.2. CPU Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.1.2. CPU Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.1.3. Disk Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.1.3. Disk Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.1.4. Hardware Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.1.4. Hardware Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.1.5. Interface Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.1.5. Interface Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.2. System Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.2. System Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.2.1. Access Violation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.2.1. Access Violation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.2.2. Configuration Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.2.2. Configuration Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.2.3. Session Table Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.2.3. Session Table Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.2.4. Traffic Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.2.4. Traffic Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.3. NSF Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.3. NSF Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.3.1. DDoS Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.3.1. DDoS Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.3.2. Virus Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.3.2. Virus Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.3.3. Intrusion Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.3.3. Intrusion Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.3.4. Web Attack Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.3.4. Web Attack Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.3.5. VoIP/VoLTE Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.3.5. VoIP/VoLTE Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.4. System Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.4. System Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.4.1. Access Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.4.1. Access Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.4.2. Resource Utilization Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.4.2. Resource Utilization Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.4.3. User Activity Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.4.3. User Activity Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.5. NSF Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.5. NSF Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.5.1. Deep Packet Inspection Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.5.1. Deep Packet Inspection Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.6. System Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.6. System Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.6.1. Interface Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 6.6.1. Interface Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.7. NSF Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.7. NSF Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.7.1. Firewall Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.7.1. Firewall Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.7.2. Policy Hit Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.7.2. Policy Hit Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7. NSF Monitoring Management in I2NSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7. YANG Tree Structure of NSF Monitoring YANG Module . . . . . . 26
8. Tree Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 8. YANG Data Model of NSF Monitoring YANG Module . . . . . . . . 34
9. YANG Data Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 9. I2NSF Event Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
10. I2NSF Event Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 10. XML Examples for I2NSF NSF Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
11. XML Examples for I2NSF NSF Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 10.1. I2NSF System Detection Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
11.1. I2NSF System Detection Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 10.2. I2NSF Interface Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
11.2. I2NSF Interface Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 12. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
13. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 13. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
14. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 14. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
15. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 15. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 15.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
16.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 15.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
16.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Appendix A. Changes from Appendix A. Changes from
draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-11 . . . . . . 90 draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-12 . . . . . . 94
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
According to [RFC8329], the interface provided by a Network Security According to [RFC8329], the interface provided by a Network Security
Function (NSF) (e.g., Firewall, IPS, or Anti-DDoS function) to Function (NSF) (e.g., Firewall, IPS, or Anti-DDoS function) to enable
administrative entities (e.g., Security Controller) to enable remote the collection of monitoring information is referred to as an I2NSF
management (i.e., configuring and monitoring) is referred to as an Monitoring Interface. This interface enables the sharing of vital
I2NSF Monitoring Interface. This interface enables the sharing of data from the NSFs (e.g., events, records, and counters) to the NSF
vital data from the NSFs (e.g., alarms, records, and counters) to the data collector through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., queries and
Security Controller through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., queries, notifications). The monitoring of NSF plays an important role in an
notifications, and events). The monitoring of NSF plays an important overall security framework, if it is done in a timely and
role in an overall security framework, if it is done in a timely and
comprehensive way. The monitoring information generated by an NSF comprehensive way. The monitoring information generated by an NSF
can be a good, early indication of anomalous behavior or malicious can be a good, early indication of anomalous behavior or malicious
activity, such as denial of service attacks (DoS). activity, such as denial of service attacks (DoS).
This document defines a comprehensive information model of an NSF This document defines a comprehensive information model of an NSF
monitoring interface that provides visibility into an NSF for the NSF monitoring interface that provides visibility into an NSF for the NSF
data collector (e.g., Security Controller). Note that an NSF data data collector. Note that an NSF data collector is defined as an
collector is defined as an entity to collect NSF monitoring data from entity to collect NSF monitoring data from an NSF, such as Security
an NSF, such as Security Controller. It specifies the information Controller. It specifies the information and illustrates the methods
and illustrates the methods that enable an NSF to provide the that enable an NSF to provide the information required in order to be
information required in order to be monitored in a scalable and monitored in a scalable and efficient way via the NSF Monitoring
efficient way via the NSF Monitoring Interface. The information Interface. The information model for the NSF monitoring interface
model for the NSF monitoring interface presented in this document is presented in this document is complementary for the security policy
complementary for the security policy provisioning functionality of provisioning functionality of the NSF-Facing Interface specified in
the NSF-Facing Interface specified in
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm]. [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm].
This document also defines a YANG [RFC7950] data model for the NSF This document also defines a YANG [RFC7950] data model for the NSF
monitoring interface, which is derived from the information model for monitoring interface, which is derived from the information model for
the NSF monitoring interface. the NSF monitoring interface.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here. capitals, as shown here.
This document uses the terminology described in [RFC8329]. This document uses the terminology described in [RFC8329]. In
addition, the following terms are defined in this document:
* I2NSF User: An entity that delivers a high-level security policy
to the Security Controller and may request monitoring information
via the NSF data collector.
* Monitoring Information: Relevant data that can be processed to
know the status and performance of the network and the NSF. The
monitoring information in I2NSF environment consists of I2NSF
Event, I2NSF Record, and I2NSF Counter (see Section 4.1 for the
detailed definition). This information is to be delivered to the
NSF data collector.
* Notification: Unsolicited transmission of monitoring information.
* NSF Data Collector: An entity that collects NSF monitoring
information from NSFs, such as Security Controller.
* Subscription: An agreement initialized by the NSF data collector
to receive monitoring information from an NSF. The method to
subscribe follows the method explained in [RFC5277].
This document follows the guidelines of [RFC8407], uses the common This document follows the guidelines of [RFC8407], uses the common
YANG types defined in [RFC6991], and adopts the Network Management YANG types defined in [RFC6991], and adopts the Network Management
Datastore Architecture (NMDA) [RFC8342]. The meaning of the symbols Datastore Architecture (NMDA) [RFC8342]. The meaning of the symbols
in tree diagrams is defined in [RFC8340]. in tree diagrams is defined in [RFC8340].
3. Use Cases for NSF Monitoring Data 3. Use Cases for NSF Monitoring Data
As mentioned earlier, monitoring plays a critical role in an overall As mentioned earlier, monitoring plays a critical role in an overall
security framework. The monitoring of the NSF provides very valuable security framework. The monitoring of the NSF provides very valuable
information to an NSF data collector (e.g., Security Controller) in information to an NSF data collector (e.g., Security Controller) in
maintaining the provisioned security posture. Besides this, there maintaining the provisioned security posture. Besides this, there
are various other reasons to monitor the NSF as listed below: are various other reasons to monitor the NSF as listed below:
* The security administrator with I2NSF User can configure a policy * The I2NSF User that is the security administrator can configure a
that is triggered on a specific event occurring in the NSF or the policy that is triggered on a specific event occurring in the NSF
network [RFC8329] [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]. or the network [RFC8329]
If an NSF data collector detects the specified event, it [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]. If an NSF data
configures additional security functions as defined by policies. collector detects the specified event, it configures additional
security functions as defined by policies.
* The events triggered by an NSF as a result of security policy * The events triggered by an NSF as a result of security policy
violation can be used by Security Information and Event Management violation can be used by Security Information and Event Management
(SIEM) to detect any suspicious activity in a larger correlation (SIEM) to detect any suspicious activity in a larger correlation
context. context.
* The information (i.e., events, records, and counters) from an NSF * The information (i.e., events, records, and counters) from an NSF
can be used to build advanced analytics, such as behavior and can be used to build advanced analytics, such as behavior and
predictive models to improve security posture in large predictive models to improve security posture in large
deployments. deployments.
skipping to change at page 5, line 32 skipping to change at page 5, line 39
* The records from the NSF can be used to build historical data for * The records from the NSF can be used to build historical data for
operation and business reasons. operation and business reasons.
4. Classification of NSF Monitoring Data 4. Classification of NSF Monitoring Data
In order to maintain a strong security posture, it is not only In order to maintain a strong security posture, it is not only
necessary to configure an NSF's security policies but also to necessary to configure an NSF's security policies but also to
continuously monitor the NSF by consuming acquirable and observable continuously monitor the NSF by consuming acquirable and observable
data. This enables security administrators to assess the state of data. This enables security administrators to assess the state of
the networks and in a timely fashion. It is not possible to block the networks in a timely fashion. It is not possible to block all
all the internal and external threats based on static security the internal and external threats based on static security posture.
posture. A more practical approach is supported by enabling dynamic A more practical approach is supported by enabling dynamic security
security measures, for which continuous visibility is required. This measures, for which continuous visibility is required. This document
document defines a set of monitoring elements and their scopes that defines a set of monitoring elements and their scopes that can be
can be acquired from an NSF and can be used as NSF monitoring data. acquired from an NSF and can be used as NSF monitoring data. In
In essence, these types of monitoring data can be leveraged to essence, this monitoring data can be leveraged to support constant
support constant visibility on multiple levels of granularity and can visibility on multiple levels of granularity and can be consumed by
be consumed by the corresponding functions. the corresponding functions.
Three basic domains about the monitoring data originating from a Three basic domains about the monitoring data originating from a
system entity [RFC4949], i.e., an NSF, are highlighted in this system entity [RFC4949], i.e., an NSF, are highlighted in this
document. document.
* Retention and Emission * Retention and Emission
* Notifications, Events, and Records * Notifications, Events, and Records
* Unsolicited Poll and Solicited Push * Unsolicited Poll and Solicited Pull
As with I2NSF components, every generic system entity can include a
set of capabilities that creates information about some context with Every system entity creates information about some context with
monitoring data (i.e., monitoring information), composition, defined I2NSF monitoring data, and so every entity can be an I2NSF
configuration, state or behavior of that system entity. This component. This information is intended to be consumed by other
information is intended to be provided to other consumers of I2NSF components, which deals with NSF monitoring data in an
information and in the scope of this document, which deals with NSF automated fashion.
monitoring data in an automated fashion.
4.1. Retention and Emission 4.1. Retention and Emission
A system entity (e.g., NSF) first retains I2NSF monitoring data A system entity (e.g., NSF) first retains I2NSF monitoring data
inside its own system before emitting the information to another inside its own system before emitting the information to another
I2NSF component (e.g., NSF Data Collector). The I2NSF monitoring I2NSF component (e.g., NSF Data Collector). The I2NSF monitoring
information consist of I2NSF Event, I2NSF Record, and I2NSF Counter information consist of I2NSF Event, I2NSF Record, and I2NSF Counter
as follows: as follows:
I2NSF Event: I2NSF Event is defined as an important occurrence over I2NSF Event: I2NSF Event is defined as an important occurrence at a
time, that is, a change in the system being managed or a change in particular time, that is, a change in the system being managed or
the environment of the system being managed. An I2NSF Event a change in the environment of the system being managed. An I2NSF
requires immediate attention and should be notified as soon as Event requires immediate attention and should be notified as soon
possible. When used in the context of an (imperative) I2NSF as possible. When used in the context of an (imperative) I2NSF
Policy Rule, an I2NSF Event is used to determine whether the Policy Rule, an I2NSF Event is used to determine whether the
Condition clause of that Policy Rule can be evaluated or not. The Condition clause of that Policy Rule can be evaluated or not. The
Alarm Management Framework in [RFC3877] defines an event as Alarm Management Framework in [RFC3877] defines an event as
something that happens which may be of interest. Examples for an something that happens which may be of interest. Examples for an
event are a fault, a change in status, crossing a threshold, or an event are a fault, a change in status, crossing a threshold, or an
external input to the system. In the I2NSF domain, I2NSF events external input to the system. In the I2NSF domain, I2NSF events
are created following the definition of an event in the Alarm are created following the definition of an event in the Alarm
Management Framework. Management Framework.
I2NSF Record: A record is defined as an item of information that is I2NSF Record: A record is defined as an item of information that is
kept to be looked at and used in the future. Unlike I2NSF Event, kept to be looked at and used in the future. Typically, records
records do not require immediate attention but may be useful for are information generated by a system entity (e.g., NSF) that is
visibility and retroactive cyber forensic. Depending on the based on operational and informational data (i.e., various changes
record format, there are different qualities in regard to in system characteristics), and are generated at particular
structure and detail. Records are typically stored in log-files instants to be kept without any changes afterward. A set of
or databases on a system entity or NSF. Records in the form of records has an ordering in time based on when they are generated.
log-files usually include less structures but potentially more Unlike I2NSF Event, records do not require immediate attention but
detailed information in regard to the changes of a system entity's may be useful for visibility and retroactive cyber forensic.
characteristics. In contrast, databases often use more strict Records are typically stored in log-files or databases on a system
schemas or data models, therefore enforcing a better structure. entity or NSF. The examples of records include as user
However, they inhibit storing information that does not match activities, device performance, and network status. They are
those models ("closed world assumption"). Records can be important for debugging, auditing, and security forensic of a
continuously processed by a system entity as an I2NSF Producer and system entity or the network having the system entity.
emitted with a format tailored to a certain type of record.
Typically, records are information generated by a system entity
(e.g., NSF) that is based on operational and informational data,
that is, various changes in system characteristics. The examples
of records include as user activities, network/traffic status, and
network activity. They are important for debugging, auditing and
security forensic of a system entity or the network having the
system entity.
I2NSF Counter: An I2NSF Counter is defined as a specific I2NSF Counter: An I2NSF Counter is defined as a specific
representation of continuous value changes of information elements representation of an information element whose value changes very
that occur very frequently. Prominent examples are network frequently. Prominent examples are network interface counters for
interface counters for protocol data unit (PDU) amount, byte protocol data unit (PDU) amount, byte amount, drop counters, and
amount, drop counters, and error counters. Counters are useful in error counters. Other examples are integer approximations to
debugging and visibility into operational behavior of a system continuous values, such as a processor temperature measured in
entity (e.g., NSF). When an NSF data collector asks for the value tenths of a degree or the percentage of a disk that is used.
of a counter to it, a system entity emits Counters are useful in debugging and visibility into operational
behavior of a system entity (e.g., NSF). When an NSF data
collector asks for the value of a counter to it, a system entity
MUST update the counter information and emit the latest
information to the NSF data collector.
The retention of I2NSF monitoring information listed in Section 9 may The retention of I2NSF monitoring information may be affected by the
be affected by the importance of the data. The importance of the importance of the data. The importance of the data could be context-
data could be context-dependent, where it may not just be based on dependent, where it may not just be based on the type of data, but
the type of data, but may also depend on where it is deployed, e.g., may also depend on where it is deployed, e.g., a test lab and
a test lab and testbed. The local policy and configuration will testbed. The local policy and configuration will dictate the
dictate the policies and procedures to review, archive, or purge the policies and procedures to review, archive, or purge the collected
collected monitoring data. monitoring data.
The I2NSF monitoring information retained on a system entity (e.g., The I2NSF monitoring information retained on a system entity (e.g.,
NSF) may be delivered to a corresponding I2NSF User via an NSF data NSF) may be delivered to a corresponding I2NSF User via an NSF data
collector. The information consists of the aggregated records, collector. The information consists of the aggregated records,
typically in the form of log-files or databases. For the NSF typically in the form of log-files or databases. For the NSF
Monitoring Interface to deliver the information to the NSF data Monitoring Interface to deliver the information to the NSF data
collector, the NSF needs to accommodate standardized delivery collector, the NSF needs to accommodate standardized delivery
protocols, such as NETCONF [RFC6241] and RESTCONF [RFC8040]. The NSF protocols, such as NETCONF [RFC6241] and RESTCONF [RFC8040]. The NSF
data collector can forward the information to the I2NSF User through data collector can forward the information to the I2NSF User through
one of standardized delivery protocols. The interface for this one of standardized delivery protocols. The interface for this
delivery is out of the scope of this document. delivery is out of the scope of this document.
