draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-00.txt   draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-01.txt 
DMM H. Chan DMM H. Chan, Ed.
Internet-Draft X. Wei Internet-Draft X. Wei
Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies
Expires: March 2, 2017 J. Lee Expires: March 12, 2017 J. Lee
Sangmyung University Sangmyung University
S. Jeon S. Jeon
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
A. Petrescu
CEA, LIST
F. Templin F. Templin
Boeing Research and Technology Boeing Research and Technology
August 29, 2016 September 8, 2016
Distributed Mobility Anchoring Distributed Mobility Anchoring
draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-00 draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-01
Abstract Abstract
This document defines distributed mobility anchoring. Multiple This document defines distributed mobility anchoring to meet diverse
anchors and nodes are configured with appropriate mobility functions mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond. Multiple anchors and nodes
and work together to enable mobility solutions. Example solution is with mobility functions work together to provide IP mobility support.
mid-session switching of the IP prefix anchor. Without ongoing A network or network slice may be configured with distributed
session requiring session continuity, a flow can be started or re- mobility anchoring with the needed behaviors depending on the needs
started using the new IP prefix which is allocated from the new of mobility support. In the distributed mobility anchoring
network and is therefore anchored to the new network. With ongoing environment, multiple anchors are available for mid-session switching
session, the anchoring of the prior IP prefix may be relocated to the of an IP prefix anchor. Without ongoing session requiring session
new network to enable session continuity. continuity, a flow can be re-started using a new IP prefix which is
allocated from the new network and is therefore anchored to the new
network. With ongoing session, the anchoring of the prior IP prefix
may be relocated to the new network to enable session continuity.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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This Internet-Draft will expire on March 2, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on March 12, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Distributed anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1. Distributed anchoring configurations . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Distributed Anchoring Configurations for Different
3.2. Distributed anchoring behaviors and message information Networks or Network Slices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1.1. Distributed Anchoring with Network-based Mobility
3.2.1. Location management behaviors and message information Support for Flat Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.2. Distributed Anchoring with Network-based Mobility
3.2.2. Forwarding management behaviors and message Support for Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . 8
information elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1.3. Distributed Anchoring for Host-based Mobility Support 11
4. Example mobility solutions with distributed anchoring . . . . 12 3.2. Distributed Anchoring Behaviors and Mobility Message
4.1. IP mobility support only when needed . . . . . . . . . . 12 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.1.1. Not needed: Changing to the new IP prefix/address . . 13 3.2.1. Location Management Behaviors and Mobility Message
4.1.2. Needed: Providing IP mobility support . . . . . . . . 14 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.2. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network . . 16 3.2.2. Forwarding Management Behaviors and Mobility Message
4.2.1. Centralized control plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.2.2. Hierarchical network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments -
4.2.3. Hierarchical network with anchoring change . . . . . 22 Mobility Support Only When Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.1. No Need of IP Mobility: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address 22
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Prefix/Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.2. Need of IP Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility . . . 27
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments -
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Anchor Switching to the New Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.1. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network . . . 29
5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.2. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network with
Centralized Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching
Anchor with Centralized CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.3. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Hierarchical
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: No Anchoring
Change with Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Hierarchical
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching
Anchor with Hierarchical Network . . . . . . . . . . 39
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to
enable traffic to avoid traversing single mobility anchor far from enable traffic to avoid traversing a single mobility anchor far from
the optimal route. Distributed mobility management solutions do not an optimal route. Distributed mobility management solutions do not
make use of centrally deployed mobility anchor make use of centrally deployed mobility anchor for the data plane
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility]. As such, the traffic of a flow SHOULD [Paper-Distributed.Mobility]. As such, the traffic of a flow SHOULD
be able to change from traversing one mobility anchor to traversing be able to change from traversing one mobility anchor to traversing
another mobility anchor as the mobile node moves, or when changing another mobility anchor as a mobile node moves, or when changing
operation and management requirements call for mobility anchor operation and management requirements call for mobility anchor
switching, thus avoiding non-optimal routes. This draft proposes switching, thus avoiding non-optimal routes. This draft proposes
distributed mobility anchoring to enable making such route changes. distributed mobility anchoring to enable making such route changes.
