draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-02.txt   draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-03.txt 
DMM H. Chan, Ed. DMM H. Chan, Ed.
Internet-Draft X. Wei Internet-Draft X. Wei
Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies
Expires: March 27, 2017 J. Lee Expires: June 17, 2017 J. Lee
Sangmyung University Sangmyung University
S. Jeon S. Jeon
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
A. Petrescu A. Petrescu
CEA, LIST CEA, LIST
F. Templin F. Templin
Boeing Research and Technology Boeing Research and Technology
September 23, 2016 December 14, 2016
Distributed Mobility Anchoring Distributed Mobility Anchoring
draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-02 draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-03
Abstract Abstract
This document defines distributed mobility anchoring to meet diverse This document defines distributed mobility anchoring in terms of the
mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond. Multiple anchors and nodes different configurations, operations and parameters of mobility
with mobility functions work together to provide IP mobility support. functions to provide different IP mobility support for the diverse
A network or network slice may be configured with distributed mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond. A network or network slice
mobility anchoring depending on the needs of mobility support. In may be configured with distributed mobility anchoring functions
the distributed mobility anchoring environment, multiple anchors are according to the needs of mobility support. In the distributed
available for mid-session switching of an IP prefix anchor. Without mobility anchoring environment, multiple anchors are available for
an ongoing session, i.e., no IP session continuity required, a flow mid-session switching of an IP prefix anchor. To start a new flow or
of a mobile node can be re-started using a new IP prefix which is to handle a flow not requiring IP session continuity as a mobile node
allocated from a new network of the mobile node and is therefore moves to a new network, the flow can be started or re-started using a
anchored to the new network. With an ongoing session, the anchoring new IP prefix which is allocated from and is therefore anchored to
of the prior IP prefix may be relocated to the new network to enable the new network. For a flow requiring IP session continuity, the
IP session continuity. anchoring of the prior IP prefix may be moved to the new network.
The mobility functions and their operations and parameters are
general for different configurations. The mobility signaling may be
between anchors and nodes in the network in a network-based mobility
solution. It may also be between the anchors and the mobile node in
a host-based solution. The mobile node may be a host, but may also
be a router carrying a network requiring network mobility support.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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This Internet-Draft will expire on March 27, 2017.
This Internet-Draft will expire on June 17, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1. Configurations for Different Networks or Network Slices . 6 3.1. Configurations for Different Networks or Network Slices . 7
3.1.1. Network-based Mobility Support for a Flat Network . . 7 3.1.1. Network-based Mobility Support for a Flat Network . . 7
3.1.2. Network-based Mobility Support for a Hierarchical 3.1.2. Network-based Mobility Support for a Hierarchical
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.3. Host-based Mobility Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.1.3. Host-based Mobility Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.1.4. NEtwork MObility (NEMO) Basic Support . . . . . . . . 13 3.1.4. NEtwork MObility (NEMO) Basic Support . . . . . . . . 13
3.2. Operations and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2. Operations and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.2.1. Location Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.2.1. Location Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.2.2. Forwarding Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.2.2. Forwarding Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments - 4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments -
Mobility Support Only When Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Mobility Support Only When Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.1. No Need of IP Mobility: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address 25 4.1. No Need of IP Mobility: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address 27
4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP 4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP
Prefix/Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Prefix/Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.2. Need of IP Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.2. Need of IP Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility . . . 30 4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility . . . 31
5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Mobility Anchoring 5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Mobility Anchoring
Environments - Anchor Switching to the New Network . . . . . 31 Environments - Anchor Switching to the New Network . . . . . 33
5.1. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network . . . 31 5.1. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network . . . 33
5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat 5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.2. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network with 5.2. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network with
Centralized Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Centralized Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching 5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching
Anchor with Centralized CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Anchor with Centralized CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.3. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical 5.3. Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Hierarchical
5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: No Anchoring Network with No Anchor Relocation . . . . . . . . . . 41
Change with a Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . 39
5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical 5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching 5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching
Anchor with Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . 41 Anchor with Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . 44
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5.5. Network Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5.5.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Network
8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to
enable traffic to avoid traversing a single mobility anchor far from enable traffic to avoid traversing a single mobility anchor far from
an optimal route. Distributed mobility management solutions do not an optimal route. Distributed mobility management solutions do not
make use of centrally deployed mobility anchor for a data plane rely on a centrally deployed mobility anchor in the data plane
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility]. As such, the traffic of a flow SHOULD [Paper-Distributed.Mobility]. As such, the traffic of a flow SHOULD
be able to change from traversing one mobility anchor to traversing be able to change from traversing one mobility anchor to traversing
another mobility anchor as a mobile node (MN) moves, or when changing another mobility anchor as a mobile node (MN) moves, or when changing
operation and management requirements call for mobility anchor operation and management requirements call for mobility anchor
switching, thus avoiding non-optimal routes. This draft proposes switching, thus avoiding non-optimal routes.
distributed mobility anchoring to enable making such route changes.
Companion distributed mobility management documents are already
addressing the architecture and deployment
[I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models], source address selection
[I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility], and control-plane data-plane
signaling [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]. Yet in 5G Wireless and beyond,
the mobility requirements are diverse, and IP mobility support is no
longer by default with a one-size-fit-all solution. In different
networks or network slices, different kinds of mobility support are
possible depending on the needs. It may not always be obvious on how
to best configure and use only the needed mobility functions to
provide the specific mobility support. This draft defines different
configurations, functional operations and parameters for distributed
mobility anchoring and explains how to use them to make the route
changes to avoid unnecessarily long routes.
Distributed mobility anchoring employs multiple anchors in the data Distributed mobility anchoring employs multiple anchors in the data
plane. In general, control plane functions may be separate from data plane. In general, control plane functions may be separate from data
plane functions and be centralized but may also be co-located with plane functions and be centralized but may also be co-located with
the data plane functions at the distributed anchors. Different the data plane functions at the distributed anchors. Different
configurations of distributed mobility anchoring are described in configurations of distributed mobility anchoring are described in
Section 3.1. For instance, the configurations for network-based Section 3.1. For instance, the configurations for network-based
mobility support in a flat network, for network-based mobility mobility support in a flat network, for network-based mobility
support in a hierarchical network, for host-based mobility support, support in a hierarchical network, for host-based mobility support,
and for NEtwork MObility (NEMO) basic support are described and for NEtwork MObility (NEMO) basic support are described
skipping to change at page 4, line 24 skipping to change at page 4, line 45
prefix/address change, the flow can be reinitiated with a new IP prefix/address change, the flow can be reinitiated with a new IP
address anchored in the new network as shown in Section 4.1. On the address anchored in the new network as shown in Section 4.1. On the
other hand, if the ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change, other hand, if the ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change,
mobility support is needed as shown in Section 4.2. A network or mobility support is needed as shown in Section 4.2. A network or
network slice supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring network slice supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring
IP mobility support will need to distinguish these flows. The IP mobility support will need to distinguish these flows. The
guidelines for such network or network slice are described in guidelines for such network or network slice are described in
Section 4.1.1. The general guidelines for such network or network Section 4.1.1. The general guidelines for such network or network
slice to provide IP mobility support are described in Section 4.2.1. slice to provide IP mobility support are described in Section 4.2.1.
Specifically, IP mobility support can be provided by changing the Specifically, IP mobility support can be provided by relocating the
anchoring of the IP prefix/address of the flow from the home network anchoring of the IP prefix/address of the flow from the home network
of the flow to the new network of attachment. The basic case may be of the flow to the new network of attachment. The basic case may be
with network-based mobility for a flat network configuration with network-based mobility for a flat network configuration
described in Section 5.1 with the guidelines described in described in Section 5.1 with the guidelines described in
Section 5.1.1. This case is discussed further with a centralized Section 5.1.1. This case is discussed further with a centralized
control plane in Section 5.2 with additional guidelines described in control plane in Section 5.2 with additional guidelines described in
Section 5.2.1. A level of hierarchy of nodes may then be added to Section 5.2.1. A level of hierarchy of nodes may then be added to
the network configuration. Mobility involving change in the Data the network configuration. Mobility involving change in the Data
Plane Node (DPN) without changing the Data Plane Anchor (DPA) is Plane Node (DPN) without changing the Data Plane Anchor (DPA) is
described in Section 5.3 with additional guidelines described in described in Section 5.3 with additional guidelines described in
skipping to change at page 6, line 41 skipping to change at page 7, line 16
3.1. Configurations for Different Networks or Network Slices 3.1. Configurations for Different Networks or Network Slices
The mobility functions may be implemented in different configurations The mobility functions may be implemented in different configurations
of distributed mobility anchoring in architectures separating the of distributed mobility anchoring in architectures separating the
control and data planes. The separation described in control and data planes. The separation described in
[I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models] has defined the home control plane [I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models] has defined the home control plane
anchor (Home-CPA), home data plane anchor (Home-DPA), access control anchor (Home-CPA), home data plane anchor (Home-DPA), access control
plane node (Access-CPN), and access data plane node (Access-DPN), plane node (Access-CPN), and access data plane node (Access-DPN),
which are respectively abbreviated as CPA, DPA, CPN, and DPN here. which are respectively abbreviated as CPA, DPA, CPN, and DPN here.
Some configurations are described in
[I-D.sijeon-dmm-deployment-models].
Different networks or different network slices may have different Different networks or different network slices may have different
configurations in distributed mobility anchoring. configurations in distributed mobility anchoring.
The configurations also differ depending on the desired mobility The configurations also differ depending on the desired mobility
supports: network-based mobility support for a flat network in supports: network-based mobility support for a flat network in
Section 3.1.1, network-based mobility support for a hierarchical Section 3.1.1, network-based mobility support for a hierarchical
network in Section 3.1.2, host-based mobility support network in Section 3.1.2, host-based mobility support in
(Section 3.1.3), and NEtwork MObility (NEMO) based support in Section 3.1.3, and NEtwork MObility (NEMO) based support in
Section 3.1.4. Section 3.1.4.
