draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-01.txt   draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-02.txt 
DMM H. Chan, Ed. DMM H. Chan, Ed.
Internet-Draft X. Wei Internet-Draft X. Wei
Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies
Expires: March 12, 2017 J. Lee Expires: March 27, 2017 J. Lee
Sangmyung University Sangmyung University
S. Jeon S. Jeon
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
A. Petrescu A. Petrescu
CEA, LIST CEA, LIST
F. Templin F. Templin
Boeing Research and Technology Boeing Research and Technology
September 8, 2016 September 23, 2016
Distributed Mobility Anchoring Distributed Mobility Anchoring
draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-01 draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-02
Abstract Abstract
This document defines distributed mobility anchoring to meet diverse This document defines distributed mobility anchoring to meet diverse
mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond. Multiple anchors and nodes mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond. Multiple anchors and nodes
with mobility functions work together to provide IP mobility support. with mobility functions work together to provide IP mobility support.
A network or network slice may be configured with distributed A network or network slice may be configured with distributed
mobility anchoring with the needed behaviors depending on the needs mobility anchoring depending on the needs of mobility support. In
of mobility support. In the distributed mobility anchoring the distributed mobility anchoring environment, multiple anchors are
environment, multiple anchors are available for mid-session switching available for mid-session switching of an IP prefix anchor. Without
of an IP prefix anchor. Without ongoing session requiring session an ongoing session, i.e., no IP session continuity required, a flow
continuity, a flow can be re-started using a new IP prefix which is of a mobile node can be re-started using a new IP prefix which is
allocated from the new network and is therefore anchored to the new allocated from a new network of the mobile node and is therefore
network. With ongoing session, the anchoring of the prior IP prefix anchored to the new network. With an ongoing session, the anchoring
may be relocated to the new network to enable session continuity. of the prior IP prefix may be relocated to the new network to enable
IP session continuity.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on March 27, 2017.
This Internet-Draft will expire on March 12, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 25 skipping to change at page 2, line 26
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1. Distributed Anchoring Configurations for Different 3.1. Configurations for Different Networks or Network Slices . 6
Networks or Network Slices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1.1. Network-based Mobility Support for a Flat Network . . 7
3.1.1. Distributed Anchoring with Network-based Mobility 3.1.2. Network-based Mobility Support for a Hierarchical
Support for Flat Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1.2. Distributed Anchoring with Network-based Mobility 3.1.3. Host-based Mobility Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Support for Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1.4. NEtwork MObility (NEMO) Basic Support . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.3. Distributed Anchoring for Host-based Mobility Support 11 3.2. Operations and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.2. Distributed Anchoring Behaviors and Mobility Message 3.2.1. Location Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2.2. Forwarding Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.2.1. Location Management Behaviors and Mobility Message
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.2. Forwarding Management Behaviors and Mobility Message
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments - 4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments -
Mobility Support Only When Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Mobility Support Only When Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1. No Need of IP Mobility: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address 22 4.1. No Need of IP Mobility: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address 25
4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP 4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP
Prefix/Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Prefix/Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2. Need of IP Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2. Need of IP Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility . . . 27 4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility . . . 30
5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments - 5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Mobility Anchoring
Anchor Switching to the New Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Environments - Anchor Switching to the New Network . . . . . 31
5.1. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network . . . 29 5.1. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network . . . 31
5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat 5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.2. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network with 5.2. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network with
Centralized Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Centralized Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching 5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching
Anchor with Centralized CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Anchor with Centralized CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.3. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Hierarchical 5.3. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: No Anchoring
Change with Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Hierarchical
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: No Anchoring
Change with a Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . 39
5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching 5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching
Anchor with Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . 39 Anchor with Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . 41
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to
enable traffic to avoid traversing a single mobility anchor far from enable traffic to avoid traversing a single mobility anchor far from
an optimal route. Distributed mobility management solutions do not an optimal route. Distributed mobility management solutions do not
make use of centrally deployed mobility anchor for the data plane make use of centrally deployed mobility anchor for a data plane
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility]. As such, the traffic of a flow SHOULD [Paper-Distributed.Mobility]. As such, the traffic of a flow SHOULD
be able to change from traversing one mobility anchor to traversing be able to change from traversing one mobility anchor to traversing
another mobility anchor as a mobile node moves, or when changing another mobility anchor as a mobile node (MN) moves, or when changing
operation and management requirements call for mobility anchor operation and management requirements call for mobility anchor
switching, thus avoiding non-optimal routes. This draft proposes switching, thus avoiding non-optimal routes. This draft proposes
distributed mobility anchoring to enable making such route changes. distributed mobility anchoring to enable making such route changes.
Distributed mobility anchoring employs multiple anchors in the data Distributed mobility anchoring employs multiple anchors in the data
plane. In general, the control plane function may be separate from plane. In general, control plane functions may be separate from data
the data plane functions and be centralized but may also be co- plane functions and be centralized but may also be co-located with
located with the data plane function at these distributed anchors. the data plane functions at the distributed anchors. Different
Different configurations (Section 3.1) of distributed mobility configurations of distributed mobility anchoring are described in
anchoring are then possible. The configurations of distributed Section 3.1. For instance, the configurations for network-based
anchoring for network-based mobility support in a flat network, for mobility support in a flat network, for network-based mobility
network-based mobility support in a hierarchical network, and for support in a hierarchical network, for host-based mobility support,
host-based mobility support are described respectively in and for NEtwork MObility (NEMO) basic support are described
Section 3.1.1, Section 3.1.2, and Section 3.1.3. Mobility functions respectively in Section 3.1.1, Section 3.1.2, Section 3.1.3 and
at the anchors and nodes are required to perform with expected Section 3.1.4. Required operations and parameters for distributed
behaviors (Section 3.2). The LM behaviors and mobility message mobility anchoring are presented in Section 3.2. For instance,
parameters are described in Section 3.2.1, whereas the FM behaviors location management is described in Section 3.2.1, forwarding
and mobility message parameters are described in Section 3.2.2. management is described in Section 3.2.2.
A mobile node (MN) attached to an access router of a network or An MN attached to an access router of a network or network slice may
network slice may be allocated an IP prefix which is anchored to that be allocated an IP prefix which is anchored to that router. It may
router. It may then use an IP address configured from this prefix as then use an IP address configured from this prefix as the source IP
the source IP address to run a flow with its correspondent node (CN). address to run a flow with its correspondent node (CN). When there
When there are multiple anchors, an address selection for a given are multiple mobility anchors, an address selection for a given flow
flow is first required before the flow is initiated. Using an anchor is first required before the flow is initiated. Using an anchor in
in MN's network of attachment has the advantage that the packets can an MN's network of attachment has the advantage that the packets can
simply be forwarded according to the forwarding table. Although the simply be forwarded according to the forwarding table. Although the
anchor is in the MN's network of attachment when the flow was anchor is in the MN's network of attachment when the flow was
initiated, the MN may later move to another network, so that the IP initiated, the MN may later move to another network, so that the IP
address no longer belongs to the current network of attachment of the no longer belongs to the current network of attachment of the MN.
MN.
Whether the flow needs session continuity will determine how to Whether the flow needs IP session continuity will determine how to
ensure that the IP address of the flow will be anchored to the new ensure that the IP address of the flow will be anchored to the new
network of attachment. If the ongoing IP flow can cope with an IP network of attachment. If the ongoing IP flow can cope with an IP
prefix/address change, the flow can be reinitiated with a new IP prefix/address change, the flow can be reinitiated with a new IP
address anchored in the new network (Section 4.1). On the other address anchored in the new network as shown in Section 4.1. On the
hand, if the ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change, mobility other hand, if the ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change,
support is needed (Section 4.2). A network or network slice mobility support is needed as shown in Section 4.2. A network or
supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility network slice supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring
support will need to distinguish these flows. The guidelines for IP mobility support will need to distinguish these flows. The
such network or network slice are described in Section 4.1.1. The guidelines for such network or network slice are described in
general guidelines for such network or network slice to provide IP Section 4.1.1. The general guidelines for such network or network
mobility support are described in Section 4.2.1. slice to provide IP mobility support are described in Section 4.2.1.
Specifically, IP mobility support can be provided by changing the Specifically, IP mobility support can be provided by changing the
anchoring of the IP prefix/address of the flow from the home network anchoring of the IP prefix/address of the flow from the home network
of the flow to the new network of attachment Section 5. The basic of the flow to the new network of attachment. The basic case may be
case may be with network-based mobility for a flat network with network-based mobility for a flat network configuration
configuration described in Section 5.1 with the guidelines described described in Section 5.1 with the guidelines described in
in Section 5.1.1. This case is discussed further with a centralized Section 5.1.1. This case is discussed further with a centralized
control plane in Section 5.2 with additional guidelines described in control plane in Section 5.2 with additional guidelines described in
Section 5.2.1. A level of hierarchy of nodes may then be added to Section 5.2.1. A level of hierarchy of nodes may then be added to
the network configuration. Mobility involving change in the DPN the network configuration. Mobility involving change in the Data
without changing the DPA is described in Section 5.3 with additional Plane Node (DPN) without changing the Data Plane Anchor (DPA) is
guidelines described in Section 5.3.1 Mobility involving change in described in Section 5.3 with additional guidelines described in
the DPN without changing the DPA is described in Section 5.4 with Section 5.3.1 Mobility involving change in the DPN without changing
additional guidelines described in Section 5.4.1 the DPA is described in Section 5.4 with additional guidelines
described in Section 5.4.1
2. Conventions and Terminology 2. Conventions and Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "GLUIRED", "SHALL","SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "GLUIRED", "SHALL","SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this
document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)
base specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) base specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6)
skipping to change at page 5, line 4 skipping to change at page 4, line 50
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "GLUIRED", "SHALL","SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "GLUIRED", "SHALL","SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this
document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)
base specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) base specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6)
specification [RFC5213], the "Mobility Related Terminologies" specification [RFC5213], the "Mobility Related Terminologies"
[RFC3753], and the DMM current practices and gap analysis [RFC7429]. [RFC3753], and the DMM current practices and gap analysis [RFC7429].
