draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-03.txt   draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-04.txt 
DMM H. Chan, Ed. DMM H. Chan, Ed.
Internet-Draft X. Wei Internet-Draft X. Wei
Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies
Expires: June 17, 2017 J. Lee Expires: October 13, 2017 J. Lee
Sangmyung University Sangmyung University
S. Jeon S. Jeon
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
A. Petrescu A. Petrescu
CEA, LIST CEA, LIST
F. Templin F. Templin
Boeing Research and Technology Boeing Research and Technology
December 14, 2016 April 11, 2017
Distributed Mobility Anchoring Distributed Mobility Anchoring
draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-03 draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-04
Abstract Abstract
This document defines distributed mobility anchoring in terms of the This document defines distributed mobility anchoring in terms of the
different configurations, operations and parameters of mobility different configurations, operations and parameters of mobility
functions to provide different IP mobility support for the diverse functions to provide different IP mobility support for the diverse
mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond. A network or network slice mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond. A network or network slice
may be configured with distributed mobility anchoring functions may be configured with distributed mobility anchoring functions
according to the needs of mobility support. In the distributed according to the needs of mobility support. In the distributed
mobility anchoring environment, multiple anchors are available for mobility anchoring environment, multiple anchors are available for
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on June 17, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on October 13, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
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4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility . . . 31 4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility . . . 31
5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Mobility Anchoring 5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Mobility Anchoring
Environments - Anchor Switching to the New Network . . . . . 33 Environments - Anchor Switching to the New Network . . . . . 33
5.1. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network . . . 33 5.1. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network . . . 33
5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat 5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.2. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network with 5.2. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network with
Centralized Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Centralized Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching 5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching
Anchor with Centralized CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Anchor with Centralized CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.3. Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 5.3. Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Hierarchical 5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Hierarchical
Network with No Anchor Relocation . . . . . . . . . . 41 Network with No Anchor Relocation . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical 5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching 5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching
Anchor with Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . 44 Anchor with Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.5. Network Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 5.5. Network Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.5.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Network 5.5.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Network
mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to
enable traffic to avoid traversing a single mobility anchor far from enable traffic to avoid traversing a single mobility anchor far from
an optimal route. Distributed mobility management solutions do not an optimal route. Distributed mobility management solutions do not
rely on a centrally deployed mobility anchor in the data plane rely on a centrally deployed mobility anchor in the data plane
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility]. As such, the traffic of a flow SHOULD [Paper-Distributed.Mobility]. As such, the traffic of a flow SHOULD
be able to change from traversing one mobility anchor to traversing be able to change from traversing one mobility anchor to traversing
another mobility anchor as a mobile node (MN) moves, or when changing another mobility anchor as a mobile node (MN) moves, or when changing
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An MN attached to an access router of a network or network slice may An MN attached to an access router of a network or network slice may
be allocated an IP prefix which is anchored to that router. It may be allocated an IP prefix which is anchored to that router. It may
then use an IP address configured from this prefix as the source IP then use an IP address configured from this prefix as the source IP
address to run a flow with its correspondent node (CN). When there address to run a flow with its correspondent node (CN). When there
are multiple mobility anchors, an address selection for a given flow are multiple mobility anchors, an address selection for a given flow
is first required before the flow is initiated. Using an anchor in is first required before the flow is initiated. Using an anchor in
an MN's network of attachment has the advantage that the packets can an MN's network of attachment has the advantage that the packets can
simply be forwarded according to the forwarding table. Although the simply be forwarded according to the forwarding table. Although the
anchor is in the MN's network of attachment when the flow was anchor is in the MN's network of attachment when the flow was
initiated, the MN may later move to another network, so that the IP initiated, the MN may later move to another network, so that the IP
no longer belongs to the current network of attachment of the MN. address no longer belongs to the current network of attachment of the
MN.
Whether the flow needs IP session continuity will determine how to Whether the flow needs IP session continuity will determine how to
ensure that the IP address of the flow will be anchored to the new ensure that the IP address of the flow will be anchored to the new
network of attachment. If the ongoing IP flow can cope with an IP network of attachment. If the ongoing IP flow can cope with an IP
prefix/address change, the flow can be reinitiated with a new IP prefix/address change, the flow can be reinitiated with a new IP
address anchored in the new network as shown in Section 4.1. On the address anchored in the new network as shown in Section 4.1. On the
other hand, if the ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change, other hand, if the ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change,
mobility support is needed as shown in Section 4.2. A network or mobility support is needed as shown in Section 4.2. A network or
network slice supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring network slice supporting a mix of flows both requiring and not
IP mobility support will need to distinguish these flows. The requiring IP mobility support will need to distinguish these flows.
guidelines for such network or network slice are described in The guidelines for the network or network slice to make such a
Section 4.1.1. The general guidelines for such network or network distinction are described in Section 4.1.1. The general guidelines
slice to provide IP mobility support are described in Section 4.2.1. for such network or network slice to provide IP mobility support are
described in Section 4.2.1.
Specifically, IP mobility support can be provided by relocating the Specifically, IP mobility support can be provided by relocating the
anchoring of the IP prefix/address of the flow from the home network anchoring of the IP prefix/address of the flow from the home network
of the flow to the new network of attachment. The basic case may be of the flow to the new network of attachment. The basic case may be
with network-based mobility for a flat network configuration with network-based mobility for a flat network configuration
described in Section 5.1 with the guidelines described in described in Section 5.1 with the guidelines described in
Section 5.1.1. This case is discussed further with a centralized Section 5.1.1. This case is discussed further with a centralized
control plane in Section 5.2 with additional guidelines described in control plane in Section 5.2 with additional guidelines described in
Section 5.2.1. A level of hierarchy of nodes may then be added to Section 5.2.1. A level of hierarchy of nodes may then be added to
the network configuration. Mobility involving change in the Data the network configuration. Mobility involving change in the Data
Plane Node (DPN) without changing the Data Plane Anchor (DPA) is Plane Node (DPN) without changing the Data Plane Anchor (DPA) is
described in Section 5.3 with additional guidelines described in described in Section 5.3 with additional guidelines described in
Section 5.3.1 Mobility involving change in the DPN without changing Section 5.3.1. Mobility involving change in the DPN without changing
the DPA is described in Section 5.4 with additional guidelines the DPA is described in Section 5.4 with additional guidelines
described in Section 5.4.1 described in Section 5.4.1.
2. Conventions and Terminology 2. Conventions and Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "GLUIRED", "SHALL","SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "GLUIRED", "SHALL","SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this
document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)
base specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) base specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6)
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a different home network. a different home network.
IP prefix/address anchoring: An IP prefix, i.e., Home Network Prefix IP prefix/address anchoring: An IP prefix, i.e., Home Network Prefix
(HNP), or address, i.e., HoA, allocated to an MN is topologically (HNP), or address, i.e., HoA, allocated to an MN is topologically
anchored to an anchor node when the anchor node is able to anchored to an anchor node when the anchor node is able to
advertise a connected route into the routing infrastructure for advertise a connected route into the routing infrastructure for
the allocated IP prefix. the allocated IP prefix.
Location Management (LM) function: managing and keeping track of the Location Management (LM) function: managing and keeping track of the
internetwork location of an MN. The location information may be a internetwork location of an MN. The location information may be a
binding of the IP advertised address/prefix, e.g., HoA or HNP, to binding of the advertised IP address/prefix, e.g., HoA or HNP, to
the IP routing address of the MN or of a node that can forward the IP routing address of the MN or of a node that can forward
packets destined to the MN. packets destined to the MN.
When the MN is a mobile router (MR) carrying a mobile network of When the MN is a mobile router (MR) carrying a mobile network of
mobile network nodes (MNN), the location information will also mobile network nodes (MNN), the location information will also
include the mobile network prefix (MNP), which is the IP prefix include the mobile network prefix (MNP), which is the IP prefix
delegated to the MR. The MNP is allocated to the MNNs in the delegated to the MR. The MNP is allocated to the MNNs in the
mobile network. mobile network.
LM is a control plane function. LM is a control plane function.
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Figure 1. Configurations of network-based mobility management for a Figure 1. Configurations of network-based mobility management for a
flat network (a) FM-CP and LM at CPA, FM-DP at DPA; (b) Separate LMs, flat network (a) FM-CP and LM at CPA, FM-DP at DPA; (b) Separate LMs,
FM-CP and LMc at CPA, FM-DP at DPA. FM-CP and LMc at CPA, FM-DP at DPA.
Figure 1 also shows a distributed mobility anchoring environment with Figure 1 also shows a distributed mobility anchoring environment with
multiple instances of the DPA. multiple instances of the DPA.
There is an FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA. There is an FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA.
The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or
centralized. When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there centralized. When the CPA is co-located with the distributed DPA
will be multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown). there will be multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not
shown).