3.1.1. Network-based Mobility Support for a Flat Network 3.1.1. Network-based Mobility Support for a Flat Network
Figure 1 shows two different configurations of network-based mobility Figure 1 shows two different configurations of network-based mobility
management for a flat network. management for a flat network.
(a) (b) (a) (b)
+-----+ +-----+
|LMs | |LMs |
skipping to change at page 14, line 23 skipping to change at page 14, line 23
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 |
|DHCPv6-PD | |DHCPv6-PD | ... |DHCPv6-PD | |DHCPv6-PD | ... |DHCPv6-PD | |DHCPv6-PD | ... |DHCPv6-PD | |DHCPv6-PD | ...
| IPn1| | IPn2| | IPn1| | IPn2| | IPn1| | IPn2| | IPn1| | IPn2|
|FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|FM-CP LMc | |FM-CP LMc |
|- - - - - - | |- - - - - - |
|MR(IP1) | |MR(IP1) | |MR(IP1) | |MR(IP1) |
|anchors IPn1| |anchors IPn1| |anchors IPn1| |anchors IPn1|
|FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM, LMc | |FM, LMc |
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|MNN(IPn1) | |MR(IP1n1) | |MNN(IPn1) | |MNN(IPn1) |
|flow(IPn1,.)| |flow(IPn1,.)| |flow(IPn1,.)| |flow(IPn1,.)|
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
Figure 4. Configurations of NEMO basic support for a MR. (a) FM-CP Figure 4. Configurations of NEMO basic support for a MR. (a) FM-CP
and LMs at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MR; (b) Separate LMs, FM- and LMs at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MR; (b) Separate LMs, FM-
CP and LMp at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MR. CP and LMp at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MR.
Figure 4 shows 2 configurations of host-based mobility management for Figure 4 shows 2 configurations of host-based mobility management for
a MR with multiple instances of DPA for a distributed mobility a MR with multiple instances of DPA for a distributed mobility
anchoring environment. anchoring environment.
skipping to change at page 16, line 38 skipping to change at page 16, line 38
LM-cfg:1 LMs may co-locate with LMc at CPA in a flat network with LM-cfg:1 LMs may co-locate with LMc at CPA in a flat network with
network-based mobility as shown in Figure 1(a) in network-based mobility as shown in Figure 1(a) in
Section 3.1.1. Section 3.1.1.
LM-cfg:2 LMs may be a separate server whereas LMc is implemented in LM-cfg:2 LMs may be a separate server whereas LMc is implemented in
CPA in a flat network with network-based mobility as shown CPA in a flat network with network-based mobility as shown
in Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1.1. in Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1.1.
LM-cfg:3 LMs may be implemented at CPA, whereas LMc is implemented LM-cfg:3 LMs may be implemented at CPA, whereas LMc is implemented
at CPN in a hierarchical network with network-based at CPN in a hierarchical network with network-based
mobility as shown in Figure 2(a) in Section 3.1.2 or at MN mobility as shown in Figure 2(a) in Section 3.1.2, at MN
for host-based mobility as shown in Figure 3(a) in for host-based mobility as shown in Figure 3(a) in
Section 3.1.3. Section 3.1.3, or at MR for network mobility as shown in
Figure 4(a) in Section 3.1.4.
LM-cfg:4 LMs may be a separate server with LMp implemented at CPA LM-cfg:4 LMs may be a separate server with LMp implemented at CPA
whereas LMc is implemented at CPN in a hierarchical network whereas LMc is implemented at CPN in a hierarchical network
with network-based mobility as shown in Figure 2(b) in with network-based mobility as shown in Figure 2(b) in
Section 3.1.2 or at MN for host-based mobility as shown in Section 3.1.2, at MN for host-based mobility as shown in
Figure 3(b) in Section 3.1.3. Figure 3(b) in Section 3.1.3, or at MR for network mobility
as shown in Figure 4(b) in Section 3.1.4.
LM-db: LM may manage the location information in a client-server LM-db: LM may manage the location information in a client-server
database system. database system.
Example LM database functions are as follows: Example LM database functions are as follows:
LM-db:1 LMc may query LMs about location information for a prefix of LM-db:1 LMc may query LMs about location information for a prefix of
MN (pull). MN (pull).
Parameters: Parameters:
- IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy - IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
support may be required. support may be required.
LM-db:2 LMs may reply to LMc query about location information for a LM-db:2 LMs may reply to LMc query about location information for a
prefix of MN (pull). prefix of MN (pull).
Parameters: Parameters:
- IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy - IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
support may be required support may be required,
- IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the - IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow: integrity support required. flow: integrity support required.
LM-db:3 LMs may inform LMc about location information for a prefix LM-db:3 LMs may inform LMc about location information for a prefix
of MN (push). of MN (push).
Parameters: Parameters:
- IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy - IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
support may be required support may be required,
- IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the - IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow. flow: integrity support required.
This function in the PMIPv6 protocol is the Update This function in the PMIPv6 protocol is the Update
Notification (UPN) together with the Update Notification Notification (UPN) together with the Update Notification
Acknowledgment (UPA) as defined in [RFC7077]. Acknowledgment (UPA) as defined in [RFC7077].
LM-db:4 LMc may inform LMs about update location information for a LM-db:4 LMc may inform LMs about update location information for a
prefix of MN. prefix of MN.
Parameters: Parameters:
- IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy - IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
support may be required support may be required,
- IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the - IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow: integrity support required flow: integrity support required.
This function in the MIPv6 / PMIPv6 protocol is the Binding This function in the MIPv6 / PMIPv6 protocol is the Binding
Update (BU) / Proxy Binding Update (PBU) together with the Update (BU) / Proxy Binding Update (PBU) together with the
Binding Acknowledgment (BA) / Proxy Binding Acknowledgment Binding Acknowledgment (BA) / Proxy Binding Acknowledgment
(PBA) as defined in [RFC6275] / [RFC5213] respectively. (PBA) as defined in [RFC6275] / [RFC5213] respectively.
LM-db:5 The MN may be a host or a router. When the MN is an MR, the LM-db:5 The MN may be a host or a router. When the MN is an MR, the
prefix information may include the MNP delegated to the MR. prefix information may include the IP prefix delegated to
the MR.
Additional parameters: Additional parameters:
MNP: integrity support required and privacy support may be
required - IP prefix delegated to MR: integrity support required and
privacy support may be required,
- IP prefix/address of the MR to forward the packets of the
prefix delegated to the MR: integrity support required.
LM-svr: The LM may be a distributed database with multiple LMs LM-svr: The LM may be a distributed database with multiple LMs
servers. servers.
For example: For example:
LM-svr:1 A LMs may join a pool of LMs servers. LM-svr:1 A LMs may join a pool of LMs servers.
Parameters: Parameters:
- IP address of the LMs: integrity support required
- IP address of the LMs: integrity support required,
- IP prefixes for which the LMs will host the primary - IP prefixes for which the LMs will host the primary
location information: integrity support required. location information: integrity support required.
LM-svr:2 LMs may query a peer LMs about location information for a LM-svr:2 LMs may query a peer LMs about location information for a
prefix of MN. prefix of MN.
Parameters: Parameters:
- IP prefix: integrity support required and privacy support - IP prefix: integrity support required and privacy support
may be required. may be required.
LM-svr:3 LMs may reply to a peer LMs about location information for LM-svr:3 LMs may reply to a peer LMs about location information for
a prefix of MN. a prefix of MN.
Parameters: Parameters:
- IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy - IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
support may be required support may be required,
- IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the - IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow: integrity support required. flow: integrity support required.
The parameters indicated above are only the minimal. In a specific The parameters indicated above are only the minimal. In a specific
mobility protocol, additional parameters should be added as needed. mobility protocol, additional parameters should be added as needed.
Examples of these additional parameters are those passed in the Examples of these additional parameters are those passed in the
mobility options of the mobility header for MIPv6 [RFC6275] and for mobility options of the mobility header for MIPv6 [RFC6275] and for
PMIPv6 [RFC5213]. PMIPv6 [RFC5213].
3.2.2. Forwarding Management 3.2.2. Forwarding Management
Forwarding management configurations: Forwarding management configurations:
skipping to change at page 19, line 12 skipping to change at page 19, line 27
FM-cfg:2 FM-CP may be implemented at both CPA and CPN and FM-DP is FM-cfg:2 FM-CP may be implemented at both CPA and CPN and FM-DP is
implemented at both DPA and DPN in a hierarchical network implemented at both DPA and DPN in a hierarchical network
with network-based mobility as shown in Figure 2(a) and with network-based mobility as shown in Figure 2(a) and
Figure 2(b) in Section 3.1.2. Figure 2(b) in Section 3.1.2.
FM-cfg:3 FM-CP and FM-DP may be implemented at CPA and DPA FM-cfg:3 FM-CP and FM-DP may be implemented at CPA and DPA
respectively and also both implemented at MN for host-based respectively and also both implemented at MN for host-based
mobility as shown in Figure 3(a) and Figure 3(b) in mobility as shown in Figure 3(a) and Figure 3(b) in
Section 3.1.3. Section 3.1.3.
FM-cfg:4 FM-CP and FM-DP may be implemented at CPA and DPA
respectively and also both implemented at MR for network
mobility as shown in Figure 4(a) and Figure 4(b) in
Section 3.1.4.
Forwarding management operations and parameters: Forwarding management operations and parameters:
FM-find:1 An anchor may discover and be discovered such as through FM-find:1 An anchor may discover and be discovered such as through
an anchor registration system as follows: an anchor registration system as follows:
FM-find:2 FM registers and authenticates itself with a centralized FM-find:2 FM registers and authenticates itself with a centralized
mobility controller. mobility controller.