4.2. Notifications, Events, and Records 4.2. Notifications, Events, and Records
A specific task of I2NSF User is to process I2NSF Policy Rules. The A specific task of I2NSF User is to process I2NSF Policy Rules. The
rules of a policy are composed of three clauses: Event, Condition, rules of a policy are composed of three clauses: Event, Condition,
and Action clauses. In consequence, an I2NSF Event is specified to and Action clauses. In consequence, an I2NSF Event is specified to
trigger an I2NSF Policy Rule. Such an I2NSF Event is defined as any trigger the evaluation of the Condition clause of the I2NSF Policy
important occurrence over time in the system being managed, and/or in Rule. Such an I2NSF Event is defined as an important occurrence at a
the environment of the system being managed, which aligns well with particular time in the system being managed, and/or in the
the generic definition of Event from [RFC3877]. environment of the system being managed whose concept aligns well
with the generic definition of Event from [RFC3877].
Another role of the I2NSF Event is to trigger a notification for Another role of the I2NSF Event is to trigger a notification for
monitoring the status of an NSF. A notification is defined in monitoring the status of an NSF. A notification is defined in
[RFC3877] as an unsolicited transmission of management information. [RFC3877] as an unsolicited transmission of management information.
System alarm (called alarm) is defined as a warning related to System alarm (called alarm) is defined as a warning related to
service degradation in system hardware in Section 6.1. System event service degradation in system hardware in Section 6.1. System event
(called alert) is defined as a warning about any changes of (called alert) is defined as a warning about any changes of
configuration, any access violation, the information of sessions and configuration, any access violation, the information of sessions and
traffic flows in Section 6.2. Both an alarm and an alert are I2NSF traffic flows in Section 6.2. Both an alarm and an alert are I2NSF
Events that can be delivered as a notification. The model Events that can be delivered as a notification. The model
skipping to change at page 8, line 26 skipping to change at page 8, line 26
immediate attention. A record is not emitted immediately to the NSF immediate attention. A record is not emitted immediately to the NSF
Data Collector, and it can be emitted periodically to the NSF Data Data Collector, and it can be emitted periodically to the NSF Data
Collector every certain time interval. Collector every certain time interval.
It is important to note that an NSF Data Collector as a consumer It is important to note that an NSF Data Collector as a consumer
(i.e., observer) of a notification assesses the importance of the (i.e., observer) of a notification assesses the importance of the
notification rather than an NSF as a producer. The producer can notification rather than an NSF as a producer. The producer can
include metadata in a notification that supports the observer in include metadata in a notification that supports the observer in
assessing its importance (e.g., severity). assessing its importance (e.g., severity).
4.3. Unsolicited Poll and Solicited Push 4.3. Unsolicited Poll and Solicited Pull
The freshness of the monitored information depends on the acquisition An important aspect of monitoring information is the freshness of the
method. Ideally, an I2NSF User is accessing every relevant information. From the perspective of security, it is important to
information about the I2NSF Component and is emitting I2NSF Events to notice the current status of the network. The I2NSF Monitoring
an NSF data collector (e.g., Security Controller) in a timely manner. Interface provides the means of sending monitored information from
Publication of events via a pubsub/broker model, peer-2-peer meshes, the NSFs to an NSF data collector in a timely manner. The method of
or static defined channels are only a few examples on how a solicited acquiring the monitoring information can be performed from a client
push of I2NSF Events can be facilitated. The actual mechanism (i.e., NSF data collector) to a server (i.e., NSF) by unsolicited
implemented by an I2NSF Component is out of the scope of this poll or solicited pull.
document.
Often, the corresponding management interfaces have to be queried in The solicited pull is a query-based method to obtain information from
intervals or on demand if required by an I2NSF Policy rule. In some the NSF. In this method, the NSF will remain passive until the
cases, the collection of information has to be conducted via a login information is requested from the NSF data collector. Once a new
mechanism provided by a system entity. Accessing records of request is accepted (with proper authentication), the NSF MUST update
information via this kind of unsolicited polls can introduce a the information before sending it to the NSF data collector.
significant latency in regard to the freshness of the monitored
information. The actual definition of intervals implemented by an The unsolicited poll is a report-based method to obtain information
I2NSF Component is also out of scope of this document. from the NSF. The report-based method ensures the information can be
delivered immediately without any requests. This method is used by
the NSF to actively provide information to the NSF data collector.
To receive the information, the NSF data collector subscribes to the
NSF for the information.
These acquisition methods are used for different types of monitoring
information. The information that has a high level of urgency (i.e.,
I2NSF Event) should be provided with the unsolicited poll method,
while information that has a lower level of urgency (i.e., I2NSF
Record and I2NSF Counter) can be provided with either the solicited
pull method or unsolicited poll method.
5. Basic Information Model for Monitoring Data 5. Basic Information Model for Monitoring Data
As explained in the above section, there is a wealth of data As explained in the above section, there is a wealth of data
available from the NSF that can be monitored. Firstly, there must be available from the NSF that can be monitored. Firstly, there must be
some general information with each monitoring message sent from an some general information with each monitoring message sent from an
NSF that helps a consumer to identify meta data with that message, NSF that helps a consumer to identify meta data with that message,
which are listed as below: which are listed as below:
* message: The extra detail to give the context of the information. * message: The extra detailed description on NSF monitoring data to
give an NSF data collector the context information as meta data.
* vendor-name: The name of the NSF vendor. * vendor-name: The vendor's name of the NSF that generates the
message.
* device-model: The model of the device, can be represented by the
device model name or serial number. This field is used to
identify the model of the device that provides the security
service.
* software-version: The version of the software used to provide the
security service.
* nsf-name: The name or IP address of the NSF generating the * nsf-name: The name or IP address of the NSF generating the
message. If the given nsf-name is not IP address, the name can be message. If the given nsf-name is not IP address, the name can be
an arbitrary string including FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name). an arbitrary string including FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name).
The name MUST be unique in the scope of management domain for a The name MUST be unique in the scope of management domain for a
different NSF to identify the NSF that generates the message. different NSF to identify the NSF that generates the message.
* severity: It indicates the severity level. There are total four * severity: The severity level of the message. There are total four
levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low. levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low.
* timestamp: Indicates the time when the message is generated. For * timestamp: The time when the message is generated. For the
the notification operations (i.e., System Alarms, System Events, notification operations (i.e., System Alarms, System Events, NSF
NSF Events, System Logs, and NSF Logs), this is represented by the Events, System Logs, and NSF Logs), this is represented by the
eventTime of NETCONF event notification [RFC5277] For other eventTime of NETCONF event notification [RFC5277] For other
operations (i.e., System Counter and NSF Counter), the timestamp operations (i.e., System Counter and NSF Counter), the timestamp
MUST be provided separately. MUST be provided separately.
* language: describes the human language intended for the user, so
that it allows a user to differentiate the language that is used
in the notification. This field is not mandatory, but required
when the implementation provides more than one human language for
the human-readable string fields.
6. Extended Information Model for Monitoring Data 6. Extended Information Model for Monitoring Data
This section covers the additional information associated with the The extended information model is the specific monitoring data that
system messages. The extended information model is only for the covers the additional information associated with the detailed
structured data such as events, record, and counters. Any information of status and performance of the network and the NSF over
unstructured data is specified with the basic information model only. the basic information model. The extended information combined with
the basic information creates the monitoring information (i.e., I2NSF
Event, Record, and Counter).
Each information has characteristics as follows: The extended monitoring information has characteristics for data
collection setting as follows:
* Acquisition method: The method to obtain the message. It can be a * Acquisition method: The method to obtain the message. It can be a
"query" or a "subscription". A "query" is a request-based method "query" or a "subscription". A "query" is a request-based method
to acquire the solicited information. A "subscription" is a to acquire the solicited information. A "subscription" is a
subscribe-based method to acquire the unsolicited information. report-based method to acquire the unsolicited information.
* Emission type: The cause type for the message to be emitted. It * Emission type: The cause type for the message to be emitted. It
can be "on-change" or "periodic". An "on-change" message is can be "on-change", "periodic", or "on-request". An "on-change"
emitted when an important event happens in the NSF. A "periodic" message is emitted when an important event happens in the NSF. A
message is emitted at a certain time interval. The time to "periodic" message is emitted at a certain time interval. An "on-
periodically emit the message is configurable. request" message is emitted when the information is requested.
The time to periodically emit the message is configurable.
* Dampening type: The type of message dampening to stop the rapid * Dampening type: The type of message dampening to stop the rapid
transmission of messages. The dampening types are "on-repetition" transmission of messages. The dampening types are "on-repetition"
and "no-dampening". The "on-repetition" type limits the and "no-dampening". The "on-repetition" type limits the
transmitted "on-change" message to one message at a certain transmitted "on-change" message to one message at a certain
interval. This interval is defined as dampening-period in interval (e.g., 1 second). This interval is defined as dampening-
[RFC8641]. The dampening-period is configurable. The "no- period in [RFC8641]. The dampening-period is configurable. The
dampening" type does not limit the transmission for the messages "no-dampening" type does not limit the transmission for the
of the same type. In short, "on-repetition" means that the messages of the same type. In short, "on-repetition" means that
dampening is active and "no-dampening" is inactive. It is the dampening is active and "no-dampening" is inactive. It is
recommended to activate the dampening for an "on-change" type of recommended to activate the dampening for an "on-change" type of
message to reduce the number of messages generated. message to reduce the number of messages generated.
6.1. System Alarms 6.1. System Alarms
System alarms have the following characteristics: System alarms have the following characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription * acquisition-method: subscription
* emission-type: on-change * emission-type: on-change
* dampening-type: on-repetition * dampening-type: on-repetition or no-dampening
6.1.1. Memory Alarm 6.1.1. Memory Alarm
The memory is the hardware to store information temporarily or for a The memory is the hardware to store information temporarily or for a
short period, i.e., Random Access Memory (RAM). The memory-alarm is short period, i.e., Random Access Memory (RAM). The memory-alarm is
emitted when the RAM usage exceeds the threshold. The following emitted when the RAM usage exceeds the threshold. The following
information should be included in a Memory Alarm: information should be included in a Memory Alarm:
* event-name: memory-alarm. * event-name: memory-alarm.
* usage: specifies the size of memory used. * usage: specifies the size of memory used.
* threshold: The threshold triggering the alarm * threshold: The threshold triggering the alarm
* severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high, * severity: The severity level of the message. There are total four
medium, and low. levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low.
* message: Simple information such as "The memory usage exceeded the * message: Simple information such as "The memory usage exceeded the
threshold" or with extra information. threshold" or with extra information.
6.1.2. CPU Alarm 6.1.2. CPU Alarm
CPU is the Central Processing Unit that executes basic operations of CPU is the Central Processing Unit that executes basic operations of
the system. The cpu-alarm is emitted when the CPU usage exceeds the the system. The cpu-alarm is emitted when the CPU usage exceeds the
threshold. The following information should be included in a CPU threshold. The following information should be included in a CPU
Alarm: Alarm:
* event-name: cpu-alarm. * event-name: cpu-alarm.
* usage: Specifies the CPU utilization. * usage: Specifies the CPU utilization.
* threshold: The threshold triggering the event. * threshold: The threshold triggering the event.
* severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high, * severity: The severity level of the message. There are total four
medium, and low. levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low.
* message: Simple information such as "The CPU usage exceeded the * message: Simple information such as "The CPU usage exceeded the
threshold" or with extra information. threshold" or with extra information.
6.1.3. Disk Alarm 6.1.3. Disk Alarm
Disk is the hardware to store information for a long period, i.e., Disk is the hardware to store information for a long period, i.e.,
Hard Disk or Solid-State Drive. The disk-alarm is emitted when the Hard Disk or Solid-State Drive. The disk-alarm is emitted when the
Disk usage exceeds the threshold. The following information should Disk usage exceeds the threshold. The following information should
be included in a Disk Alarm: be included in a Disk Alarm:
* event-name: disk-alarm. * event-name: disk-alarm.
* usage: Specifies the size of disk space used. * usage: Specifies the size of disk space used.
* threshold: The threshold triggering the event. * threshold: The threshold triggering the event.
* severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high, * severity: The severity level of the message. There are total four
medium, and low. levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low.
* message: Simple information such as "The disk usage exceeded the * message: Simple information such as "The disk usage exceeded the
threshold" or with extra information. threshold" or with extra information.
6.1.4. Hardware Alarm 6.1.4. Hardware Alarm
The hardware-alarm is emitted when a hardware, e.g., CPU, memory, The hardware-alarm is emitted when a hardware, e.g., CPU, memory,
disk, or interface, problem is detected. The following information disk, or interface, problem is detected. The following information
should be included in a Hardware Alarm: should be included in a Hardware Alarm:
* event-name: hardware-alarm. * event-name: hardware-alarm.
* component-name: It indicates the hardware component responsible * component-name: It indicates the hardware component responsible
for generating this alarm. for generating this alarm.
* severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high, * severity: The severity level of the message. There are total four
medium, and low. levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low.
* message: Simple information such as "The hardware component has * message: Simple information such as "The hardware component has
failed or degraded" or with extra information. failed or degraded" or with extra information.
6.1.5. Interface Alarm 6.1.5. Interface Alarm
Interface is the network interface for connecting a device with the Interface is the network interface for connecting a device with the
network. The interface-alarm is emitted when the state of the network. The interface-alarm is emitted when the state of the
interface is changed. The following information should be included interface is changed. The following information should be included
in an Interface Alarm: in an Interface Alarm:
* event-name: interface-alarm. * event-name: interface-alarm.
* interface-name: The name of the interface. * interface-name: The name of the interface.
* interface-state: down, up (not congested), congested (up but * interface-state: down, up (not congested), congested (up but
congested). congested).
* severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high, * severity: The severity level of the message. There are total four
medium, and low. levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low.
* message: Simple information such as "The interface is 'interface- * message: Simple information such as "The interface is 'interface-
state'" or with extra information. state'" or with extra information.
6.2. System Events 6.2. System Events
System events (as alerts) have the following characteristics: System events (as alerts) have the following characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription * acquisition-method: subscription
* emission-type: on-change * emission-type: on-change
* dampening-type: on-repetition * dampening-type: on-repetition or no-dampening
6.2.1. Access Violation 6.2.1. Access Violation
The access-violation system event is an event when a user tries to The access-violation system event is an event when a user tries to
access (read, write, create, or delete) any information or execute access (read, write, create, or delete) any information or execute
commands above their privilege. commands above their privilege. The following information should be
included in this event:
* event-name: access-denied. * event-name: access-violation.
* user: Name of a user. * identity: The information to identify the attempted access
violation. The minimum information (extensible) that should be
included:
* group: Group(s) to which a user belongs. A user can belong to 1. user: The unique username that attempted access violation.
multiple groups.
* ip-address: The IP address of the user that triggered the event. 2. group: Group(s) to which a user belongs. A user can belong to
multiple groups.