There is an FM-CP function at the CPA. There is an FM-CP function at the CPA.
An MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the An MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the
DPA with the IP prefix/address IPa1. The MN uses IP1 to communicate DPA with the IP prefix/address IPa1. The MN uses IP1 to communicate
with a CN not shown in the figure. The flow of this communication with a CN not shown in the figure. The flow of this communication
session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and other session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and other
parameters. parameters.
In Figure 1(a), LM and FM-CP co-locate at CPA. In Figure 1(a), LM and FM-CP are co-located at the CPA.
Then LM may be distributed or centralized according to whether the Then LM may be distributed or centralized according to whether the
CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized. CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized.
Figure 1(b) differs from Figure 1(a) in that the LM function is split Figure 1(b) differs from Figure 1(a) in that the LM function is split
into a server LMs and a client LMc. into a server LMs and a client LMc.
LMc and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA. LMc and FM-CP are co-located at the CPA.
The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMc may be distributed or The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMc may be distributed or
centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown) centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown)
or centralized. or centralized.
3.1.2. Network-based Mobility Support for a Hierarchical Network 3.1.2. Network-based Mobility Support for a Hierarchical Network
Figure 2 shows two different configurations of network-based mobility Figure 2 shows two different configurations of network-based mobility
management for a hierarchical network. management for a hierarchical network.
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|flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP2,..)| |flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP2,..)|
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
Figure 2(b). Configurations of network-based mobility management for Figure 2(b). Configurations of network-based mobility management for
a hierarchical network with separate LMs, FM-CP and LMp at CPA, FM-DP a hierarchical network with separate LMs, FM-CP and LMp at CPA, FM-DP
at DPA; FM-CP and LMc at CPN, FM-DP at DPN. at DPA; FM-CP and LMc at CPN, FM-DP at DPN.
Figures 2 also shows a distributed mobility anchoring environment Figures 2 also shows a distributed mobility anchoring environment
with multiple instances of the DPA. with multiple instances of the DPA.
In the hierarchy, there may be multiple DPN's for each DPA. In the hierarchy, there may be multiple DPNs for each DPA.
There is FM-DP at each of the distributed DPA and at each of the There is FM-DP at each of the distributed DPA and at each of the
distributed DPN. distributed DPN.
The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or
centralized. centralized.
When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there will be When the CPA is co-located with the distributed DPA there will be
multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown). multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown).
When the CPN co-locates with the distributed DPN there will be When the CPN is co-located with the distributed DPN there will be
multiple instances of the co-located CPN and DPN (not shown). multiple instances of the co-located CPN and DPN (not shown).
There is FM-CP function at the CPA and at the CPN. There is FM-CP function at the CPA and at the CPN.
MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the DPA MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the DPA
with the IP prefix/address IPa1. It is using IP1 to communicate with with the IP prefix/address IPa1. It is using IP1 to communicate with
a correspondent node (CN) not shown in the figure. The flow of this a correspondent node (CN) not shown in the figure. The flow of this
communication session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and communication session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and
other parameters. other parameters.
In Figure 2(a), LMs and FM-CP are at the CPA. In addition, there are In Figure 2(a), LMs and FM-CP are at the CPA. In addition, there are
FM-CP and LMc at the CPN. FM-CP and LMc at the CPN.
LMs may be distributed or centralized according to whether the CPA is LMs may be distributed or centralized according to whether the CPA is
distributed or centralized. The CPA may co-locate with DPA or may distributed or centralized. The CPA may co-locate with DPA or may
separate. separate.
Figure 2(b) differs from Figure 2(a) in that the LMs is separated Figure 2(b) differs from Figure 2(a) in that the LMs is separated
out, and a proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc. out, and a proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc.
LMp and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA. LMp and FM-CP are co-located at the CPA.
FM-CP and LMc co-locate at the CPN. FM-CP and LMc are co-located at the CPN.
The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or
centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed or centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed or
centralized. centralized.
3.1.3. Host-based Mobility Support 3.1.3. Host-based Mobility Support
Host-based variants of the mobility function configurations from Host-based variants of the mobility function configurations from
Figures 2(a) and 2(b) are respectively shown in Figures 3(a) and 3(b) Figures 2(a) and 2(b) are respectively shown in Figures 3(a) and 3(b)
where the role to perform mobility functions by CPN and DPN are now where the role to perform mobility functions by CPN and DPN are now
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Figure 3 shows 2 configurations of host-based mobility management Figure 3 shows 2 configurations of host-based mobility management
with multiple instances of DPA for a distributed mobility anchoring with multiple instances of DPA for a distributed mobility anchoring
environment. environment.
There is an FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA. There is an FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA.
The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or
centralized. centralized.
When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there will be When the CPA is co-located with the distributed DPA there will be
multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown). multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown).
There is an FM-CP function at the CPA. There is an FM-CP function at the CPA.
The MN possesses the mobility functions such as FM and LMc. The MN possesses the mobility functions such as FM and LMc.
The MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the The MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the
DPA with the IP prefix/address IPa1. It is using IP1 to communicate DPA with the IP prefix/address IPa1. It is using IP1 to communicate
with a CN not shown in the figure. The flow of this communication with a CN not shown in the figure. The flow of this communication
session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and other session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and other
parameters. parameters.
In Figure 3(a), LMs and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA. In Figure 3(a), LMs and FM-CP are co-located at the CPA.
The LMs may be distributed or centralized according to whether the The LMs may be distributed or centralized according to whether the
CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized. CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized.
Figure 3(b) differs from Figure 3(a) in that the LMs is separated out Figure 3(b) differs from Figure 3(a) in that the LMs is separated out
and the proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc. and the proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc.
LMp and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA. LMp and FM-CP are co-located at the CPA.
The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or
centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown) centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown)
or centralized. or centralized.
3.1.4. NEtwork MObility (NEMO) Basic Support 3.1.4. NEtwork MObility (NEMO) Basic Support
Figure 4 shows two configurations of NEMO basic support for a mobile Figure 4 shows two configurations of NEMO basic support for a mobile
router. router.
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Figure 4 shows 2 configurations of host-based mobility management for Figure 4 shows 2 configurations of host-based mobility management for
a MR with multiple instances of DPA for a distributed mobility a MR with multiple instances of DPA for a distributed mobility
anchoring environment. anchoring environment.
There is an FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA. There is an FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA.
The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or
centralized. centralized.
When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there will be When the CPA is co-located with the distributed DPA there will be
multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown). multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown).
There is FM-CP function at the CPA. There is FM-CP function at the CPA.
The MR possesses the mobility functions FM and LMc. The MR possesses the mobility functions FM and LMc.
MR is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the DPA MR is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the DPA
with the IP prefix/address IPa1. with the IP prefix/address IPa1.
A mobile network node (MNN) in the mobile network is allocated an IP A mobile network node (MNN) in the mobile network is allocated an IP
prefix/address IPn1 which is anchored to the MR with the IP prefix/ prefix/address IPn1 which is anchored to the MR with the IP prefix/
address IP1. address IP1.
The MNN is using IPn1 to communicate with a correspondent node (CN) The MNN is using IPn1 to communicate with a correspondent node (CN)
not shown in the figure. The flow of this communication session is not shown in the figure. The flow of this communication session is
shown as flow(IPn1, ...) which uses IPn1 and other parameters. shown as flow(IPn1, ...) which uses IPn1 and other parameters.
In Figure 4(a), LMs and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA. In Figure 4(a), LMs and FM-CP are co-located at the CPA.
The LMs may be distributed or centralized according to whether the The LMs may be distributed or centralized according to whether the
CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized. CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized.
Figure 4(b) differs from Figure 4(a) in that the LMs is separated out Figure 4(b) differs from Figure 4(a) in that the LMs is separated out
and the proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc. and the proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc.
LMp and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA. LMp and FM-CP are co-located at the CPA.
The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or
centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown) centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown)
or centralized. or centralized.
3.2. Operations and Parameters 3.2. Operations and Parameters
The operations of distributed mobility anchoring are defined in order The operations of distributed mobility anchoring are defined in order
that they may work together in expected manners to produce a that they may work together in expected manners to produce a
distributed mobility solution. The needed information is passed as distributed mobility solution. The needed information is passed as
mobility message parameters, which must be protected in terms of mobility message parameters, which must be protected in terms of
integrity. Some parameters may require a means to support privacy of integrity. Some parameters may require a means to support privacy of
an MN or MR. an MN or MR.
The mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond are diverse. Therefore The mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond are diverse. Therefore
operations needed to enable different distributed mobility solutions operations needed to enable different distributed mobility solutions
in different distributed mobility anchoring configurations are in different distributed mobility anchoring configurations are
extensive as illustrated below. It is however not necessary for extensive as illustrated below. It is however not necessary for
every distributed mobility solution to exhibit all the operations every distributed mobility solution to exhibit all the operations
listed in this section. A given distributed mobility solution may listed in this section. A given distributed mobility solution may
exhibit the operations as needed. exhibit only those operations needed.
3.2.1. Location Management 3.2.1. Location Management
An example LM design consists of a distributed database with multiple An example LM design consists of a distributed database with multiple
LMs servers. The location information about the prefix/address of an LMs servers. The location information about the prefix/address of an
MN is primarily at a given LMs. Peer LMs may exchange the location MN is primarily at a given LMs. Peer LMs may exchange the location
information with each other. LMc may retrieve a given record or send information with each other. LMc may retrieve a given record or send
a given record update to LMs. a given record update to LMs.
Location management configurations: Location management configurations:
LM-cfg: As shown in Section 3.1: LM-cfg: As shown in Section 3.1:
LMs may be implemented at CPA, may co-locate with LMc at CPA, LMs may be implemented at CPA, may be co-located with LMc at
or may be a separate server. CPA, or may be a separate server.
LMc may be at CPA, CPN, or MN. LMc may be at CPA, CPN, or MN.
LMp may proxy between LMs and LMc. LMp may proxy between LMs and LMc.
Specifically: Specifically:
Location management operations and parameters: Location management operations and parameters:
LM-cfg:1 LMs may co-locate with LMc at CPA in a flat network with LM-cfg:1 LMs may be co-located with LMc at CPA in a flat network
network-based mobility as shown in Figure 1(a) in with network-based mobility as shown in Figure 1(a) in
Section 3.1.1. Section 3.1.1.
LM-cfg:2 LMs may be a separate server whereas LMc is implemented in LM-cfg:2 LMs may be a separate server whereas LMc is implemented in
CPA in a flat network with network-based mobility as shown CPA in a flat network with network-based mobility as shown
in Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1.1. in Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1.1.
LM-cfg:3 LMs may be implemented at CPA, whereas LMc is implemented LM-cfg:3 LMs may be implemented at CPA, whereas LMc is implemented
at CPN in a hierarchical network with network-based at CPN in a hierarchical network with network-based
mobility as shown in Figure 2(a) in Section 3.1.2, at MN mobility as shown in Figure 2(a) in Section 3.1.2, at MN
for host-based mobility as shown in Figure 3(a) in for host-based mobility as shown in Figure 3(a) in
skipping to change at page 20, line 22 skipping to change at page 20, line 22
integrity support required, integrity support required,
- IP prefix of the corresponding CPA: integrity support - IP prefix of the corresponding CPA: integrity support
required. required.
FM-flow:1 The FM may be carried out on the packets to/from an MN up FM-flow:1 The FM may be carried out on the packets to/from an MN up
to the granularity of a flow. to the granularity of a flow.
FM-flow:2 Example matching parameters are in the 5-tuple of a flow. FM-flow:2 Example matching parameters are in the 5-tuple of a flow.
FM-path:1 FM may change the forwarding path of a flow upon a change FM-path:1 FM may change the forwarding path of a flow upon a change
of point of attachment of a MN. Prior to the changes, of point of attachment of an MN. Prior to the changes,
packets coming from the CN to the MN would traverse from packets coming from the CN to the MN would traverse from
the CN to the home network anchor of the flow for the MN the CN to the home network anchor of the flow for the MN
before reaching the MN. Changes are from this original before reaching the MN. Changes are from this original
forwarding path or paths to a new forwarding path or paths forwarding path or paths to a new forwarding path or paths
from the CN to the current AR of the MN and then the MN from the CN to the current AR of the MN and then the MN
itself. itself.
FM-path:2 As an incoming packet is forwarded from the CN to the MN, FM-path:2 As an incoming packet is forwarded from the CN to the MN,
the far end where forwarding path change begins may in the far end where forwarding path change begins may in
general be any node in the original forwarding path from general be any node in the original forwarding path from
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forwarding table updates may be achieved through forwarding table updates may be achieved through
messaging between the centralized control plane and messaging between the centralized control plane and
the distributed forwarding switches as described above the distributed forwarding switches as described above
(FM-cpdp) in this section. (FM-cpdp) in this section.
FM-path-tbl:8 To reduce excessive signaling, the scope of such FM-path-tbl:8 To reduce excessive signaling, the scope of such
updates for a given flow may be confined to only those updates for a given flow may be confined to only those
forwarding switches such that only the packets sent forwarding switches such that only the packets sent
from the "CN" to the MN will go to the new AR. Such from the "CN" to the MN will go to the new AR. Such
confinement may be made when using a centralized confinement may be made when using a centralized
central plane possessing a global view of all the control plane possessing a global view of all the
forwarding switches. forwarding switches.
FM-path-tbl:9 FM reverts the changes previously made to the FM-path-tbl:9 FM reverts the changes previously made to the
forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no
longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using
an IP prefix/address requiring IP session continuity an IP prefix/address requiring IP session continuity
have closed. When using DHCPv6-PD, the forwarding have closed. When using DHCPv6-PD, the forwarding
paths will be reverted upon prefix lease expiration. paths will be reverted upon prefix lease expiration.
FM-path-ind:10 Indirection forwards the incoming packets of the flow FM-path-ind:10 Indirection forwards the incoming packets of the flow
skipping to change at page 23, line 21 skipping to change at page 23, line 21
- State of forwarding function being active or not: - State of forwarding function being active or not:
integrity support required, integrity support required,
- Loading percentage: integrity support required. - Loading percentage: integrity support required.
FM-CPA: The CPA possesses FM-CP function to make the changes to the FM-CPA: The CPA possesses FM-CP function to make the changes to the
forwarding path as described in FM-path, and the changes may forwarding path as described in FM-path, and the changes may
be implemented through forwarding table changes or through be implemented through forwarding table changes or through
indirection as described respectively in FM-path-tbl and FM- indirection as described respectively in FM-path-tbl and FM-
path-ind above. path-ind above.
The FM-CP communicates with the FM-DP using the appropirate The FM-CP communicates with the FM-DP using the appropriate
messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp] as described in FM-cpdp messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp] as described in FM-cpdp
above so that it may instruct the FM-DP to perform the above so that it may instruct the FM-DP to perform the
changed forwarding tasks. changed forwarding tasks.
FM-DPA: The DPA possesses FM-DP function to forward packets according FM-DPA: The DPA possesses FM-DP function to forward packets according
to the changed forwarding path as described in FM-path, and to the changed forwarding path as described in FM-path, and
also FM-path-tbl or FM-path-ind depending on whether also FM-path-tbl or FM-path-ind depending on whether
forwarding table changes or indirection is used. forwarding table changes or indirection is used.
The FM-DP communicates with the FM-CP using the appropirate The FM-DP communicates with the FM-CP using the appropriate
messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp] as described in FM-cpdp messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp] as described in FM-cpdp
above so that it may perform the changed forwarding tasks. above so that it may perform the changed forwarding tasks.
The operations and their parameters for the DPA to perform The operations and their parameters for the DPA to perform
distributed mobility management are described below: distributed mobility management are described below:
FM-DPA:1 The DPAs perform the needed functions such that for the FM-DPA:1 The DPAs perform the needed functions such that for the
incoming packets from the CN, forwarding path change by FM incoming packets from the CN, forwarding path change by FM
is from the DPA at the far end which may be at any is from the DPA at the far end which may be at any
forwarding switch (or even CN itself) in the original forwarding switch (or even CN itself) in the original
skipping to change at page 24, line 22 skipping to change at page 24, line 22
flow at the home network DPA at the far end may be passed flow at the home network DPA at the far end may be passed
to or added to that of another DPA. to or added to that of another DPA.
In particular, this DPA role may be moved upstream from the In particular, this DPA role may be moved upstream from the
home network DPA in the original forwarding path from CN to home network DPA in the original forwarding path from CN to
MN. MN.
FM-DPA:4 Optimization of the new forwarding path may be achieved FM-DPA:4 Optimization of the new forwarding path may be achieved
when the path change for the incoming packets begins at a when the path change for the incoming packets begins at a
DPA where the original path and the direct IPv6 path DPA where the original path and the direct IPv6 path
overlaps. Then the new forwarding path will resemble the overlap. Then the new forwarding path will resemble the
direct IPv6 path from the CN to the MN. direct IPv6 path from the CN to the MN.