Parameters: Parameters:
- IP address of DPA and its CPA: integrity support - IP address of DPA and its CPA: integrity support
required required,
- IP prefix anchored to the DPA: integrity support - IP prefix anchored to the DPA: integrity support
required required.
registration reply: acknowledge of registration and echo Registration reply: acknowledge of registration and echo
the input parameters. the input parameters.
FM-find:3 FM discovers the FM of another IP prefix by querying the FM-find:3 FM discovers the FM of another IP prefix by querying the
mobility controller based on the IP prefix. mobility controller based on the IP prefix.
Parameters: Parameters:
- IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy - IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
support may be required support may be required.
FM-find:4 when making anchor discovery FM expects the answer FM-find:4 When making anchor discovery FM expects the answer
parameters: parameters:
- IP address of DPA to which IP prefix of MN is anchored: - IP address of DPA to which IP prefix of MN is anchored:
integrity support required integrity support required,
- IP prefix of the corresponding CPA: integrity support - IP prefix of the corresponding CPA: integrity support
required required.
FM-flow:1 The FM may be carried out on the packets to/from an MN up FM-flow:1 The FM may be carried out on the packets to/from an MN up
to the granularity of a flow. to the granularity of a flow.
FM-flow:2 Example matching parameters are in the 5-tuple of a flow. FM-flow:2 Example matching parameters are in the 5-tuple of a flow.
FM-cpdp: With separation of control plane function and data plane
function, FM-CP and FM-DP communicate with each other. Such
communication may be realized by the appropriate messages in
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
For example:
FM-cpdp:1 CPA/FM-CP sends forwarding table updates to DPA/FM-DP.
Parameters:
- New forwarding table entries to add: integrity support
required
- Expired forwarding table entries to delete: integrity
support required
FM-cpdp:2 DPA/FM-DP sends to CPA/FM-CP about its status and load.
Parameters:
- State of forwarding function being active or not:
integrity support required
- Loading percentage: integrity support required
FM-path:1 FM may change the forwarding path of a flow upon a change FM-path:1 FM may change the forwarding path of a flow upon a change
of point of attachment of a MN. Prior to the changes, of point of attachment of a MN. Prior to the changes,
packets coming from the CN to the MN would traverse from packets coming from the CN to the MN would traverse from
the CN to the home network anchor of the flow for the MN the CN to the home network anchor of the flow for the MN
before reaching the MN. Changes are from this original before reaching the MN. Changes are from this original
forwarding path or paths to a new forwarding path or paths forwarding path or paths to a new forwarding path or paths
from the CN to the current AR of the MN and then the MN from the CN to the current AR of the MN and then the MN
itself. itself.
FM-path:2 As an incoming packet is forwarded from the CN to the MN, FM-path:2 As an incoming packet is forwarded from the CN to the MN,
skipping to change at page 21, line 9 skipping to change at page 21, line 9
anchoring is to explain the use of multiple anchors to anchoring is to explain the use of multiple anchors to
avoid unnecessarily long route which may be encountered in avoid unnecessarily long route which may be encountered in
centralized mobility anchoring. It is therefore not the centralized mobility anchoring. It is therefore not the
emphasis of this document on which particular mechanism to emphasis of this document on which particular mechanism to
choose from. choose from.
FM-path-tbl:4 With forwarding table updates, changes to the FM-path-tbl:4 With forwarding table updates, changes to the
forwarding table are needed at each of the affected forwarding table are needed at each of the affected
forwarding switches in order to change the forwarding forwarding switches in order to change the forwarding
path of the packets for the flow from that originally path of the packets for the flow from that originally
between the CN and the home network anchor to that between the CN and the home network anchor or previous
between the CN and the new AR. AR to that between the CN and the new AR.
Forwarding table updates may be achieved through BGP
update as described in [I-D.templin-aerolink],
[I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] and also for 3GPP Evolved
Packet Core (EPC) network in
[I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc] when the scope
and response time can be managed. Alternatively, a
centralized control plane may be used.
When the control plane is centralized, forwarding Specifically, such forwarding table updates may
table updates may be achieved through messaging include: (1) addition of forwarding table entries
between the centralized control plane and the needed to forward the packets destined to the MN to
distributed forwarding switches as described above the new AR; (2) deletion of forwarding table entries
(FM-cpdp) in this section. to forward the packets destined to the MN to the home
network anchor or to the previous AR.
Forwarding table updates may be triggered using FM-path-tbl:5 Forwarding table updates may be triggered using
DHCPv6-PD prefix delegation to change the role of IP DHCPv6-PD prefix delegation to change the role of IP
anchoring from the home network anchor (with FM-DP) to anchoring from the home network anchor or previous AR
the new anchor (with FM-DP) to which the MN is (with FM-DP) to the new anchor (with FM-DP) to which
currently attached. The new anchor will then the MN is currently attached. The new anchor will
advertise routes for the delegated prefix. then advertise routes for the delegated prefix.
With a distributed routing protocol, the updates With a distributed routing protocol, the updates
spread out from neighbors to neighbors and will affect spread out from neighbors to neighbors and will affect
all the forwarding switches such that the packets sent all the forwarding switches such that the packets sent
from "any" node to MN will go to the new AR. from "any" node to MN will go to the new AR.
Yet the scope of such updates for a given flow may be FM-path-tbl:6 Forwarding table updates may also be achieved through
confined to only those forwarding switches such that BGP update as described in [I-D.templin-aerolink],
the packets sent only from the "CN" to MN will go to [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] and also for 3GPP Evolved
the new AR. Such confinement may be made when using a Packet Core (EPC) network in
centralized central plane possessing a global view of [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc] when the scope
all the forwarding switches. and response time can be managed.
FM-path-tbl:5 FM reverts the changes previously made to the FM-path-tbl:7 Alternatively, with a centralized control plane,
forwarding table updates may be achieved through
messaging between the centralized control plane and
the distributed forwarding switches as described above
(FM-cpdp) in this section.
FM-path-tbl:8 To reduce excessive signaling, the scope of such
updates for a given flow may be confined to only those
forwarding switches such that only the packets sent
from the "CN" to the MN will go to the new AR. Such
confinement may be made when using a centralized
central plane possessing a global view of all the
forwarding switches.
FM-path-tbl:9 FM reverts the changes previously made to the
forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no
longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using
an IP prefix/address requiring IP session continuity an IP prefix/address requiring IP session continuity
have closed. When using DHCPv6-PD, the forwarding have closed. When using DHCPv6-PD, the forwarding
paths will be reverted upon prefix lease expiration. paths will be reverted upon prefix lease expiration.
FM-path-ind:6 Indirection forwards the incoming packets of the flow FM-path-ind:10 Indirection forwards the incoming packets of the flow
from the DPA at the far end to a DPA/DPN at the near from the DPA at the far end to a DPA/DPN at the near
end of indirection. Both ends of the indirection end of indirection. Both ends of the indirection need
needs to know the LM information of the MN for the to know the LM information of the MN for the flow and
flow and also needs to possess FM capability to also need to possess FM capability to perform
perform indirection. indirection.
FM-path-ind:7 The mechanism of changing the forwarding path in FM-path-ind:11 The mechanism of changing the forwarding path in MIPv6
[RFC6275] and [RFC5213] is tunneling. In the control [RFC6275] and PMIPv6 [RFC5213] is tunneling. In the
plane, the FM-CP sets up the tunnel by instructing the control plane, the FM-CP sets up the tunnel by
FM-DP at both ends of the tunnel. In the data plane, instructing the FM-DP at both ends of the tunnel. In
the FM-DP at the start of the tunnel performs packet the data plane, the FM-DP at the start of the tunnel
encapsulation, whereas the FM-DP at the end of the performs packet encapsulation, whereas the FM-DP at
tunnel decapsulates the packet. the end of the tunnel decapsulates the packet.
Note that in principle the ends of the indirection Note that in principle the ends of the indirection
path can be any pair of network elements with the FM- path can be any pair of network elements with the FM-
DP function. DP function.
FM-path-ind:8 FM reverts the changes previously made to the FM-path-ind:12 FM reverts the changes previously made to the
forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no
longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using
an IP prefix/address requiring IP session continuity an IP prefix/address requiring IP session continuity
have closed. When tunneling is used, the tunnels will have closed. When tunneling is used, the tunnels will
be torn down when they are no longer needed. be torn down when they are no longer needed.
FM-DPA:1 Recall from above that for the incoming packets from the FM-cpdp: With separation of control plane function and data plane
CN, forwarding path change by FM is from the DPA at the far function, FM-CP and FM-DP communicate with each other. Such
end which may be at any forwarding switch (or even CN communication may be realized by the appropriate messages in
itself) in the original forwarding path to the near end [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
DPA/DPN.
It is necessary that any incoming packet from the CN of the For example:
FM-cpdp:1 CPA/FM-CP sends forwarding table updates to DPA/FM-DP.
Parameters:
- New forwarding table entries to add: integrity support
required,
- Expired forwarding table entries to delete: integrity
support required.
FM-cpdp:2 DPA/FM-DP sends to CPA/FM-CP about its status and load.
Parameters:
- State of forwarding function being active or not:
integrity support required,
- Loading percentage: integrity support required.
FM-CPA: The CPA possesses FM-CP function to make the changes to the
forwarding path as described in FM-path, and the changes may
be implemented through forwarding table changes or through
indirection as described respectively in FM-path-tbl and FM-
path-ind above.
The FM-CP communicates with the FM-DP using the appropirate
messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp] as described in FM-cpdp
above so that it may instruct the FM-DP to perform the
changed forwarding tasks.
FM-DPA: The DPA possesses FM-DP function to forward packets according
to the changed forwarding path as described in FM-path, and
also FM-path-tbl or FM-path-ind depending on whether
forwarding table changes or indirection is used.
The FM-DP communicates with the FM-CP using the appropirate
messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp] as described in FM-cpdp
above so that it may perform the changed forwarding tasks.