3. ip-address: The IP address of the user that triggered the
event.
4. port-number: The port number used by the user.
* authentication: The method to verify the valid user, i.e., pre- * authentication: The method to verify the valid user, i.e., pre-
configured-key and certificate-authority. configured-key and certificate-authority.
* message: The message to give the context of the event, such as * message: The message to give the context of the event, such as
"Access is denied". "Access is denied".
6.2.2. Configuration Change 6.2.2. Configuration Change
A configuration change is a system event when a new configuration is A configuration change is a system event when a new configuration is
added or an existing configuration is modified. The following added or an existing configuration is modified. The following
information should be included in this event: information should be included in this event:
* event-name: config-change. * event-name: configuration-change.
* user: Name of a user. * identity: The information to identify the attempted access
violation. The minimum information (extensible) that should be
included:
* group: Group(s) to which a user belongs. A user can belong to 1. user: The unique username that changes the configuration.
multiple groups.
* ip-address: The IP address of the user that triggered the event. 2. group: Group(s) to which a user belongs. A user can belong to
multiple groups.
3. ip-address: The IP address of the user that triggered the
event.
4. port-number: The port number used by the user.
* authentication: The method to verify the valid user, i.e., pre- * authentication: The method to verify the valid user, i.e., pre-
configured-key and certificate-authority. configured-key and certificate-authority.
* message: The message to give the context of the event, such as * message: The message to give the context of the event, such as
"Configuration is modified" or "New configuration is added". "Configuration is modified", "New configuration is added", or "A
configuration has been removed".
* changes: Describes the modification that was made to the
configuration. The minimum information that must be provided is
the name of the policy that has been altered (added, modified, or
removed). Other detailed information about the configuration
changes is up to the implementation.
6.2.3. Session Table Event 6.2.3. Session Table Event
The following information should be included in a Session Session Table Event is the event triggered by the session table of an
NSF. A session table holds the information of the current active
sessions. The following information should be included in a Session
Table Event: Table Event:
* event-name: session-table. * event-name: detection-session-table.
* current-session: The number of concurrent sessions. * current-session: The number of concurrent sessions.
* maximum-session: The maximum number of sessions that the session * maximum-session: The maximum number of sessions that the session
table can support. table can support.
* threshold: The threshold triggering the event. * threshold: The threshold triggering the event.
* message: The message to give the context of the event, such as * message: The message to give the context of the event, such as
"The number of session table exceeded the threshold". "The number of session table exceeded the threshold".
6.2.4. Traffic Flows 6.2.4. Traffic Flows
Traffic flows need to be monitored because they might be used for Traffic flows need to be monitored because they might be used for
security attacks to the network. The following information should be security attacks to the network. The following information should be
included in this event: included in this event:
* event-name: traffic-flows.
* src-ip: The source IPv4 or IPv6 address of the traffic flow. * src-ip: The source IPv4 or IPv6 address of the traffic flow.
* dst-ip: The destination IPv4 or IPv6 address of the traffic flow. * dst-ip: The destination IPv4 or IPv6 address of the traffic flow.
* src-port: The source port of the traffic flow. * src-port: The source port of the traffic flow.
* dst-port: The destination port of the traffic flow. * dst-port: The destination port of the traffic flow.
* protocol: The protocol of the traffic flow. * protocol: The protocol of the traffic flow.
* arrival-rate: Arrival rate of packets of the traffic flow. * arrival-rate: Arrival rate of packets of the traffic flow in
packet per second.
* arrival-speed: Arrival rate of packets of the traffic flow in
bytes per second.
6.3. NSF Events 6.3. NSF Events
NSF events have the following characteristics: NSF events have the following characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription * acquisition-method: subscription
* emission-type: on-change * emission-type: on-change
* dampening-type: on-repetition * dampening-type: on-repetition or no-dampening
6.3.1. DDoS Detection 6.3.1. DDoS Detection
The following information should be included in a DDoS Event: The following information should be included in a DDoS Event:
* event-name: detection-ddos. * event-name: detection-ddos.
* attack-type: Any one of SYN flood, ACK flood, SYN-ACK flood, FIN/ * attack-type: The type of DDoS Attack, i.e., SYN flood, ACK flood,
RST flood, TCP Connection flood, UDP flood, ICMP flood, HTTPS SYN-ACK flood, FIN/RST flood, TCP Connection flood, UDP flood,
flood, HTTP flood, DNS query flood, DNS reply flood, SIP flood, ICMP flood, HTTPS flood, HTTP flood, DNS query flood, DNS reply
SSL flood, and NTP amplification flood. flood, SIP flood, SSL flood, and NTP amplification flood. This
can be extended with additional types of DDoS attack.
* attack-src-ip: The IP address of the source of the DDoS attack. * attack-src-ip: The IP address of the source of the DDoS attack.
* attack-dst-ip: The network prefix with a network mask (for IPv4) * attack-dst-ip: The network prefix with a network mask (for IPv4)
or prefix length (for IPv6) of a victim under DDoS attack. or prefix length (for IPv6) of a victim under DDoS attack.
* dst-port: The port number that the attack traffic aims at. * dst-port: The port number that the attack traffic aims at.
* start-time: The time stamp indicating when the attack started. * start-time: The time stamp indicating when the attack started.
* end-time: The time stamp indicating when the attack ended. If the * end-time: The time stamp indicating when the attack ended. If the
attack is still undergoing when sending out the alarm, this field attack is still undergoing when sending out the notification, this
can be empty. field can be empty.
* attack-rate: The packets per second of attack traffic. * attack-rate: The packets per second of attack traffic.
* attack-speed: The bytes per second of attack traffic. * attack-speed: The bytes per second of attack traffic.
* rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered. * rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered.
Note that rule-name is used to match a detected NSF event with a Note that rule-name is used to match a detected NSF event with a
policy rule in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm]. policy rule in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm].
6.3.2. Virus Event 6.3.2. Virus Event
The following information should be included in a Virus Event: This information is used when a virus is detected within the traffic
flow or inside the host. The following information should be
included in a Virus Event:
* event-name: detection-virus. * event-name: detection-virus.
* virus: Type of the virus. e.g., trojan, worm, macro virus type.
* virus-name: Name of the virus. * virus-name: Name of the virus.
* virus-type: Type of the virus. e.g., trojan, worm, macro virus
type.
* dst-ip: The destination IP address of the flow where the virus is * dst-ip: The destination IP address of the flow where the virus is
found. found. This is used when the virus is detected within the traffic
flow.
* src-ip: The source IP address of the flow where the virus is * src-ip: The source IP address of the flow where the virus is
found. found. This is used when the virus is detected within the traffic
flow.
* src-port: The source port of the flow where the virus is found. * src-port: The source port of the flow where the virus is found.
This is used when the virus is detected within the traffic flow.
* dst-port: The destination port of the flow where the virus is * dst-port: The destination port of the flow where the virus is
found. found. This is used when the virus is detected within the traffic
flow.
* src-location: The geographical location (e.g., country and city) * src-location: The geographical location (e.g., country and city)
of the src-ip field. of the src-ip field. This is used when the virus is detected
within the traffic flow.
* dst-location: The geographical location (e.g., country and city) * dst-location: The geographical location (e.g., country and city)
of the dst-ip field. of the dst-ip field. This is used when the virus is detected
within the traffic flow.
* os: The operating system of the host that has the virus. * host: The name or IP address of the host/device that is infected
by the virus. This is used when the virus is detected within a
host system. If the given name is not IP address, the name can be
an arbitrary string including FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name).
The name MUST be unique in the scope of management domain for
identifying the device that has been infected with a virus.
* file-type: The type of the file where the virus is hidden. * os: The operating system of the host that has the virus. This is
used when the virus is detected within a host system.
* file-name: The name of the file where the virus is hidden. * file-type: The type of the file where the virus is hidden. This
is used when the virus is detected within a host system.
* raw-info: The information describing the packet triggering the * file-name: The name of the file where the virus is hidden. This
event. is used when the virus is detected within a host system.
* rule-name: The name of the rule being triggered. * rule-name: The name of the rule being triggered.
6.3.3. Intrusion Event 6.3.3. Intrusion Event
The following information should be included in an Intrusion Event: The following information should be included in an Intrusion Event:
* event-name: The name of the event. e.g., detection-intrusion. * event-name: detection-intrusion.
* attack-type: Attack type, e.g., brutal force and buffer overflow. * attack-type: Attack type, e.g., brutal force and buffer overflow.
* src-ip: The source IP address of the flow. * src-ip: The source IP address of the flow.
* dst-ip: The destination IP address of the flow. * dst-ip: The destination IP address of the flow.
* src-port:The source port number of the flow. * src-port:The source port number of the flow.
* dst-port: The destination port number of the flow * dst-port: The destination port number of the flow
skipping to change at page 16, line 28 skipping to change at page 18, line 12
* dst-location: The destination geographical location (e.g., country * dst-location: The destination geographical location (e.g., country
and city) of the dst-ip field. and city) of the dst-ip field.
* protocol: The employed transport layer protocol. e.g., TCP and * protocol: The employed transport layer protocol. e.g., TCP and
UDP. UDP.
* app: The employed application layer protocol. e.g., HTTP and FTP. * app: The employed application layer protocol. e.g., HTTP and FTP.
* rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered. * rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered.
* raw-info: The information describing the flow triggering the
event.
6.3.4. Web Attack Event 6.3.4. Web Attack Event
The following information should be included in a Web Attack Alarm: The following information should be included in a Web Attack Alarm:
* event-name: The name of event. e.g., detection-web-attack. * event-name: detection-web-attack.
* attack-type: Concrete web attack type. e.g., SQL injection, * attack-type: Concrete web attack type. e.g., SQL injection,
command injection, XSS, CSRF. command injection, XSS, CSRF.
* src-ip: The source IP address of the packet. * src-ip: The source IP address of the packet.
* dst-ip: The destination IP address of the packet. * dst-ip: The destination IP address of the packet.
* src-port: The source port number of the packet. * src-port: The source port number of the packet.
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* req-method: The HTTP method of the request. For instance, "PUT" * req-method: The HTTP method of the request. For instance, "PUT"
and "GET" in HTTP. and "GET" in HTTP.
* req-target: The HTTP Request Target. * req-target: The HTTP Request Target.
* response-code: The HTTP Response status code. * response-code: The HTTP Response status code.
* req-user-agent: The HTTP User-Agent header field of the request. * req-user-agent: The HTTP User-Agent header field of the request.
* cookies: The HTTP Set-Cookie header field of the response. * cookies: The HTTP Cookie header field of the request from the user
agent.
* req-host: The HTTP Host header field of the request. * req-host: The HTTP Host header field of the request.
* filtering-type: URL filtering type. e.g., deny-list, allow-list, * filtering-type: URL filtering type. e.g., deny-list, allow-list,
and unknown. and unknown.
* rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered. * rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered.
6.3.5. VoIP/VoLTE Event 6.3.5. VoIP/VoLTE Event
The following information should be included in a VoIP/VoLTE Event: The following information should be included in a VoIP/VoLTE Event:
* event-name: detection-voip-volte
* source-voice-id: The detected source voice Call ID for VoIP and * source-voice-id: The detected source voice Call ID for VoIP and
VoLTE that violates the policy. VoLTE that violates the policy.
* destination-voice-id: The destination voice Call ID for VoIP and * destination-voice-id: The destination voice Call ID for VoIP and
VoLTE that violates the policy. VoLTE that violates the policy.
* user-agent: The user agent for VoIP and VoLTE that violates the * user-agent: The user agent for VoIP and VoLTE that violates the
policy. policy.
* src-ip: The source IP address of the VoIP/VoLTE. * src-ip: The source IP address of the VoIP/VoLTE.
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and city) of the dst-ip field. and city) of the dst-ip field.
* rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered. * rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered.
6.4. System Logs 6.4. System Logs
System log is a record that is used to monitor the activity of the System log is a record that is used to monitor the activity of the
user on the NSF and the status of the NSF. System logs have the user on the NSF and the status of the NSF. System logs have the
following characteristics: following characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription * acquisition-method: subscription or query
* emission-type: on-change or periodic * emission-type: on-change, periodic, or on-request
* dampening-type: on-repetition * dampening-type: on-repetition or no-dampening
6.4.1. Access Log 6.4.1. Access Log
Access logs record administrators' login, logout, and operations on a Access logs record administrators' login, logout, and operations on a
device. By analyzing them, security vulnerabilities can be device. By analyzing them, security vulnerabilities can be
identified. The following information should be included in an identified. The following information should be included in an
operation report: operation report:
* username: The username that operates on the device. * identity: The information to identify the user. The minimum
information (extensible) that should be included:
* login-ip: IP address used by an administrator to log in. 1. user: The unique username that attempted access violation.
* login-role: The login role to specify the privilege level of the 2. group: Group(s) to which a user belongs. A user can belong to
user account, e.g., administrator, user, and guest. multiple groups.
3. ip-address: The IP address of the user that triggered the
event.
4. port-number: The port number used by the user.
* authentication: The method to verify the valid user, i.e., pre-
configured-key and certificate-authority.
* operation-type: The operation type that the administrator execute, * operation-type: The operation type that the administrator execute,
e.g., login, logout, configuration, and other. e.g., login, logout, configuration, and other.
* input: The operation performed by a user after login. The * input: The operation performed by a user after login. The
operation is a command given by a user. operation is a command given by a user.
* output: The result after executing the input. * output: The result after executing the input.
6.4.2. Resource Utilization Log 6.4.2. Resource Utilization Log
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* out-traffic-speed: The total outbound traffic speed in bytes per * out-traffic-speed: The total outbound traffic speed in bytes per
second. second.
6.4.3. User Activity Log 6.4.3. User Activity Log
User activity logs provide visibility into users' online records User activity logs provide visibility into users' online records
(such as login time, online/lockout duration, and login IP addresses) (such as login time, online/lockout duration, and login IP addresses)
and the actions that users perform. User activity reports are and the actions that users perform. User activity reports are
helpful to identify exceptions during a user's login and network helpful to identify exceptions during a user's login and network
access activities. access activities. This information should be included in a user's
activity report:
* user: Name of a user. * identity: The information to identify the user. The minimum
information (extensible) that should be included:
* group: Group to which a user belongs. 1. user: The unique username that attempted access violation.
* login-ip-addr: Login IP address of a user. 2. group: Group(s) to which a user belongs. A user can belong to
multiple groups.
3. ip-address: The IP address of the user that triggered the
event.
4. port-number: The port number used by the user.
* authentication: The method to verify the valid user, i.e., pre- * authentication: The method to verify the valid user, i.e., pre-
configured-key and certificate-authority. configured-key and certificate-authority.
* online-duration: The duration of a user's activeness (stays in * online-duration: The duration of a user's activeness (stays in
login) during a session. login) during a session.
* logout-duration: The duration of a user's inactiveness (not in * logout-duration: The duration of a user's inactiveness (not in
login) from the last session. login) from the last session.
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1. type: User activities. e.g., Successful User Login, Failed 1. type: User activities. e.g., Successful User Login, Failed
Login attempts, User Logout, Successful User Password Change, Login attempts, User Logout, Successful User Password Change,
Failed User Password Change, User Lockout, and User Unlocking. Failed User Password Change, User Lockout, and User Unlocking.