FM-DPA-tbl:5 One method to support IP mobility is through forwarding FM-DPA-tbl:5 One method to support IP mobility is through forwarding
table changes triggered using DHCPv6-PD to change the table changes triggered using DHCPv6-PD to change the
role of IP anchoring from the home network anchor (DPA role of IP anchoring from the home network anchor (DPA
with FM-DP) to the new anchor (DPA with FM-DP). It with FM-DP) to the new anchor (DPA with FM-DP). It
therefore puts the near end of the path change at the therefore puts the near end of the path change at the
new DPA. Forwarding table updates will subsequently new DPA. Forwarding table updates will subsequently
propagate upstream from this DPA up to a far end DPA propagate upstream from this DPA up to a far end DPA
where the original path and the direct IPv6 path where the original path and the direct IPv6 path
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start the indirection towards the near end DPA, which start the indirection towards the near end DPA, which
will be the receiving end of indirection. In addition, will be the receiving end of indirection. In addition,
the near end DPA needs to continue the forwarding of the near end DPA needs to continue the forwarding of
the packet towards the MN, such as through L2 the packet towards the MN, such as through L2
forwarding or through another indirection towards the forwarding or through another indirection towards the
MN. MN.
FM-DPA-ind:8 With indirection, locating or moving the FM function to FM-DPA-ind:8 With indirection, locating or moving the FM function to
begin indirection upstream along the forwarding path begin indirection upstream along the forwarding path
from CN to MN again may help to reduce unnecessarily from CN to MN again may help to reduce unnecessarily
long path. long paths.
FM-DPA-ind:9 Changes made by FM to establish indirection at the DPA FM-DPA-ind:9 Changes made by FM to establish indirection at the DPA
and DPN, which are IPv6 nodes, at the ends of the path and DPN, which are IPv6 nodes, at the ends of the path
change for a flow will be reverted when the mobility change for a flow will be reverted when the mobility
support for the flow is no longer needed, e.g., when support for the flow is no longer needed, e.g., when
the flows have terminated. the flows have terminated.
FM-state:1 In addition to the above, a flow/session may contain FM-state:1 In addition to the above, a flow/session may contain
states with the required information for QoS, charging, states with the required information for QoS, charging,
etc. as needed. These states need to be transferred from etc. as needed. These states need to be transferred from
skipping to change at page 26, line 12 skipping to change at page 26, line 12
any buffered packets of a flow. any buffered packets of a flow.
Parameters: Parameters:
- Destination IP prefix of the flow's packets: integrity - Destination IP prefix of the flow's packets: integrity
support required, support required,
- IP address of the new DPA: integrity support required. - IP address of the new DPA: integrity support required.
FM-mr:1 When the MN is a mobile router (MR) the access router FM-mr:1 When the MN is a mobile router (MR) the access router
anchoring the IP prefix of the MR will also own the IP anchoring the IP prefix of the MR will also own the IP
prefix or prefixes to be delegated to the MR. The MNNs in prefix or prefixes to be delegated to the MR. The MNNs in
the network carried by the MR obtains IP prefixes from the the network carried by the MR obtain IP prefixes from the
MR. MR.
FM-mr:2 When the MR moves from a previous AR to a new AR, the MNNs FM-mr:2 When the MR moves from a previous AR to a new AR, the MNNs
moves with the MR. Network mobility support for these MNNs move with the MR. Network mobility support for these MNNs
may be provided by forwarding table updates such that may be provided by forwarding table updates such that
packets destined to the MNNs will be forwarded towards the packets destined to the MNNs will be forwarded towards the
new AR instead of towards the old AR. new AR instead of towards the old AR.
Changes to forwarding table entries may occur at the new AR, Changes to forwarding table entries may occur at the new AR
the aggregate router, and other affected switch/routers such and the aggregate router as well as other affected switches/
that packets destined to the MNNs will be forwarded to the routers between them such that packets destined to the MNNs
new AR. will be forwarded to the new AR.
Meanwhile, changes to forwarding table entries may also Meanwhile, changes to forwarding table entries may also
occur at the old AR, the aggregate router, and other occur at the old AR and the aggregate router as well as
affected switch/routers such that packets destined to the other affected switches/routers between them such that
MNNs will not be forwarded to the old AR. packets destined to the MNNs will not be forwarded to the
old AR.
4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments - 4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments -
Mobility Support Only When Needed Mobility Support Only When Needed
IP mobility support may be provided only when needed instead of being IP mobility support may be provided only when needed instead of being
provided by default. The LM and FM functions in the different provided by default. The LM and FM functions in the different
configurations shown in Section 3.1 are then utilized only when configurations shown in Section 3.1 are then utilized only when
needed. needed.
A straightforward choice of mobility anchoring is for a flow to use A straightforward choice of mobility anchoring is for a flow to use
skipping to change at page 28, line 47 skipping to change at page 28, line 47
|--RS------------------------------>| | |--RS------------------------------>| |
| | | | | | | |
|<--------------RA(IP2)-------------| | |<--------------RA(IP2)-------------| |
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix IP2 | | | Allocated prefix IP2 | | |
IP2 address configuration | | IP2 address configuration | |
| | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Figure 6. Re-starting a flow to use the IP allocated from the Figure 6. Re-starting a flow to use the IP prefix allocated from the
network at which the MN is attached. network at which the MN is attached.
4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address 4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address
A network or network slice may not need IP mobility support. For A network or network slice may not need IP mobility support. For
example, a network slice for stationary sensors only will never example, a network slice for stationary sensors only will never
encounter mobility. encounter mobility.
The standard functions in IPv6 already include dropping the old IPv6 The standard functions in IPv6 already include dropping the old IPv6
prefix/address and acquiring new IPv6 prefix/address when the node prefix/address and acquiring new IPv6 prefix/address when the node
changes its point of attachment to a new network. Therefore, a changes its point of attachment to a new network. Therefore, a
network or network slice not providing IP mobility support at all network or network slice not providing IP mobility support at all
will not need any of the functions with the mobility operations and will not need any of the functions with the mobility operations and
messages described in Section 3.2. messages described in Section 3.2.
On the other hand, a network or network slice supporting a mix of On the other hand, a network or network slice supporting a mix of
flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility support will still need flows both requiring and not requiring IP mobility support will need
the mobility functions, which it will invoke or not invoke as needed. the mobility functions, which it will invoke or not invoke as needed.
The guidelines for the IPv6 nodes in a network or network slice The guidelines for the IPv6 nodes in a network or network slice
supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility supporting a mix of flows both requiring and not requiring IP
support include the following: mobility support include the following:
GL-cfg:1 A network or network slice supporting a mix of flows GL-cfg:1 A network or network slice supporting a mix of flows both
requiring and not requiring mobility support may take any requiring and not requiring mobility support may take any
of the configurations described in Section 3.1 and need to of the configurations described in Section 3.1 and need to
implement in the appropriate IPv6 nodes the mobility implement at the appropriate IPv6 nodes the mobility
functions LM and FM as described respectively in LM-cfg and functions LM and FM as described respectively in LM-cfg and
FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according to the configuration FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according to the configuration
chosen. chosen.
GL-mix:1 These mobility functions perform some of the operations GL-mix:1 These mobility functions perform some of the operations
with the appropriate messages as described in Section 3.2 with the appropriate messages as described in Section 3.2
depending on which mobility mechanisms are used. Yet these depending on which mobility mechanisms are being used. Yet
mobility functions must not be invoked for a flow that does these mobility functions must not be invoked for a flow
not need IP mobility support. It is necessary to be able that does not need IP mobility support so that it is
to distinguish the needs of a flow. The guidelines for the necessary to be able to distinguish the needs of a flow.
MN and the AR are in the following. The guidelines for the MN and the AR are in the following.
GL-mix:2 Regardless of whether there are flows requiring IP mobility GL-mix:2 Regardless of whether there are flows requiring IP mobility
support, when the MN changes its point of attachment to a support, when the MN changes its point of attachment to a
new network, it needs to configure a new global IP address new network, it needs to configure a new global IP address
for use in the new network in addition to configuring the for use in the new network in addition to configuring the
new link-local addresses. new link-local addresses.
GL-mix:3 The MN needs to check whether a flow needs IP mobility GL-mix:3 The MN needs to check whether a flow needs IP mobility
support. This can be performed when the application was support. This can be performed when the application is
initiated. The specific method is not in the scope of this initiated. The specific method is not in the scope of this
document. document.
GL-mix:4 The information of whether a flow needs IP mobility support GL-mix:4 The information of whether a flow needs IP mobility support
is conveyed to the network such as by choosing an IP is conveyed to the network such as by choosing an IP
address to be provided with mobility support as described address to be provided with mobility support as described
in [I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]. Then as the MN in [I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]. Then as the MN
attaches to a new network, if the MN was using an IP attaches to a new network, if the MN was using an IP
address that is not supposed to be provided with mobility address that is not supposed to be provided with mobility
support, the access router will not invoke the mobility support, the access router will not invoke the mobility
skipping to change at page 31, line 35 skipping to change at page 31, line 35
|<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)---------------+------------------------------->| |<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)---------------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix IP2 | | | Allocated prefix IP2 | | |
IP2 address configuration | | IP2 address configuration | |
| | | | | | | |
Flow(IP1,IPcn) terminates | | Flow(IP1,IPcn) terminates | |
| | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Figure 7. A flow continues to use the IP from its home network after Figure 7. A flow continues to use the IP prefix from its home
MN has moved to a new network. network after MN has moved to a new network.