These include terms such as mobile node (MN), correspondent node These include terms such as mobile node (MN), correspondent node
(CN), home agent (HA), home address (HoA), care-of-address (CoA), (CN), home agent (HA), home address (HoA), care-of-address (CoA),
local mobility anchor (LMA), and mobile access gateway (MAG). local mobility anchor (LMA), and mobile access gateway (MAG).
In addition, this document uses the following terms: In addition, this document uses the following terms:
Home network of an application session (or of an HoA): the network Home network of an application session or a home address: the
that has allocated the IP address (HoA) used for the session network that has allocated the HoA used for the session identifier
identifier by the application running in an MN. The MN may be by the application running in an MN. The MN may be running
running multiple application sessions, and each of these sessions multiple application sessions, and each of these sessions can have
can have a different home network. a different home network.
IP prefix/address anchoring: An IP prefix, i.e., Home Network Prefix IP prefix/address anchoring: An IP prefix, i.e., Home Network Prefix
(HNP), or address, i.e., Home Address (HoA), allocated to a mobile (HNP), or address, i.e., HoA, allocated to an MN is topologically
node is topologically anchored to an anchor node when the anchor anchored to an anchor node when the anchor node is able to
node is able to advertise a connected route into the routing advertise a connected route into the routing infrastructure for
infrastructure for the allocated IP prefix. the allocated IP prefix.
Internetwork Location Management (LM) function: managing and keeping Location Management (LM) function: managing and keeping track of the
track of the internetwork location of an MN. The location internetwork location of an MN. The location information may be a
information may be a binding of the IP advertised address/prefix, binding of the IP advertised address/prefix, e.g., HoA or HNP, to
e.g., HoA or HNP, to the IP routing address of the MN or of a node the IP routing address of the MN or of a node that can forward
that can forward packets destined to the MN. packets destined to the MN.
When the MN is a mobile router (MR) carrying a mobile network of When the MN is a mobile router (MR) carrying a mobile network of
mobile network nodes (MNN), the location information will also mobile network nodes (MNN), the location information will also
include the IP prefixes delegated to the MR to be allocated to the include the mobile network prefix (MNP), which is the IP prefix
MNNs in the mobile network. delegated to the MR. The MNP is allocated to the MNNs in the
mobile network.
LM is a control plane function. LM is a control plane function.
In a client-server protocol model, location query and update In a client-server protocol model, location query and update
messages may be exchanged between a Location Management client messages may be exchanged between a Location Management client
(LMc) and a Location Management server (LMs). (LMc) and a Location Management server (LMs).
Optionally, there may be a Location Management proxy (LMp) between Optionally, there may be a Location Management proxy (LMp) between
LMc and LMs. LMc and LMs.
skipping to change at page 6, line 32 skipping to change at page 6, line 32
Security Management (SM) function: The security management function Security Management (SM) function: The security management function
controls security mechanisms/protocols providing access control, controls security mechanisms/protocols providing access control,
integrity, authentication, authorization, confidentiality, etc. integrity, authentication, authorization, confidentiality, etc.
for the control plane and data plane. for the control plane and data plane.
This function resides in all nodes such as control plane anchor, This function resides in all nodes such as control plane anchor,
data plane anchor, mobile node, and correspondent node. data plane anchor, mobile node, and correspondent node.
3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring 3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring
3.1. Distributed Anchoring Configurations for Different Networks or 3.1. Configurations for Different Networks or Network Slices
Network Slices
The mobility functions may be implemented in different configurations The mobility functions may be implemented in different configurations
of distributed anchoring in architectures separating the control and of distributed mobility anchoring in architectures separating the
data planes. The separation as described in control and data planes. The separation described in
[I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models] has defined home control plane [I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models] has defined the home control plane
anchor (Home-CPA), home data plane anchor (Home-DPA), access control anchor (Home-CPA), home data plane anchor (Home-DPA), access control
plane node (Access-CPN), and access data plane node (Access-DPN), plane node (Access-CPN), and access data plane node (Access-DPN),
which are respectively abbreviated as CPA, DPA, CPN, and DPN here. which are respectively abbreviated as CPA, DPA, CPN, and DPN here.
Some configurations are described in Some configurations are described in
[I-D.sijeon-dmm-deployment-models]. [I-D.sijeon-dmm-deployment-models].
Different networks or different network slices may have different Different networks or different network slices may have different
configurations of distributed anchoring. configurations in distributed mobility anchoring.
The configurations also differ depending on whether the desired The configurations also differ depending on the desired mobility
mobility support is network-based for a flat network (Section 3.1.1), supports: network-based mobility support for a flat network in
is network-based for a hierarchical network (Section 3.1.2), or is Section 3.1.1, network-based mobility support for a hierarchical
host-based (Section 3.1.3). network in Section 3.1.2, host-based mobility support
(Section 3.1.3), and NEtwork MObility (NEMO) based support in
Section 3.1.4.
3.1.1. Distributed Anchoring with Network-based Mobility Support for 3.1.1. Network-based Mobility Support for a Flat Network
Flat Network
Figure 1 shows 2 configurations of network-based mobility management Figure 1 shows two different configurations of network-based mobility
for a flat network. management for a flat network.
(a) (b) (a) (b)
+-----+ +-----+
|LMs | |LMs |
+-----+ +-----+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: |
|FM-CP, LM | |FM-CP, LMc | |FM-CP, LM | |FM-CP, LMc |
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
skipping to change at page 7, line 38 skipping to change at page 7, line 39
|flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP1,..)|
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
Figure 1. Configurations of network-based mobility management for a Figure 1. Configurations of network-based mobility management for a
flat network (a) FM-CP and LM at CPA, FM-DP at DPA; (b) Separate LMs, flat network (a) FM-CP and LM at CPA, FM-DP at DPA; (b) Separate LMs,
FM-CP and LMc at CPA, FM-DP at DPA. FM-CP and LMc at CPA, FM-DP at DPA.
Figure 1 also shows a distributed mobility anchoring environment with Figure 1 also shows a distributed mobility anchoring environment with
multiple instances of the DPA. multiple instances of the DPA.
There is FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA. There is an FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA.
The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or
centralized. When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there centralized. When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there
will be multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown). will be multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown).
There is FM-CP function at the CPA. There is an FM-CP function at the CPA.
MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the DPA An MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the
with the IP prefix/address IPa1. It is using IP1 to communicate with DPA with the IP prefix/address IPa1. The MN uses IP1 to communicate
a correspondent node (CN) not shown in the figure. The flow of this with a CN not shown in the figure. The flow of this communication
communication session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and other
other parameters. parameters.
In Figure 1(a), LM and FM-CP co-locate at CPA. In Figure 1(a), LM and FM-CP co-locate at CPA.
Then LM may be distributed or centralized according to whether the Then LM may be distributed or centralized according to whether the
CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized. CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized.
Figure 1(b) differs from Figure 1(a) in that the LM function is split Figure 1(b) differs from Figure 1(a) in that the LM function is split
into a server LMs and a client LMc. into a server LMs and a client LMc.
LMc and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA. LMc and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA.
The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMc may be distributed or The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMc may be distributed or
centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown) centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown)
or centralized. or centralized.
3.1.2. Distributed Anchoring with Network-based Mobility Support for 3.1.2. Network-based Mobility Support for a Hierarchical Network
Hierarchical Network
Figure 2 shows 2 configurations of network-based mobility management Figure 2 shows two different configurations of network-based mobility
for a hierarchical network. management for a hierarchical network.
(a) (a)
+------------+ +------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: |
|FM-CP, LMs | |FM-CP, LMs |
+------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | ... |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | ...
|FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP |
skipping to change at page 11, line 34 skipping to change at page 11, line 34
out, and a proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc. out, and a proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc.
LMp and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA. LMp and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA.
FM-CP and LMc co-locate at the CPN. FM-CP and LMc co-locate at the CPN.
The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or
centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed or centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed or
centralized. centralized.
3.1.3. Distributed Anchoring for Host-based Mobility Support 3.1.3. Host-based Mobility Support
Host-based variants of the mobility function configurations from Host-based variants of the mobility function configurations from
Figures 2(a) and 2(b) are respectively shown in Figures 3(a) and 3(b) Figures 2(a) and 2(b) are respectively shown in Figures 3(a) and 3(b)
where the role to perform mobility functions by CPN and DPN are now where the role to perform mobility functions by CPN and DPN are now
taken by the MN. The MN then needs to possess the mobility functions taken by the MN. The MN then needs to possess the mobility functions
FM and LMc. FM and LMc.
(a) (b) (a) (b)
+-----+ +-----+
|LMs | |LMs |
skipping to change at page 12, line 34 skipping to change at page 12, line 34
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
Figure 3. Configurations of host-based mobility management (a) FM-CP Figure 3. Configurations of host-based mobility management (a) FM-CP
and LMs at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MN; (b) Separate LMs, FM- and LMs at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MN; (b) Separate LMs, FM-
CP and LMp at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MN. CP and LMp at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MN.
Figure 3 shows 2 configurations of host-based mobility management Figure 3 shows 2 configurations of host-based mobility management
with multiple instances of DPA for a distributed mobility anchoring with multiple instances of DPA for a distributed mobility anchoring
environment. environment.