Distributed mobility anchoring employs multiple anchors in the data Distributed mobility anchoring employs multiple anchors in the data
plane. In general, the control plane function may be separate from plane. In general, the control plane function may be separate from
the data plane functions and be centralized but may also co-located the data plane functions and be centralized but may also be co-
with the data plane function at these distributed anchors. Different located with the data plane function at these distributed anchors.
configurations (Section 3.1) of distributed anchoring are then Different configurations (Section 3.1) of distributed mobility
possible. Yet the distributed anchors need to have expected anchoring are then possible. The configurations of distributed
behaviors (Section 3.2). anchoring for network-based mobility support in a flat network, for
network-based mobility support in a hierarchical network, and for
host-based mobility support are described respectively in
Section 3.1.1, Section 3.1.2, and Section 3.1.3. Mobility functions
at the anchors and nodes are required to perform with expected
behaviors (Section 3.2). The LM behaviors and mobility message
parameters are described in Section 3.2.1, whereas the FM behaviors
and mobility message parameters are described in Section 3.2.2.
A mobile node (MN) attached to an access router of a network may be A mobile node (MN) attached to an access router of a network or
allocated an IP prefix which is anchored to that router. It may then network slice may be allocated an IP prefix which is anchored to that
use the IP address configured from this prefix as the source IP router. It may then use an IP address configured from this prefix as
address to run a flow with its correspondent node (CN). When there the source IP address to run a flow with its correspondent node (CN).
are multiple anchors, the flow may need to select the anchor when it When there are multiple anchors, an address selection for a given
is initiated (Section 4). Using an anchor in MN's network of flow is first required before the flow is initiated. Using an anchor
attachment has the advantage that the packets can simply be forwarded in MN's network of attachment has the advantage that the packets can
according to the forwarding table. Although the anchor is in the simply be forwarded according to the forwarding table. Although the
MN's network of attachment when the flow was initiated, the MN may anchor is in the MN's network of attachment when the flow was
later move to another network, so that the IP address no longer initiated, the MN may later move to another network, so that the IP
belongs to the new network of attachment of the MN. Whether the flow address no longer belongs to the current network of attachment of the
needs session continuity will determine how to ensure that the IP MN.
address of the flow will be anchored to the new network of
attachment. If the ongoing IP flow can cope with an IP prefix/ Whether the flow needs session continuity will determine how to
address change, the flow can be reiniated with a new IP address ensure that the IP address of the flow will be anchored to the new
anchored in the new network (Section 4.1.1). On the other hand, if network of attachment. If the ongoing IP flow can cope with an IP
the ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change, the IP address prefix/address change, the flow can be reinitiated with a new IP
anchoring can be moved from the original network to the new network address anchored in the new network (Section 4.1). On the other
(Section 4.2). hand, if the ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change, mobility
support is needed (Section 4.2). A network or network slice
supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility
support will need to distinguish these flows. The guidelines for
such network or network slice are described in Section 4.1.1. The
general guidelines for such network or network slice to provide IP
mobility support are described in Section 4.2.1.
Specifically, IP mobility support can be provided by changing the
anchoring of the IP prefix/address of the flow from the home network
of the flow to the new network of attachment Section 5. The basic
case may be with network-based mobility for a flat network
configuration described in Section 5.1 with the guidelines described
in Section 5.1.1. This case is discussed further with a centralized
control plane in Section 5.2 with additional guidelines described in
Section 5.2.1. A level of hierarchy of nodes may then be added to
the network configuration. Mobility involving change in the DPN
without changing the DPA is described in Section 5.3 with additional
guidelines described in Section 5.3.1 Mobility involving change in
the DPN without changing the DPA is described in Section 5.4 with
additional guidelines described in Section 5.4.1
2. Conventions and Terminology 2. Conventions and Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL","SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "GLUIRED", "SHALL","SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this
document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 base document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)
specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 specification base specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6)
[RFC5213], and the DMM current practices and gap analysis [RFC7429]. specification [RFC5213], the "Mobility Related Terminologies"
This includes terms such as mobile node (MN), correspondent node [RFC3753], and the DMM current practices and gap analysis [RFC7429].