The operations and their parameters for the DPA to perform
distributed mobility management are described below:
FM-DPA:1 The DPAs perform the needed functions such that for the
incoming packets from the CN, forwarding path change by FM
is from the DPA at the far end which may be at any
forwarding switch (or even CN itself) in the original
forwarding path to the near end DPA/DPN.
FM-DPA:2 It is necessary that any incoming packet from the CN of the
flow must traverse the DPA (or at least one of the DPAs, flow must traverse the DPA (or at least one of the DPAs,
e.g., in the case of anycast) at the far end in order for e.g., in the case of anycast) at the far end in order for
the packet to detour to a new forwarding path. the packet to detour to a new forwarding path. Therefore a
convenient design is to locate the far end DPA at a unique
Therefore a convenient design is to locate the far end DPA location which is always in the forwarding path. This is
at a unique location which is always in the forwarding the case in a centralized mobility design where the DPA at
path. This is the case in a centralized mobility design the far end is the home network anchor of the flow.
where the DPA at the far end is the home network anchor of
the flow.
Distributed mobility however may place the far end DPA at Distributed mobility however may place the far end DPA at
other locations in order to avoid unnecessarily long route. other locations in order to avoid unnecessarily long route.
FM-DPA:2 With multiple nodes possessing DPA capabilities, the role FM-DPA:3 With multiple nodes possessing DPA capabilities, the role
of FM to begin path change for the incoming packets of a of FM to begin path change for the incoming packets of a
flow at the home network DPA at the far end may be passed flow at the home network DPA at the far end may be passed
to or added to that of another DPA. to or added to that of another DPA.
In particular, this DPA role may be moved upstream from the In particular, this DPA role may be moved upstream from the
home network DPA in the original forwarding path from CN to home network DPA in the original forwarding path from CN to
MN. MN.
FM-DPA:3 Optimization of the new forwarding path may be achieved FM-DPA:4 Optimization of the new forwarding path may be achieved
when the path change for the incoming packets begins at a when the path change for the incoming packets begins at a
DPA where the original path and the direct IPv6 path DPA where the original path and the direct IPv6 path
overlaps. Then the new forwarding path will resemble the overlaps. Then the new forwarding path will resemble the
direct IPv6 path from the CN to the MN. direct IPv6 path from the CN to the MN.
FM-DPA-tbl:4 Forwarding table updates, such as that triggered using FM-DPA-tbl:5 One method to support IP mobility is through forwarding
DHCPv6-PD to change the role of IP anchoring from the table changes triggered using DHCPv6-PD to change the
home network anchor (DPA with FM-DP) to the new anchor role of IP anchoring from the home network anchor (DPA
(DPA with FM-DP), may put the near end of the path with FM-DP) to the new anchor (DPA with FM-DP). It
change at the new DPA. Subsequent forwarding table therefore puts the near end of the path change at the
updates may propagates upstream up to a far end where new DPA. Forwarding table updates will subsequently
the original path and the direct IPv6 path overlaps. propagate upstream from this DPA up to a far end DPA
where the original path and the direct IPv6 path
overlap.
When that far end is too far upstream the signaling of When that far end is too far upstream the signaling of
forwarding table updates may become excessive. An forwarding table updates may become excessive. An
alternative is to use indirection (see FM-DPA-ind) from alternative is to use indirection (see FM-DPA-ind) from
that far end to the new DPA at the near end. that far end to the new DPA at the near end.
Still another alternative is to combine forwarding Still another alternative is to combine forwarding
table update with indirection. table update with indirection.
FM-DPA-tbl:5 Changes made by FM to the following tables, which are FM-DPA-tbl:6 Changes made by FM to the forwarding tables, which are
IPv6 nodes, at the ends of the path change for a flow IPv6 nodes, at the ends of the path change for a flow
will be reverted when the mobility support for the flow will be reverted when the mobility support for the flow
is no longer needed, e.g., when the flows have is no longer needed, e.g., when the flows have
terminated. terminated.
FM-DPA-ind:6 With indirection, locating or moving the FM function to FM-DPA-ind:7 An alternative mobility support is indirection from the
far end DPA to the near end DPA. Both DPAs need to be
capable to performing indirection. For incoming
packets from the CN to the MN, the far end DPA needs to
start the indirection towards the near end DPA, which
will be the receiving end of indirection. In addition,
the near end DPA needs to continue the forwarding of
the packet towards the MN, such as through L2
forwarding or through another indirection towards the
MN.
FM-DPA-ind:8 With indirection, locating or moving the FM function to
begin indirection upstream along the forwarding path begin indirection upstream along the forwarding path
from CN to MN again may help to reduce unnecessarily from CN to MN again may help to reduce unnecessarily
long path. long path.
FM-DPA-ind:7 Changes made by FM to establish indirection at the DPA FM-DPA-ind:9 Changes made by FM to establish indirection at the DPA
and DPN, which are IPv6 nodes, at the ends of the path and DPN, which are IPv6 nodes, at the ends of the path
change for a flow will be reverted when the mobility change for a flow will be reverted when the mobility
support for the flow is no longer needed, e.g., when support for the flow is no longer needed, e.g., when
the flows have terminated. the flows have terminated.
FM-state:1 In addition to the above, a flow/session may contain FM-state:1 In addition to the above, a flow/session may contain
states with the required information for QoS, charging, states with the required information for QoS, charging,
etc. as needed. These states need to be transferred from etc. as needed. These states need to be transferred from
the old anchor to the new anchor. the old anchor to the new anchor.
FM-buffer:1 An anchor can buffer packets of a flow in a mobility FM-buffer: An anchor can buffer packets of a flow in a mobility
event: event:
FM-buffer:2 CPA/FM-CP informs DPA/FM-DP to buffer packets of a flow.
FM-buffer:1 CPA/FM-CP informs DPA/FM-DP to buffer packets of a flow.
Trigger: Trigger:
- MN leaves DPA in a mobility event. - MN leaves DPA in a mobility event.
Parameters: Parameters:
- IP prefix of the flow for which packets need to be - IP prefix of the flow for which packets need to be
buffered: integrity support required buffered: integrity support required
FM-buffer:3 CPA/FM-CP on behalf of a new DPA/FM-DP informs the CPA/ FM-buffer:2 CPA/FM-CP on behalf of a new DPA/FM-DP informs the CPA/
FM-CP of the prior DPA/FM-DP that it is ready to receive FM-CP of the prior DPA/FM-DP that it is ready to receive
any buffered packets of a flow. any buffered packets of a flow.
Parameters: Parameters:
- Destination IP prefix of the flow's packets: integrity - Destination IP prefix of the flow's packets: integrity
support required support required,
- IP address of the new DPA: integrity support required - IP address of the new DPA: integrity support required.
FM-mr:1 When the MN is a mobile router the access router anchoring FM-mr:1 When the MN is a mobile router (MR) the access router
the IP prefix of MR will also anchor the IP prefix or anchoring the IP prefix of the MR will also own the IP
prefixes delegated to the MR. prefix or prefixes to be delegated to the MR. The MNNs in
the network carried by the MR obtains IP prefixes from the
MR.
FM-mr:2 When the MR moves from a previous AR to a new AR, the MNNs
moves with the MR. Network mobility support for these MNNs
may be provided by forwarding table updates such that
packets destined to the MNNs will be forwarded towards the
new AR instead of towards the old AR.
Changes to forwarding table entries may occur at the new AR,
the aggregate router, and other affected switch/routers such
that packets destined to the MNNs will be forwarded to the
new AR.
Meanwhile, changes to forwarding table entries may also
occur at the old AR, the aggregate router, and other
affected switch/routers such that packets destined to the
MNNs will not be forwarded to the old AR.
4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments - 4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments -
Mobility Support Only When Needed Mobility Support Only When Needed
IP Mobility Support Only When Needed:
IP mobility support may be provided only when needed instead of being IP mobility support may be provided only when needed instead of being
provided by default. The LM and FM functions in the different provided by default. The LM and FM functions in the different
configurations shown in Section 3.1 are then utilized only when configurations shown in Section 3.1 are then utilized only when
needed. needed.
A straightforward choice of mobility anchoring is for a flow to use A straightforward choice of mobility anchoring is for a flow to use
the IP prefix of the network to which the MN is attached when the the IP prefix of the network to which the MN is attached when the
flow is initiated [I-D.seite-dmm-dma]. flow is initiated [I-D.seite-dmm-dma].
The IP prefix/address at the MN's side of a flow may be anchored at The IP prefix/address at the MN's side of a flow may be anchored at
skipping to change at page 25, line 31 skipping to change at page 27, line 26
4.1. No Need of IP Mobility: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address 4.1. No Need of IP Mobility: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address
When IP mobility support is not needed for a flow, the LM and FM When IP mobility support is not needed for a flow, the LM and FM
functions are not utilized so that the configurations in Section 3.1 functions are not utilized so that the configurations in Section 3.1
are simplified as shown in Figure 5. are simplified as shown in Figure 5.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | AR is changed |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ -------> +---------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: |
---------------+ <span class="insert">-------&gt;</span> +---------------+
|---------------| |---------------| |---------------| |---------------|
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2) | .MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP2,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP2,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 5. Changing to the new IP prefix/address. MN running a flow Figure 5. Changing to the new IP prefix/address. MN running a flow
using IP1 in a network Net1 changes to running a flow using IP2 in using IP1 in a network Net1 changes to running a flow using IP2 in
Net2. Net2.
When there is no need to provide IP mobility to a flow, the flow may When there is no need to provide IP mobility to a flow, the flow may
use a new IP address acquired from a new network as the MN moves to use a new IP address acquired from a new network as the MN moves to
the new network. the new network.
skipping to change at page 26, line 18 skipping to change at page 28, line 13
network. network.