There is FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA. There is an FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA.
The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or
centralized. centralized.
When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there will be When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there will be
multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown). multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown).
There is FM-CP function at the CPA. There is an FM-CP function at the CPA.
The MN possesses the mobility functions FM and LMc. The MN possesses the mobility functions such as FM and LMc.
MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the DPA The MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the
with the IP prefix/address IPa1. It is using IP1 to communicate with DPA with the IP prefix/address IPa1. It is using IP1 to communicate
a correspondent node (CN) not shown in the figure. The flow of this with a CN not shown in the figure. The flow of this communication
communication session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and other
other parameters. parameters.
In Figure 3(a), LMs and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA. In Figure 3(a), LMs and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA.
The LMs may be distributed or centralized according to whether the The LMs may be distributed or centralized according to whether the
CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized. CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized.
Figure 3(b) differs from Figure 3(a) in that the LMs is separated out Figure 3(b) differs from Figure 3(a) in that the LMs is separated out
and the proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc. and the proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc.
LMp and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA. LMp and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA.
The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or
centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown) centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown)
or centralized. or centralized.
3.2. Distributed Anchoring Behaviors and Mobility Message Parameters 3.1.4. NEtwork MObility (NEMO) Basic Support
The behaviors of distributed anchoring are defined in this section in Figure 4 shows two configurations of NEMO basic support for a mobile
order that they may work together in expected manners to produce a router.
distributed mobility solution. The needed information are passed as
mobility message parameters. (a) (b)
+-----+
|LMs |
+-----+
+------------+ +------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: |
|FM-CP, LMs | |FM-CP, LMp |
+------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 |
|DHCPv6-PD | |DHCPv6-PD | ... |DHCPv6-PD | |DHCPv6-PD | ...
| IPn1| | IPn2| | IPn1| | IPn2|
|FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+
|FM-CP LMc | |FM-CP LMc |
|- - - - - - | |- - - - - - |
|MR(IP1) | |MR(IP1) |
|anchors IPn1| |anchors IPn1|
|FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+
|MNN(IPn1) | |MR(IP1n1) |
|flow(IPn1,.)| |flow(IPn1,.)|
+------------+ +------------+
Figure 4. Configurations of NEMO basic support for a MR. (a) FM-CP
and LMs at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MR; (b) Separate LMs, FM-
CP and LMp at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MR.
Figure 4 shows 2 configurations of host-based mobility management for
a MR with multiple instances of DPA for a distributed mobility
anchoring environment.
There is an FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA.
The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or
centralized.
When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there will be
multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown).
There is FM-CP function at the CPA.
The MR possesses the mobility functions FM and LMc.
MR is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the DPA
with the IP prefix/address IPa1.
A mobile network node (MNN) in the mobile network is allocated an IP
prefix/address IPn1 which is anchored to the MR with the IP prefix/
address IP1.
The MNN is using IPn1 to communicate with a correspondent node (CN)
not shown in the figure. The flow of this communication session is
shown as flow(IPn1, ...) which uses IPn1 and other parameters.
In Figure 4(a), LMs and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA.
The LMs may be distributed or centralized according to whether the
CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized.
Figure 4(b) differs from Figure 4(a) in that the LMs is separated out
and the proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc.
LMp and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA.
The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or
centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown)
or centralized.
3.2. Operations and Parameters
The operations of distributed mobility anchoring are defined in order
that they may work together in expected manners to produce a
distributed mobility solution. The needed information is passed as
mobility message parameters, which must be protected in terms of
integrity. Some parameters may require a means to support privacy of
an MN or MR.
The mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond are diverse. Therefore The mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond are diverse. Therefore
the behaviors needed to enable different distributed mobility operations needed to enable different distributed mobility solutions
solutions in different distributed anchoring configurations are in different distributed mobility anchoring configurations are
extensive and are listed below. It is however not necessary for extensive as illustrated below. It is however not necessary for
every distributed mobility solution to exhibit all the behaviors every distributed mobility solution to exhibit all the operations
listed in this section. A given distributed mobility solution may listed in this section. A given distributed mobility solution may
exhibit the behaviors as needed. exhibit the operations as needed.
3.2.1. Location Management Behaviors and Mobility Message Parameters 3.2.1. Location Management
An example LM design consists of a distributed database with multiple An example LM design consists of a distributed database with multiple
LMs servers. The location information about the prefix/address of an LMs servers. The location information about the prefix/address of an
MN is primarily at a given LMs. Peer LMs may exchange the location MN is primarily at a given LMs. Peer LMs may exchange the location
information with each other. LMc may retrieve a given record or send information with each other. LMc may retrieve a given record or send
a given record update to LMs. a given record update to LMs.
Location management behaviors: Location management configurations:
LM-cfg: As shown in Section 3.1: LM-cfg: As shown in Section 3.1:
LMs may be implemented at CPA, may co-locate with LMc at CPA, LMs may be implemented at CPA, may co-locate with LMc at CPA,
or may be a separate server. or may be a separate server.
LMc may be at CPA, CPN, or MN. LMc may be at CPA, CPN, or MN.
LMp may proxy between LMs and LMc. LMp may proxy between LMs and LMc.
Specifically: Specifically:
Location management operations and parameters:
LM-cfg:1 LMs may co-locate with LMc at CPA in a flat network with LM-cfg:1 LMs may co-locate with LMc at CPA in a flat network with
network-based mobility as shown in Figure 1(a) in network-based mobility as shown in Figure 1(a) in
Section 3.1.1. Section 3.1.1.
LM-cfg:2 LMs may be a separate server whereas LMc is implemented in LM-cfg:2 LMs may be a separate server whereas LMc is implemented in
CPA in a flat network with network-based mobility as shown CPA in a flat network with network-based mobility as shown
in Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1.1. in Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1.1.
LM-cfg:3 LMs may be implemented at CPA, whereas LMc is implemented LM-cfg:3 LMs may be implemented at CPA, whereas LMc is implemented
at CPN in a hierarchical network with network-based at CPN in a hierarchical network with network-based
skipping to change at page 14, line 35 skipping to change at page 17, line 8
Figure 3(b) in Section 3.1.3. Figure 3(b) in Section 3.1.3.
LM-db: LM may manage the location information in a client-server LM-db: LM may manage the location information in a client-server
database system. database system.
Example LM database functions are as follows: Example LM database functions are as follows:
LM-db:1 LMc may query LMs about location information for a prefix of LM-db:1 LMc may query LMs about location information for a prefix of
MN (pull). MN (pull).
Parameters: Parameters:
IP prefix of MN. - IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
support may be required.
LM-db:2 LMs may reply to LMc query about location information for a LM-db:2 LMs may reply to LMc query about location information for a
prefix of MN (pull). prefix of MN (pull).
Parameters: Parameters:
IP prefix of MN, - IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the support may be required
flow. - IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow: integrity support required.
LM-db:3 LMs may inform LMc about location information for a prefix LM-db:3 LMs may inform LMc about location information for a prefix
of MN (push). of MN (push).
Parameters: Parameters:
IP prefix of MN, - IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the support may be required
- IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow. flow.
This function in PMIPv6 protocol is the Update Notification This function in the PMIPv6 protocol is the Update
(UPN) together with the Update Notification Acknowledgment Notification (UPN) together with the Update Notification
(UPA) as defined in [RFC7077]. Acknowledgment (UPA) as defined in [RFC7077].
LM-db:4 LMc may inform LMs about update location information for a LM-db:4 LMc may inform LMs about update location information for a
prefix of MN. prefix of MN.
Parameters: Parameters:
IP prefix of MN, - IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the support may be required
flow. - IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow: integrity support required
This function in MIPv6 / PMIPv6 protocol is the Binding This function in the MIPv6 / PMIPv6 protocol is the Binding
Update (BU) / Proxy Binding Update (PBU) together with the Update (BU) / Proxy Binding Update (PBU) together with the
Binding Acknowledgment (BA) / Proxy Binding Acknowledgment Binding Acknowledgment (BA) / Proxy Binding Acknowledgment
(PBA) as defined in [RFC6275] / [RFC5213] respectively. (PBA) as defined in [RFC6275] / [RFC5213] respectively.
LM-db:5 The MN may be a host or a router. When the MN is a mobile LM-db:5 The MN may be a host or a router. When the MN is an MR, the
router (MR), the prefix information above may include the prefix information may include the MNP delegated to the MR.
prefixes delegated to the MR.
Additional parameters: Additional parameters:
IP prefix or prefixes delegated to the MR. MNP: integrity support required and privacy support may be
required
LM-svr: The LM may be a distributed database with multiple LMs LM-svr: The LM may be a distributed database with multiple LMs
servers. servers.
For example: For example:
LM-svr:1 A LMs may join a pool of LMs servers. LM-svr:1 A LMs may join a pool of LMs servers.
Parameters: Parameters:
IP address of the LMs, - IP address of the LMs: integrity support required
IP prefixes for which the LMs will host the primary - IP prefixes for which the LMs will host the primary
location information. location information: integrity support required.
LM-svr:2 LMs may query a peer LMs about location information for a LM-svr:2 LMs may query a peer LMs about location information for a
prefix of MN. prefix of MN.
Parameters: Parameters:
IP prefix. - IP prefix: integrity support required and privacy support
may be required.
LM-svr:3 LMs may reply to a peer LMs about location information for LM-svr:3 LMs may reply to a peer LMs about location information for
a prefix of MN. a prefix of MN.
Parameters: Parameters:
IP prefix of MN, - IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the support may be required
flow. - IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow: integrity support required.
The parameters indicated above are only the minimal. In a specific The parameters indicated above are only the minimal. In a specific
mobility protocol, additional parameters should be added as needed. mobility protocol, additional parameters should be added as needed.