These include terms such as mobile node (MN), correspondent node
(CN), home agent (HA), home address (HoA), care-of-address (CoA), (CN), home agent (HA), home address (HoA), care-of-address (CoA),
local mobility anchor (LMA), and mobile access gateway (MAG). local mobility anchor (LMA), and mobile access gateway (MAG).
In addition, this document uses the following term: In addition, this document uses the following terms:
Home network of an application session (or of an HoA): the network Home network of an application session (or of an HoA): the network
that has allocated the IP address (HoA) used for the session that has allocated the IP address (HoA) used for the session
identifier by the application running in an MN. An MN may be identifier by the application running in an MN. The MN may be
running multiple application sessions, and each of these sessions running multiple application sessions, and each of these sessions
can have a different home network. can have a different home network.
IP prefix/address anchoring: An IP prefix, i.e., Home Network Prefix IP prefix/address anchoring: An IP prefix, i.e., Home Network Prefix
(HNP), or address, i.e., Home Address (HoA), allocated to a mobile (HNP), or address, i.e., Home Address (HoA), allocated to a mobile
node is topologically anchored to a node when the anchor node is node is topologically anchored to an anchor node when the anchor
able to advertise a connected route into the routing node is able to advertise a connected route into the routing
infrastructure for the allocated IP prefix. infrastructure for the allocated IP prefix.
Internetwork Location Management (LM) function: managing and keeping Internetwork Location Management (LM) function: managing and keeping
track of the internetwork location of an MN. The location track of the internetwork location of an MN. The location
information may be a binding of the IP advertised address/prefix, information may be a binding of the IP advertised address/prefix,
e.g., HoA or HNP, to the IP routing address of the MN or of a node e.g., HoA or HNP, to the IP routing address of the MN or of a node
that can forward packets destined to the MN. It is a control that can forward packets destined to the MN.
plane function.
When the MN is a mobile router (MR) carrying a mobile network of
mobile network nodes (MNN), the location information will also
include the IP prefixes delegated to the MR to be allocated to the
MNNs in the mobile network.
LM is a control plane function.
In a client-server protocol model, location query and update In a client-server protocol model, location query and update
messages may be exchanged between a Location Management client messages may be exchanged between a Location Management client
(LMc) and a Location Management server (LMs). (LMc) and a Location Management server (LMs).
Optionally, there may be a Location Management proxy (LMp) between
LMc and LMs.
With separation of control plane and data plane, the LM function With separation of control plane and data plane, the LM function
is in the control plane. It may be a logical function at the is in the control plane. It may be a logical function at the
control plane node, control plane anchor, or mobility controller. control plane node, control plane anchor, or mobility controller.
It may be distributed or centralized. It may be distributed or centralized.
Forwarding Management (FM) function: packet interception and Forwarding Management (FM) function: packet interception and
forwarding to/from the IP address/prefix assigned to the MN, based forwarding to/from the IP address/prefix assigned to the MN, based
on the internetwork location information, either to the on the internetwork location information, either to the
destination or to some other network element that knows how to destination or to some other network element that knows how to
forward the packets to their destination. forward the packets to their destination.
This function may be used to achieve indirection. With separation This function may be used to achieve traffic indirection. With
of control plane and data plane, FM may split into a FM function separation of control plane and data plane, the FM function may
in the data plane (FM-DP) and a FM function in the control plane split into a FM function in the data plane (FM-DP) and a FM
(FM-CP). function in the control plane (FM-CP).
FM-DP may be distributed with distributed mobility management. It FM-DP may be distributed with distributed mobility management. It
may be a function in a data plane anchor or data plane node. may be a function in a data plane anchor or data plane node.
FM-CP may be distributed or centralized. It may be a function in FM-CP may be distributed or centralized. It may be a function in
a control plane node, control plane anchor or mobility controller. a control plane node, control plane anchor or mobility controller.
Security Management (SM) function: The security management function Security Management (SM) function: The security management function
controls security mechanisms/protocols providing access control, controls security mechanisms/protocols providing access control,
integrity, authentication, authorization, confidentiality, etc. integrity, authentication, authorization, confidentiality, etc.
for the control plane and data plane. for the control plane and data plane.