4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility 4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility
The configuration guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6 The configuration guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6
nodes in a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows nodes in a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows both
requiring and not requiring distributed mobility support are as requiring and not requiring distributed mobility support are as
follows: follows:
GL-cfg:2 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:2 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed mobility anchoring in an appropriate distributed mobility anchoring in an appropriate
configuration such as those in Figure 1 (Section 3.1.1) for configuration such as those described in Figure 1
network-based distributed mobility or in Figure 3 (Section 3.1.1) for network-based distributed mobility or
(Section 3.1.3) for host-based distributed mobility. in Figure 3 (Section 3.1.3) for host-based distributed
mobility.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA, CPN, DPN) are to be At the appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA, CPN, DPN) the
implemented the mobility functions LM and FM as described mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively in
respectively in LM-cfg and FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according LM-cfg and FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according to the
to the configuration chosen. configuration chosen have to be implemented.
The guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6 nodes in a The guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6 nodes in a
network or network slice supporting a mix of flows requiring and not network or network slice supporting a mix of flows both requiring and
requiring distributed mobility support had begun with those given as not requiring distributed mobility support had begun with those given
GL-mix in Section 4.1.1 and continue as follows: as GL-mix in Section 4.1.1 and continue as follows:
GL-mix:5 The distributed anchors may need to message with each GL-mix:5 The distributed anchors may need to message with each
other. When such messaging is needed, the anchors may need other. When such messaging is needed, the anchors may need
to discover each other as described in the FM operations to discover each other as described in the FM operations
and mobility message parameters (FM-find) in Section 3.2.2. and mobility message parameters (FM-find) in Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:6 The anchors may need to provide mobility support on a per- GL-mix:6 The anchors may need to provide mobility support on a per-
flow basis as described in the FM operations and mobility flow basis as described in the FM operations and mobility
message parameters (FM-flow) in Section 3.2.2. message parameters (FM-flow) in Section 3.2.2.
skipping to change at page 32, line 40 skipping to change at page 32, line 40
entries, the FM operations and mobility message parameters entries, the FM operations and mobility message parameters
are described in FM-path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, and FM-DPA- are described in FM-path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, and FM-DPA-
tbl in Section 3.2.2. tbl in Section 3.2.2.
The forwarding table updates will take place at AR1, AR2, The forwarding table updates will take place at AR1, AR2,
the far end DPA, and other affected switches/routers such the far end DPA, and other affected switches/routers such
that the packet from the CN to the MN will traverse from that the packet from the CN to the MN will traverse from
the far end DPA towards AR2 instead of towards AR1. the far end DPA towards AR2 instead of towards AR1.
Therefore new entries to the forwarding table will be added Therefore new entries to the forwarding table will be added
between AR2, the far end DPA and other affected routers so at AR2 and the far end DPA as well as other affected
that these packets will traverse towards AR2. Meanwhile, switches/routers between them so that these packets will
changes to the forwarding table entries will also occur traverse towards AR2. Meanwhile, changes to the forwarding
between AR1, the far end DPA and other affected routers so table entries will also occur at AR1 and the far end DPA as
that if these packets ever reaches any of them, the they well as other affected switches/routers between them so
will not traverse towards AR1 but will traverse towards that if these packets ever reaches any of them, they will
AR2. Section 3.2.2. not traverse towards AR1 but will traverse towards AR2 (see
Section 3.2.2).
GL-mix:9 Alternatively when using a mechanism of indirection, the FM GL-mix:9 Alternatively when using a mechanism of indirection, the FM
operations and mobility message parameters are described in operations and mobility message parameters are described in
FM-path, FM-path-ind, FM-DPA, and FM-DPA-ind in FM-path, FM-path-ind, FM-DPA, and FM-DPA-ind in
Section 3.2.2. Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:10 If there are in-flight packets toward the old anchor while GL-mix:10 If there are in-flight packets toward the old anchor while
the MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to the MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to
buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor
after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready. after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready.
Such are described in the FM operations and mobility Such procedures are described in the FM operations and
message parameters (FM-buffer) in Section 3.2.2. mobility message parameters (FM-buffer) in Section 3.2.2.
5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Mobility Anchoring Environments 5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Mobility Anchoring Environments
- Anchor Switching to the New Network - Anchor Switching to the New Network
IP mobility is invoked to enable IP session continuity for an ongoing IP mobility is invoked to enable IP session continuity for an ongoing
flow as the MN moves to a new network. Here the anchoring of the IP flow as the MN moves to a new network. Here the anchoring of the IP
address of the flow is in the home network of the flow, which is not address of the flow is in the home network of the flow, which is not
in the current network of attachment. A centralized mobility in the current network of attachment. A centralized mobility
management mechanism may employ indirection from the anchor in the management mechanism may employ indirection from the anchor in the
home network to the current network of attachment. Yet it may be home network to the current network of attachment. Yet it may be
skipping to change at page 34, line 11 skipping to change at page 34, line 11
The IP prefix/address anchoring may move without changing the IP The IP prefix/address anchoring may move without changing the IP
prefix/address of the flow. Here the LM and FM functions in Figures prefix/address of the flow. Here the LM and FM functions in Figures
1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 are implemented as shown in Figure 8. 1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 are implemented as shown in Figure 8.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: |
|LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | |LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | |LM:IP1 at IPa1 | |LM:IP1 at IPa2 |
| changes to | | |
| IP1 at IPa2 | | |
|---------------| |---------------| |---------------| |---------------|
|DPA(IPa1): | anchoring of IP1 is moved |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | anchoring of IP1 is moved |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchored IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2,IP1| |anchored IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2,IP1|
|FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
skipping to change at page 34, line 40 skipping to change at page 34, line 42
UPDATE messages may be used to change the forwarding table entries as UPDATE messages may be used to change the forwarding table entries as
described in [I-D.templin-aerolink] and [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] if described in [I-D.templin-aerolink] and [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] if
the response time of such updates does not exceed the handover delay the response time of such updates does not exceed the handover delay
requirement of the flow. An alternative is to use a centralized requirement of the flow. An alternative is to use a centralized
routing protocol to be described in Section 5.2 with a centralized routing protocol to be described in Section 5.2 with a centralized
control plane. control plane.
5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat Network 5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat Network
The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice
supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility supporting a mix of flows both requiring and not requiring IP
support is: mobility support is:
GL-cfg:3 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:3 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or
Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1 for a flat network. Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1 for a flat network.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented At the appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) the mobility
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively functions LM and FM as described respectively in LM-cfg:1
in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2. or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2 have to be
implemented.
The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. In both requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. In
addition, the following are required. addition, the following are required.
GL-switch:1 The location management provides information about which GL-switch:1 The location management provides information about which
IP prefix from an AR in the original network is being IP prefix from an AR in the original network is being
used by a flow in which AR in a new network. Such used by a flow in which AR in a new network. Such
information needs to be deleted or updated when such information needs to be deleted or updated when such
flows have closed so that the IP prefix is no longer flows have closed so that the IP prefix is no longer
used in a different network. The LM operations are used in a different network. The LM operations are
described in Section 3.2.1. described in Section 3.2.1.
skipping to change at page 36, line 23 skipping to change at page 36, line 25
forwarding tables with the IP address anchoring of the original IP forwarding tables with the IP address anchoring of the original IP
prefix/address at AR1 moved to AR2 in the new network. That is, the prefix/address at AR1 moved to AR2 in the new network. That is, the
IP address anchoring in the original network which was advertising IP address anchoring in the original network which was advertising
the prefix will need to move to the new network. As the anchoring in the prefix will need to move to the new network. As the anchoring in
the new network advertises the prefix of the original IP address in the new network advertises the prefix of the original IP address in
the new network, the forwarding tables will be updated so that the new network, the forwarding tables will be updated so that
packets of the flow will be forwarded according to the updated packets of the flow will be forwarded according to the updated
forwarding tables. forwarding tables.
The configurations in Figures 1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 for which The configurations in Figures 1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 for which
the FM-CP and the LM are centralized and the FM-DP's are distributed the FM-CP and the LM are centralized and the FM-DPs are distributed
apply here. Figure 9 shows its implementation where the LM is a apply here. Figure 9 shows its implementation where the LM is a
binding between the original IP prefix/address of the flow and the IP binding between the original IP prefix/address of the flow and the IP
address of the new DPA, whereas the FM uses the DHCPv6-PD protocol. address of the new DPA, whereas the FM uses the DHCPv6-PD protocol.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CPA: | | CPA: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | | LM:IP1 at IPa2 |
| FM-CP | | FM-CP |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | anchoring of IP1 is moved |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | anchoring of IP1 is moved |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchored IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2,IP1| |anchored IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2,IP1|
|FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 9. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network with Figure 9. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network with
with the LM and the FM-CP in a centralized control plane whereas the the LM and the FM-CP in a centralized control plane whereas the FM-
FM-DP's are distributed. DPs are distributed.