Examples of these additional parameters are those passed in the Examples of these additional parameters are those passed in the
mobility options of the mobility header for MIPv6 [RFC6275] and for mobility options of the mobility header for MIPv6 [RFC6275] and for
PMIPv6 [RFC5213]. PMIPv6 [RFC5213].
3.2.2. Forwarding Management Behaviors and Mobility Message Parameters 3.2.2. Forwarding Management
The FM behaviors and mobility message parameters are: Forwarding management configurations:
FM-cfg: As shown in Section 3.1: FM-cfg: As shown in Section 3.1:
FM-CP may be implemented at CPA, CPN, MN depending on the FM-CP may be implemented at CPA, CPN, MN depending on the
configuration chosen. configuration chosen.
FM-DP may also be implemented at CPA, CPN, MN depending on FM-DP may also be implemented at CPA, CPN, MN depending on
the configuration chosen. the configuration chosen.
Specifically: Specifically:
skipping to change at page 16, line 37 skipping to change at page 19, line 12
FM-cfg:2 FM-CP may be implemented at both CPA and CPN and FM-DP is FM-cfg:2 FM-CP may be implemented at both CPA and CPN and FM-DP is
implemented at both DPA and DPN in a hierarchical network implemented at both DPA and DPN in a hierarchical network
with network-based mobility as shown in Figure 2(a) and with network-based mobility as shown in Figure 2(a) and
Figure 2(b) in Section 3.1.2. Figure 2(b) in Section 3.1.2.
FM-cfg:3 FM-CP and FM-DP may be implemented at CPA and DPA FM-cfg:3 FM-CP and FM-DP may be implemented at CPA and DPA
respectively and also both implemented at MN for host-based respectively and also both implemented at MN for host-based
mobility as shown in Figure 3(a) and Figure 3(b) in mobility as shown in Figure 3(a) and Figure 3(b) in
Section 3.1.3. Section 3.1.3.
Forwarding management operations and parameters:
FM-find:1 An anchor may discover and be discovered such as through FM-find:1 An anchor may discover and be discovered such as through
an anchor registration system as follows: an anchor registration system as follows:
FM-find:2 FM registers and authenticates itself with a centralized FM-find:2 FM registers and authenticates itself with a centralized
mobility controller. mobility controller.
Parameters: Parameters:
IP address of DPA and its CPA; - IP address of DPA and its CPA: integrity support
IP prefix anchored to the DPA. required
- IP prefix anchored to the DPA: integrity support
required
registration reply: acknowledge of registration and echo registration reply: acknowledge of registration and echo
the input parameters. the input parameters.
FM-find:3 FM discovers the FM of another IP prefix by querying the FM-find:3 FM discovers the FM of another IP prefix by querying the
mobility controller based on the IP prefix. mobility controller based on the IP prefix.
Parameters: Parameters:
- IP prefix of MN: integrity support required and privacy
IP prefix of MN. support may be required
FM-find:4 when making anchor discovery FM expects the answer FM-find:4 when making anchor discovery FM expects the answer
parameters as: IP address of DPA to which IP prefix of MN parameters:
is anchored; IP prefix of the corresponding CPA. - IP address of DPA to which IP prefix of MN is anchored:
integrity support required
- IP prefix of the corresponding CPA: integrity support
required
FM-flow:1 The FM may be carried out on the packets to/from an MN up FM-flow:1 The FM may be carried out on the packets to/from an MN up
to the granularity of a flow. to the granularity of a flow.
FM-flow:2 Example matching parameters are in the 5-tuple of a flow. FM-flow:2 Example matching parameters are in the 5-tuple of a flow.
FM-cpdp:1 With separation of control plane function and data plane FM-cpdp: With separation of control plane function and data plane
function, FM-CP and FM-DP communicate with each other. function, FM-CP and FM-DP communicate with each other. Such
Such communication may be realized by the appropriate communication may be realized by the appropriate messages in
messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]. For example: [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
FM-cpdp:2 CPA/FM-CP sends forwarding table updates to DPA/FM-DP. For example:
FM-cpdp:1 CPA/FM-CP sends forwarding table updates to DPA/FM-DP.
Parameters: Parameters:
new forwarding table entries to add; - New forwarding table entries to add: integrity support
expired forwarding table entries to delete. required
- Expired forwarding table entries to delete: integrity
support required
FM-cpdp:3 DPA/FM-DP sends to CPA/FM-CP about its status and load. FM-cpdp:2 DPA/FM-DP sends to CPA/FM-CP about its status and load.
Parameters: Parameters:
state of forwarding function being active or not; - State of forwarding function being active or not:
loading percentage. integrity support required
- Loading percentage: integrity support required
FM-path:1 FM may change the forwarding path of a flow upon a change FM-path:1 FM may change the forwarding path of a flow upon a change
of point of attachment of a MN. Prior to the changes, of point of attachment of a MN. Prior to the changes,
packets coming from the CN to the MN would traverse from packets coming from the CN to the MN would traverse from
the CN to the home network anchor of the flow for the MN the CN to the home network anchor of the flow for the MN
before reaching the MN. Changes are from this original before reaching the MN. Changes are from this original
forwarding path or paths to a new forwarding path or paths forwarding path or paths to a new forwarding path or paths
from the CN to the current AR of the MN and then the MN from the CN to the current AR of the MN and then the MN
itself. itself.
skipping to change at page 18, line 24 skipping to change at page 21, line 13
choose from. choose from.
FM-path-tbl:4 With forwarding table updates, changes to the FM-path-tbl:4 With forwarding table updates, changes to the
forwarding table are needed at each of the affected forwarding table are needed at each of the affected
forwarding switches in order to change the forwarding forwarding switches in order to change the forwarding
path of the packets for the flow from that originally path of the packets for the flow from that originally
between the CN and the home network anchor to that between the CN and the home network anchor to that
between the CN and the new AR. between the CN and the new AR.
Forwarding table updates may be achieved through BGP Forwarding table updates may be achieved through BGP
update, but such updates may only be practical when update as described in [I-D.templin-aerolink],
its scope is confined. An alternative is through [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] and also for 3GPP Evolved
messaging between a centralized control plane and the Packet Core (EPC) network in
distributed forwarding switches. [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc] when the scope
and response time can be managed. Alternatively, a
centralized control plane may be used.
When the control plane is centralized, forwarding
table updates may be achieved through messaging
between the centralized control plane and the
distributed forwarding switches as described above
(FM-cpdp) in this section.
Forwarding table updates may be triggered using Forwarding table updates may be triggered using
DHCPv6-PD prefix delegation to change the role of IP DHCPv6-PD prefix delegation to change the role of IP
anchoring from the home network anchor (with FM-DP) to anchoring from the home network anchor (with FM-DP) to
the new anchor (with FM-DP) to which the MN is the new anchor (with FM-DP) to which the MN is
currently attached. The new anchor will then currently attached. The new anchor will then
advertise routes for the delegated prefix. advertise routes for the delegated prefix.
With a distributed routing protocol, the updates With a distributed routing protocol, the updates
spread out from neighbors to neighbors and will affect spread out from neighbors to neighbors and will affect
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Yet the scope of such updates for a given flow may be Yet the scope of such updates for a given flow may be
confined to only those forwarding switches such that confined to only those forwarding switches such that
the packets sent only from the "CN" to MN will go to the packets sent only from the "CN" to MN will go to
the new AR. Such confinement may be made when using a the new AR. Such confinement may be made when using a
centralized central plane possessing a global view of centralized central plane possessing a global view of
all the forwarding switches. all the forwarding switches.
FM-path-tbl:5 FM reverts the changes previously made to the FM-path-tbl:5 FM reverts the changes previously made to the
forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no
longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using
an IP prefix/address requiring session continuity have an IP prefix/address requiring IP session continuity
closed. When using DHCPv6-PD, the forwarding paths have closed. When using DHCPv6-PD, the forwarding
will be reverted upon expiration of DHCPv6-PD. paths will be reverted upon prefix lease expiration.
FM-path-ind:6 Indirection forwards the incoming packets of the flow FM-path-ind:6 Indirection forwards the incoming packets of the flow
from the DPA at the far end to a DPA/DPN at the near from the DPA at the far end to a DPA/DPN at the near
end of indirection. Both ends of the indirection end of indirection. Both ends of the indirection
needs to know the LM information of the MN for the needs to know the LM information of the MN for the
flow and also needs to possess FM capability to flow and also needs to possess FM capability to
perform indirection. perform indirection.
FM-path-ind:7 The mechanism of changing the forwarding path in FM-path-ind:7 The mechanism of changing the forwarding path in
[RFC6275] and [RFC5213] is tunneling. In the control [RFC6275] and [RFC5213] is tunneling. In the control
skipping to change at page 19, line 29 skipping to change at page 22, line 27
encapsulation, whereas the FM-DP at the end of the encapsulation, whereas the FM-DP at the end of the
tunnel decapsulates the packet. tunnel decapsulates the packet.
Note that in principle the ends of the indirection Note that in principle the ends of the indirection
path can be any pair of network elements with the FM- path can be any pair of network elements with the FM-
DP function. DP function.
FM-path-ind:8 FM reverts the changes previously made to the FM-path-ind:8 FM reverts the changes previously made to the
forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no
longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using
an IP prefix/address requiring session continuity have an IP prefix/address requiring IP session continuity
closed. When tunneling is used, the tunnels will be have closed. When tunneling is used, the tunnels will
torn down when they are no longer needed. be torn down when they are no longer needed.