When IP session continuity is needed, even if a flow is ongoing as When IP session continuity is needed, even if a flow is ongoing as
the MN moves, it may still be desirable for the flow to change to the MN moves, it may still be desirable for the flow to change to
using the new IP prefix configured in the new network. The flow may using the new IP prefix configured in the new network. The flow may
then close and then restart using a new IP address configured in the then close and then restart using a new IP address configured in the
new network. Such a change in the IP address of the flow may be new network. Such a change in the IP address of the flow may be
enabled using a higher layer mobility support which is not in the enabled using a higher layer mobility support which is not in the
scope of this document. scope of this document.
In Figure 5, a flow initiated while the MN was in a network Net1 has In Figure 5, a flow initiated while the MN was using the IP prefix
IP1 anchored to a previous access router AR1 in network Net1 has
terminated before the MN moves to a new network Net2. After moving terminated before the MN moves to a new network Net2. After moving
to Net2, the MN uses the new IP prefix anchored in Net2 to start a to Net2, the MN uses the new IP prefix IP2 anchored to a new access
new flow. The packets may then be forwarded without requiring IP router AR2 in network Net2 to start a new flow. The packets may then
layer mobility support. be forwarded without requiring IP layer mobility support.
An example call flow is outlined in Figure 6. An example call flow is outlined in Figure 6.
MN p-AR n-AR CN MN AR1 AR2 CN
|MN attaches to p-AR: | | | |MN attaches to AR1: | | |
|acquire MN-ID and profile | | |acquire MN-ID and profile | |
|--RS---------------->| | | |--RS---------------->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<----------RA(HNP1)--| | | |<----------RA(IP1)---| | |
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP1 Allocated prefix IP1 | | |
IP1 address configuration IP1 address configuration | |
| | | | | | | |
|<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-+--------------------------------------------->| |<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-+--------------------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
|MN detaches from p-AR| | | |MN detaches from AR1 | | |
|MN attaches to n-AR | | | |MN attaches to AR2 | | |
| | | | | | | |
|--RS------------------------------>| | |--RS------------------------------>| |
| | | | | | | |
|<--------------RA(HNP2)------------| | |<--------------RA(IP2)-------------| |
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP2 Allocated prefix IP2 | | |
IP2 address configuration IP2 address configuration | |
| | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Figure 6. Re-starting a flow to use the IP allocated from the Figure 6. Re-starting a flow to use the IP allocated from the
network at which the MN is attached. network at which the MN is attached.
4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address 4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address
A network or network slice may not need IP mobility support. For A network or network slice may not need IP mobility support. For
example, a network slice for stationary sensors only will never example, a network slice for stationary sensors only will never
encounter mobility. encounter mobility.
The standard functions in IPv6 already include dropping the old IPv6 The standard functions in IPv6 already include dropping the old IPv6
prefix/address and acquiring new IPv6 prefix/address when the node prefix/address and acquiring new IPv6 prefix/address when the node
changes its point of attachment to a new network. Therefore, a changes its point of attachment to a new network. Therefore, a
network or network slice not providing IP mobility support at all network or network slice not providing IP mobility support at all
will not need any of the functions with the mobility operations and will not need any of the functions with the mobility operations and
messages described in Section 3.2. messages described in Section 3.2.
On the other hand, a network or network slice supporting a mix of
flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility support will still need
the mobility functions, which it will invoke or not invoke as needed.
The guidelines for the IPv6 nodes in a network or network slice The guidelines for the IPv6 nodes in a network or network slice
supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility
support include the following: support include the following:
GL-cfg:1 A network or network slice supporting a mix of flows GL-cfg:1 A network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring mobility support may take any requiring and not requiring mobility support may take any
of the configurations described in Section 3.1 and need to of the configurations described in Section 3.1 and need to
implement in the appropriate IPv6 nodes the mobility implement in the appropriate IPv6 nodes the mobility
functions LM and FM as described respectively in LM-cfg and functions LM and FM as described respectively in LM-cfg and
FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according to the configuration FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according to the configuration
skipping to change at page 29, line 19 skipping to change at page 31, line 5
prior network's IP address to avoid having to invoke IP mobility prior network's IP address to avoid having to invoke IP mobility
support. This may be the case where a dynamic IP prefix/address support. This may be the case where a dynamic IP prefix/address
rather than a permanent one is used. The flow may then use the new rather than a permanent one is used. The flow may then use the new
IP prefix in the network where the flow is being initiated. Routing IP prefix in the network where the flow is being initiated. Routing
is again kept simpler without employing IP mobility and will remain is again kept simpler without employing IP mobility and will remain
so as long as the MN which is now in the new network has not moved so as long as the MN which is now in the new network has not moved
again and left to another new network. again and left to another new network.
An example call flow in this case is outlined in Figure 7. An example call flow in this case is outlined in Figure 7.
MN p-AR n-AR CN MN AR1 AR2 CN
|MN attaches to p-AR: | | | |MN attaches to AR1: | | |
|acquire MN-ID and profile | | |acquire MN-ID and profile | |
|--RS---------------->| | | |--RS---------------->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<----------RA(HNP1)--| | | |<----------RA(IP1)---| | |
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP1 Allocated prefix IP1 | | |
IP1 address configuration IP1 address configuration | |
| | | | | | | |
|<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-+--------------------------------------------->| |<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-+--------------------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
|MN detach from p-AR | | | |MN detach from AR1 | | |
|MN attach to n-AR | | | |MN attach to AR2 | | |
| | | | | | | |
|--RS------------------------------>| | |--RS------------------------------>| |
IP mobility support such as that described in next sub-section IP mobility support such as that described in next sub-section
|<--------------RA(HNP2,HNP1)-------| | |<--------------RA(IP2,IP1)---------| |
| | | | | | | |
|<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)---------------+------------------------------->| |<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)---------------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP2 Allocated prefix IP2 | | |
IP2 address configuration IP2 address configuration | |
| | | | | | | |
Flow(IP1,IPcn) terminates Flow(IP1,IPcn) terminates | |
| | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Figure 7. A flow continues to use the IP from its home network after Figure 7. A flow continues to use the IP from its home network after
MN has moved to a new network. MN has moved to a new network.
4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility 4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility
The configuration guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6 The configuration guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6
skipping to change at page 30, line 39 skipping to change at page 32, line 25
GL-mix:5 The distributed anchors may need to message with each GL-mix:5 The distributed anchors may need to message with each
other. When such messaging is needed, the anchors may need other. When such messaging is needed, the anchors may need
to discover each other as described in the FM operations to discover each other as described in the FM operations
and mobility message parameters (FM-find) in Section 3.2.2. and mobility message parameters (FM-find) in Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:6 The anchors may need to provide mobility support on a per- GL-mix:6 The anchors may need to provide mobility support on a per-
flow basis as described in the FM operations and mobility flow basis as described in the FM operations and mobility
message parameters (FM-flow) in Section 3.2.2. message parameters (FM-flow) in Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:7 Then the anchors need to properly forward the packets of GL-mix:7 Then the anchors need to properly forward the packets of
the flows as described in the FM operations and mobility the flows in the appropriate FM operations and mobility
message parameters (FM-path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA- message parameters depending on the specific mobility
tbl) in Section 3.2.2. mechanism as described in Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:8 If there are in-flight packets toward the old anchor while GL-mix:8 When using a mechanism of changing forwarding table
entries, the FM operations and mobility message parameters
are described in FM-path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, and FM-DPA-
tbl in Section 3.2.2.
The forwarding table updates will take place at AR1, AR2,
the far end DPA, and other affected switches/routers such
that the packet from the CN to the MN will traverse from
the far end DPA towards AR2 instead of towards AR1.
Therefore new entries to the forwarding table will be added
between AR2, the far end DPA and other affected routers so
that these packets will traverse towards AR2. Meanwhile,
changes to the forwarding table entries will also occur
between AR1, the far end DPA and other affected routers so
that if these packets ever reaches any of them, the they
will not traverse towards AR1 but will traverse towards
AR2. Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:9 Alternatively when using a mechanism of indirection, the FM
operations and mobility message parameters are described in
FM-path, FM-path-ind, FM-DPA, and FM-DPA-ind in
Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:10 If there are in-flight packets toward the old anchor while
the MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to the MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to
buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor
after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready. after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready.
Such are described in the FM operations and mobility Such are described in the FM operations and mobility
message parameters (FM-buffer) in Section 3.2.2. message parameters (FM-buffer) in Section 3.2.2.
5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Mobility Anchoring Environments 5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Mobility Anchoring Environments
- Anchor Switching to the New Network - Anchor Switching to the New Network
IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching to the New Network:
IP mobility is invoked to enable IP session continuity for an ongoing IP mobility is invoked to enable IP session continuity for an ongoing
flow as the MN moves to a new network. Here the anchoring of the IP flow as the MN moves to a new network. Here the anchoring of the IP
address of the flow is in the home network of the flow, which is not address of the flow is in the home network of the flow, which is not
in the current network of attachment. A centralized mobility in the current network of attachment. A centralized mobility
management mechanism may employ indirection from the anchor in the management mechanism may employ indirection from the anchor in the
home network to the current network of attachment. Yet it may be home network to the current network of attachment. Yet it may be
difficult to avoid unnecessarily long route when the route between difficult to avoid unnecessarily long route when the route between
the MN and the CN via the anchor in the home network is significantly the MN and the CN via the anchor in the home network is significantly
longer than the direct route between them. An alternative is to longer than the direct route between them. An alternative is to
switch the IP prefix/address anchoring to the new network. switch the IP prefix/address anchoring to the new network.
skipping to change at page 31, line 35 skipping to change at page 34, line 13
1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 are implemented as shown in Figure 8. 1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 are implemented as shown in Figure 8.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: |
|LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | |LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | |LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | |LM:IP1<-->IPa2 |
|---------------| |---------------| |---------------| |---------------|
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | anchoring of IP1 is moved |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | move |anchors IP2,IP1| |anchored IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2,IP1|
|FM:DHCPv6-PD | =======> |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 8. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network. MN Figure 8. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network. MN
with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues to run the flow using IP1 as it with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues to run the flow using IP1 as it
moves to Net2. moves to Net2.