The example call flow in Figure 10 shows that MN is allocated IP1 The example call flow in Figure 10 shows that MN is allocated IP1
when it attaches to the AR1 A flow running in MN and needing IP when it attaches to the AR1 A flow running in MN and needing IP
mobility may continue to use the previous IP prefix by moving the mobility may continue to use the previous IP prefix by moving the
anchoring of the IP prefix to the new network. Yet a new flow to be anchoring of the IP prefix to the new network. Yet a new flow to be
initiated in the new network may simply use a new IP prefix allocated initiated in the new network may simply use a new IP prefix allocated
from the new network. from the new network.
MN AR1 AR2 DHCPv6 Servers CN MN AR1 AR2 DHCPv6 Servers CN
|MN attaches to AR1: | | | | |MN attaches to AR1: | | | |
skipping to change at page 38, line 20 skipping to change at page 39, line 13
previous prefix in different methods. For example, the MN may previous prefix in different methods. For example, the MN may
provide its previous network prefix information by including it to provide its previous network prefix information by including it to
the RS message [I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp]. the RS message [I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp].
Knowing that MN is using IP1, the AR2 sends to a DHCPv6 server a Knowing that MN is using IP1, the AR2 sends to a DHCPv6 server a
DHCPv6-PD request to move the IP1 to AR2. The server sends to AR2 a DHCPv6-PD request to move the IP1 to AR2. The server sends to AR2 a
DHCPv6-PD reply to move the IP1. Then forwarding tables updates will DHCPv6-PD reply to move the IP1. Then forwarding tables updates will
take place here. take place here.
In addition, the MN also needs a new IP in the new network. The AR2 In addition, the MN also needs a new IP in the new network. The AR2
may now send RA to AR2, with prefix information that includes IP1 and may now send RA to the MN with prefix information that includes IP1
IP2. The MN may then continue to use IP1. In addition, the MN is and IP2. The MN may then continue to use IP1. In addition, the MN
allocated the prefix IP2 with which it may configure its IP is allocated the prefix IP2 with which it may configure its IP
addresses. Now for flows using IP1, packets destined to IP1 will be addresses. Now for flows using IP1, packets destined to IP1 will be
forwarded to the MN via AR2. forwarded to the MN via AR2.
As such flows have terminated and DHCPv6-PD has timed out, IP1 goes As such flows have terminated and DHCPv6-PD has timed out, IP1 goes
back to Net1. MN will then be left with IP2 only, which it will use back to Net1. MN will then be left with IP2 only, which it will use
when it now starts a new flow. when it now starts a new flow.
5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with 5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with
Centralized CP Centralized CP
The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice with The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice with
centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows requiring and centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows both
not requiring IP mobility support is: requiring and not requiring IP mobility support is:
GL-cfg:4 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:4 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or
Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1 with centralized control plane Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1 with centralized control plane
for a flat network. for a flat network.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented At the appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) the mobility
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively functions LM and FM as described respectively in LM-cfg:1
in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2. or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2 have to be
implemented.
The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. The both requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. The
guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 5.1.1 for moving anchoring for a flat guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 5.1.1 for moving anchoring for a flat
network also apply here. In addition, the following are required. network also apply here. In addition, the following are required.
GL-switch:5 It was already mentioned that the anchor operations to GL-switch:5 It was already mentioned that the anchor operations to
properly forward the packets for a flow as described in properly forward the packets for a flow as described in
the FM operations and mobility message parameters in FM- the FM operations and mobility message parameters in FM-
path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, and FM-DPA-tbl in path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, and FM-DPA-tbl in
Section 3.2.2 is realized by changing the anchoring with Section 3.2.2 is realized by changing the anchoring with
DHCPv6-PD and undoing such changes later when its timer DHCPv6-PD and undoing such changes later when its timer
expires and the application has already closed. Here expires and the application has already closed. Here
skipping to change at page 39, line 28 skipping to change at page 40, line 22
GL-switch:6 The centralized FM-CP needs to communicate with the GL-switch:6 The centralized FM-CP needs to communicate with the
distributed FM-DP using the FM operations and mobility distributed FM-DP using the FM operations and mobility
message parameters as described in FM-cpdp in message parameters as described in FM-cpdp in
Section 3.2.2. Such may be realized by the appropriate Section 3.2.2. Such may be realized by the appropriate
messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]. messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
GL-switch:7 It was also already mentioned before that, if there are GL-switch:7 It was also already mentioned before that, if there are
in-flight packets toward the previous anchor while the in-flight packets toward the previous anchor while the
MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to
buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor
after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready.
Here however, the corresponding FM operations and Here however, the corresponding FM operations and
mobility message parameters as described in mobility message parameters as described in
Section 3.2.2 (FM-buffer) can be realized by the Section 3.2.2 (FM-buffer) can be realized by the
internal operations in the control plane together with internal operations in the control plane together with
signaling between the control plane and distributed data signaling between the control plane and distributed data
plane. These signaling may be realized by the plane. These signaling may be realized by the
appropriate messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]. appropriate messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
5.3. Hierarchical Network 5.3. Hierarchical Network
The configuration for a hierarchical network has been shown in The configuration for a hierarchical network has been shown in
Figures 2(a) and 2(b) in Section 3.1.2. With centralized control Figures 2(a) and 2(b) in Section 3.1.2. With centralized control
plane, CPA and CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all co- plane, CPA and CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all co-
located. There are multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed located. There are multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed
mobility anchoring. In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each mobility anchoring. In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each
with FM-DP) hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR with FM-DP) hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR
supports forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding supports forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding
switches (FW's). A mobility event in this configuration belonging to switches (FWs). A mobility event in this configuration belonging to
distributed mobility management will be deferred to Section 5.4. distributed mobility management will be deferred to Section 5.4.
In this distributed mobility configuration, a mobility event In this distributed mobility configuration, a mobility event
involving change of FW only but not of AR as shown in Figure 11 may involving change of FW only but not of AR as shown in Figure 11 may
still belong to centralized mobility management and may be supported still belong to centralized mobility management and may be supported
using PMIPv6. This configuration of network-based mobility is also using PMIPv6. This configuration of network-based mobility is also
applicable to host-based mobility with the modification for the MN applicable to host-based mobility with the modification for the MN
directly taking the role of DPN and CPN, and the corresponding directly taking the role of DPN and CPN, and the corresponding
centralized mobility event may be supported using MIPv6. centralized mobility event may be supported using MIPv6.
skipping to change at page 41, line 8 skipping to change at page 41, line 20
The realization of LM may be the binding between the IP prefix/ The realization of LM may be the binding between the IP prefix/
address of the flow used by the MN and the IP address of the DPN to address of the flow used by the MN and the IP address of the DPN to
which MN has moved. The implementation of FM to enable change of FW which MN has moved. The implementation of FM to enable change of FW
without changing AR may be accomplished using tunneling between the without changing AR may be accomplished using tunneling between the
AR and the FW as described in [I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix] and in AR and the FW as described in [I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix] and in
[I-D.templin-aerolink] or using some other L2 mobility mechanism. [I-D.templin-aerolink] or using some other L2 mobility mechanism.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CPA,CPN: | | CPA,CPN: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPn2 | | LM:IP1 at IPn2 |
| FM-CP | | FM-CP |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR1 |
+---------------+ +---------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa1): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP1 |
|FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+---------------+ +---------------+
skipping to change at page 41, line 42 skipping to change at page 42, line 10
Figure 11. Mobility without involving change of IP anchoring in a Figure 11. Mobility without involving change of IP anchoring in a
network in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored at an network in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored at an
AR which is hierarchically above multiple FWs to which the MN may AR which is hierarchically above multiple FWs to which the MN may
connect. connect.
5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Hierarchical Network with 5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Hierarchical Network with
No Anchor Relocation No Anchor Relocation
The configuration guideline for a hierarchical network or network The configuration guideline for a hierarchical network or network
slice with centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows slice with centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support is: both requiring and not requiring IP mobility support is:
GL-cfg:5 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:5 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 2(a) or distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 2(a) or
Figure 2(b)in Section 3.1.2 with centralized control plane Figure 2(b)in Section 3.1.2 with centralized control plane
for a hierarchical network. for a hierarchical network.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented At the appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) the mobility
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively functions LM and FM as described respectively in LM-cfg:3
in LM-cfg:3 or LM-cfg:4 and FM-cfg:2 in Section 3.2. or LM-cfg:4 and FM-cfg:2 in Section 3.2 have to be
implemented.