FM-DPA:1 Recall from above that for the incoming packets from the FM-DPA:1 Recall from above that for the incoming packets from the
CN, forwarding path change by FM is from the DPA at the far CN, forwarding path change by FM is from the DPA at the far
end which may be at any forwarding switch (or even CN end which may be at any forwarding switch (or even CN
itself) in the original forwarding path to the near end itself) in the original forwarding path to the near end
DPA/DPN. DPA/DPN.
It is necessary that any incoming packet from the CN of the It is necessary that any incoming packet from the CN of the
flow must traverse the DPA (or at least one of the DPAs, flow must traverse the DPA (or at least one of the DPAs,
e.g., in the case of anycast) at the far end in order for e.g., in the case of anycast) at the far end in order for
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home network DPA in the original forwarding path from CN to home network DPA in the original forwarding path from CN to
MN. MN.
FM-DPA:3 Optimization of the new forwarding path may be achieved FM-DPA:3 Optimization of the new forwarding path may be achieved
when the path change for the incoming packets begins at a when the path change for the incoming packets begins at a
DPA where the original path and the direct IPv6 path DPA where the original path and the direct IPv6 path
overlaps. Then the new forwarding path will resemble the overlaps. Then the new forwarding path will resemble the
direct IPv6 path from the CN to the MN. direct IPv6 path from the CN to the MN.
FM-DPA-tbl:4 Forwarding table updates, such as that triggered using FM-DPA-tbl:4 Forwarding table updates, such as that triggered using
DHCPv6-PD prefix delegation to change the role of IP DHCPv6-PD to change the role of IP anchoring from the
anchoring from the home network anchor (DPA with FM-DP) home network anchor (DPA with FM-DP) to the new anchor
to the new anchor (DPA with FM-DP), may put the near (DPA with FM-DP), may put the near end of the path
end of the path change at the new DPA. Subsequent change at the new DPA. Subsequent forwarding table
forwarding table updates may propagates upstream up to updates may propagates upstream up to a far end where
a far end where the original path and the direct IPv6 the original path and the direct IPv6 path overlaps.
path overlaps.
When that far end is too far upstream the signaling of When that far end is too far upstream the signaling of
forwarding table updates may become excessive. An forwarding table updates may become excessive. An
alternative is to use indirection (see FM-DPA-ind) from alternative is to use indirection (see FM-DPA-ind) from
that far end to the new DPA at the near end. that far end to the new DPA at the near end.
Still another alternative is to combine forwarding Still another alternative is to combine forwarding
table update with indirection. table update with indirection.
FM-DPA-tbl:5 Changes made by FM to the following tables, which are FM-DPA-tbl:5 Changes made by FM to the following tables, which are
skipping to change at page 21, line 20 skipping to change at page 24, line 16
FM-state:1 In addition to the above, a flow/session may contain FM-state:1 In addition to the above, a flow/session may contain
states with the required information for QoS, charging, states with the required information for QoS, charging,
etc. as needed. These states need to be transferred from etc. as needed. These states need to be transferred from
the old anchor to the new anchor. the old anchor to the new anchor.
FM-buffer:1 An anchor can buffer packets of a flow in a mobility FM-buffer:1 An anchor can buffer packets of a flow in a mobility
event: event:
FM-buffer:2 CPA/FM-CP informs DPA/FM-DP to buffer packets of a flow. FM-buffer:2 CPA/FM-CP informs DPA/FM-DP to buffer packets of a flow.
Trigger: Trigger:
MN leaves DPA in a mobility event. - MN leaves DPA in a mobility event.
Parameters: Parameters:
IP prefix of the flow for which packets need to be - IP prefix of the flow for which packets need to be
buffered. buffered: integrity support required
FM-buffer:3 CPA/FM-CP on behalf of a new DPA/FM-DP informs the CPA/ FM-buffer:3 CPA/FM-CP on behalf of a new DPA/FM-DP informs the CPA/
FM-CP of the prior DPA/FM-DP that it is ready to receive FM-CP of the prior DPA/FM-DP that it is ready to receive
any buffered packets of a flow. any buffered packets of a flow.
Parameters: Parameters:
destination IP prefix of the flow's packets; - Destination IP prefix of the flow's packets: integrity
IP address of the new DPA. support required
- IP address of the new DPA: integrity support required
FM-nemo:1 When the MN is a mobile router the access router anchoring FM-mr:1 When the MN is a mobile router the access router anchoring
the IP prefix of MR will also anchor the IP prefix or the IP prefix of MR will also anchor the IP prefix or
prefixes delegated to the MR. prefixes delegated to the MR.
4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments - 4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments -
Mobility Support Only When Needed Mobility Support Only When Needed
IP Mobility Support Only When Needed: IP Mobility Support Only When Needed:
IP mobility support may be provided only when needed instead of being IP mobility support may be provided only when needed instead of being
provided by default. The LM and FM functions in the different provided by default. The LM and FM functions in the different
configurations shown in Section 3.1 are then utilized only when configurations shown in Section 3.1 are then utilized only when
needed. needed.
skipping to change at page 22, line 29 skipping to change at page 25, line 26
may choose the one with the least cost. In addition, these IP may choose the one with the least cost. In addition, these IP
prefixes/addresses may be of different types regarding whether prefixes/addresses may be of different types regarding whether
mobility support is needed [I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]. A flow mobility support is needed [I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]. A flow
will need to choose the appropriate one according to whether it needs will need to choose the appropriate one according to whether it needs
IP mobility support. IP mobility support.
4.1. No Need of IP Mobility: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address 4.1. No Need of IP Mobility: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address
When IP mobility support is not needed for a flow, the LM and FM When IP mobility support is not needed for a flow, the LM and FM
functions are not utilized so that the configurations in Section 3.1 functions are not utilized so that the configurations in Section 3.1
are simplified as shown in Figure 4. are simplified as shown in Figure 5.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: |
|---------------| |---------------| |---------------| |---------------|
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2) | .MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP2,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP2,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 4. Changing to the new IP prefix/address. MN running a flow Figure 5. Changing to the new IP prefix/address. MN running a flow
using IP1 in a network Net1 changes to running a flow using IP2 in using IP1 in a network Net1 changes to running a flow using IP2 in
Net2. Net2.
When there is no need to provide IP mobility to a flow, the flow may When there is no need to provide IP mobility to a flow, the flow may
use a new IP address acquired from a new network as the MN moves to use a new IP address acquired from a new network as the MN moves to
the new network. the new network.
Regardless of whether IP mobility is needed, if the flow has Regardless of whether IP mobility is needed, if the flow has
terminated before the MN moves to a new network, the flow may terminated before the MN moves to a new network, the flow may
subsequently restart using the new IP address allocated from the new subsequently restart using the new IP address allocated from the new
network. network.
When session continuity is needed, even if a flow is ongoing as the When IP session continuity is needed, even if a flow is ongoing as
MN moves, it may still be desirable for the flow to change to using the MN moves, it may still be desirable for the flow to change to
the new IP prefix configured in the new network. The flow may then using the new IP prefix configured in the new network. The flow may
close and then restart using a new IP address configured in the new then close and then restart using a new IP address configured in the
network. Such a change in the IP address of the flow may be enabled new network. Such a change in the IP address of the flow may be
using a higher layer mobility support which is not in the scope of enabled using a higher layer mobility support which is not in the
this document. scope of this document.
In Figure 4, a flow initiated while the MN was in a network Net1 has In Figure 5, a flow initiated while the MN was in a network Net1 has
terminated before the MN moves to a new network Net2. After moving terminated before the MN moves to a new network Net2. After moving
to Net2, the MN uses the new IP prefix anchored in Net2 to start a to Net2, the MN uses the new IP prefix anchored in Net2 to start a
new flow. The packets may then be forwarded without requiring IP new flow. The packets may then be forwarded without requiring IP
layer mobility support. layer mobility support.
An example call flow is outlined in Figure 5. An example call flow is outlined in Figure 6.
MN p-AR n-AR CN MN p-AR n-AR CN
|MN attaches to p-AR: | | | |MN attaches to p-AR: | | |
|acquire MN-ID and profile | | |acquire MN-ID and profile | |
|--RS---------------->| | | |--RS---------------->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<----------RA(HNP1)--| | | |<----------RA(HNP1)--| | |
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP1 Allocated prefix HNP1
IP1 address configuration IP1 address configuration
skipping to change at page 24, line 30 skipping to change at page 27, line 30
|--RS------------------------------>| | |--RS------------------------------>| |
| | | | | | | |
|<--------------RA(HNP2)------------| | |<--------------RA(HNP2)------------| |
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP2 Allocated prefix HNP2
IP2 address configuration IP2 address configuration
| | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Figure 5. Re-starting a flow to use the IP allocated from the Figure 6. Re-starting a flow to use the IP allocated from the
network at which the MN is attached. network at which the MN is attached.
The security management function in the anchor node at a new network
must allow to assign a valid IP prefix/address to a mobile node.
4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address 4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address
A network or network slice may not need IP mobility support. For A network or network slice may not need IP mobility support. For
example, a network slice for stationary sensors only will never example, a network slice for stationary sensors only will never
encounter mobility. encounter mobility.
The standard functions in IPv6 already include dropping the old IPv6 The standard functions in IPv6 already include dropping the old IPv6
prefix/address and acquiring new IPv6 prefix/address when the node prefix/address and acquiring new IPv6 prefix/address when the node
changes its point of attachment to a new network. Therefore, a changes its point of attachment to a new network. Therefore, a
network or network slice not providing IP mobility support at all network or network slice not providing IP mobility support at all
will not need any of the functions with the mobility behaviors and will not need any of the functions with the mobility operations and
messages described in Section 3.2. messages described in Section 3.2.