2. cause: Cause of a failed user activity. 2. cause: Cause of a failed user activity.
6.5. NSF Logs 6.5. NSF Logs
NSF logs have the folowing characteristics: NSF logs have the folowing characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription * acquisition-method: subscription or query
* emission-type: on-change * emission-type: on-change or on-request
* dampening-type: on-repetition * dampening-type: on-repetition or no-dampening
6.5.1. Deep Packet Inspection Log 6.5.1. Deep Packet Inspection Log
Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) Logs provide statistics on uploaded and Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) Logs provide statistics on uploaded and
downloaded files and data, sent and received emails, and alert and downloaded files and data, sent and received emails, and alert and
blocking records on websites. It is helpful to learn risky user blocking records on websites. It is helpful to learn risky user
behaviors and why access to some URLs is blocked or allowed with an behaviors and why access to some URLs is blocked or allowed with an
alert record. alert record.
* attack-type: DPI action types. e.g., File Blocking, Data * attack-type: DPI action types. e.g., File Blocking, Data
Filtering, and Application Behavior Control. Filtering, and Application Behavior Control.
* src-user: User source who generates the policy. * src-user: The I2NSF User's name who generates the policy.
* policy-name: Security policy name that traffic matches. * policy-name: Security policy name that traffic matches.
* action: Action defined in the file blocking rule, data filtering * action: Action defined in the file blocking rule, data filtering
rule, or application behavior control rule that traffic matches. rule, or application behavior control rule that traffic matches.
6.6. System Counter 6.6. System Counter
System counter has the following characteristics: System counter has the following characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription or query * acquisition-method: subscription or query
* emission-type: periodic * emission-type: periodic or on-request
* dampening-type: none * dampening-type: no-dampening
6.6.1. Interface Counter 6.6.1. Interface Counter
Interface counters provide visibility into traffic into and out of an Interface counters provide visibility into traffic into and out of an
NSF, and bandwidth usage. The statistics of the interface counters NSF, and bandwidth usage. The statistics of the interface counters
should be computed from the start of the service. When the service should be computed from the start of the service. When the service
is reset, the computation of statistics per counter should restart is reset, the computation of statistics per counter should restart
from 0. from 0.
* interface-name: Network interface name configured in NSF. * interface-name: Network interface name configured in NSF.
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* out-traffic-peak-rate: Outbound traffic peak rate in packets per * out-traffic-peak-rate: Outbound traffic peak rate in packets per
second. second.
* out-traffic-average-speed: Outbound traffic average speed in bytes * out-traffic-average-speed: Outbound traffic average speed in bytes
per second. per second.
* out-traffic-peak-speed: Outbound traffic peak speed in bytes per * out-traffic-peak-speed: Outbound traffic peak speed in bytes per
second. second.
* discontinuity-time: The time on the most recent occasion at which
any one or more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no
such discontinuities have occurred since the last re-
initialization of the local management subsystem, then this node
contains the time the local management subsystem was re-
initialized.
6.7. NSF Counters 6.7. NSF Counters
NSF counters have the following characteristics: NSF counters have the following characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription or query * acquisition-method: subscription or query
* emission-type: periodic * emission-type: periodic or on-request
* dampening-type: none * dampening-type: no-dampening
6.7.1. Firewall Counter 6.7.1. Firewall Counter
Firewall counters provide visibility into traffic signatures, Firewall counters provide visibility into traffic signatures,
bandwidth usage, and how the configured security and bandwidth bandwidth usage, and how the configured security and bandwidth
policies have been applied. policies have been applied.
* src-ip: Source IP address of traffic. * src-ip: Source IP address of traffic.
* src-user: User who generates the policy. * src-user: The I2NSF User's name who generates the policy.
* dst-ip: Destination IP address of traffic. * dst-ip: Destination IP address of traffic.
* src-port: Source port of traffic. * src-port: Source port of traffic.
* dst-port: Destination port of traffic. * dst-port: Destination port of traffic.
* protocol: Protocol type of traffic. * protocol: Protocol type of traffic.
* app: Application type of traffic. * app: Application type of traffic.
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* out-traffic-peak-rate: Outbound traffic peak rate in packets per * out-traffic-peak-rate: Outbound traffic peak rate in packets per
second. second.
* out-traffic-average-speed: Outbound traffic average speed in bytes * out-traffic-average-speed: Outbound traffic average speed in bytes
per second. per second.
* out-traffic-peak-speed: Outbound traffic peak speed in bytes per * out-traffic-peak-speed: Outbound traffic peak speed in bytes per
second. second.
* discontinuity-time: The time on the most recent occasion at which
any one or more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no
such discontinuities have occurred since the last re-
initialization of the local management subsystem, then this node
contains the time the local management subsystem was re-
initialized.
6.7.2. Policy Hit Counter 6.7.2. Policy Hit Counter
Policy Hit Counters record the security policy that traffic matches Policy Hit Counters record the security policy that traffic matches
and its hit count. It can check if policy configurations are and its hit count. It can check if policy configurations are
correct. correct.
* src-ip: Source IP address of traffic. * src-ip: Source IP address of traffic.
* src-user: User who generates the policy. * src-user: The I2NSF User's name who generates the policy.
* dst-ip: Destination IP address of traffic. * dst-ip: Destination IP address of traffic.
* src-port: Source port of traffic. * src-port: Source port of traffic.
* dst-port: Destination port of traffic. * dst-port: Destination port of traffic.
* protocol: Protocol type of traffic. * protocol: Protocol type of traffic.
* app: Application type of traffic. * app: Application type of traffic.
* policy-id: Security policy id that traffic matches. * policy-id: Security policy id that traffic matches.
* policy-name: Security policy name that traffic matches. * policy-name: Security policy name that traffic matches.
* hit-times: The hit times that the security policy matches the * hit-times: The number of times that the security policy matches
specified traffic. the specified traffic.
7. NSF Monitoring Management in I2NSF
A standard model for monitoring data is required for an administrator
to check the monitoring data generated by an NSF. The administrator
can check the monitoring data through the following process. When
the NSF monitoring data that is under the standard format is
generated, the NSF forwards it to an NSF data collector via the I2NSF
NSF Monitoring Interface. The NSF data collector delivers it to
I2NSF Consumer or Developer's Management System (DMS) so that the
administrator can know the state of the I2NSF framework.
In order to communicate with other components, an I2NSF framework
[RFC8329] requires the interfaces. The three main interfaces in
I2NSF framework are used for sending monitoring data as follows:
* I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]: When an I2NSF User
makes a security policy and forwards it to the Security Controller
via Consumer-Facing Interface, it can specify the threat-feed for
threat prevention, the custom list, the malicious code scan group,
and the event map group. They can be used as an event to be
monitored by an NSF.
* I2NSF Registration Interface
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-registration-interface-dm]: The Network Functions
Virtualization (NFV) architecture provides the lifecycle
management of a Virtual Network Function (VNF) via the Ve-Vnfm
interface. The role of Ve-Vnfm is to request VNF lifecycle
management (e.g., the instantiation and de-instantiation of an
NSF, and load balancing among NSFs), exchange configuration
information, and exchange status information for a network
service. In the I2NSF framework, the DMS manages data about
resource states and network traffic for the lifecycle management
of an NSF. Therefore, the generated monitoring data from NSFs are
delivered from the NSF data collector to the DMS via either
Registration Interface or a new interface (e.g., NSF Monitoring
Interface). These data are delivered from the DMS to the VNF
Manager in the Management and Orchestration (MANO) in the NFV
system [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-applicability].
* I2NSF NSF Monitoring Interface [RFC8329]: After a high-level * discontinuity-time: The time on the most recent occasion at which
security policy from I2NSF User is translated by security policy any one or more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no
translator [I-D.yang-i2nsf-security-policy-translation] in the such discontinuities have occurred since the last re-
Security Controller, the translated security policy (i.e., low- initialization of the local management subsystem, then this node
level policy) is applied to an NSF via NSF-Facing Interface. The contains the time the local management subsystem was re-
monitoring interface data model for an NSF specifies the list of initialized.
events that can trigger Event-Condition-Action (ECA) policies via
NSF Monitoring Interface.
8. Tree Structure 7. YANG Tree Structure of NSF Monitoring YANG Module
The tree structure of the NSF monitoring YANG module is provided The tree structure of the NSF monitoring YANG module is provided
below: below:
module: ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring module: ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring
+--ro i2nsf-counters +--ro i2nsf-counters
| +--ro language? string
| +--ro system-interface* [interface-name] | +--ro system-interface* [interface-name]
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref | | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref | | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro interface-name if:interface-ref | | +--ro interface-name if:interface-ref
| | +--ro in-total-traffic-pkts? yang:counter32 | | +--ro in-total-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64
| | +--ro out-total-traffic-pkts? yang:counter32 | | +--ro out-total-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64
| | +--ro in-total-traffic-bytes? uint64 | | +--ro in-total-traffic-bytes? uint64
| | +--ro out-total-traffic-bytes? uint64 | | +--ro out-total-traffic-bytes? uint64
| | +--ro in-drop-traffic-pkts? yang:counter32 | | +--ro in-drop-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64
| | +--ro out-drop-traffic-pkts? yang:counter32 | | +--ro out-drop-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64
| | +--ro in-drop-traffic-bytes? uint64 | | +--ro in-drop-traffic-bytes? uint64
| | +--ro out-drop-traffic-bytes? uint64 | | +--ro out-drop-traffic-bytes? uint64
| | +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time | | +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time
| | +--ro total-traffic? yang:counter32 | | +--ro total-traffic? yang:counter64
| | +--ro in-traffic-average-rate? uint32 | | +--ro in-traffic-average-rate? uint32
| | +--ro in-traffic-peak-rate? uint32 | | +--ro in-traffic-peak-rate? uint32
| | +--ro in-traffic-average-speed? uint64 | | +--ro in-traffic-average-speed? uint64
| | +--ro in-traffic-peak-speed? uint64 | | +--ro in-traffic-peak-speed? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-average-rate? uint32 | | +--ro out-traffic-average-rate? uint32
| | +--ro out-traffic-peak-rate? uint32 | | +--ro out-traffic-peak-rate? uint32
| | +--ro out-traffic-average-speed? uint64 | | +--ro out-traffic-average-speed? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-peak-speed? uint64 | | +--ro out-traffic-peak-speed? uint64
| | +--ro message? string | | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string | | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union | | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity | | +--ro severity? severity
| | +--ro timestamp? yang:date-and-time | | +--ro timestamp? yang:date-and-time
| +--ro nsf-firewall* [policy-name] | +--ro nsf-firewall* [policy-name]
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref | | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref | | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro policy-name | | +--ro policy-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/system-policy-name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/name
| | +--ro src-user? string | | +--ro src-user? string
| | +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time | | +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time
| | +--ro total-traffic? yang:counter32 | | +--ro total-traffic? yang:counter64
| | +--ro in-traffic-average-rate? uint32 | | +--ro in-traffic-average-rate? uint32
| | +--ro in-traffic-peak-rate? uint32 | | +--ro in-traffic-peak-rate? uint32
| | +--ro in-traffic-average-speed? uint64 | | +--ro in-traffic-average-speed? uint64
| | +--ro in-traffic-peak-speed? uint64 | | +--ro in-traffic-peak-speed? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-average-rate? uint32 | | +--ro out-traffic-average-rate? uint32
| | +--ro out-traffic-peak-rate? uint32 | | +--ro out-traffic-peak-rate? uint32
| | +--ro out-traffic-average-speed? uint64 | | +--ro out-traffic-average-speed? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-peak-speed? uint64 | | +--ro out-traffic-peak-speed? uint64
| | +--ro message? string | | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string | | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union | | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity | | +--ro severity? severity
| | +--ro timestamp? yang:date-and-time | | +--ro timestamp? yang:date-and-time
| +--ro nsf-policy-hits* [policy-name] | +--ro nsf-policy-hits* [policy-name]
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro policy-name | +--ro policy-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/system-policy-name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/name
| +--ro src-user? string | +--ro src-user? string
| +--ro message? string | +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string | +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union | +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity | +--ro severity? severity
| +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time | +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time
| +--ro hit-times? yang:counter32 | +--ro hit-times? yang:counter64
| +--ro timestamp? yang:date-and-time | +--ro timestamp? yang:date-and-time
+--rw i2nsf-monitoring-configuration +--rw i2nsf-monitoring-configuration
+--rw i2nsf-system-detection-alarm +--rw i2nsf-system-detection-alarm
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw system-alarm* [alarm-type] | +--rw system-alarm* [alarm-type]
| +--rw alarm-type enumeration | +--rw alarm-type enumeration
| +--rw threshold? uint8 | +--rw threshold? uint8
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? uint32
+--rw i2nsf-system-detection-event +--rw i2nsf-system-detection-event
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? uint32
+--rw i2nsf-traffic-flows +--rw i2nsf-traffic-flows
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? uint32
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos {i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos}? +--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos {i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos}?
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? uint32
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table-configuration +--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? uint32
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion +--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion}?
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? uint32
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack +--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack}?
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? uint32
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log +--rw i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? uint32
+--rw i2nsf-system-res-util-log +--rw i2nsf-system-res-util-log
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? uint32
+--rw i2nsf-system-user-activity-log +--rw i2nsf-system-user-activity-log
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? uint32
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi {i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi}? +--rw i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi {i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi}?