As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may
preserve IP session continuity by moving the anchoring of the preserve IP session continuity by moving the anchoring of the
original IP prefix/address of the flow to the new network. BGP original IP prefix/address of the flow to the new network. BGP
skipping to change at page 32, line 20 skipping to change at page 34, line 46
5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat Network 5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat Network
The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice
supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility
support is: support is:
GL-cfg:3 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:3 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or
Figure 1(b)in Section 3.1 for a flat network. Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1 for a flat network.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively
in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2. in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2.
The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. In requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. In
addition, the following are required. addition, the following are required.
skipping to change at page 32, line 42 skipping to change at page 35, line 21
IP prefix from an AR in the original network is being IP prefix from an AR in the original network is being
used by a flow in which AR in a new network. Such used by a flow in which AR in a new network. Such
information needs to be deleted or updated when such information needs to be deleted or updated when such
flows have closed so that the IP prefix is no longer flows have closed so that the IP prefix is no longer
used in a different network. The LM operations are used in a different network. The LM operations are
described in Section 3.2.1. described in Section 3.2.1.
GL-switch:2 The FM functions are implemented through the DHCPv6-PD GL-switch:2 The FM functions are implemented through the DHCPv6-PD
protocol. Here the anchor operations to properly protocol. Here the anchor operations to properly
forward the packets for a flow as described in the FM forward the packets for a flow as described in the FM
operations and mobility message parameters in operations and mobility message parameters in FM-path,
Section 3.2.2 FM-path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA-tbl FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, and FM-DPA-tbl in Section 3.2.2 are
are realized by changing the anchor with DHCPv6-PD and realized by changing the anchor with DHCPv6-PD and also
also by reverting such changes later after the by reverting such changes later after the application
application has already closed and when the DHCPv6-PD has already closed and when the DHCPv6-PD timer expires.
timer expires. If there are in-flight packets toward If there are in-flight packets toward the old anchor
the old anchor while the MN is moving to the new anchor, while the MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be
it may be necessary to buffer these packets and then necessary to buffer these packets and then forward to
forward to the new anchor after the old anchor knows the new anchor after the old anchor knows that the new
that the new anchor is ready as are described in anchor is ready as are described in FM-buffer in
Section 3.2.2 (FM-buffer). The anchors may also need to Section 3.2.2. The anchors may also need to discover
discover each other as described also in the FM each other as described also in the FM operations and
operations and mobility message parameters (FM-find). mobility message parameters (FM-find).
GL-switch:3 The security management function in the anchor node at a GL-switch:3 The security management function in the anchor node at a
new network must allow to assign the original IP prefix/ new network must allow to assign the original IP prefix/
address used by the mobile node at the previous address used by the mobile node at the previous
(original) network. As the assigned original IP prefix/ (original) network. As the assigned original IP prefix/
address is to be used in the new network, the security address is to be used in the new network, the security
management function in the anchor node must allow to management function in the anchor node must allow to
advertise the prefix of the original IP address and also advertise the prefix of the original IP address and also
allow the mobile node to send and receive data packets allow the mobile node to send and receive data packets
with the original IP address. with the original IP address.
skipping to change at page 33, line 43 skipping to change at page 36, line 20
control and data planes ([I-D.liu-dmm-deployment-scenario] and control and data planes ([I-D.liu-dmm-deployment-scenario] and
[I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc]), where the controller may [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc]), where the controller may
send to the switches/routers the updated information of the send to the switches/routers the updated information of the
forwarding tables with the IP address anchoring of the original IP forwarding tables with the IP address anchoring of the original IP
prefix/address at AR1 moved to AR2 in the new network. That is, the prefix/address at AR1 moved to AR2 in the new network. That is, the
IP address anchoring in the original network which was advertising IP address anchoring in the original network which was advertising
the prefix will need to move to the new network. As the anchoring in the prefix will need to move to the new network. As the anchoring in
the new network advertises the prefix of the original IP address in the new network advertises the prefix of the original IP address in
the new network, the forwarding tables will be updated so that the new network, the forwarding tables will be updated so that
packets of the flow will be forwarded according to the updated packets of the flow will be forwarded according to the updated
forwarding tables. The configurations in Figures 1(a) and 1(b) in forwarding tables.
Section 3.1 for which FM-CP and LM are centralized and FM-DP's are
distributed apply here. Figure 9 shows its implementation where LM The configurations in Figures 1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 for which
is a binding between the original IP prefix/address of the flow and the FM-CP and the LM are centralized and the FM-DP's are distributed
the IP address of the new DPA, whereas FM uses the DHCPv6-PD apply here. Figure 9 shows its implementation where the LM is a
protocol. binding between the original IP prefix/address of the flow and the IP
address of the new DPA, whereas the FM uses the DHCPv6-PD protocol.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CPA: | | CPA: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | | LM:IP1<-->IPa2 |
| FM-CP | | FM-CP |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | anchoring of IP1 is moved |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | move |anchors IP2,IP1| |anchored IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2,IP1|
|FM:DHCPv6-PD | =======> |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 9. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network with Figure 9. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network with
with LM and FM-CP in a centralized control plane whereas the FM-DP's with the LM and the FM-CP in a centralized control plane whereas the
are distributed. FM-DP's are distributed.
The example call flow in Figure 10 shows that MN is allocated HNP1 The example call flow in Figure 10 shows that MN is allocated IP1
when it attaches to the p-AR. A flow running in MN and needing IP when it attaches to the AR1 A flow running in MN and needing IP
mobility may continue to use the previous IP prefix by moving the mobility may continue to use the previous IP prefix by moving the
anchoring of the IP prefix to the new network. Yet a new flow to be anchoring of the IP prefix to the new network. Yet a new flow to be
initiated in the new network may simply use a new IP prefix allocated initiated in the new network may simply use a new IP prefix allocated
from the new network. from the new network.
MN p-AR n-AR DHCPv6 Servers CN MN AR1 AR2 DHCPv6 Servers CN
|MN attaches to p-AR: | | | | |MN attaches to AR1: | | | |
|acquire MN-ID and profile | | | |acquire MN-ID and profile | | |
|--RS---------------->| | | | |--RS---------------->| | | |
|<----------RA(HNP1)--| | | | |<----------RA(IP1)---| | | |
| | | Allocate MN-HNP1 | | | | Allocate MN:IP1 |
IP addr config | | | | IP addr config | | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
|<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-+--------------------------------------------->| |<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-+--------------------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | | | |
|MN detach from p-AR | | | | |MN detach from AR1 | | | |
|MN attach to n-AR | | | | |MN attach to AR2 | | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
|--RS------------------------------>| | | |--RS------------------------------>| | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| |------DHCPv6 release-------------->| | | |------DHCPv6 release-------------->| |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | |--DHCPv6 PD request->| | | | |--DHCPv6 PD request->| |
| | |<-DHCPv6 PD reply--->| | | | |<-DHCPv6 PD reply--->| |
| | | | | | | | | |
| forwarding table updates | | | forwarding table updates | |
| | | | | | | | | |
|<--------------RA(HNP2,HNP1)-------| | | |<--------------RA(IP2,IP1)---------| | |
| | | Allocate MN-HNP2 | | | | Allocate MN:IP2 |
IP addr config | | | | IP addr config | | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
|<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)---------------+------------------------------->| |<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)---------------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | | | |
| Flow(IP1,IPcn,...) terminates | | | | Flow(IP1,IPcn,...) terminates | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | DHCPv6-PD timeout | | | | DHCPv6-PD timeout | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| forwarding table updates | | | forwarding table updates | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | | | |
Figure 10. DMM solution. MN with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues Figure 10. DMM solution. MN with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues
to run the flow using IP1 as it moves to Net2. to run the flow using IP1 as it moves to Net2.
As the MN moves from p-AR to n-AR, the p-AR as a DHCPv6 client may As the MN moves from AR1 to AR2, the AR1 as a DHCPv6 client may send
send a DHCPv6 release message to release the HNP1. It is now a DHCPv6 release message to release the IP1. It is now necessary for
necessary for n-AR to learn the IP prefix of the MN from the previous AR2 to learn the IP prefix of the MN from the previous network so
network so that it will be possible for Net2 to allocate both the that it will be possible for Net2 to allocate both the previous
previous network prefix and the new network prefix. The network may network prefix and the new network prefix. The network may learn the
learn the previous prefix in different methods. For example, the MN previous prefix in different methods. For example, the MN may
may provide its previous network prefix information by including it provide its previous network prefix information by including it to
to the RS message [I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp]. the RS message [I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp].
Knowing that MN is using HNP1, the n-AR sends to a DHCPv6 server a Knowing that MN is using IP1, the AR2 sends to a DHCPv6 server a
DHCPv6-PD request to move the HNP1 to n-AR. The server sends to n-AR DHCPv6-PD request to move the IP1 to AR2. The server sends to AR2 a
a DHCPv6-PD reply to move the HNP1. Then forwarding tables updates DHCPv6-PD reply to move the IP1. Then forwarding tables updates will
will take place here. take place here.
In addition, the MN also needs a new HNP in the new network. The In addition, the MN also needs a new IP in the new network. The AR2
n-AR may now send RA to n-AR, with prefix information that includes may now send RA to AR2, with prefix information that includes IP1 and
HNP1 and HNP2. The MN may then continue to use IP1. In addition, IP2. The MN may then continue to use IP1. In addition, the MN is
the MN is allocated the prefix HNP2 with which it may configure its allocated the prefix IP2 with which it may configure its IP
IP addresses. Now for flows using IP1, packets destined to IP1 will addresses. Now for flows using IP1, packets destined to IP1 will be
be forwarded to the MN via n-AR. forwarded to the MN via AR2.