The guidelines for the IPv6 nodes in a network or network slice The guidelines for the IPv6 nodes in a network or network slice
supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility
support include the following: support include the following:
GL-cfg:1 A network or network slice supporting a mix of flows GL-cfg:1 A network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring mobility support may take any requiring and not requiring mobility support may take any
of the configurations described in Section 3.1 and need to of the configurations described in Section 3.1 and need to
implement in the appropriate IPv6 nodes the mobility implement in the appropriate IPv6 nodes the mobility
functions LM and FM as described respectively in LM-cfg and functions LM and FM as described respectively in LM-cfg and
FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according to the configuration FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according to the configuration
chosen. chosen.
GL-mix:1 These mobility functions possess some of the behaviors and GL-mix:1 These mobility functions perform some of the operations
messages described in Section 3.2 depending on which with the appropriate messages as described in Section 3.2
mobility mechanisms are used. Yet these mobility functions depending on which mobility mechanisms are used. Yet these
must not be invoked for a flow that does not need IP mobility functions must not be invoked for a flow that does
mobility support. It is necessary to be able to not need IP mobility support. It is necessary to be able
distinguish the needs of a flow. The guidelines for the MN to distinguish the needs of a flow. The guidelines for the
and the AR are in the following. MN and the AR are in the following.
GL-mix:2 Regardless of whether there are flows requiring IP mobility GL-mix:2 Regardless of whether there are flows requiring IP mobility
support, when the MN changes its point of attachment to a support, when the MN changes its point of attachment to a
new network, it needs to configure a new global IP address new network, it needs to configure a new global IP address
for use in the new network in addition to configuring the for use in the new network in addition to configuring the
new link-local addresses. new link-local addresses.
GL-mix:3 The MN needs to check whether a flow needs IP mobility GL-mix:3 The MN needs to check whether a flow needs IP mobility
support. This can be performed when the application was support. This can be performed when the application was
initiated. The specific method is not in the scope of this initiated. The specific method is not in the scope of this
skipping to change at page 26, line 24 skipping to change at page 29, line 17
time later, the user application for the flow may be closed. If the time later, the user application for the flow may be closed. If the
application is started again, the new flow may not need to use the application is started again, the new flow may not need to use the
prior network's IP address to avoid having to invoke IP mobility prior network's IP address to avoid having to invoke IP mobility
support. This may be the case where a dynamic IP prefix/address support. This may be the case where a dynamic IP prefix/address
rather than a permanent one is used. The flow may then use the new rather than a permanent one is used. The flow may then use the new
IP prefix in the network where the flow is being initiated. Routing IP prefix in the network where the flow is being initiated. Routing
is again kept simpler without employing IP mobility and will remain is again kept simpler without employing IP mobility and will remain
so as long as the MN which is now in the new network has not moved so as long as the MN which is now in the new network has not moved
again and left to another new network. again and left to another new network.
An example call flow in this case is outlined in Figure 6. An example call flow in this case is outlined in Figure 7.
MN p-AR n-AR CN MN p-AR n-AR CN
|MN attaches to p-AR: | | | |MN attaches to p-AR: | | |
|acquire MN-ID and profile | | |acquire MN-ID and profile | |
|--RS---------------->| | | |--RS---------------->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<----------RA(HNP1)--| | | |<----------RA(HNP1)--| | |
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP1 Allocated prefix HNP1
IP1 address configuration IP1 address configuration
skipping to change at page 27, line 35 skipping to change at page 29, line 49
|<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)---------------+------------------------------->| |<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)---------------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP2 Allocated prefix HNP2
IP2 address configuration IP2 address configuration
| | | | | | | |
Flow(IP1,IPcn) terminates Flow(IP1,IPcn) terminates
| | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Figure 6. A flow continues to use the IP from its home network after Figure 7. A flow continues to use the IP from its home network after
MN has moved to a new network. MN has moved to a new network.
4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility 4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility
The configuration guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6 The configuration guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6
nodes in a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows nodes in a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring distributed mobility support are as requiring and not requiring distributed mobility support are as
follows: follows:
GL-cfg:2 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:2 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed anchoring in an appropriate configuration such distributed mobility anchoring in an appropriate
as those in Figure 1 (Section 3.1.1) for network-based configuration such as those in Figure 1 (Section 3.1.1) for
distributed mobility or in Figure 3 (Section 3.1.3) for network-based distributed mobility or in Figure 3
host-based distributed mobility. (Section 3.1.3) for host-based distributed mobility.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA, CPN, DPN) are to be The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA, CPN, DPN) are to be
implemented the mobility functions LM and FM as described implemented the mobility functions LM and FM as described
respectively in LM-cfg and FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according respectively in LM-cfg and FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according
to the configuration chosen. to the configuration chosen.
The guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6 nodes in a The guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6 nodes in a
network or network slice supporting a mix of flows requiring and not network or network slice supporting a mix of flows requiring and not
requiring distributed mobility support had begun with those given as requiring distributed mobility support had begun with those given as
GL-mix in Section 4.1.1 and continue as follows: GL-mix in Section 4.1.1 and continue as follows:
GL-mix:5 The distributed anchors may need to message with each GL-mix:5 The distributed anchors may need to message with each
other. When such messaging is needed, the anchors may need other. When such messaging is needed, the anchors may need
to discover each other as described in the FM behaviors and to discover each other as described in the FM operations
mobility message parameters (FM-find) in Section 3.2.2. and mobility message parameters (FM-find) in Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:6 The anchors may need to provide mobility support on a per- GL-mix:6 The anchors may need to provide mobility support on a per-
flow basis as described in the FM behaviors and mobility flow basis as described in the FM operations and mobility
message parameters (FM-flow) in Section 3.2.2. message parameters (FM-flow) in Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:7 Then the anchors need to properly forward the packets of GL-mix:7 Then the anchors need to properly forward the packets of
the flows as described in the FM behaviors and mobility the flows as described in the FM operations and mobility
message parameters (FM-path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA- message parameters (FM-path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA-
tbl) in Section 3.2.2. tbl) in Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:8 If there are in-flight packets toward the old anchor while GL-mix:8 If there are in-flight packets toward the old anchor while
the MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to the MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to
buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor
after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready. after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready.
Such are described in the FM behaviors and mobility message Such are described in the FM operations and mobility
parameters (FM-buffer) in Section 3.2.2. message parameters (FM-buffer) in Section 3.2.2.
5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments - Anchor 5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Mobility Anchoring Environments
Switching to the New Network - Anchor Switching to the New Network
IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching to the New Network: IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching to the New Network:
IP mobility is invoked to enable session continuity for an ongoing IP mobility is invoked to enable IP session continuity for an ongoing
flow as the MN moves to a new network. Here the anchoring of the IP flow as the MN moves to a new network. Here the anchoring of the IP
address of the flow is in the home network of the flow, which is not address of the flow is in the home network of the flow, which is not
in the current network of attachment. A centralized mobility in the current network of attachment. A centralized mobility
management mechanism may employ indirection from the anchor in the management mechanism may employ indirection from the anchor in the
home network to the current network of attachment. Yet it may be home network to the current network of attachment. Yet it may be
difficult to avoid unnecessarily long route when the route between difficult to avoid unnecessarily long route when the route between
the MN and the CN via the anchor in the home network is too much the MN and the CN via the anchor in the home network is significantly
longer than the direct route between them. An alternative is to longer than the direct route between them. An alternative is to
switch the IP prefix/address anchoring to the new network. switch the IP prefix/address anchoring to the new network.
5.1. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network 5.1. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network
The IP prefix/address anchoring may move without changing the IP The IP prefix/address anchoring may move without changing the IP
prefix/address of the flow. Here the LM and FM functions in Figures prefix/address of the flow. Here the LM and FM functions in Figures
1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 are implemented as shown in Figure 7. 1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 are implemented as shown in Figure 8.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: |
|LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | |LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | |LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | |LM:IP1<-->IPa2 |
|---------------| |---------------| |---------------| |---------------|
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | move |anchors IP2,IP1| |anchors IP1 | move |anchors IP2,IP1|
|FM:DHCPv6-PD | =======> |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD | =======> |FM:DHCPv6-PD |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 7. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network. MN Figure 8. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network. MN
with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues to run the flow using IP1 as it with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues to run the flow using IP1 as it
moves to Net2. moves to Net2.
As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may
preserve session continuity by moving the anchoring of the original preserve IP session continuity by moving the anchoring of the
IP prefix/address of the flow to the new network. An example is in original IP prefix/address of the flow to the new network. BGP
the use of BGP UPDATE messages to change the forwarding table entries UPDATE messages may be used to change the forwarding table entries as
as described in [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] and also for 3GPP Evolved described in [I-D.templin-aerolink] and [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] if
Packet Core (EPC) network in [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc]. the response time of such updates does not exceed the handover delay
However, the response time and scalability of using a distributed requirement of the flow. An alternative is to use a centralized
routing protocol to update forwarding tables may be controversial. routing protocol to be described in Section 5.2 with a centralized
Use of a centralized routing protocol with a centralized control control plane.
plane as described in Section 5.2 will be more scalable.
5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat Network 5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat Network
The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice
supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility
support is: support is:
GL-cfg:3 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:3 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or
Figure 1(b)in Section 3.1 for a flat network. Figure 1(b)in Section 3.1 for a flat network.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively
in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2. in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2.
The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. In requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. In
addition, the following are required. addition, the following are required.
GL-switch:1 The location management provides information about which GL-switch:1 The location management provides information about which
IP prefix from an AR in the original network is being IP prefix from an AR in the original network is being
used by a flow in which AR in a new network. Such used by a flow in which AR in a new network. Such
information needs to be deleted or updated when such information needs to be deleted or updated when such
flows have closed so that the IP prefix is no longer flows have closed so that the IP prefix is no longer
used in a different network. The LM behaviors are used in a different network. The LM operations are
described in Section 3.2.1. described in Section 3.2.1.