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? uint32
+--rw i2nsf-counter +--rw i2nsf-counter
+--rw period? uint16 +--rw period? uint16
notifications: notifications:
+---n i2nsf-event +---n i2nsf-event
| +--ro language? string
| +--ro (sub-event-type)? | +--ro (sub-event-type)?
| +--:(i2nsf-system-detection-alarm) | +--:(i2nsf-system-detection-alarm)
| | +--ro i2nsf-system-detection-alarm | | +--ro i2nsf-system-detection-alarm
| | +--ro alarm-category? identityref | | +--ro alarm-category? identityref
| | +--ro component-name? string | | +--ro component-name? string
| | +--ro interface-name? if:interface-ref | | +--ro interface-name? if:interface-ref
| | +--ro interface-state? enumeration | | +--ro interface-state? enumeration
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref | | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref | | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
skipping to change at page 27, line 49 skipping to change at page 29, line 20
| | +--ro severity? severity | | +--ro severity? severity
| +--:(i2nsf-system-detection-event) | +--:(i2nsf-system-detection-event)
| | +--ro i2nsf-system-detection-event | | +--ro i2nsf-system-detection-event
| | +--ro event-category? identityref | | +--ro event-category? identityref
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref | | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref | | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro user string | | +--ro user string
| | +--ro group* string | | +--ro group* string
| | +--ro ip-address inet:ip-address-no-zone | | +--ro ip-address inet:ip-address-no-zone
| | +--ro port-number inet:port-number
| | +--ro authentication? identityref | | +--ro authentication? identityref
| | +--ro message? string | | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string | | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union | | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity | | +--ro severity? severity
| | +--ro changes* [policy-name]
| | +--ro policy-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/name
| +--:(i2nsf-traffic-flows) | +--:(i2nsf-traffic-flows)
| | +--ro i2nsf-traffic-flows | | +--ro i2nsf-traffic-flows
| | +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | | +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| | +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | | +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| | +--ro protocol? identityref | | +--ro protocol? identityref
| | +--ro src-port? inet:port-number | | +--ro src-port? inet:port-number
| | +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number | | +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number
| | +--ro arrival-rate? uint32 | | +--ro arrival-rate? uint32
| | +--ro arrival-speed? uint32
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref | | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref | | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro message? string | | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string | | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union | | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity | | +--ro severity? severity
| +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table) | +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table)
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table
| +--ro current-session? uint32 | +--ro current-session? uint32
| +--ro maximum-session? uint32 | +--ro maximum-session? uint32
| +--ro threshold? uint32 | +--ro threshold? uint32
| +--ro message? string | +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string | +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union | +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity | +--ro severity? severity
+---n i2nsf-log +---n i2nsf-log
| +--ro language? string
| +--ro (sub-logs-type)? | +--ro (sub-logs-type)?
| +--:(i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log) | +--:(i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log)
| | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log | | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log
| | +--ro login-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | | +--ro user string
| | +--ro username? string | | +--ro group* string
| | +--ro login-role? login-role | | +--ro ip-address inet:ip-address-no-zone
| | +--ro port-number inet:port-number
| | +--ro authentication? identityref
| | +--ro operation-type? operation-type | | +--ro operation-type? operation-type
| | +--ro input? string | | +--ro input? string
| | +--ro output? string | | +--ro output? string
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref | | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref | | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro message? string | | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string | | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union | | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity | | +--ro severity? severity
skipping to change at page 29, line 23 skipping to change at page 30, line 51
| | | +--ro in-traffic-speed? uint64 | | | +--ro in-traffic-speed? uint64
| | | +--ro out-traffic-speed? uint64 | | | +--ro out-traffic-speed? uint64
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref | | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref | | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro message? string | | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string | | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union | | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity | | +--ro severity? severity
| +--:(i2nsf-system-user-activity-log) | +--:(i2nsf-system-user-activity-log)
| +--ro i2nsf-system-user-activity-log | | +--ro i2nsf-system-user-activity-log
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro user string
| | +--ro group* string
| | +--ro ip-address inet:ip-address-no-zone
| | +--ro port-number inet:port-number
| | +--ro authentication? identityref
| | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity
| | +--ro online-duration? uint32
| | +--ro logout-duration? uint32
| | +--ro additional-info? enumeration
| +--:(i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi) {i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi}?
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi
| +--ro attack-type? dpi-type
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro user string | +--ro policy-name
| +--ro group* string -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/name
| +--ro ip-address inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro src-user? string
| +--ro authentication? identityref
| +--ro message? string | +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string | +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union | +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity | +--ro severity? severity
| +--ro online-duration? uint32
| +--ro logout-duration? uint32
| +--ro additional-info? enumeration
+---n i2nsf-nsf-event +---n i2nsf-nsf-event
+--ro (sub-event-type)? +--ro (sub-event-type)?
+--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos) {i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos}? +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos) {i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos}?
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos
| +--ro attack-type? identityref | +--ro attack-type? identityref
| +--ro start-time yang:date-and-time | +--ro start-time yang:date-and-time
| +--ro end-time yang:date-and-time | +--ro end-time? yang:date-and-time
| +--ro attack-src-ip* inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro attack-src-ip* inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro attack-dst-ip* inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro attack-dst-ip* inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro attack-src-port* inet:port-number | +--ro attack-src-port* inet:port-number
| +--ro attack-dst-port* inet:port-number | +--ro attack-dst-port* inet:port-number
| +--ro rule-name | +--ro rule-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/rule-name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name
| +--ro raw-info? string
| +--ro attack-rate? uint32 | +--ro attack-rate? uint32
| +--ro attack-speed? uint64 | +--ro attack-speed? uint64
| +--ro action* log-action | +--ro action* log-action
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro message? string | +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string | +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union | +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity | +--ro severity? severity
+--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus) +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus)
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus}?
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus
| +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number | +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro rule-name | +--ro rule-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/rule-name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name
| +--ro raw-info? string
| +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro src-port? inet:port-number | +--ro src-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro src-location? string | +--ro src-location? string
| +--ro dst-location? string | +--ro dst-location? string
| +--ro virus? identityref
| +--ro virus-name? string | +--ro virus-name? string
| +--ro virus-type? identityref
| +--ro host? union
| +--ro file-type? string | +--ro file-type? string
| +--ro file-name? string | +--ro file-name? string
| +--ro os? string | +--ro os? string
| +--ro action* log-action | +--ro action* log-action
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro message? string | +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string | +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union | +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity | +--ro severity? severity
+--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion) +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion)
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion}?
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion
| +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number | +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro rule-name | +--ro rule-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/rule-name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name
| +--ro raw-info? string
| +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro src-port? inet:port-number | +--ro src-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro src-location? string | +--ro src-location? string
| +--ro dst-location? string | +--ro dst-location? string
| +--ro protocol? identityref | +--ro protocol? identityref
| +--ro app? identityref | +--ro app? identityref
| +--ro attack-type? identityref | +--ro attack-type? identityref
| +--ro action* log-action | +--ro action* log-action
| +--ro attack-rate? uint32 | +--ro attack-rate? uint32
| +--ro attack-speed? uint64 | +--ro attack-speed? uint64
skipping to change at page 31, line 22 skipping to change at page 33, line 14
| +--ro message? string | +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string | +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union | +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity | +--ro severity? severity
+--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack) +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack)
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack}?
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack
| +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number | +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro rule-name | +--ro rule-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/rule-name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name
| +--ro raw-info? string
| +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro src-port? inet:port-number | +--ro src-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro src-location? string | +--ro src-location? string
| +--ro dst-location? string | +--ro dst-location? string
| +--ro attack-type? identityref | +--ro attack-type? identityref
| +--ro req-method? identityref | +--ro req-method? identityref
| +--ro req-target? string | +--ro req-target? string
| +--ro filtering-type* identityref | +--ro filtering-type* identityref
| +--ro req-user-agent? string | +--ro req-user-agent? string
| +--ro cookies? string | +--ro cookie? string
| +--ro req-host? string | +--ro req-host? string
| +--ro response-code? string | +--ro response-code? string
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro action* log-action | +--ro action* log-action
| +--ro message? string | +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string | +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union | +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity | +--ro severity? severity
+--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-volte) +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-volte)
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-volte}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-volte}?
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-volte +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-volte
| +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro rule-name +--ro rule-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/rule-name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name
| +--ro raw-info? string +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone +--ro src-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro src-port? inet:port-number +--ro src-location? string
| +--ro src-location? string +--ro dst-location? string
| +--ro dst-location? string +--ro source-voice-id* string
| +--ro source-voice-id* string +--ro destination-voice-id* string
| +--ro destination-voice-id* string +--ro user-agent* string
| +--ro user-agent* string +--ro message? string
+--:(i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi) {i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi}? +--ro vendor-name? string
+--ro i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi +--ro nsf-name? union
+--ro attack-type? dpi-type +--ro severity? severity
+--ro acquisition-method? identityref
+--ro emission-type? identityref
+--ro dampening-type? identityref
+--ro policy-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/system-policy-name
+--ro src-user? string
+--ro message? string
+--ro vendor-name? string
+--ro nsf-name? union
+--ro severity? severity
Figure 1: Information Model for NSF Monitoring Figure 1: NSF Monitoring YANG Module Tree
9. YANG Data Model 8. YANG Data Model of NSF Monitoring YANG Module
This section describes a YANG module of I2NSF NSF Monitoring. The This section describes a YANG module of I2NSF NSF Monitoring. The
data model provided in this document uses identities to be used to data model provided in this document uses identities to be used to
get information of the monitored of an NSF's monitoring data. Every get information of the monitored of an NSF's monitoring data. Every
identity used in the document gives information or status about the identity used in the document gives information or status about the
current situation of an NSF. This YANG module imports from current situation of an NSF. This YANG module imports from
[RFC6991], and makes references to [RFC0768][RFC0791] [RFC6991], [RFC8343], and [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm],
and makes references to [RFC0768][RFC0791]
[RFC0792][RFC0793][RFC0854] [RFC1939][RFC0959][RFC4340] [RFC0792][RFC0793][RFC0854] [RFC1939][RFC0959][RFC4340]
[RFC4443][RFC4960][RFC5321] [RFC6242][RFC6265][RFC7230] [RFC4443][RFC4960][RFC5321] [RFC5646] [RFC6242][RFC6265][RFC7230]
[RFC7231][RFC8200][RFC8641] [RFC9051] [I-D.ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis] [RFC7231][RFC8200] [RFC8641][RFC9051] [I-D.ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis]
[IANA-HTTP-Status-Code] [IANA-Media-Types]. [IANA-HTTP-Status-Code] [IANA-Media-Types].
<CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring@2021-11-17.yang" <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring@2022-01-26.yang"
module ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring { module ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring {
yang-version 1.1; yang-version 1.1;
namespace namespace
"urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring"; "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring";
prefix prefix
nsfmi; nsfmi;
import ietf-inet-types{ import ietf-inet-types{
prefix inet; prefix inet;
reference reference
"Section 4 of RFC 6991"; "Section 4 of RFC 6991";
skipping to change at page 33, line 4 skipping to change at page 34, line 33
module ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring { module ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring {
yang-version 1.1; yang-version 1.1;
namespace namespace
"urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring"; "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring";
prefix prefix
nsfmi; nsfmi;
import ietf-inet-types{ import ietf-inet-types{
prefix inet; prefix inet;
reference reference
"Section 4 of RFC 6991"; "Section 4 of RFC 6991";
} }
import ietf-yang-types { import ietf-yang-types {
prefix yang; prefix yang;
reference reference
"Section 3 of RFC 6991"; "Section 3 of RFC 6991";
} }
import ietf-i2nsf-policy-rule-for-nsf { import ietf-i2nsf-policy-rule-for-nsf {
prefix nsfintf; prefix nsfintf;
reference reference
"Section 4.1 of draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm-14"; "Section 4.1 of draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm-17";
} }
import ietf-interfaces { import ietf-interfaces {
prefix if; prefix if;
reference reference
"Section 5 of RFC 8343"; "Section 5 of RFC 8343";
} }
organization organization
"IETF I2NSF (Interface to Network Security Functions) "IETF I2NSF (Interface to Network Security Functions)
Working Group"; Working Group";
contact contact
"WG Web: <https://tools.ietf.org/wg/i2nsf> "WG Web: <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/i2nsf>
WG List: <mailto:i2nsf@ietf.org> WG List: <mailto:i2nsf@ietf.org>
Editor: Jaehoon Paul Jeong Editor: Jaehoon Paul Jeong
<mailto:pauljeong@skku.edu> <mailto:pauljeong@skku.edu>
Editor: Patrick Lingga Editor: Patrick Lingga
<mailto:patricklink@skku.edu>"; <mailto:patricklink@skku.edu>";
description description
"This module is a YANG module for I2NSF NSF Monitoring. "This module is a YANG module for I2NSF NSF Monitoring.
The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL',
'SHALL NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'SHALL NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED',
'NOT RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this 'NOT RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this
document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14
(RFC 2119) (RFC 8174) when, and only when, they appear (RFC 2119) (RFC 8174) when, and only when, they appear
in all capitals, as shown here. in all capitals, as shown here.
Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
authors of the code. All rights reserved. authors of the code. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to
the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License set the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License set
forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
Relating to IETF Documents Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info). (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX
(https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfcXXXX); see the RFC itself (https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfcXXXX); see the RFC itself
for full legal notices."; for full legal notices.";
revision "2021-11-17" { revision "2022-01-26" {
description "Latest revision"; description "Latest revision";
reference reference
"RFC XXXX: I2NSF NSF Monitoring Interface YANG Data Model"; "RFC XXXX: I2NSF NSF Monitoring Interface YANG Data Model";
// RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with an actual RFC number and remove // RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with an actual RFC number and remove
// this note. // this note.
} }
/* /*
* Typedefs * Typedefs
skipping to change at page 38, line 23 skipping to change at page 40, line 6
identity periodic { identity periodic {
base emission-type; base emission-type;
description description
"The emission-type type is periodic."; "The emission-type type is periodic.";
} }
identity on-change { identity on-change {
base emission-type; base emission-type;
description description
"The emission-type type is on-change."; "The emission-type type is on-change.";
} }
identity on-request {
base emission-type;
description
"The emission-type type is on-request.";
}
identity dampening-type { identity dampening-type {
base characteristics; base characteristics;
description description
"The type of message dampening to stop the rapid transmission "The type of message dampening to stop the rapid transmission
of messages. The dampening types are on-repetition and of messages. The dampening types are on-repetition and
no-dampening"; no-dampening";
} }
identity no-dampening { identity no-dampening {
base dampening-type; base dampening-type;
description description
skipping to change at page 42, line 43 skipping to change at page 44, line 31
system-log web-attack."; system-log web-attack.";
} }
identity command-injection { identity command-injection {
base web-attack-type; base web-attack-type;
description description
"The detected web attack type is command injection."; "The detected web attack type is command injection.";
} }
identity xss { identity xss {
base web-attack-type; base web-attack-type;
description description
"The detected web attack type is XSS."; "The detected web attack type is Cross Site Scripting (XSS).";
} }
identity csrf { identity csrf {
base web-attack-type; base web-attack-type;
description description
"The detected web attack type is CSRF."; "The detected web attack type is Cross Site Request Forgery.";
} }
identity ddos-type { identity ddos-type {
base nsf-attack-type; base nsf-attack-type;
description description
"Base identity for detectable flood types"; "Base identity for detectable flood types";
} }
identity syn-flood { identity syn-flood {
base ddos-type; base ddos-type;
description description
skipping to change at page 49, line 37 skipping to change at page 51, line 25
identity smtp { identity smtp {
base application-protocol; base application-protocol;
description description
"The identity for smtp."; "The identity for smtp.";
reference reference
"RFC 5321: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)"; "RFC 5321: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)";
} }
identity pop3 { identity pop3 {
base application-protocol; base application-protocol;
description description
"The identity for pop3."; "The identity for pop3. This includes POP3 over TLS";
reference reference
"RFC 1939: Post Office Protocol - Version 3 (POP3)"; "RFC 1939: Post Office Protocol - Version 3 (POP3)";
} }
identity imap { identity imap {
base application-protocol; base application-protocol;
description description
"The identity for Internet Message Access Protocol."; "The identity for Internet Message Access Protocol. This
includes IMAP over TLS";
reference reference
"RFC 9051: Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) - Version "RFC 9051: Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) - Version
4rev2"; 4rev2";
} }
/* /*
* Grouping * Grouping
*/ */
grouping timestamp { grouping timestamp {
skipping to change at page 52, line 5 skipping to change at page 53, line 41
} }
units "percent"; units "percent";
description description
"The threshold percentage triggering the alarm or "The threshold percentage triggering the alarm or
the event"; the event";
} }
} }
grouping i2nsf-system-event-type-content { grouping i2nsf-system-event-type-content {
description description
"System event metadata associated with system events "System event metadata associated with system events
caused by user activity."; caused by user activity. This can be extended to provide
additional information.";
leaf user { leaf user {
type string; type string;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The name of a user"; "The name of a user";
} }
leaf-list group { leaf-list group {
type string; type string;
min-elements 1;
description description
"The group(s) to which a user belongs."; "The group(s) to which a user belongs.";
} }
leaf ip-address { leaf ip-address {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The IPv4 (or IPv6) address of a user that trigger the "The IPv4 (or IPv6) address of a user that trigger the
event."; event.";
} }
leaf port-number {
type inet:port-number;
mandatory true;
description
"The port number used by the user.";
}
leaf authentication { leaf authentication {
type identityref { type identityref {
base authentication-mode; base authentication-mode;
} }
description description
"The authentication-mode of a user."; "The authentication-mode of a user.";
} }
} }
grouping i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content { grouping i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content {
description description
skipping to change at page 52, line 50 skipping to change at page 54, line 46
} }
leaf dst-port { leaf dst-port {
type inet:port-number; type inet:port-number;
description description
"The destination port of the packet"; "The destination port of the packet";
} }
leaf rule-name { leaf rule-name {
type leafref { type leafref {
path path
"/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy" "/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy"
+"/nsfintf:rules/nsfintf:rule-name"; +"/nsfintf:rules/nsfintf:name";
} }
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered"; "The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered";
} }
leaf raw-info {
type string;
description
"The information describing the packet
triggering the event.";
}
} }
grouping i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend { grouping i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend {
description description
"A set of extended common IPv4 (or IPv6)-related NSF "A set of extended common IPv4 (or IPv6)-related NSF
event content elements"; event content elements";
uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content; uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content;
leaf src-ip { leaf src-ip {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
description description
"The source IPv4 (or IPv6) address of the packet or flow"; "The source IPv4 (or IPv6) address of the packet or flow";
skipping to change at page 54, line 38 skipping to change at page 56, line 27
} }
} }
grouping traffic-rates { grouping traffic-rates {
description description
"A set of traffic rates for statistics data"; "A set of traffic rates for statistics data";
leaf discontinuity-time { leaf discontinuity-time {
type yang:date-and-time; type yang:date-and-time;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The time on the most recent occasion at which any one or "The time on the most recent occasion at which any one or
more of this interface's counters suffered a discontinuity. more of the counters suffered a discontinuity.