As such flows have terminated and DHCPv6-PD has timed out, HNP1 goes As such flows have terminated and DHCPv6-PD has timed out, IP1 goes
back to Net1. MN will then be left with HNP2 only, which it will use back to Net1. MN will then be left with IP2 only, which it will use
when it now starts a new flow. when it now starts a new flow.
5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with 5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with
Centralized CP Centralized CP
The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice with The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice with
centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows requiring and centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows requiring and
not requiring IP mobility support is: not requiring IP mobility support is:
GL-cfg:4 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:4 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or
Figure 1(b)in Section 3.1 with centralized control plane Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1 with centralized control plane
for a flat network. for a flat network.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively
in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2. in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2.
The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. The requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. The
guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 5.1.1 also apply here. In addition, guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 5.1.1 for moving anchoring for a flat
the following are required. network also apply here. In addition, the following are required.
GL-switch:5 The anchor operations to properly forward the packets GL-switch:5 It was already mentioned that the anchor operations to
for a flow as described in the FM operations and properly forward the packets for a flow as described in
mobility message parameters in Section 3.2.2 FM-path, the FM operations and mobility message parameters in FM-
FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA-tbl is realized by changing path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, and FM-DPA-tbl in
the anchoring with DHCPv6-PD and undoing such changes Section 3.2.2 is realized by changing the anchoring with
later when its timer expires and the application has DHCPv6-PD and undoing such changes later when its timer
already closed. With the anchors being separated in expires and the application has already closed. Here
control and data planes with LMs and FM-CP centralized however, with separation of control and data planes for
in the same control plane, messaging between anchors and the anchors and where the LMs and the FM-CP are
the discovery of anchors become internal to the control centralized in the same control plane, messaging between
plane as described in Section 3.2.2 FM-cpdp. However, anchors and the discovery of anchors become internal to
the centralized FM-CP needs to communicate with the the control plane.
distributed FM-DP as described as described in the FM
operations and mobility message parameters (FM-find).
Such may be realized by the appropriate messages in
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
GL-switch:6 It was already mentioned before that, if there are in- GL-switch:6 The centralized FM-CP needs to communicate with the
flight packets toward the old anchor while the MN is distributed FM-DP using the FM operations and mobility
moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to buffer message parameters as described in FM-cpdp in
these packets and then forward to the new anchor after Section 3.2.2. Such may be realized by the appropriate
the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready Here, messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
however, the corresponding FM operations and mobility
message parameters as described in Section 3.2.2 (FM-
buffer) can be realized by the internal operations in
the control plane together with signaling between the
control plane and distributed data plane. These
signaling may be realized by the appropriate messages in
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
5.3. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical Network GL-switch:7 It was also already mentioned before that, if there are
in-flight packets toward the previous anchor while the
MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to
buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor
after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready
Here however, the corresponding FM operations and
mobility message parameters as described in
Section 3.2.2 (FM-buffer) can be realized by the
internal operations in the control plane together with
signaling between the control plane and distributed data
plane. These signaling may be realized by the
appropriate messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
The configuration for a hierarchical network is shown in Figures 1(c) 5.3. Hierarchical Network
and 1(d) in Section 3.1. With centralized control plane, CPA and
CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all co-located. There are The configuration for a hierarchical network has been shown in
multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed mobility anchoring. Figures 2(a) and 2(b) in Section 3.1.2. With centralized control
In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each with FM-DP) plane, CPA and CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all co-
hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR supports located. There are multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed
forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding switches mobility anchoring. In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each
(FW's). A mobility event in this configuration belonging to with FM-DP) hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR
supports forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding
switches (FW's). A mobility event in this configuration belonging to
distributed mobility management will be deferred to Section 5.4. distributed mobility management will be deferred to Section 5.4.
In this distributed mobility configuration, a mobility event In this distributed mobility configuration, a mobility event
involving change of FW only but not of AR as shown in Figure 11 may involving change of FW only but not of AR as shown in Figure 11 may
still belong to centralized mobility management and may be supported still belong to centralized mobility management and may be supported
using PMIPv6. This configuration of network-based mobility is also using PMIPv6. This configuration of network-based mobility is also
applicable to host-based mobility with the modification for the MN applicable to host-based mobility with the modification for the MN
directly taking the role of DPN and CPN, and the corresponding directly taking the role of DPN and CPN, and the corresponding
centralized mobility event may be supported using MIPv6. centralized mobility event may be supported using MIPv6.
skipping to change at page 38, line 29 skipping to change at page 41, line 17
| CPA,CPN: | | CPA,CPN: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPn2 | | LM:IP1<-->IPn2 |
| FM-CP | | FM-CP |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR1 |
+---------------+ +---------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa1): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP1 |
|FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM-DP |
+---------------+ +---------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|FW1 | |FW2 | |FW1 | |FW2 |
+---------------+ move +---------------+ +---------------+ FW is changed +---------------+
|DPN(IPn1): | =======> |DPN(IPn2): | |DPN(IPn1): | -------> |DPN(IPn2): |
|FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2) | .MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 11. Mobility without involving change of IP anchoring in a Figure 11. Mobility without involving change of IP anchoring in a
network in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored at an network in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored at an
AR which is hierarchically above multiple FWs to which the MN may AR which is hierarchically above multiple FWs to which the MN may
connect. connect.
5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: No Anchoring Change with a 5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Hierarchical Network with
Hierarchical Network No Anchor Relocation
The configuration guideline ( ) for a hierarchical network or network The configuration guideline for a hierarchical network or network
slice with centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows slice with centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support is: requiring and not requiring IP mobility support is:
GL-cfg:5 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:5 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 2(a) or distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 2(a) or
Figure 2(b)in Section 3.1.2 with centralized control plane Figure 2(b)in Section 3.1.2 with centralized control plane
for a hierarchical network. for a hierarchical network.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively
in LM-cfg:3 or LM-cfg:4 and FM-cfg:2 in Section 3.2. in LM-cfg:3 or LM-cfg:4 and FM-cfg:2 in Section 3.2.
Even when the mobility event does not involve change of anchor, it is Even when the mobility event does not involve change of anchor, it is
still necessary to distinguish whether a flow needs IP mobility still necessary to distinguish whether a flow needs IP mobility
support. support.
The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. The requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. In
guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 and in Section 5.2.1 also addition, the following are required.
apply here. In addition, the following are required.
GL-switch:7 Here, the LM operations and mobility message parameters GL-switch:8 Here, the LM operations and mobility message parameters
described in Section 3.2.1 provides information of which described in Section 3.2.1 provides information of which
IP prefix from its FW needs to be used by a flow using IP prefix from its FW needs to be used by a flow using
which new FW. The anchor operations to properly forward which new FW. The anchor operations to properly forward
the packets of a flow described in the FM operations and the packets of a flow described in the FM operations and
mobility message parameters (FM-path, FM-path-ind, FM- mobility message parameters (FM-path, FM-path-ind, FM-
cpdp in Section 3.2.2) may be realized with PMIPv6 cpdp in Section 3.2.2) may be realized with PMIPv6
protocol ([I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix]) or with AERO protocol [I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix] or with AERO
protocol ([I-D.templin-aerolink]) to tunnel between the protocol [I-D.templin-aerolink] to tunnel between the AR
AR and the FW. and the FW.
5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical Network 5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical Network
The configuration for the hierarchical network is again shown in The configuration for the hierarchical network has been shown in
Figures 1(c) and 1(d) in Section 3.1. Again, with centralized Figures 2(a) and 2(b) in Section 3.1.2. Again, with centralized
control plane, CPA and CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all control plane, CPA and CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all
co-located. There are multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed co-located. There are multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed
mobility anchoring. In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each mobility anchoring. In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each
with FM-DP) hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR with FM-DP) hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR
supports forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding supports forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding
switches (FW's). switches (FW's).
A distributed mobility event in this configuration involves change A distributed mobility event in this configuration involves change
from a previous DPN which is hierarchically under the previous DPA to from a previous DPN which is hierarchically under the previous DPA to
a new DPN which is hierarchically under a new DPA. Such an event a new DPN which is hierarchically under a new DPA. Such an event
involving change of both DPA and DPN is shown in Figure 12. involving change of both DPA and DPN is shown in Figure 12.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CPA,CPN: | | CPA,CPN,Aggregate Router: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPa2,IPn2 | | LM:IP1<-->IPa2,IPn2 |
| FM-CP | | FM-CP |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+---------------+ +-----------------+
|Aggregate Point| |Aggregate Router |
|---------------| +-----------------+
|FM, LM | |FM-DP |
+---------------+ +-----------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | anchoring of IP1 is moved |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | move |anchors IP2,IP1| |anchored IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2,IP1|
|FM:DHCPv6-PD | =======> |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|FW1 | |FW2 | |FW1 | |FW2 |
+---------------+ move +---------------+ +---------------+ FW is changed +---------------+
|DPN(IPn1): | =======> |DPN(IPn2): | |DPN(IPn1): | -------> |DPN(IPn2): |
|FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 12. Mobility involving change of IP anchoring in a network Figure 12. Mobility involving change of IP anchoring in a network
with hierarchy in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored with hierarchy in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored
at an Edge Router supporting multiple access routers to which the MN at an Edge Router supporting multiple access routers to which the MN
may connect. may connect.
This deployment case involves both a change of anchor from AR1 to AR2 This deployment case involves both a change of anchor from AR1 to AR2
and a network hierarchy AR-FW. It can be realized by a combination and a network hierarchy AR-FW. It can be realized by a combination
of changing the IP prefix/address anchoring from AR1 to AR2 with the of relocating the IP prefix/address anchoring from AR1 to AR2 with
mechanism as described in Section 5.2 and then forwarding the packets the mechanism as described in Section 5.2 and then forwarding the
with network hierarchy AR-FW as described in Section 5.3. packets with network hierarchy AR-FW as described in Section 5.3.