GL-switch:2 The FM functions are implemented through the DHCPv6-PD GL-switch:2 The FM functions are implemented through the DHCPv6-PD
protocol. Here the anchor behaviors to properly forward protocol. Here the anchor operations to properly
the packets for a flow as described in the FM behaviors forward the packets for a flow as described in the FM
and mobility message parameters in Section 3.2.2 FM- operations and mobility message parameters in
path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA-tbl are realized by Section 3.2.2 FM-path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA-tbl
changing the anchor with DHCPv6-PD and also by reverting are realized by changing the anchor with DHCPv6-PD and
such changes later after the application has already also by reverting such changes later after the
closed and when the DHCPv6-PD timer expires. If there application has already closed and when the DHCPv6-PD
are in-flight packets toward the old anchor while the MN timer expires. If there are in-flight packets toward
is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to the old anchor while the MN is moving to the new anchor,
buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor it may be necessary to buffer these packets and then
after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready. forward to the new anchor after the old anchor knows
Such are described in the FM behaviors and mobility that the new anchor is ready as are described in
message parameters in Section 3.2.2 FM-buffer. The Section 3.2.2 (FM-buffer). The anchors may also need to
anchors may also need to discover each other as discover each other as described also in the FM
described also in the FM behaviors and mobility message operations and mobility message parameters (FM-find).
parameters (FM-find).
GL-switch:3 The security management function in the anchor node at a GL-switch:3 The security management function in the anchor node at a
new network must allow to assign the original IP prefix/ new network must allow to assign the original IP prefix/
address used by the mobile node at the previous address used by the mobile node at the previous
(original) network. As the assigned original IP prefix/ (original) network. As the assigned original IP prefix/
address is to be used in the new network, the security address is to be used in the new network, the security
management function in the anchor node must allow to management function in the anchor node must allow to
advertise the prefix of the original IP address and also advertise the prefix of the original IP address and also
allow the mobile node to send and receive data packets allow the mobile node to send and receive data packets
with the original IP address. with the original IP address.
skipping to change at page 31, line 32 skipping to change at page 33, line 45
send to the switches/routers the updated information of the send to the switches/routers the updated information of the
forwarding tables with the IP address anchoring of the original IP forwarding tables with the IP address anchoring of the original IP
prefix/address at AR1 moved to AR2 in the new network. That is, the prefix/address at AR1 moved to AR2 in the new network. That is, the
IP address anchoring in the original network which was advertising IP address anchoring in the original network which was advertising
the prefix will need to move to the new network. As the anchoring in the prefix will need to move to the new network. As the anchoring in
the new network advertises the prefix of the original IP address in the new network advertises the prefix of the original IP address in
the new network, the forwarding tables will be updated so that the new network, the forwarding tables will be updated so that
packets of the flow will be forwarded according to the updated packets of the flow will be forwarded according to the updated
forwarding tables. The configurations in Figures 1(a) and 1(b) in forwarding tables. The configurations in Figures 1(a) and 1(b) in
Section 3.1 for which FM-CP and LM are centralized and FM-DP's are Section 3.1 for which FM-CP and LM are centralized and FM-DP's are
distributed apply here. Figure 8 shows its implementation where LM distributed apply here. Figure 9 shows its implementation where LM
is a binding between the original IP prefix/address of the flow and is a binding between the original IP prefix/address of the flow and
the IP address of the new DPA, whereas FM uses the DHCPv6-PD the IP address of the new DPA, whereas FM uses the DHCPv6-PD
protocol. protocol.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CPA: | | CPA: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | | LM:IP1<-->IPa2 |
| FM-CP | | FM-CP |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
skipping to change at page 32, line 25 skipping to change at page 34, line 25
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | move |anchors IP2,IP1| |anchors IP1 | move |anchors IP2,IP1|
|FM:DHCPv6-PD | =======> |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD | =======> |FM:DHCPv6-PD |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 8. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network with Figure 9. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network with
with LM and FM-CP in a centralized control plane whereas the FM-DP's with LM and FM-CP in a centralized control plane whereas the FM-DP's
are distributed. are distributed.
The example call flow in Figure 9 shows that MN is allocated HNP1 The example call flow in Figure 10 shows that MN is allocated HNP1
when it attaches to the p-AR. A flow running in MN and needing IP when it attaches to the p-AR. A flow running in MN and needing IP
mobility may continue to use the previous IP prefix by moving the mobility may continue to use the previous IP prefix by moving the
anchoring of the IP prefix to the new network. Yet a new flow to be anchoring of the IP prefix to the new network. Yet a new flow to be
initiated in the new network may simply use a new IP prefix allocated initiated in the new network may simply use a new IP prefix allocated
from the new network. from the new network.
MN p-AR n-AR DHCP Servers CN MN p-AR n-AR DHCPv6 Servers CN
|MN attaches to p-AR: | | | | |MN attaches to p-AR: | | | |
|acquire MN-ID and profile | | | |acquire MN-ID and profile | | |
|--RS---------------->| | | | |--RS---------------->| | | |
|<----------RA(HNP1)--| | | | |<----------RA(HNP1)--| | | |
| | | Allocate MN-HNP1 | | | | Allocate MN-HNP1 |
IP addr config | | | | IP addr config | | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
|<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-+--------------------------------------------->| |<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-+--------------------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | | | |
|MN detach from p-AR | | | | |MN detach from p-AR | | | |
skipping to change at page 33, line 43 skipping to change at page 35, line 43
| Flow(IP1,IPcn,...) terminates | | | | Flow(IP1,IPcn,...) terminates | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | DHCPv6-PD timeout | | | | DHCPv6-PD timeout | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| forwarding table updates | | | forwarding table updates | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | | | |
Figure 9. DMM solution. MN with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues to Figure 10. DMM solution. MN with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues
run the flow using IP1 as it moves to Net2. to run the flow using IP1 as it moves to Net2.
As the MN moves from p-AR to n-AR, the p-AR as a DHCP client may send As the MN moves from p-AR to n-AR, the p-AR as a DHCPv6 client may
a DHCP release message to release the HNP1. It is now necessary for send a DHCPv6 release message to release the HNP1. It is now
n-AR to learn the IP prefix of the MN from the previous network so necessary for n-AR to learn the IP prefix of the MN from the previous
that it will be possible for Net2 to allocate both the previous network so that it will be possible for Net2 to allocate both the
network prefix and the new network prefix. The network may learn the previous network prefix and the new network prefix. The network may
previous prefix in different methods. For example, the MN may learn the previous prefix in different methods. For example, the MN
provide its previous network prefix information by including it to may provide its previous network prefix information by including it
the RS message [I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp]. to the RS message [I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp].
Knowing that MN is using HNP1, the n-AR sends to a DHCP server a Knowing that MN is using HNP1, the n-AR sends to a DHCPv6 server a
DHCPv6-PD request to move the HNP1 to n-AR. The server sends to n-AR DHCPv6-PD request to move the HNP1 to n-AR. The server sends to n-AR
a DHCPv6-PD reply to move the HNP1. Then forwarding tables updates a DHCPv6-PD reply to move the HNP1. Then forwarding tables updates
will take place here. will take place here.
In addition, the MN also needs a new HNP in the new network. The In addition, the MN also needs a new HNP in the new network. The
n-AR may now send RA to n-AR, with prefix information that includes n-AR may now send RA to n-AR, with prefix information that includes
HNP1 and HNP2. The MN may then continue to use IP1. In addition, HNP1 and HNP2. The MN may then continue to use IP1. In addition,
the MN is allocated the prefix HNP2 with which it may configure its the MN is allocated the prefix HNP2 with which it may configure its
IP addresses. Now for flows using IP1, packets destined to IP1 will IP addresses. Now for flows using IP1, packets destined to IP1 will
be forwarded to the MN via n-AR. be forwarded to the MN via n-AR.
As such flows have terminated and DHCP-PD has timed out, HNP1 goes As such flows have terminated and DHCPv6-PD has timed out, HNP1 goes
back to Net1. MN will then be left with HNP2 only, which it will use back to Net1. MN will then be left with HNP2 only, which it will use
when it now starts a new flow. when it now starts a new flow.
5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with 5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with
Centralized CP Centralized CP
The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice with The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice with
centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows requiring and centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows requiring and
not requiring IP mobility support is: not requiring IP mobility support is:
GL-cfg:4 Multipel instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:4 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or
Figure 1(b)in Section 3.1 with centralized control plane Figure 1(b)in Section 3.1 with centralized control plane
for a flat network. for a flat network.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively
in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2. in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2.
The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. The requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. The
guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 5.1.1 also apply here. In addition, guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 5.1.1 also apply here. In addition,
the following are required. the following are required.
GL-switch:5 The anchor behavior to properly forward the packets for GL-switch:5 The anchor operations to properly forward the packets
a flow as described in the FM behaviors and mobility for a flow as described in the FM operations and
message parameters in Section 3.2.2 FM-path, FM-path- mobility message parameters in Section 3.2.2 FM-path,
tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA-tbl is realized by changing the FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA-tbl is realized by changing
anchoring with DHCPv6-PD and undoing such changes later the anchoring with DHCPv6-PD and undoing such changes
when its timer expires and the application has already later when its timer expires and the application has
closed. With the anchors being separated in control and already closed. With the anchors being separated in
data planes with LMs and FM-CP centralized in the same control and data planes with LMs and FM-CP centralized
control plane, messaging between anchors and the in the same control plane, messaging between anchors and
discovery of anchors become internal to the control the discovery of anchors become internal to the control
plane as described in Section 3.2.2 FM-cpdp. However, plane as described in Section 3.2.2 FM-cpdp. However,
the centralized FM-CP needs to communicate with the the centralized FM-CP needs to communicate with the
distributed FM-DP as described as described in the FM distributed FM-DP as described as described in the FM
behaviors and mobility message parameters (FM-find). operations and mobility message parameters (FM-find).