This function resides in all nodes such as control plane anchor, This function resides in all nodes such as control plane anchor,
data plane anchor, mobile node, and correspondent node. data plane anchor, mobile node, and correspondent node.
3. Distributed anchoring 3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring
3.1. Distributed anchoring configurations 3.1. Distributed Anchoring Configurations for Different Networks or
Network Slices
The mobility functions may be implemented in different configurations The mobility functions may be implemented in different configurations
of distributed anchoring in architectures separating the control and of distributed anchoring in architectures separating the control and
data planes. The separation as described in data planes. The separation as described in
[I-D.wt-dmm-deployment-models] has defined home control plane anchor [I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models] has defined home control plane
(Home-CPA), home data plane anchor (Home-DPA), access control plane anchor (Home-CPA), home data plane anchor (Home-DPA), access control
node (Access-CPN), and access data plane node (Access-DPN), which are plane node (Access-CPN), and access data plane node (Access-DPN),
respectively abbreviated as CPA, DPA, CPN, and DPN here. Some which are respectively abbreviated as CPA, DPA, CPN, and DPN here.
configurations are described in [I-D.sijeon-dmm-deployment-models]. Some configurations are described in
[I-D.sijeon-dmm-deployment-models].
Figure 1 shows 4 configurations of network-based mobility management. Different networks or different network slices may have different
In each configuration, an MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 configurations of distributed anchoring.
and is using IP1 to communicate with a correspondent node (CN) not
shown in the figure. The flow of this communication session is shown
as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and other parameters.
(a) (b) (c) (d) The configurations also differ depending on whether the desired
+-----+ +-----+ mobility support is network-based for a flat network (Section 3.1.1),
|LMs | |LMs | is network-based for a hierarchical network (Section 3.1.2), or is
+-----+ +-----+ host-based (Section 3.1.3).
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ 3.1.1. Distributed Anchoring with Network-based Mobility Support for
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | Flat Network
|FM-CP, LM | |FM-CP, LMc | |FM-CP, LMs | |FM-CP, LMp |
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa1): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP1 |
|FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+ Figure 1 shows 2 configurations of network-based mobility management
|CPN: | |CPN: | for a flat network.
|FM-CP, LMc | |FM-CP, LMc |
+------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+
|DPN(IPn1): | |DPN(IPn1): |
|FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ (a) (b)
|MN(IP1) | |MN(IP1) | |MN(IP1) | |MN(IP1) | +-----+
|flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP1,..)| |LMs |
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +-----+
Figure 1. (a) FM-CP and LM at CPA, FM-DP at DPA; (b) Separate LMs, +------------+ +------------+
FM-CP and LMc at CPA, FM-DP at DPA; (c) FM-CP and LMs at CPA, FM-DP |CPA: | |CPA: |
at DPA, FM-CP and LMc at CPN, FM-DP at DPN; (d) Separate LMs, FM-CP |FM-CP, LM | |FM-CP, LMc |
and LMp at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM-CP and LMc at CPN, FM-DP at DPN. +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | ... |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | ...
|FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
In Figures 1(a), 1(b), 1(c), and 1(d), the IP address of the MN, IP1, +------------+ +------------+
is anchored to the DPA which has the IP prefix/address IPa1. The |MN(IP1) | |MN(IP1) |
data plane is distributed so that there may be multiple instances of |flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP1,..)|
the DPA (not shown). The control plane may either be distributed or +------------+ +------------+
Figure 1. Configurations of network-based mobility management for a
flat network (a) FM-CP and LM at CPA, FM-DP at DPA; (b) Separate LMs,
FM-CP and LMc at CPA, FM-DP at DPA.
Figure 1 also shows a distributed mobility anchoring environment with
multiple instances of the DPA.
There is FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA.
The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or
centralized. When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there centralized. When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there
will be multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown). will be multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown).
In Figure 1(a) and Figure 1(b), the network is flat with FM-DP at the There is FM-CP function at the CPA.
distributed DPA.