If no such discontinuities have occurred since the last If no such discontinuities have occurred since the last
re-initialization of the local management subsystem, then re-initialization of the local management subsystem, then
this node contains the time the local management subsystem this node contains the time the local management subsystem
re-initialized itself."; was re-initialized.";
} }
leaf total-traffic { leaf total-traffic {
type yang:counter32; type yang:counter64;
units "packets"; units "packets";
description description
"The total number of traffic packets (in and out) in the "The total number of traffic packets (in and out) in the
NSF."; NSF.";
} }
leaf in-traffic-average-rate { leaf in-traffic-average-rate {
type uint32; type uint32;
units "pps"; units "pps";
description description
"Inbound traffic average rate in packets per second (pps). "Inbound traffic average rate in packets per second (pps).
skipping to change at page 56, line 14 skipping to change at page 58, line 4
leaf out-traffic-peak-speed { leaf out-traffic-peak-speed {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "Bps"; units "Bps";
description description
"Outbound traffic peak speed in bytes per second (Bps)."; "Outbound traffic peak speed in bytes per second (Bps).";
} }
} }
grouping i2nsf-system-counter-type-content{ grouping i2nsf-system-counter-type-content{
description description
"A set of counters for an interface traffic data."; "A set of counters for an interface traffic data.";
leaf interface-name { leaf interface-name {
type if:interface-ref; type if:interface-ref;
description description
"Network interface name configured in an NSF"; "Network interface name configured in an NSF";
reference reference
"RFC 8343: A YANG Data Model for Interface Management"; "RFC 8343: A YANG Data Model for Interface Management";
} }
leaf in-total-traffic-pkts { leaf in-total-traffic-pkts {
type yang:counter32; type yang:counter64;
description description
"Total inbound packets"; "Total inbound packets";
} }
leaf out-total-traffic-pkts { leaf out-total-traffic-pkts {
type yang:counter32; type yang:counter64;
description description
"Total outbound packets"; "Total outbound packets";
} }
leaf in-total-traffic-bytes { leaf in-total-traffic-bytes {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "bytes"; units "bytes";
description description
"Total inbound bytes"; "Total inbound bytes";
} }
leaf out-total-traffic-bytes { leaf out-total-traffic-bytes {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "bytes"; units "bytes";
description description
"Total outbound bytes"; "Total outbound bytes";
} }
leaf in-drop-traffic-pkts { leaf in-drop-traffic-pkts {
type yang:counter32; type yang:counter64;
description description
"Total inbound drop packets"; "Total inbound drop packets";
} }
leaf out-drop-traffic-pkts { leaf out-drop-traffic-pkts {
type yang:counter32; type yang:counter64;
description description
"Total outbound drop packets"; "Total outbound drop packets";
} }
leaf in-drop-traffic-bytes { leaf in-drop-traffic-bytes {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "bytes"; units "bytes";
description description
"Total inbound drop bytes"; "Total inbound drop bytes";
} }
leaf out-drop-traffic-bytes { leaf out-drop-traffic-bytes {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "bytes"; units "bytes";
skipping to change at page 57, line 28 skipping to change at page 59, line 17
uses traffic-rates; uses traffic-rates;
} }
grouping i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content{ grouping i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content{
description description
"A set of contents of a policy in an NSF."; "A set of contents of a policy in an NSF.";
leaf policy-name { leaf policy-name {
type leafref { type leafref {
path path
"/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy" "/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy"
+"/nsfintf:system-policy-name"; +"/nsfintf:name";
} }
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The name of the policy being triggered"; "The name of the policy being triggered";
} }
leaf src-user{ leaf src-user{
type string; type string;
description description
"The I2NSF User's name who generates the policy."; "The I2NSF User's name who generates the policy.";
} }
skipping to change at page 59, line 29 skipping to change at page 61, line 19
notification"; notification";
} }
/* /*
* Notification nodes * Notification nodes
*/ */
notification i2nsf-event { notification i2nsf-event {
description description
"Notification for I2NSF Event."; "Notification for I2NSF Event.";
leaf language {
type string {
pattern
"^((en-GB-oed|i-ami|i-bnn|i-default|"
+ "i-enochian|i-hak|i-klingon|i-lux|i-mingo|i-navajo|i-pwn|"
+ "i-tao|i-tay|i-tsu|sgn-BE-FR|sgn-BE-NL|sgn-CH-DE)|"
+ "(art-lojban|cel-gaulish|no-bok|no-nyn|zh-guoyu|zh-hakka|"
+ "zh-min|zh-min-nan|zh-xiang)|"
+ "(([A-Za-z]{2,3}(-[A-Za-z]{3}(-[A-Za-z]{3}){0,2})?)|"
+ "[A-Za-z]{4}|[A-Za-z]{5,8}"
+ "(-[A-Za-z]{4})?"
+ "(-[A-Za-z]{2}|[0-9]{3})?"
+ "(-[A-Za-z0-9]{5,8}|[0-9][A-Za-z0-9]{3})*"
+ "(-[0-9A-WY-Za-wy-z](-[A-Za-z0-9]{2,8})+)*"
+ "(-x(-[A-Za-z0-9]{1,8})+)?)|"
+ "x(-[A-Za-z0-9]{1,8})+)$";
}
description
"The value in this field describes the human language
intended for the user, so that it allows a user to
differentiate the language that is used in the
notification. This field is not mandatory, but required
when the implementation provides more than one human
language for the human-readable string fields,
e.g., /i2nsf-nsf-event/i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos/message.
This field uses the language-tag production in Section 2.1
in RFC 5646. See the document for more details.";
reference
"RFC 5646: Tags for Identifying Languages";
}
choice sub-event-type { choice sub-event-type {
description description
"This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed "This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed
sub-event. Only 1 sub-event will be instantiated in each sub-event. Only 1 sub-event will be instantiated in each
i2nsf-event message. Each case is expected to define one i2nsf-event message. Each case is expected to define one
container with all the sub-event fields."; container with all the sub-event fields.";
case i2nsf-system-detection-alarm { case i2nsf-system-detection-alarm {
container i2nsf-system-detection-alarm{ container i2nsf-system-detection-alarm{
description description
"This notification is sent, when a system alarm "This notification is sent, when a system alarm
skipping to change at page 61, line 4 skipping to change at page 63, line 29
container i2nsf-system-detection-event { container i2nsf-system-detection-event {
description description
"This notification is sent when a security-sensitive "This notification is sent when a security-sensitive
authentication action fails."; authentication action fails.";
leaf event-category { leaf event-category {
type identityref { type identityref {
base system-event; base system-event;
} }
description description
"The event category for system-detection-event"; "The event category for system-detection-event";
} }
uses characteristics; uses characteristics;
uses i2nsf-system-event-type-content; uses i2nsf-system-event-type-content;
uses common-monitoring-data; uses common-monitoring-data;
list changes {
key policy-name;
description
"Describes the modification that was made to the
configuration. The minimum information that must be
provided is the name of the policy that has been
altered (added, modified, or removed).
This list can be extended with the detailed
information about the specific changes made to the
configuration based on the implementation.";
leaf policy-name {
type leafref {
path
"/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy"
+"/nsfintf:name";
}
description
"The name of the policy configuration that has been
added, modified, or removed.";
}
}
} }
} }
case i2nsf-traffic-flows { case i2nsf-traffic-flows {
container i2nsf-traffic-flows { container i2nsf-traffic-flows {
description description
"This notification is sent to inform about the traffic "This notification is sent to inform about the traffic
flows."; flows.";
leaf src-ip { leaf src-ip {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
skipping to change at page 62, line 4 skipping to change at page 64, line 51
"The destination port of the flow"; "The destination port of the flow";
} }
leaf arrival-rate { leaf arrival-rate {
type uint32; type uint32;
units "pps"; units "pps";
description description
"The average arrival rate of the flow in packets per "The average arrival rate of the flow in packets per
second. The average is calculated from the start of second. The average is calculated from the start of
the NSF service until the generation of this the NSF service until the generation of this
record."; record.";
}
leaf arrival-speed {
type uint32;
units "Bps";
description
"The average arrival rate of the flow in bytes per
second. The average is calculated from the start of
the NSF service until the generation of this
record.";
} }
uses characteristics; uses characteristics;
uses common-monitoring-data; uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
case i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table { case i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table {
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table {
description description
"This notification is sent, when a session table "This notification is sent, when a session table
skipping to change at page 62, line 42 skipping to change at page 65, line 49
uses common-monitoring-data; uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
} }
} }
notification i2nsf-log { notification i2nsf-log {
description description
"Notification for I2NSF log. The notification is generated "Notification for I2NSF log. The notification is generated
from the logs of the NSF."; from the logs of the NSF.";
leaf language {
type string {
pattern
"^((en-GB-oed|i-ami|i-bnn|i-default|"
+ "i-enochian|i-hak|i-klingon|i-lux|i-mingo|i-navajo|i-pwn|"
+ "i-tao|i-tay|i-tsu|sgn-BE-FR|sgn-BE-NL|sgn-CH-DE)|"
+ "(art-lojban|cel-gaulish|no-bok|no-nyn|zh-guoyu|zh-hakka|"
+ "zh-min|zh-min-nan|zh-xiang)|"
+ "(([A-Za-z]{2,3}(-[A-Za-z]{3}(-[A-Za-z]{3}){0,2})?)|"
+ "[A-Za-z]{4}|[A-Za-z]{5,8}"
+ "(-[A-Za-z]{4})?"
+ "(-[A-Za-z]{2}|[0-9]{3})?"
+ "(-[A-Za-z0-9]{5,8}|[0-9][A-Za-z0-9]{3})*"
+ "(-[0-9A-WY-Za-wy-z](-[A-Za-z0-9]{2,8})+)*"
+ "(-x(-[A-Za-z0-9]{1,8})+)?)|"
+ "x(-[A-Za-z0-9]{1,8})+)$";
}
description
"The value in this field describes the human language
intended for the user, so that it allows a user to
differentiate the language that is used in the
notification. This field is not mandatory, but required
when the implementation provides more than one human
language for the human-readable string fields,
e.g., /i2nsf-nsf-log/i2nsf-system-res-util-log/message.