Such may be realized by the appropriate messages in Such may be realized by the appropriate messages in
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]. [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
GL-switch:6 It was already mentioned before that, if there are in- GL-switch:6 It was already mentioned before that, if there are in-
flight packets toward the old anchor while the MN is flight packets toward the old anchor while the MN is
moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to buffer moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to buffer
these packets and then forward to the new anchor after these packets and then forward to the new anchor after
the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready Here, the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready Here,
however, the corresponding FM behaviors and mobility however, the corresponding FM operations and mobility
message parameters as described in Section 3.2.2 (FM- message parameters as described in Section 3.2.2 (FM-
buffer) can be realized by the internal behavior in the buffer) can be realized by the internal operations in
control plane together with signaling between the the control plane together with signaling between the
control plane and distributed data plane. These control plane and distributed data plane. These
signaling may be realized by the appropriate messages in signaling may be realized by the appropriate messages in
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]. [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
5.3. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Hierarchical Network 5.3. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical Network
The configuration for a hierarchical network is shown in Figures 1(c) The configuration for a hierarchical network is shown in Figures 1(c)
and 1(d) in Section 3.1. With centralized control plane, CPA and and 1(d) in Section 3.1. With centralized control plane, CPA and
CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all co-located. There are CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all co-located. There are
multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed mobility anchoring. multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed mobility anchoring.
In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each with FM-DP) In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each with FM-DP)
hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR supports hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR supports
forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding switches forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding switches
(FW's). A mobility event in this configuration belonging to (FW's). A mobility event in this configuration belonging to
distributed mobility management will be deferred to Section 5.4. distributed mobility management will be deferred to Section 5.4.
In this distributed mobility configuration, a mobility event In this distributed mobility configuration, a mobility event
involving change of FW only but not of AR as shown in Figure 10 may involving change of FW only but not of AR as shown in Figure 11 may
still belong to centralized mobility management and may be supported still belong to centralized mobility management and may be supported
using PMIPv6. This configuration of network-based mobility is also using PMIPv6. This configuration of network-based mobility is also
applicable to host-based mobility with the modification for the MN applicable to host-based mobility with the modification for the MN
directly taking the role of DPN and CPN, and the corresponding directly taking the role of DPN and CPN, and the corresponding
centralized mobility event may be supported using MIPv6. centralized mobility event may be supported using MIPv6.
In Figure 10, the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored at the In Figure 11, the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored at the
access router (AR) supporting indirection to the old FW to which the access router (AR) supporting indirection to the old FW to which the
MN was originally attached as well as to the new FW to which the MN MN was originally attached as well as to the new FW to which the MN
has moved. has moved.
The realization of LM may be the binding between the IP prefix/ The realization of LM may be the binding between the IP prefix/
address of the flow used by the MN and the IP address of the DPN to address of the flow used by the MN and the IP address of the DPN to
which MN has moved. The implementation of FM to enable change of FW which MN has moved. The implementation of FM to enable change of FW
without changing AR may be accomplished using tunneling between the without changing AR may be accomplished using tunneling between the
AR and the FW as described in [I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix] and in AR and the FW as described in [I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix] and in
[I-D.templin-aerolink] or using some other L2 mobility mechanism. [I-D.templin-aerolink] or using some other L2 mobility mechanism.
skipping to change at page 36, line 43 skipping to change at page 38, line 43
|FW1 | |FW2 | |FW1 | |FW2 |
+---------------+ move +---------------+ +---------------+ move +---------------+
|DPN(IPn1): | =======> |DPN(IPn2): | |DPN(IPn1): | =======> |DPN(IPn2): |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2) | .MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 10. Mobility without involving change of IP anchoring in a Figure 11. Mobility without involving change of IP anchoring in a
network in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored at an network in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored at an
AR which is hierarchically above multiple FWs to which the MN may AR which is hierarchically above multiple FWs to which the MN may
connect. connect.
5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: No Anchoring Change with 5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: No Anchoring Change with a
Hierarchical Network Hierarchical Network
The configuration guideline ( ) for a hierarchical network or network The configuration guideline ( ) for a hierarchical network or network
slice with centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows slice with centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support is: requiring and not requiring IP mobility support is:
GL-cfg:5 Multipel instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are GL-cfg:5 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed anchoring according to Figure 2(a) or distributed mobility anchoring according to Figure 2(a) or
Figure 2(b)in Section 3.1.2 with centralized control plane Figure 2(b)in Section 3.1.2 with centralized control plane
for a hierarchical network. for a hierarchical network.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively
in LM-cfg:3 or LM-cfg:4 and FM-cfg:2 in Section 3.2. in LM-cfg:3 or LM-cfg:4 and FM-cfg:2 in Section 3.2.
Even when the mobility event does not involve change of anchor, it is Even when the mobility event does not involve change of anchor, it is
still necessary to distinguish whether a flow needs IP mobility still necessary to distinguish whether a flow needs IP mobility
support. support.
The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. The requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. The
guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 and in Section 5.2.1 also guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 and in Section 5.2.1 also
apply here. In addition, the following are required. apply here. In addition, the following are required.
GL-switch:7 Here, the LM behaviors and mobility message parameters GL-switch:7 Here, the LM operations and mobility message parameters
described in Section 3.2.1 provides information of which described in Section 3.2.1 provides information of which
IP prefix from its FW needs to be used by a flow using IP prefix from its FW needs to be used by a flow using
which new FW. The anchor behaviors to properly forward which new FW. The anchor operations to properly forward
the packets of a flow described in the FM behaviors and the packets of a flow described in the FM operations and
mobility message parameters (FM-path, FM-path-ind, FM- mobility message parameters (FM-path, FM-path-ind, FM-
cpdp in Section 3.2.2) may be realized with PMIPv6 cpdp in Section 3.2.2) may be realized with PMIPv6
protocol ([I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix]) or with AERO protocol ([I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix]) or with AERO
protocol ([I-D.templin-aerolink]) to tunnel between the protocol ([I-D.templin-aerolink]) to tunnel between the
AR and the FW. AR and the FW.
5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Hierarchical Network 5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for a Hierarchical Network
The configuration for the hierarchical network is again shown in The configuration for the hierarchical network is again shown in
Figures 1(c) and 1(d) in Section 3.1. Again, with centralized Figures 1(c) and 1(d) in Section 3.1. Again, with centralized
control plane, CPA and CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all control plane, CPA and CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all
co-located. There are multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed co-located. There are multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed
mobility anchoring. In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each mobility anchoring. In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each
with FM-DP) hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR with FM-DP) hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR
supports forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding supports forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding
switches (FW's). switches (FW's).
A distributed mobility event in this configuration involves change A distributed mobility event in this configuration involves change
from a previous DPN which is hierarchically under the previous DPA to from a previous DPN which is hierarchically under the previous DPA to
a new DPN which is hierarchically under a new DPA. Such an event a new DPN which is hierarchically under a new DPA. Such an event
involving change of both DPA and DPN is shown in Figure 11. involving change of both DPA and DPN is shown in Figure 12.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CPA,CPN: | | CPA,CPN: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPa2,IPn2 | | LM:IP1<-->IPa2,IPn2 |
| FM-CP | | FM-CP |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+
|Aggregate Point| |Aggregate Point|
skipping to change at page 38, line 45 skipping to change at page 40, line 45
|FW1 | |FW2 | |FW1 | |FW2 |
+---------------+ move +---------------+ +---------------+ move +---------------+
|DPN(IPn1): | =======> |DPN(IPn2): | |DPN(IPn1): | =======> |DPN(IPn2): |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 11. Mobility involving change of IP anchoring in a network Figure 12. Mobility involving change of IP anchoring in a network
with hierarchy in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored with hierarchy in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored
at an Edge Router supporting multiple access routers to which the MN at an Edge Router supporting multiple access routers to which the MN
may connect. may connect.
This deployment case involves both a change of anchor from AR1 to AR2 This deployment case involves both a change of anchor from AR1 to AR2
and a network hierarchy AR-FW. It can be realized by a combination and a network hierarchy AR-FW. It can be realized by a combination
of changing the IP prefix/address anchoring from AR1 to AR2 with the of changing the IP prefix/address anchoring from AR1 to AR2 with the
mechanism as described in Section 5.2 and then forwarding the packets mechanism as described in Section 5.2 and then forwarding the packets
with network hierarchy AR-FW as described in Section 5.3. with network hierarchy AR-FW as described in Section 5.3.
To change AR, AR1 acting as a DHCP-PD client may exchange message To change AR, AR1 acting as a DHCPv6-PD client may exchange message
with the DHCP server to release the prefix IP1. Meanwhile, AR2 with the DHCPv6 server to release the prefix IP1. Meanwhile, AR2
acting as a DHCP-PD client may exchange message with the DHCP server acting as a DHCPv6-PD client may exchange message with the DHCPv6
to delegate the prefix IP1 to AR2. server to delegate the prefix IP1 to AR2.
5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with 5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with
Hierarchical Network Hierarchical Network
The configuration guideline (GL-cfg) for a hierarchical network or The configuration guideline (GL-cfg) for a hierarchical network or
network slice with centralized control plane described in network slice with centralized control plane described in
Section 5.3.1 apply here. Section 5.3.1 apply here.
The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
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