In Figure 1(a), LM and FM-CP co-locate at CPA. Then LM may be MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the DPA
distributed or centralized according to whether the CPA is with the IP prefix/address IPa1. It is using IP1 to communicate with
distributed or centralized. a correspondent node (CN) not shown in the figure. The flow of this
communication session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and
other parameters.
In Figure 1(a), LM and FM-CP co-locate at CPA.
Then LM may be distributed or centralized according to whether the
CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized.
Figure 1(b) differs from Figure 1(a) in that the LM function is split Figure 1(b) differs from Figure 1(a) in that the LM function is split
into a server LMs and a client LMc. LMc and FM-CP are at the CPA. into a server LMs and a client LMc.
LMc and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA.
The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMc may be distributed or The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMc may be distributed or
centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed or centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown)
or centralized.
3.1.2. Distributed Anchoring with Network-based Mobility Support for
Hierarchical Network
Figure 2 shows 2 configurations of network-based mobility management
for a hierarchical network.
(a)
+------------+
|CPA: |
|FM-CP, LMs |
+------------+
+------------+ +------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | ...
|FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+------------+ +------------+
+------------+
|CPN: |
|FM-CP, LMc |
+------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|DPN(IPn11): | |DPN(IPn12): | |DPN(IPn21): | |DPN(IPn22) |
|FM-DP | |FM-DP | ... |FM-DP | |FM-DP | ...
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+
|MN(IP1) | |MN(IP2) |
|flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP2,..)|
+------------+ +------------+
Figure 2(a). Configurations of network-based mobility management for
a hierarchical network with FM-CP and LMs at CPA, FM-DP at DPA; FM-CP
and LMc at CPN, FM-DP at DPN.
(b)
+-----+
|LMs |
+-----+
+------------+
|CPA: |
|FM-CP, LMp |
+------------+
+------------+ +------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | ...
|FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+------------+ +------------+
+------------+
|CPN: |
|FM-CP, LMc |
+------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|DPN(IPn11): | |DPN(IPn12): | |DPN(IPn21): | |DPN(IPn22) |
|FM-DP | |FM-DP | ... |FM-DP | |FM-DP | ...
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+
|MN(IP1) | |MN(IP2) |
|flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP2,..)|
+------------+ +------------+
Figure 2(b). Configurations of network-based mobility management for
a hierarchical network with separate LMs, FM-CP and LMp at CPA, FM-DP
at DPA; FM-CP and LMc at CPN, FM-DP at DPN.
Figures 2 also shows a distributed mobility anchoring environment
with multiple instances of the DPA.
In the hierarchy, there may be multiple DPN's for each DPA.
There is FM-DP at each of the distributed DPA and at each of the
distributed DPN.
The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or
centralized. centralized.
In Figure 1(c) and Figure 1(d), the network is hierarchical where When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there will be
there may be multiple DPN's for each DPA. There is FM-DP at each of multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown).
the distributed DPA and at each of the distributed DPN.
In Figure 1(c), LMs and FM-CP are at the CPA. In addition, there are When the CPN co-locates with the distributed DPN there will be
FM-CP and LMc at the CPN. Again, LMs may be distributed or multiple instances of the co-located CPN and DPN (not shown).
There is FM-CP function at the CPA and at the CPN.
MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the DPA
with the IP prefix/address IPa1. It is using IP1 to communicate with
a correspondent node (CN) not shown in the figure. The flow of this
communication session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and
other parameters.
In Figure 2(a), LMs and FM-CP are at the CPA. In addition, there are
FM-CP and LMc at the CPN.
LMs may be distributed or centralized according to whether the CPA is
distributed or centralized. The CPA may co-locate with DPA or may
separate.
Figure 2(b) differs from Figure 2(a) in that the LMs is separated
out, and a proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc.
LMp and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA.
FM-CP and LMc co-locate at the CPN.
The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or
centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed or centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed or
centralized. The CPA may co-locate with DPA or may separate. centralized.
Figure 1(d) differs from Figure 1(c) in that the LMs is separated 3.1.3. Distributed Anchoring for Host-based Mobility Support
out, and a proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc. LMp and FM-CP
are at the CPA. Again, there are FM-CP and LMc at the CPN. The LMs
may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or centralized
according to whether the CPA is distributed or centralized.