This field uses the language-tag production in Section 2.1
in RFC 5646. See the document for more details.";
reference
"RFC 5646: Tags for Identifying Languages";
}
choice sub-logs-type { choice sub-logs-type {
description description
"This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed "This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed
sub-logs. Only 1 sub-event will be instantiated in each sub-logs. Only 1 sub-event will be instantiated in each
i2nsf-logs message. Each case is expected to define one i2nsf-logs message. Each case is expected to define one
container with all the sub-logs fields."; container with all the sub-logs fields.";
case i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log { case i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log {
container i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log { container i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log {
description description
"The notification is sent, if there is a new system "The notification is sent, if there is a new system
log entry about a system access event."; log entry about a system access event.";
uses i2nsf-system-event-type-content;
leaf login-ip {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
description
"Login IP address of a user";
}
leaf username {
type string;
description
"The login username that maintains the device";
}
leaf login-role {
type login-role;
description
"The login role to specify the privilege level of the
user account, e.g., administrator, user, or guest.";
}
leaf operation-type { leaf operation-type {
type operation-type; type operation-type;
description description
"The operation type that the user executes"; "The operation type that the user executes";
} }
leaf input { leaf input {
type string; type string;
description description
"The operation performed by a user after login. The "The operation performed by a user after login. The
operation is a command given by a user."; operation is a command given by a user.";
skipping to change at page 65, line 48 skipping to change at page 69, line 26
type uint32; type uint32;
units "pps"; units "pps";
description description
"The total outbound traffic rate in packets per "The total outbound traffic rate in packets per
second"; second";
} }
leaf in-traffic-speed { leaf in-traffic-speed {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "Bps"; units "Bps";
description description
"The total inbound traffic speed in bytes per second"; "The total inbound traffic speed in bytes per
second";
} }
leaf out-traffic-speed { leaf out-traffic-speed {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "Bps"; units "Bps";
description description
"The total outbound traffic speed in bytes per "The total outbound traffic speed in bytes per
second"; second";
} }
} }
uses characteristics; uses characteristics;
skipping to change at page 67, line 32 skipping to change at page 71, line 10
} }
} }
description description
"User activities, e.g., Successful User Login, "User activities, e.g., Successful User Login,
Failed Login attempts, User Logout, Successful User Failed Login attempts, User Logout, Successful User
Password Change, Failed User Password Change, User Password Change, Failed User Password Change, User
Lockout, User Unlocking, and Unknown."; Lockout, User Unlocking, and Unknown.";
} }
} }
} }
case i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi";
container i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi {
description
"This notification is sent, if there is a new DPI
event in the NSF log.";
leaf attack-type {
type dpi-type;
description
"The type of the DPI";
}
uses characteristics;
uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content;
uses common-monitoring-data;
}
}
} }
} }
notification i2nsf-nsf-event { notification i2nsf-nsf-event {
description description
"Notification for I2NSF NSF Event. This notification is "Notification for I2NSF NSF Event. This notification is
used for a specific NSF that supported such feature."; used for a specific NSF that supported such feature.";
choice sub-event-type { choice sub-event-type {
description description
"This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed "This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed
skipping to change at page 68, line 21 skipping to change at page 72, line 16
flood, etc."; flood, etc.";
} }
leaf start-time { leaf start-time {
type yang:date-and-time; type yang:date-and-time;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The time stamp indicating when the attack started"; "The time stamp indicating when the attack started";
} }
leaf end-time { leaf end-time {
type yang:date-and-time; type yang:date-and-time;
mandatory true;
description description
"The time stamp indicating when the attack ended"; "The time stamp indicating when the attack ended. If
the attack is still undergoing when sending out the
notification, this field can be empty.";
} }
leaf-list attack-src-ip { leaf-list attack-src-ip {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
description description
"The source IPv4 (or IPv6) addresses of attack "The source IPv4 (or IPv6) addresses of attack
traffic. It can hold multiple IPv4 (or IPv6) traffic. It can hold multiple IPv4 (or IPv6)
addresses."; addresses.";
} }
leaf-list attack-dst-ip { leaf-list attack-dst-ip {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
skipping to change at page 69, line 5 skipping to change at page 72, line 49
} }
leaf-list attack-dst-port { leaf-list attack-dst-port {
type inet:port-number; type inet:port-number;
description description
"The destination ports of the DDoS attack"; "The destination ports of the DDoS attack";
} }
leaf rule-name { leaf rule-name {
type leafref { type leafref {
path path
"/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy" "/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy"
+"/nsfintf:rules/nsfintf:rule-name"; +"/nsfintf:rules/nsfintf:name";
} }
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered"; "The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered";
} }
leaf raw-info {
type string;
description
"The information describing the packet
triggering the event.";
}
uses attack-rates; uses attack-rates;
uses log-action; uses log-action;
uses characteristics; uses characteristics;
uses common-monitoring-data; uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
case i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus { case i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus";
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus {
description description
"This notification is sent, when a virus is detected."; "This notification is sent, when a virus is detected.";
uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend; uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend;
leaf virus { leaf virus-name {
type string;
description
"The name of the detected virus";
}
leaf virus-type {
type identityref { type identityref {
base virus-type; base virus-type;
} }
description description
"The virus type for nsf-detection-virus notification"; "The virus type of the detected virus";
} }
leaf virus-name { leaf host {
type string; type union {
type string;
type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
}
description description
"The name of the detected virus"; "The name or IP address of the host/device. This is
used to identify the host/device that is infected by
the virus. If the given name is not IP address, the
name can be an arbitrary string including FQDN
(Fully Qualified Domain Name). The name MUST be unique
in the scope of management domain for identifying the
device that has been infected with a virus.";
} }
leaf file-type { leaf file-type {
type string; type string;
description description
"The type of file virus code is found in (if "The type of file virus code is found in (if
applicable)."; applicable).";
reference reference
"IANA Website: Media Types"; "IANA Website: Media Types";
} }
leaf file-name { leaf file-name {
skipping to change at page 72, line 7 skipping to change at page 76, line 12
and Unknown"; and Unknown";
} }
leaf req-user-agent { leaf req-user-agent {
type string; type string;
description description
"The HTTP User-Agent header field of the request"; "The HTTP User-Agent header field of the request";
reference reference
"RFC 7231: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): "RFC 7231: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1):
Semantics and Content - User Agent"; Semantics and Content - User Agent";
} }
leaf cookies { leaf cookie {
type string; type string;
description description
"The HTTP Set-Cookie header field of the response"; "The HTTP Cookie header field of the request from
the user agent.";
reference reference
"RFC 6265: HTTP State Management Mechanism - "RFC 6265: HTTP State Management Mechanism - Cookie";
Set-Cookie";
} }
leaf req-host { leaf req-host {
type string; type string;
description description
"The HTTP Host header field of the request"; "The HTTP Host header field of the request";
reference reference
"RFC 7230: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): "RFC 7230: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1):
Message Syntax and Routing - Host"; Message Syntax and Routing - Host";
} }
leaf response-code { leaf response-code {
skipping to change at page 73, line 13 skipping to change at page 77, line 18
description description
"The detected destination voice ID for VoIP and VoLTE "The detected destination voice ID for VoIP and VoLTE
that violates the security policy."; that violates the security policy.";
} }
leaf-list user-agent { leaf-list user-agent {
type string; type string;
description description
"The detected user-agent for VoIP and VoLTE that "The detected user-agent for VoIP and VoLTE that
violates the security policy."; violates the security policy.";
} }
}
}
case i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi";
container i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi {
description
"This notification is sent, if there is a new DPI
event in the NSF log.";
leaf attack-type {
type dpi-type;
description
"The type of the DPI";
}
uses characteristics;
uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content;
uses common-monitoring-data; uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
} }
} }
/* /*
* Data nodes * Data nodes
*/ */
container i2nsf-counters { container i2nsf-counters {
config false; config false;
description description
"The state data representing continuous value changes of "The state data representing continuous value changes of
information elements that occur very frequently. The value information elements that occur very frequently. The value
should be calculated from the start of the service of the should be calculated from the start of the service of the
NSF."; NSF.";
leaf language {
type string {
pattern
"^((en-GB-oed|i-ami|i-bnn|i-default|"
+ "i-enochian|i-hak|i-klingon|i-lux|i-mingo|i-navajo|i-pwn|"
+ "i-tao|i-tay|i-tsu|sgn-BE-FR|sgn-BE-NL|sgn-CH-DE)|"
+ "(art-lojban|cel-gaulish|no-bok|no-nyn|zh-guoyu|zh-hakka|"
+ "zh-min|zh-min-nan|zh-xiang)|"
+ "(([A-Za-z]{2,3}(-[A-Za-z]{3}(-[A-Za-z]{3}){0,2})?)|"
+ "[A-Za-z]{4}|[A-Za-z]{5,8}"
+ "(-[A-Za-z]{4})?"
+ "(-[A-Za-z]{2}|[0-9]{3})?"
+ "(-[A-Za-z0-9]{5,8}|[0-9][A-Za-z0-9]{3})*"
+ "(-[0-9A-WY-Za-wy-z](-[A-Za-z0-9]{2,8})+)*"
+ "(-x(-[A-Za-z0-9]{1,8})+)?)|"
+ "x(-[A-Za-z0-9]{1,8})+)$";
}
description
"The value in this field describes the human language
intended for the user, so that it allows a user to
differentiate the language that is used in the
notification. This field is not mandatory, but required
when the implementation provides more than one human
language for the human-readable string fields,
e.g., /i2nsf-counters/system-interface/message.
This field uses the language-tag production in Section 2.1
in RFC 5646. See the document for more details.";
reference
"RFC 5646: Tags for Identifying Languages";
}
list system-interface { list system-interface {
key interface-name; key interface-name;
description description
"Interface counters provide the visibility of traffic into "Interface counters provide the visibility of traffic into
and out of an NSF, and bandwidth usage."; and out of an NSF, and bandwidth usage.";
uses characteristics; uses characteristics;
uses i2nsf-system-counter-type-content; uses i2nsf-system-counter-type-content;
uses common-monitoring-data; uses common-monitoring-data;
uses timestamp; uses timestamp;
} }
list nsf-firewall { list nsf-firewall {
key policy-name; key policy-name;
description description
"Firewall counters provide the visibility of traffic "Firewall counters provide the visibility of traffic
signatures, bandwidth usage, and how the configured security signatures, bandwidth usage, and how the configured security
and bandwidth policies have been applied."; and bandwidth policies have been applied.";
uses characteristics; uses characteristics;
uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content; uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content;
uses traffic-rates; uses traffic-rates;
skipping to change at page 74, line 32 skipping to change at page 79, line 6
packets match a security policy. It can check if policy packets match a security policy. It can check if policy
configurations are correct or not."; configurations are correct or not.";
uses characteristics; uses characteristics;
uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content; uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content;
uses common-monitoring-data; uses common-monitoring-data;
leaf discontinuity-time { leaf discontinuity-time {
type yang:date-and-time; type yang:date-and-time;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The time on the most recent occasion at which any one or "The time on the most recent occasion at which any one or
more of this interface's counters suffered a discontinuity. more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no such
If no such discontinuities have occurred since the last discontinuities have occurred since the last
re-initialization of the local management subsystem, then re-initialization of the local management subsystem, then
this node contains the time the local management subsystem this node contains the time the local management subsystem
re-initialized itself."; was re-initialized.";
} }
leaf hit-times { leaf hit-times {
type yang:counter32; type yang:counter64;
description description
"The number of times a policy is hit"; "The number of times that the security policy matches the
specified traffic.";
} }
uses timestamp; uses timestamp;
} }
} }
container i2nsf-monitoring-configuration { container i2nsf-monitoring-configuration {
description description
"The container for configuring I2NSF monitoring."; "The container for configuring I2NSF monitoring.";
container i2nsf-system-detection-alarm { container i2nsf-system-detection-alarm {
description description
skipping to change at page 76, line 28 skipping to change at page 80, line 52
uses enable-notification; uses enable-notification;
} }
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos";
description description
"The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-ddos "The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-ddos
notification"; notification";
uses enable-notification; uses enable-notification;
uses dampening; uses dampening;
} }
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table-configuration { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table {
description description
"The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-session- "The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-session-
table notification"; table notification";
uses enable-notification; uses enable-notification;
uses dampening; uses dampening;
} }
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion";
description description
"The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-intrusion "The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-intrusion
skipping to change at page 78, line 5 skipping to change at page 82, line 29
If value is not 0, then the counter will be reported If value is not 0, then the counter will be reported
following the period value."; following the period value.";
} }
} }
} }
} }
<CODE ENDS> <CODE ENDS>
Figure 2: Data Model of Monitoring Figure 2: Data Model of Monitoring
10. I2NSF Event Stream 9. I2NSF Event Stream
This section discusses the NETCONF event stream for I2NSF NSF This section discusses the NETCONF event stream for I2NSF NSF
Monitoring subscription. The YANG module in this document supports Monitoring subscription. The YANG module in this document supports
"ietf-subscribed-notifications" YANG module [RFC8639] for "ietf-subscribed-notifications" YANG module [RFC8639] for
subscription. The reserved event stream name for this document is subscription. The reserved event stream name for this document is
"I2NSF-Monitoring". The NETCONF Server (e.g., an NSF) MUST support "I2NSF-Monitoring". The NETCONF Server (e.g., an NSF) MUST support
"I2NSF-Monitoring" event stream for an NSF data collector (e.g., "I2NSF-Monitoring" event stream for an NSF data collector (e.g.,
Security Controller). The "I2NSF-Monitoring" event stream contains Security Controller). The "I2NSF-Monitoring" event stream contains
all I2NSF events described in this document. The following example all I2NSF events described in this document.
shows the capabilities of the event streams of an NSF (e.g.,
"NETCONF" and "I2NSF-Monitoring" event streams) by the subscription The following XML example shows the capabilities of the event streams
of an NSF data collector; note that this example XML file is generated by an NSF (e.g., "NETCONF" and "I2NSF-Monitoring" event
delivered by an NSF to an NSF data collector. The XML examples in streams) for the subscription of an NSF data collector. Refer to
this document follow the line breaks as per [RFC8792]. [RFC5277] for more detailed explanation of Event Streams. The XML
examples in this document follow the line breaks as per [RFC8792].
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<rpc-reply message-id="1" <rpc-reply message-id="1"
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">
<data> <data>
<netconf xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netmod:notification"> <netconf xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netmod:notification">
<streams> <streams>
<stream> <stream>
<name>NETCONF</name> <name>NETCONF</name>
<description>Default NETCONF Event Stream</description> <description>Default NETCONF Event Stream</description>
skipping to change at page 79, line 5 skipping to change at page 83, line 32
</replayLogCreationTime> </replayLogCreationTime>
</stream> </stream>
</streams> </streams>
</netconf> </netconf>
</data> </data>
</rpc-reply> </rpc-reply>
Figure 3: Example of NETCONF Server supporting I2NSF-Monitoring Figure 3: Example of NETCONF Server supporting I2NSF-Monitoring
Event Stream Event Stream
11. XML Examples for I2NSF NSF Monitoring 10. XML Examples for I2NSF NSF Monitoring
This section shows the XML examples of I2NSF NSF Monitoring data This section shows XML examples of I2NSF NSF Monitoring data
delivered via Monitoring Interface from an NSF. delivered via Monitoring Interface from an NSF. In order for the XML
data to be used correctly, the prefix (i.e., the characters before
the colon or 'nsfmi' in the example) in the content of the element
that uses the "identityref" type (e.g., /i2nsf-event/i2nsf-system-
detection-alarm/alarm-category/) in the YANG module described in this
document MUST be the same as the namespace prefix (i.e., 'nsfmi' in
the example) for urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-
monitoring. Therefore, XML software MUST be chosen that makes the
namespace prefix information available.
11.1. I2NSF System Detection Alarm 10.1. I2NSF System Detection Alarm
The following example shows an alarm triggered by Memory Usage of the The following example shows an alarm triggered by Memory Usage of the
server; note that this example XML file is delivered by an NSF to an server; note that this example XML file is delivered by an NSF to an
NSF data collector: NSF data collector:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<notification <notification
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:notification:1.0"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:notification:1.0">
<eventTime>2021-04-29T07:43:52.181088+00:00</eventTime> <eventTime>2021-04-29T07:43:52.181088+00:00</eventTime>
<i2nsf-event <i2nsf-event
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
<i2nsf-system-detection-alarm> <i2nsf-system-detection-alarm>
<alarm-category <alarm-category
xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\ xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\
ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring"> ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
nsfmi:memory-alarm nsfmi:memory-alarm
</alarm-category> </alarm-category>
<acquisition-method <acquisition-method
xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\ xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\
ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring"> ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
nsfmi:subscription nsfmi:subscription
</acquisition-method> </acquisition-method>
<emission-type <emission-type
xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\ xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\
ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring"> ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
skipping to change at page 80, line 26 skipping to change at page 85, line 15
4. The monitoring information is emitted "on-change". 4. The monitoring information is emitted "on-change".
5. The monitoring information is dampened "on-repetition". 5. The monitoring information is dampened "on-repetition".
6. The memory usage of the NSF is 91 percent. 6. The memory usage of the NSF is 91 percent.
7. The memory threshold to trigger the alarm is 90 percent. 7. The memory threshold to trigger the alarm is 90 percent.
8. The severity level of the notification is high. 8. The severity level of the notification is high.
11.2. I2NSF Interface Counters 10.2. I2NSF Interface Counters
To get the I2NSF system interface counters information by query, To get the I2NSF system interface counters information by query,
NETCONF Client (e.g., NSF data collector) needs to initiate GET NETCONF Client (e.g., NSF data collector) needs to initiate GET
connection with NETCONF Server (e.g., NSF). The following XML file connection with NETCONF Server (e.g., NSF). The following XML file
can be used to get the state data and filter the information. can be used to get the state data and filter the information.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<rpc xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0" message-id="1"> <rpc xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0" message-id="1">
<get> <get>
<filter <filter
skipping to change at page 82, line 5 skipping to change at page 87, line 5
<in-drop-traffic-bytes>0</in-drop-traffic-bytes> <in-drop-traffic-bytes>0</in-drop-traffic-bytes>
<out-drop-traffic-bytes>0</out-drop-traffic-bytes> <out-drop-traffic-bytes>0</out-drop-traffic-bytes>
<nsf-name>time_based_firewall</nsf-name> <nsf-name>time_based_firewall</nsf-name>
</system-interface> </system-interface>
</i2nsf-counters> </i2nsf-counters>
</data> </data>
</rpc-reply> </rpc-reply>
Figure 6: Example of I2NSF System Interface Counters XML Information Figure 6: Example of I2NSF System Interface Counters XML Information
12. IANA Considerations 11. IANA Considerations
This document requests IANA to register the following URI in the This document requests IANA to register the following URI in the
"IETF XML Registry" [RFC3688]: "IETF XML Registry" [RFC3688]:
URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring
Registrant Contact: The IESG. Registrant Contact: The IESG.