To change AR, AR1 acting as a DHCPv6-PD client may exchange message To change the anchoring of IP1, AR1 acting as a DHCPv6-PD client may
with the DHCPv6 server to release the prefix IP1. Meanwhile, AR2 exchange message with the DHCPv6 server to release the prefix IP1.
acting as a DHCPv6-PD client may exchange message with the DHCPv6 Meanwhile, AR2 acting as a DHCPv6-PD client may exchange message with
server to delegate the prefix IP1 to AR2. the DHCPv6 server to delegate the prefix IP1 to AR2.
5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with 5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with
Hierarchical Network Hierarchical Network
The configuration guideline (GL-cfg) for a hierarchical network or The configuration guideline (GL-cfg) for a hierarchical network or
network slice with centralized control plane described in network slice with centralized control plane described in
Section 5.3.1 apply here. Section 5.3.1 apply here.
The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here.
The guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 and in Section 5.2.1 also The guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 for anchoring relocation
apply here to change the anchoring of the IP prefix/address with a and in Section 5.2.1 for a centralized control plane also apply here.
centralized control plane.
In addition, the guideline for indirection between the new DPA and In addition, the guidelines for indirection between the new DPA and
the new DPN as described in Section 5.3.1 apply here. the new DPN as described in Section 5.3.1 apply as well.
5.5. Network Mobility
The configuration for network mobility has been shown in Figures 4(a)
and 4(b) in Section 3.1.4. Again, with centralized control plane,
CPA, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all co-located. There are
multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in the data plane in distributed
mobility anchoring. The MR possesses the mobility functions FM and
LMc. The IP prefix IPn1 is delegated to the MR, to which a MNN is
attached and is allocated with an IP address from IPn1.
Figure 13 shows a distributed mobility event in a hierarchical
network with a centralized control plane involving a change of
attachment of the MR from a previous DPA to a new DPA while the MNN
is attached to and therefore moves with the MR.
Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CPA,Aggregate Router: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPa2; IPn1<-->IP1 |
| FM-CP, LM |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+-----------------+
|Aggregate Router |
+-----------------+
|FM-DP |
+-----------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | anchoring of IP1 is moved |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchored IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2,IP1|
|DHCPv6-PD IPn1 | | |
|FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+
.MR(IP1) . MR moves |MR(IP2,IP1) |
+...............+ =======> +---------------+
.FM, LMc . |FM, LMc |
.anchors IPn1 . |anchors IPn1 |
+...............+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+
.MNN(IPn1) . MNN moves with MR |MNN(IPn1) |
.flow(IPn1,...) . =======> |flow(IPn1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+
Figure 13. Mobility involving change of IP anchoring for a MR to
which a MNN is attached.
As the MR with source IP prefix IP1 moves from AR1 to AR2, mobility
support may be provided by moving the anchoring of IP1 from AR1 to
AR2 using the mechanism described in Section 5.2.
The forwarding table updates will take place at AR1, AR2, the
aggregate router, and other affected routers such that the packet
from the CN to the MNN will traverse from the aggregate router
towards AR2 instead of towards AR1.
5.5.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Network mobility
The configuration guideline for a network or network slice with
centralized control plane to provide network mobility is:
GL-cfg:6 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix of the MRs are needed to provide
distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 4(a) or
Figure 4(b) in Section 3.1.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively
in LM-cfg:3 or LM-cfg:4 and FM-cfg:4 in Section 3.2.
The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here.
Here, because the MN is a MR, the following guideline is added:
GL-mix:11 There are no flows requiring network mobility support when
there are no MNN attaching to the MR. Here there are also
no MNN using a prefix delegated to the MR. Therefore the
anchor of the MR may change to a new AR. The new AR may
delegate new IP prefix to the AR, so that the MR may
support potential MNN to attach to it. On the other hand
the delegation of IP prefix to the MR from the old AR may
be deleted.
The guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 for anchoring relocation
and in Section 5.2.1 for a centralized control plane also apply here.
Again because the MN is a MR, the following guidelines are added:
GL-switch:9 Network mobility may be provided using the FM operations
and mobility message parameters as described in FM-mr in
Section 3.2.2.
GL-switch:10 The following changes to forwarding table entries are
needed:
New entries to the forwarding tables are added between
AR2, the aggregate router and other affected routers so
that packets from the CN to the MNN destined to IPn1
will traverse towards AR2. Meanwhile, changes to the
forwarding table will also occur between AR1, the
aggregate router and other affected routers so that such
packets ever reaches any of them, the packet will not
traverse towards AR1 but will traverse towards AR2.
GL-switch:11 The security management function in the anchor node at a
new network must allow to assign the original IP prefix/
address allocated to the MR and used by the MNN at the
previous (original) network. As the assigned original
IP prefix/address is to be used in the new network, the
security management function in the anchor node must
allow to advertise the prefix of the original IP address
and also allow the MNN to send and receive data packets
with the original IP address.
GL-switch:12 The security management function in the mobile router
must allow to configure the original IP prefix/address
delegated to the MR from the previous (original) network
when the original IP prefix/address is being delegated
to the MR in the new network. The security management
function in the mobile router also allows to use the
original IP address by the MNNs for the previous flow in
the new network.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
TBD The security considerations are already described in different
sessions through this document. They are described in terms of
integrity support, privacy support etc. in describing the mobility
functions in Section 3.2. They are also described in the guidelines
for IPv6 nodes in various subsections Section 4 and Section 5.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
This document presents no IANA considerations. This document presents no IANA considerations.
8. Contributors 8. Contributors
This document has benefited from other work on mobility solutions This document has benefited from other work on mobility solutions
using BGP update, on mobility support in SDN network, on providing using BGP update, on mobility support in SDN network, on providing
mobility support only when needed, and on mobility support in mobility support only when needed, and on mobility support in
skipping to change at page 42, line 18 skipping to change at page 48, line 18
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models] [I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models]
Gundavelli, S. and S. Jeon, "DMM Deployment Models and Gundavelli, S. and S. Jeon, "DMM Deployment Models and
Architectural Considerations", draft-ietf-dmm-deployment- Architectural Considerations", draft-ietf-dmm-deployment-
models-00 (work in progress), August 2016. models-00 (work in progress), August 2016.
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp] [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]
Liebsch, M., Matsushima, S., Gundavelli, S., Moses, D., Matsushima, S., Bertz, L., Liebsch, M., Gundavelli, S.,
and L. Bertz, "Protocol for Forwarding Policy and D. Moses, "Protocol for Forwarding Policy
Configuration (FPC) in DMM", draft-ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp-03 Configuration (FPC) in DMM", draft-ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp-05
(work in progress), March 2016. (work in progress), October 2016.
[I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility] [I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]
Yegin, A., Moses, D., Kweon, K., Lee, J., and J. Park, "On Yegin, A., Moses, D., Kweon, K., Lee, J., Park, J., and S.
Demand Mobility Management", draft-ietf-dmm-ondemand- Jeon, "On Demand Mobility Management", draft-ietf-dmm-
mobility-07 (work in progress), July 2016. ondemand-mobility-09 (work in progress), December 2016.
[I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp] [I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp]
Lee, J. and Z. Yan, "Deprecated Network Prefix Provision", Lee, J. and Z. Yan, "Deprecated Network Prefix Provision",
draft-jhlee-dmm-dnpp-01 (work in progress), April 2016. draft-jhlee-dmm-dnpp-01 (work in progress), April 2016.
[I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix] [I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix]
Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., and S. Gundavelli, "Local Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., and S. Gundavelli, "Local
Prefix Lifetime Management for Proxy Mobile IPv6", draft- Prefix Lifetime Management for Proxy Mobile IPv6", draft-
korhonen-dmm-local-prefix-01 (work in progress), July korhonen-dmm-local-prefix-01 (work in progress), July
2013. 2013.
skipping to change at page 43, line 20 skipping to change at page 49, line 20
[I-D.mccann-dmm-prefixcost] [I-D.mccann-dmm-prefixcost]
McCann, P. and J. Kaippallimalil, "Communicating Prefix McCann, P. and J. Kaippallimalil, "Communicating Prefix
Cost to Mobile Nodes", draft-mccann-dmm-prefixcost-03 Cost to Mobile Nodes", draft-mccann-dmm-prefixcost-03
(work in progress), April 2016. (work in progress), April 2016.
[I-D.seite-dmm-dma] [I-D.seite-dmm-dma]
Seite, P., Bertin, P., and J. Lee, "Distributed Mobility Seite, P., Bertin, P., and J. Lee, "Distributed Mobility
Anchoring", draft-seite-dmm-dma-07 (work in progress), Anchoring", draft-seite-dmm-dma-07 (work in progress),
February 2014. February 2014.
[I-D.sijeon-dmm-deployment-models]
Jeon, S. and Y. Kim, "Deployment Models for Distributed
Mobility Management", draft-sijeon-dmm-deployment-
models-03 (work in progress), July 2016.
[I-D.templin-aerolink] [I-D.templin-aerolink]
Templin, F., "Asymmetric Extended Route Optimization Templin, F., "Asymmetric Extended Route Optimization
(AERO)", draft-templin-aerolink-71 (work in progress), (AERO)", draft-templin-aerolink-74 (work in progress),
September 2016. November 2016.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3753] Manner, J., Ed. and M. Kojo, Ed., "Mobility Related [RFC3753] Manner, J., Ed. and M. Kojo, Ed., "Mobility Related
Terminology", RFC 3753, DOI 10.17487/RFC3753, June 2004, Terminology", RFC 3753, DOI 10.17487/RFC3753, June 2004,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3753>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3753>.
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