Host-based variants of the mobility function configurations from Host-based variants of the mobility function configurations from
Figures 1(c) and 1(d) are shown in Figures 2(a) and 2(b) where the Figures 2(a) and 2(b) are respectively shown in Figures 3(a) and 3(b)
role to perform mobility functions by CPN and DPN are now taken by where the role to perform mobility functions by CPN and DPN are now
the MN. The MN then need to possess the mobility functions FM and taken by the MN. The MN then needs to possess the mobility functions
LMc. FM and LMc.
(a) (b) (a) (b)
+-----+ +-----+
|LMs | |LMs |
+-----+ +-----+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: |
|FM-CP, LMs | |FM-CP, LMp | |FM-CP, LMs | |FM-CP, LMp |
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | ... |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | ...
|FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP | |FM-DP |
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
|MN(IP1) | |MN(IP1) | |MN(IP1) | |MN(IP1) |
|flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP1,..)| |flow(IP1,..)|
|FM, LMc | |FM, LMc | |FM, LMc | |FM, LMc |
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
Figure 2. (a) FM-CP and LMs at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MN; Figure 3. Configurations of host-based mobility management (a) FM-CP
(b) Separate LMs, FM-CP and LMp at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at and LMs at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MN; (b) Separate LMs, FM-
MN. CP and LMp at CPA, FM-DP at DPA, FM and LMc at MN.
In Figure 2(a) and Figure 2(b), FM-DP is at the distributed DPA as Figure 3 shows 2 configurations of host-based mobility management
before. with multiple instances of DPA for a distributed mobility anchoring
environment.
In Figure 2(a), LMs and FM-CP are at the CPA. The LMs may be There is FM-DP function at each of the distributed DPA.
distributed or centralized according to whether the CPA is
distributed or centralized.
Figure 2(b) differs from Figure 2(a) in that the LMs is separated out The control plane may either be distributed (not shown) or
and the proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc. LMp and FM-CP centralized.
are at the CPA. The FMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be
distributed or centralized according to whether the CPA is
distributed or centralized.
3.2. Distributed anchoring behaviors and message information elements When the CPA co-locates with the distributed DPA there will be
multiple instances of the co-located CPA and DPA (not shown).
There is FM-CP function at the CPA.
The MN possesses the mobility functions FM and LMc.
MN is allocated an IP prefix/address IP1 which is anchored to the DPA
with the IP prefix/address IPa1. It is using IP1 to communicate with
a correspondent node (CN) not shown in the figure. The flow of this
communication session is shown as flow(IP1, ...) which uses IP1 and
other parameters.
In Figure 3(a), LMs and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA.
The LMs may be distributed or centralized according to whether the
CPA is distributed (not shown) or centralized.
Figure 3(b) differs from Figure 3(a) in that the LMs is separated out
and the proxy LMp is added between the LMs and LMc.
LMp and FM-CP co-locate at the CPA.
The LMs may be centralized whereas the LMp may be distributed or
centralized according to whether the CPA is distributed (not shown)
or centralized.
3.2. Distributed Anchoring Behaviors and Mobility Message Parameters
The behaviors of distributed anchoring are defined in this section in The behaviors of distributed anchoring are defined in this section in
order that they may work together in expected manners to produce a order that they may work together in expected manners to produce a
distributed mobility solution. The needed information elements are distributed mobility solution. The needed information are passed as
passed as message parameters. mobility message parameters.
3.2.1. Location management behaviors and message information elements The mobility needs in 5G Wireless and beyond are diverse. Therefore
the behaviors needed to enable different distributed mobility
solutions in different distributed anchoring configurations are
extensive and are listed below. It is however not necessary for
every distributed mobility solution to exhibit all the behaviors
listed in this section. A given distributed mobility solution may
exhibit the behaviors as needed.