XML: N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace. XML: N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace.
This document requests IANA to register the following YANG module in This document requests IANA to register the following YANG module in
the "YANG Module Names" registry [RFC7950][RFC8525]: the "YANG Module Names" registry [RFC7950][RFC8525]:
name: ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring name: ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring
namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring
prefix: nsfmi prefix: nsfmi
reference: RFC XXXX reference: RFC XXXX
// RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with an actual RFC number and remove // RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with an actual RFC number and remove
// this note. // this note.
13. Security Considerations 12. Security Considerations
YANG module described in this document defines a schema for data that The YANG module described in this document defines a schema for data
is designed to be accessed via network management protocols such as that is designed to be accessed via network management protocols such
NETCONF [RFC6241] or RESTCONF [RFC8040]. The lowest NETCONF layer is as NETCONF [RFC6241] or RESTCONF [RFC8040]. The lowest NETCONF layer
the secure transport layer, and the mandatory-to-implement secure is the secure transport layer, and the required secure transport is
transport is Secure Shell (SSH) [RFC6242]. The lowest RESTCONF layer Secure Shell (SSH) [RFC6242]. The lowest RESTCONF layer is HTTPS,
is HTTPS, and the mandatory-to-implement secure transport is TLS and the required secure transport is TLS [RFC8446].
[RFC8446].
The Network Configuration Access Control Model (NACM) [RFC8341] The NETCONF access control model [RFC8341] provides a means of
provides the means to restrict access for particular NETCONF or restricting access to specific NETCONF or RESTCONF users to a
RESTCONF users to a preconfigured subset of all available NETCONF or preconfigured subset of all available NETCONF or RESTCONF protocol
RESTCONF protocol operations and content. operations and content.
All data nodes defined in the YANG module which can be created, All data nodes defined in the YANG module which can be created,
modified and deleted (i.e., config true, which is the default) are modified and deleted (i.e., config true, which is the default) are
considered sensitive as they all could potentially impact security considered sensitive as they all could potentially impact security
monitoring and mitigation activities. Write operations (e.g., edit- monitoring and mitigation activities. Write operations (e.g., edit-
config) applied to these data nodes without proper protection could config) applied to these data nodes without proper protection could
result in missed alarms or incorrect alarms information being result in missed alarms or incorrect alarms information being
returned to the NSF data collector. There are threats that need to returned to the NSF data collector. There are threats that need to
be considered and mitigated: be considered and mitigated:
skipping to change at page 84, line 12 skipping to change at page 89, line 12
how to (further) compromise the network, evade detection, or confirm how to (further) compromise the network, evade detection, or confirm
whether they have been observed by the network operator. whether they have been observed by the network operator.
Additionally, many of the data nodes in this YANG module such as Additionally, many of the data nodes in this YANG module such as
containers "i2nsf-system-user-activity-log", "i2nsf-system-detection- containers "i2nsf-system-user-activity-log", "i2nsf-system-detection-
event", and "i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-volte" are privacy sensitive. event", and "i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-volte" are privacy sensitive.
They may describe specific or aggregate user activity to include They may describe specific or aggregate user activity to include
associating user names with specific IP addresses; or users with associating user names with specific IP addresses; or users with
specific network usage. specific network usage.
14. Acknowledgments 13. Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Institute of Information & Communications This work was supported by Institute of Information & Communications
Technology Planning & Evaluation (IITP) grant funded by the Korea Technology Planning & Evaluation (IITP) grant funded by the Korea
MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT) (R-20160222-002755, Cloud based MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT) (R-20160222-002755, Cloud based
Security Intelligence Technology Development for the Customized Security Intelligence Technology Development for the Customized
Security Service Provisioning). This work was supported in part by Security Service Provisioning). This work was supported in part by
the IITP (2020-0-00395, Standard Development of Blockchain based the IITP (2020-0-00395, Standard Development of Blockchain based
Network Management Automation Technology). This work was supported Network Management Automation Technology). This work was supported
in part by the MSIT under the Information Technology Research Center in part by the MSIT under the Information Technology Research Center
(ITRC) support program (IITP-2021-2017-0-01633) supervised by the (ITRC) support program (IITP-2021-2017-0-01633) supervised by the
IITP. IITP.
15. Contributors 14. Contributors
This document is made by the group effort of I2NSF working group. This document is made by the group effort of I2NSF working group.
Many people actively contributed to this document. The authors Many people actively contributed to this document. The authors
sincerely appreciate their contributions. sincerely appreciate their contributions.
The following are co-authors of this document: The following are co-authors of this document:
Chaehong Chung Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Chaehong Chung - Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer
Engineering Sungkyunkwan University 2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu Suwon, Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro Jangan-gu, Suwon,
Gyeonggi-do 16419 Republic of Korea EMail: darkhong@skku.edu Gyeonggi-do 16419, Republic of Korea, Email: darkhong@skku.edu
Jinyong (Tim) Kim Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Jinyong (Tim) Kim - Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer
Engineering Sungkyunkwan University 2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu Suwon, Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro Jangan-gu, Suwon,
Gyeonggi-do 16419 Republic of Korea EMail: timkim@skku.edu Gyeonggi-do 16419 Republic of Korea, Email: timkim@skku.edu,
Dongjin Hong Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Dongjin Hong - Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer
Engineering Sungkyunkwan University 2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu Suwon, Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro Jangan-gu, Suwon,
Gyeonggi-do 16419 Republic of Korea EMail: dong.jin@skku.edu Gyeonggi-do 16419, Republic of Korea, Email: dong.jin@skku.edu,
Dacheng Zhang Huawei EMail: dacheng.zhang@huawei.com Dacheng Zhang - Huawei, Email: dacheng.zhang@huawei.com
Yi Wu Aliababa Group EMail: anren.wy@alibaba-inc.com Yi Wu - Aliababa Group, Email: anren.wy@alibaba-inc.com
Rakesh Kumar Juniper Networks 1133 Innovation Way Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Rakesh Kumar - Juniper Networks, 1133 Innovation Way, Sunnyvale, CA
USA EMail: rkkumar@juniper.net 94089, USA, Email: rkkumar@juniper.net
Anil Lohiya Juniper Networks EMail: alohiya@juniper.net Anil Lohiya - Juniper Networks, Email: alohiya@juniper.net
16. References 15. References
16.1. Normative References 15.1. Normative References
[RFC0768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768, [RFC0768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980, DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>.
[RFC0791] Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, [RFC0791] Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791,
DOI 10.17487/RFC0791, September 1981, DOI 10.17487/RFC0791, September 1981,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc791>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc791>.
[RFC0792] Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5, [RFC0792] Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
skipping to change at page 86, line 28 skipping to change at page 91, line 28
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4960>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4960>.
[RFC5277] Chisholm, S. and H. Trevino, "NETCONF Event [RFC5277] Chisholm, S. and H. Trevino, "NETCONF Event
Notifications", RFC 5277, DOI 10.17487/RFC5277, July 2008, Notifications", RFC 5277, DOI 10.17487/RFC5277, July 2008,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5277>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5277>.
[RFC5321] Klensin, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 5321, [RFC5321] Klensin, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 5321,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5321, October 2008, DOI 10.17487/RFC5321, October 2008,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5321>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5321>.
[RFC5646] Phillips, A., Ed. and M. Davis, Ed., "Tags for Identifying
Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, DOI 10.17487/RFC5646,
September 2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5646>.
[RFC6241] Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed., [RFC6241] Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
(NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011, (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.
[RFC6242] Wasserman, M., "Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure [RFC6242] Wasserman, M., "Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure
Shell (SSH)", RFC 6242, DOI 10.17487/RFC6242, June 2011, Shell (SSH)", RFC 6242, DOI 10.17487/RFC6242, June 2011,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6242>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6242>.
[RFC6265] Barth, A., "HTTP State Management Mechanism", RFC 6265, [RFC6265] Barth, A., "HTTP State Management Mechanism", RFC 6265,
skipping to change at page 87, line 41 skipping to change at page 92, line 41
[RFC8341] Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration [RFC8341] Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration
Access Control Model", STD 91, RFC 8341, Access Control Model", STD 91, RFC 8341,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8341, March 2018, DOI 10.17487/RFC8341, March 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8341>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8341>.
[RFC8342] Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Shafer, P., Watsen, K., [RFC8342] Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Shafer, P., Watsen, K.,
and R. Wilton, "Network Management Datastore Architecture and R. Wilton, "Network Management Datastore Architecture
(NMDA)", RFC 8342, DOI 10.17487/RFC8342, March 2018, (NMDA)", RFC 8342, DOI 10.17487/RFC8342, March 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8342>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8342>.
[RFC8343] Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for Interface
Management", RFC 8343, DOI 10.17487/RFC8343, March 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8343>.
[RFC8407] Bierman, A., "Guidelines for Authors and Reviewers of [RFC8407] Bierman, A., "Guidelines for Authors and Reviewers of
Documents Containing YANG Data Models", BCP 216, RFC 8407, Documents Containing YANG Data Models", BCP 216, RFC 8407,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8407, October 2018, DOI 10.17487/RFC8407, October 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8407>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8407>.
[RFC8446] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol [RFC8446] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018, Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.
[RFC8525] Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Watsen, K., [RFC8525] Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Watsen, K.,
skipping to change at page 88, line 24 skipping to change at page 93, line 24
[RFC8641] Clemm, A. and E. Voit, "Subscription to YANG Notifications [RFC8641] Clemm, A. and E. Voit, "Subscription to YANG Notifications
for Datastore Updates", RFC 8641, DOI 10.17487/RFC8641, for Datastore Updates", RFC 8641, DOI 10.17487/RFC8641,
September 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8641>. September 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8641>.
[RFC9051] Melnikov, A., Ed. and B. Leiba, Ed., "Internet Message [RFC9051] Melnikov, A., Ed. and B. Leiba, Ed., "Internet Message
Access Protocol (IMAP) - Version 4rev2", RFC 9051, Access Protocol (IMAP) - Version 4rev2", RFC 9051,
DOI 10.17487/RFC9051, August 2021, DOI 10.17487/RFC9051, August 2021,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9051>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9051>.
16.2. Informative References 15.2. Informative References
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", [RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007, FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.
[RFC8329] Lopez, D., Lopez, E., Dunbar, L., Strassner, J., and R. [RFC8329] Lopez, D., Lopez, E., Dunbar, L., Strassner, J., and R.
Kumar, "Framework for Interface to Network Security Kumar, "Framework for Interface to Network Security
Functions", RFC 8329, DOI 10.17487/RFC8329, February 2018, Functions", RFC 8329, DOI 10.17487/RFC8329, February 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8329>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8329>.
[RFC8792] Watsen, K., Auerswald, E., Farrel, A., and Q. Wu, [RFC8792] Watsen, K., Auerswald, E., Farrel, A., and Q. Wu,
"Handling Long Lines in Content of Internet-Drafts and "Handling Long Lines in Content of Internet-Drafts and
RFCs", RFC 8792, DOI 10.17487/RFC8792, June 2020, RFCs", RFC 8792, DOI 10.17487/RFC8792, June 2020,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8792>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8792>.
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]
Jeong, J. (., Chung, C., Ahn, T., Kumar, R., and S. Hares,
"I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface YANG Data Model", Work in
Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-i2nsf-consumer-
facing-interface-dm-15, 15 September 2021,
<https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf-
consumer-facing-interface-dm-15.txt>.
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm] [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm]
Kim, J. (., Jeong, J. (., Park, J., Hares, S., and Q. Lin, Kim, J. (., Jeong, J. (., Park, J., Hares, S., and Q. Lin,
"I2NSF Network Security Function-Facing Interface YANG "I2NSF Network Security Function-Facing Interface YANG
Data Model", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf- Data Model", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm-15, 4 October 2021, i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm-16, 13 November 2021,
<https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf- <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-
facing-interface-dm-15.txt>. facing-interface-dm-16.txt>.
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-registration-interface-dm] [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]
Hyun, S., Jeong, J. P., Roh, T., Wi, S., and J. Park, Jeong, J. (., Chung, C., Ahn, T., Kumar, R., and S. Hares,
"I2NSF Registration Interface YANG Data Model", Work in "I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface YANG Data Model", Work in
Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-i2nsf-registration- Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-i2nsf-consumer-
interface-dm-13, 4 October 2021, facing-interface-dm-15, 15 September 2021,
<https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf- <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf-
registration-interface-dm-13.txt>. consumer-facing-interface-dm-15.txt>.
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-applicability]
Jeong, J. P., Hyun, S., Ahn, T., Hares, S., and D. R.
Lopez, "Applicability of Interfaces to Network Security
Functions to Network-Based Security Services", Work in
Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-
18, 16 September 2019, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/
draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-18.txt>.
[I-D.yang-i2nsf-security-policy-translation]
Jeong, J. (., Lingga, P., Yang, J., and C. Chung,
"Security Policy Translation in Interface to Network
Security Functions", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
draft-yang-i2nsf-security-policy-translation-09, 21 August
2021, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-yang-i2nsf-
security-policy-translation-09.txt>.
[I-D.ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis] [I-D.ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis]
Eddy, W. M., "Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Eddy, W. M., "Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
Specification", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft- Specification", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis-25, 7 September 2021, ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis-25, 7 September 2021,
<https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-tcpm- <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-tcpm-
rfc793bis-25.txt>. rfc793bis-25.txt>.
[IANA-HTTP-Status-Code] [IANA-HTTP-Status-Code]
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Hypertext Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Status Code Registry", September Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Status Code Registry", September
2018, <https://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes/ 2018, <https://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes/
http-status-codes.xhtml>. http-status-codes.xhtml>.
[IANA-Media-Types] [IANA-Media-Types]
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Media Types", Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Media Types",
August 2021, <https://www.iana.org/assignments/media- August 2021, <https://www.iana.org/assignments/media-
types/media-types.xhtml>. types/media-types.xhtml>.
Appendix A. Changes from draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-11 Appendix A. Changes from draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-12
The following changes are made from draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring- The following changes are made from draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-
data-model-11: data-model-12:
* This version is revised following Roman Danyliw's Comments. * This version is revised following the comments from Tim Bray
(IANA), Kyle Rose (TSV-ART), Dale R. Worley (Gen-ART), Melinda
Shore (SecDir), Valery Smyslov (ART-ART), and Tom Petch.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Jaehoon (Paul) Jeong (editor) Jaehoon (Paul) Jeong (editor)
Department of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu 2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
Suwon Suwon
Gyeonggi-Do Gyeonggi-Do
16419 16419
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