Even when the mobility event does not involve change of anchor, it is Even when the mobility event does not involve change of anchor, it is
still necessary to distinguish whether a flow needs IP mobility still necessary to distinguish whether a flow needs IP mobility
support. support.
The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. In both requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. In
addition, the following are required. addition, the following are required.
GL-switch:8 Here, the LM operations and mobility message parameters GL-switch:8 Here, the LM operations and mobility message parameters
described in Section 3.2.1 provides information of which described in Section 3.2.1 provide information of which
IP prefix from its FW needs to be used by a flow using IP prefix from its FW needs to be used by a flow using
which new FW. The anchor operations to properly forward which new FW. The anchor operations to properly forward
the packets of a flow described in the FM operations and the packets of a flow described in the FM operations and
mobility message parameters (FM-path, FM-path-ind, FM- mobility message parameters (FM-path, FM-path-ind, FM-
cpdp in Section 3.2.2) may be realized with PMIPv6 cpdp in Section 3.2.2) may be realized with PMIPv6
protocol [I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix] or with AERO protocol [I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix] or with AERO
protocol [I-D.templin-aerolink] to tunnel between the AR protocol [I-D.templin-aerolink] to tunnel between the AR
and the FW. and the FW.
5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical Network 5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical Network
The configuration for the hierarchical network has been shown in The configuration for the hierarchical network has been shown in
Figures 2(a) and 2(b) in Section 3.1.2. Again, with centralized Figures 2(a) and 2(b) in Section 3.1.2. Again, with centralized
control plane, CPA and CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all control plane, CPA and CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all
co-located. There are multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed co-located. There are multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed
mobility anchoring. In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each mobility anchoring. In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each
with FM-DP) hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR with FM-DP) hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR
supports forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding supports forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding
switches (FW's). switches (FWs).
A distributed mobility event in this configuration involves change A distributed mobility event in this configuration involves change
from a previous DPN which is hierarchically under the previous DPA to from a previous DPN which is hierarchically under the previous DPA to
a new DPN which is hierarchically under a new DPA. Such an event a new DPN which is hierarchically under a new DPA. Such an event
involving change of both DPA and DPN is shown in Figure 12. involving change of both DPA and DPN is shown in Figure 12.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CPA,CPN,Aggregate Router: | | CPA,CPN,Aggregate Router: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPa2,IPn2 | | LM:IP1 at IPn2 at IPa2 |
| FM-CP | | FM-CP |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+-----------------+ +-----------------+
|Aggregate Router | |Aggregate Router |
+-----------------+ +-----------------+
|FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+-----------------+ +-----------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
skipping to change at page 44, line 15 skipping to change at page 45, line 15
To change the anchoring of IP1, AR1 acting as a DHCPv6-PD client may To change the anchoring of IP1, AR1 acting as a DHCPv6-PD client may
exchange message with the DHCPv6 server to release the prefix IP1. exchange message with the DHCPv6 server to release the prefix IP1.
Meanwhile, AR2 acting as a DHCPv6-PD client may exchange message with Meanwhile, AR2 acting as a DHCPv6-PD client may exchange message with
the DHCPv6 server to delegate the prefix IP1 to AR2. the DHCPv6 server to delegate the prefix IP1 to AR2.
5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with 5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with
Hierarchical Network Hierarchical Network
The configuration guideline (GL-cfg) for a hierarchical network or The configuration guideline (GL-cfg) for a hierarchical network or
network slice with centralized control plane described in network slice with centralized control plane described in
Section 5.3.1 apply here. Section 5.3.1 applies here.
The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. both requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here.
The guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 for anchoring relocation The guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 for anchoring relocation
and in Section 5.2.1 for a centralized control plane also apply here. and in Section 5.2.1 for a centralized control plane also apply here.
In addition, the guidelines for indirection between the new DPA and In addition, the guidelines for indirection between the new DPA and
the new DPN as described in Section 5.3.1 apply as well. the new DPN as described in Section 5.3.1 apply as well.
5.5. Network Mobility 5.5. Network Mobility
The configuration for network mobility has been shown in Figures 4(a) The configuration for network mobility has been shown in Figures 4(a)
and 4(b) in Section 3.1.4. Again, with centralized control plane, and 4(b) in Section 3.1.4. Again, with centralized control plane,
CPA, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all co-located. There are CPA, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all co-located. There are
multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in the data plane in distributed multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in the data plane in distributed
mobility anchoring. The MR possesses the mobility functions FM and mobility anchoring. The MR possesses the mobility functions FM and
LMc. The IP prefix IPn1 is delegated to the MR, to which a MNN is LMc. The IP prefix IPn1 is delegated to the MR, to which an MNN is
attached and is allocated with an IP address from IPn1. attached and is allocated with an IP address from IPn1.
Figure 13 shows a distributed mobility event in a hierarchical Figure 13 shows a distributed mobility event in a hierarchical
network with a centralized control plane involving a change of network with a centralized control plane involving a change of
attachment of the MR from a previous DPA to a new DPA while the MNN attachment of the MR from a previous DPA to a new DPA while the MNN
is attached to and therefore moves with the MR. is attached to the MR and therefore moves with the MR.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CPA,Aggregate Router: | | CPA,Aggregate Router: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPa2; IPn1<-->IP1 | | LM:IP1 at IPa2; IPn1 at IP1 |
| FM-CP, LM | | FM-CP, LM |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+-----------------+ +-----------------+
|Aggregate Router | |Aggregate Router |
+-----------------+ +-----------------+
|FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+-----------------+ +-----------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
skipping to change at page 45, line 40 skipping to change at page 46, line 40
.FM, LMc . |FM, LMc | .FM, LMc . |FM, LMc |
.anchors IPn1 . |anchors IPn1 | .anchors IPn1 . |anchors IPn1 |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MNN(IPn1) . MNN moves with MR |MNN(IPn1) | .MNN(IPn1) . MNN moves with MR |MNN(IPn1) |
.flow(IPn1,...) . =======> |flow(IPn1,...) | .flow(IPn1,...) . =======> |flow(IPn1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 13. Mobility involving change of IP anchoring for a MR to Figure 13. Mobility involving change of IP anchoring for a MR to
which a MNN is attached. which an MNN is attached.
As the MR with source IP prefix IP1 moves from AR1 to AR2, mobility As the MR with source IP prefix IP1 moves from AR1 to AR2, mobility
support may be provided by moving the anchoring of IP1 from AR1 to support may be provided by moving the anchoring of IP1 from AR1 to
AR2 using the mechanism described in Section 5.2. AR2 using the mechanism described in Section 5.2.
The forwarding table updates will take place at AR1, AR2, the The forwarding table updates will take place at AR1, AR2, the
aggregate router, and other affected routers such that the packet aggregate router, and other affected routers such that the packet
from the CN to the MNN will traverse from the aggregate router from the CN to the MNN will traverse from the aggregate router
towards AR2 instead of towards AR1. towards AR2 instead of towards AR1.
5.5.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Network mobility 5.5.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Network mobility
The configuration guideline for a network or network slice with The configuration guideline for a network or network slice with
centralized control plane to provide network mobility is: centralized control plane to provide network mobility is:
GL-cfg:6 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:6 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix of the MRs are needed to provide providing IP prefix of the MRs are needed to provide
distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 4(a) or distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 4(a) or
Figure 4(b) in Section 3.1. Figure 4(b) in Section 3.1.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented At the appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) the mobility
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively functions LM and FM as described respectively in LM-cfg:3
in LM-cfg:3 or LM-cfg:4 and FM-cfg:4 in Section 3.2. or LM-cfg:4 and FM-cfg:4 in Section 3.2 have to be
implemented.
The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. both requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here.
Here, because the MN is a MR, the following guideline is added: Here, because the MN is a MR, the following guideline is added:
GL-mix:11 There are no flows requiring network mobility support when GL-mix:11 There are no flows requiring network mobility support when
there are no MNN attaching to the MR. Here there are also there are no MNN attaching to the MR. Here there are also
no MNN using a prefix delegated to the MR. Therefore the no MNN using a prefix delegated to the MR. Therefore the
anchor of the MR may change to a new AR. The new AR may anchor of the MR may change to a new AR. The new AR may
delegate new IP prefix to the AR, so that the MR may delegate new IP prefix to the AR, so that the MR may
support potential MNN to attach to it. On the other hand support potential MNNs to attach to it. On the other hand
the delegation of IP prefix to the MR from the old AR may the delegation of IP prefix to the MR from the old AR may
be deleted. be deleted.
The guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 for anchoring relocation The guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 for anchoring relocation
and in Section 5.2.1 for a centralized control plane also apply here. and in Section 5.2.1 for a centralized control plane also apply here.
Again because the MN is a MR, the following guidelines are added: Again because the MN is a MR, the following guidelines are added:
GL-switch:9 Network mobility may be provided using the FM operations GL-switch:9 Network mobility may be provided using the FM operations
and mobility message parameters as described in FM-mr in and mobility message parameters as described in FM-mr in
Section 3.2.2. Section 3.2.2.
GL-switch:10 The following changes to forwarding table entries are GL-switch:10 The following changes to forwarding table entries are
needed: needed:
New entries to the forwarding tables are added between New entries to the forwarding tables are added at AR2
AR2, the aggregate router and other affected routers so and the aggregate router as well as other affected
that packets from the CN to the MNN destined to IPn1 switches/routers between them so that packets from the
will traverse towards AR2. Meanwhile, changes to the CN to the MNN destined to IPn1 will traverse towards
forwarding table will also occur between AR1, the AR2. Meanwhile, changes to the forwarding table will
aggregate router and other affected routers so that such also occur at AR1 and the aggregate router as well as
packets ever reaches any of them, the packet will not other affected switches/routers between them so that in
traverse towards AR1 but will traverse towards AR2. case such packets ever reach any of these switches/
routers, the packets will not traverse towards AR1 but
will traverse towards AR2.
GL-switch:11 The security management function in the anchor node at a GL-switch:11 The security management function in the anchor node at a
new network must allow to assign the original IP prefix/ new network must allow the MNN to continue to own the IP
address allocated to the MR and used by the MNN at the prefix/address originally delegated to the MR and used
previous (original) network. As the assigned original by the MNN at the prior network. As this original IP
IP prefix/address is to be used in the new network, the prefix/address is to be used in the new network, the
security management function in the anchor node must security management function in the anchor node must
allow to advertise the prefix of the original IP address allow to advertise the prefix of the original IP address
and also allow the MNN to send and receive data packets and also allow the MNN to send and receive data packets
with the original IP address. with the original IP address.
GL-switch:12 The security management function in the mobile router GL-switch:12 The security management function in the mobile router
must allow to configure the original IP prefix/address must allow to configure the original IP prefix/address
delegated to the MR from the previous (original) network delegated to the MR from the previous (original) network
when the original IP prefix/address is being delegated when the original IP prefix/address is being delegated
to the MR in the new network. The security management to the MR in the new network. The security management
function in the mobile router also allows to use the function in the mobile router also allows to use the
original IP address by the MNNs for the previous flow in original IP address by the MNNs for the previous flow in
the new network. the new network.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
The security considerations are already described in different Security protocols and mechanisms are employed to secure the network
sessions through this document. They are described in terms of and to make continuous security improvements, and a DMM solution is
integrity support, privacy support etc. in describing the mobility required to support them [RFC7333]. In a DMM deployment
functions in Section 3.2. They are also described in the guidelines [I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models] various attacks such as
for IPv6 nodes in various subsections Section 4 and Section 5. impersonation, denial of service, man-in-the-middle attacks need to
be prevented. An appropriate security management function as defined
in Section 2 controls these security protocols and mechanisms to
provide access control, integrity, authentication, authorization,
confidentiality, etc.
Security considerations are described in terms of integrity support,
privacy support etc. in describing the mobility functions in
Section 3.2. Here the mobility message parameters used in DMM must
be protected, and some parameters require means to support MN and MR
privacy. The security considerations are also described in the
guidelines for IPv6 nodes in various subsections in Section 4, and
Section 5.
The IP address anchoring of an IP prefix is moved from one network to
another network to support IP mobility Section 5.1. As is considered
in the guidelines for IPv6 nodes in Section 5.1.1, the security
management function needs to enable the use in the new network of
attachment the IP prefix allocated from another network. Yet it must
do so without compromising on the needed security to prevent the
possible misuse of an IP prefix belonging to another network.
In network mobility, the MNN using an IP prefix allocated to it from
the MR when the MR was in a prior network moves with the MR to a new
network Section 5.5. As is considered in the guidelines for IPv6
nodes in Section 5.5.1 to support IP mobility for an ongoing flow,
the security management function needs to enable the continued use of
this IP prefix by the MNN with MR in the new network of attachment.
Yet it must do so without compromising on the needed security to
prevent the possible misuse of an IP prefix belonging to another
network.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
This document presents no IANA considerations. This document presents no IANA considerations.
8. Contributors 8. Contributors
This document has benefited from other work on mobility solutions This document has benefited from other work on mobility solutions
using BGP update, on mobility support in SDN network, on providing using BGP update, on mobility support in SDN network, on providing
mobility support only when needed, and on mobility support in mobility support only when needed, and on mobility support in
enterprise network. These work have been referenced. While some of enterprise network. These works have been referenced. While some of
these authors have taken the work to jointly write this document, these authors have taken the work to jointly write this document,
others have contributed at least indirectly by writing these drafts. others have contributed at least indirectly by writing these drafts.
The latter include Philippe Bertin, Dapeng Liu, Satoru Matushima, The latter include Philippe Bertin, Dapeng Liu, Satoru Matushima,
Peter McCann, Pierrick Seite, Jouni Korhonen, and Sri Gundavelli. Peter McCann, Pierrick Seite, Jouni Korhonen, and Sri Gundavelli.
Valuable comments have also been received from John Kaippallimalil, Valuable comments have been received from John Kaippallimalil,
ChunShan Xiong, and Dapeng Liu. ChunShan Xiong, and Dapeng Liu. Dirk von Hugo has generously
provided careful review with helpful corrections and suggestions.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models] [I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models]
Gundavelli, S. and S. Jeon, "DMM Deployment Models and Gundavelli, S. and S. Jeon, "DMM Deployment Models and
Architectural Considerations", draft-ietf-dmm-deployment- Architectural Considerations", draft-ietf-dmm-deployment-
models-00 (work in progress), August 2016. models-01 (work in progress), February 2017.
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp] [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]
Matsushima, S., Bertz, L., Liebsch, M., Gundavelli, S., Matsushima, S., Bertz, L., Liebsch, M., Gundavelli, S.,
and D. Moses, "Protocol for Forwarding Policy Moses, D., and C. Perkins, "Protocol for Forwarding Policy
Configuration (FPC) in DMM", draft-ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp-05 Configuration (FPC) in DMM", draft-ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp-07
(work in progress), October 2016. (work in progress), March 2017.
[I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility] [I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]
Yegin, A., Moses, D., Kweon, K., Lee, J., Park, J., and S. Yegin, A., Moses, D., Kweon, K., Lee, J., Park, J., and S.
Jeon, "On Demand Mobility Management", draft-ietf-dmm- Jeon, "On Demand Mobility Management", draft-ietf-dmm-
ondemand-mobility-09 (work in progress), December 2016. ondemand-mobility-10 (work in progress), January 2017.
[I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp] [I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp]
Lee, J. and Z. Yan, "Deprecated Network Prefix Provision", Lee, J. and Z. Yan, "Deprecated Network Prefix Provision",
draft-jhlee-dmm-dnpp-01 (work in progress), April 2016. draft-jhlee-dmm-dnpp-01 (work in progress), April 2016.
[I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix] [I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix]
Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., and S. Gundavelli, "Local Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., and S. Gundavelli, "Local
Prefix Lifetime Management for Proxy Mobile IPv6", draft- Prefix Lifetime Management for Proxy Mobile IPv6", draft-
korhonen-dmm-local-prefix-01 (work in progress), July korhonen-dmm-local-prefix-01 (work in progress), July
2013. 2013.
skipping to change at page 50, line 31 skipping to change at page 52, line 17
Anchors", Proceedings of GlobeCom Workshop on Seamless Anchors", Proceedings of GlobeCom Workshop on Seamless
Wireless Mobility, December 2010. Wireless Mobility, December 2010.
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility.Review] [Paper-Distributed.Mobility.Review]
Chan, H., Yokota, H., Xie, J., Seite, P., and D. Liu, Chan, H., Yokota, H., Xie, J., Seite, P., and D. Liu,
"Distributed and Dynamic Mobility Management in Mobile "Distributed and Dynamic Mobility Management in Mobile
Internet: Current Approaches and Issues", February 2011. Internet: Current Approaches and Issues", February 2011.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
H Anthony Chan (editor) H. Anthony Chan (editor)
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
5340 Legacy Dr. Building 3 5340 Legacy Dr. Building 3
Plano, TX 75024 Plano, TX 75024
USA USA
Email: h.a.chan@ieee.org Email: h.a.chan@ieee.org
Xinpeng Wei Xinpeng Wei
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
Xin-Xi Rd. No. 3, Haidian District Xin-Xi Rd. No. 3, Haidian District
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