It is seen in (Section 3.1) that 3.2.1. Location Management Behaviors and Mobility Message Parameters
(1) LMs may be a separate server or may co-locate with LMc at CPA; An example LM design consists of a distributed database with multiple
(2) LMc may be at CPA, CPN, or MN. LMs servers. The location information about the prefix/address of an
MN is primarily at a given LMs. Peer LMs may exchange the location
information with each other. LMc may retrieve a given record or send
a given record update to LMs.
Example LM design may consists of a distributed database of LMs Location management behaviors:
servers in a pool of distributed servers. The location information
about the prefix/address of a MN is primarily at a given LMs. Peer
LMs may exchange the location information with each other. LMc may
retrieve a given record or send a given record update to LMs.
Location information bebaviors: LM-cfg: As shown in Section 3.1:
(LM:1) LM may manage the location information in a client-server LMs may be implemented at CPA, may co-locate with LMc at CPA,
database system. The example LM database functions are: or may be a separate server.
(LM:1-1) LMc may query LMs about location information for a LMc may be at CPA, CPN, or MN.
prefix of MN (pull).
Parameters:
IP prefix of MN.
(LM:1-2) LMs may reply to LMc query about location LMp may proxy between LMs and LMc.
information for a prefix of MN (pull).
Parameters:
IP prefix of MN,
IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets
of the flow.
(LM:1-3) LMs may inform LMc about location information for a Specifically:
prefix of MN (push).
Parameters:
IP prefix of MN,
IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets
of the flow.
(LM:1-4) LMc may inform LMs about update location LM-cfg:1 LMs may co-locate with LMc at CPA in a flat network with
information for a prefix of MN. network-based mobility as shown in Figure 1(a) in
Parameters: Section 3.1.1.
IP prefix of MN,
IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets
of the flow.
(LM:2) The LM may be a distributed database with multiple LMs LM-cfg:2 LMs may be a separate server whereas LMc is implemented in
servers. For example: CPA in a flat network with network-based mobility as shown
in Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1.1.
(LM:2-1) A LMs may join a pool of LMs servers. LM-cfg:3 LMs may be implemented at CPA, whereas LMc is implemented
at CPN in a hierarchical network with network-based
mobility as shown in Figure 2(a) in Section 3.1.2 or at MN
for host-based mobility as shown in Figure 3(a) in
Section 3.1.3.
Parameters: LM-cfg:4 LMs may be a separate server with LMp implemented at CPA
IP address of the LMs, whereas LMc is implemented at CPN in a hierarchical network
IP prefixes for which the LMs will host the primary with network-based mobility as shown in Figure 2(b) in
location information. Section 3.1.2 or at MN for host-based mobility as shown in
Figure 3(b) in Section 3.1.3.
(LM:2-2) LMs may query a peer LMs about location information LM-db: LM may manage the location information in a client-server
for a prefix of MN. database system.
Parameters:
IP prefix.
(LM:2-3) LMs may reply to a peer LMs about location Example LM database functions are as follows:
information for a prefix of MN.
Parameters:
IP prefix of MN,
IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets
of the flow.
3.2.2. Forwarding management behaviors and message information elements LM-db:1 LMc may query LMs about location information for a prefix of
MN (pull).
Parameters:
IP prefix of MN.
It is seen in (Section 3.1) that LM-db:2 LMs may reply to LMc query about location information for a
prefix of MN (pull).
Parameters:
IP prefix of MN,
IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow.
(1) FM-CP may be at CPA, CPN, MN; LM-db:3 LMs may inform LMc about location information for a prefix
(2) FM-DP may be at DPA, DPN, MN. of MN (push).
Parameters:
IP prefix of MN,
IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow.
The FM behaviors and message information elements are: This function in PMIPv6 protocol is the Update Notification
(UPN) together with the Update Notification Acknowledgment
(UPA) as defined in [RFC7077].
(FM:1) With distributed FM functions, the role of FM for a flow may LM-db:4 LMc may inform LMs about update location information for a
pass to another FM as the DPA or DPN changes. prefix of MN.
Parameters:
IP prefix of MN,
IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow.
(FM:2) In addition to above, a flow/session may be stateful for the This function in MIPv6 / PMIPv6 protocol is the Binding
required information for QoS, charging, etc. are needed. Update (BU) / Proxy Binding Update (PBU) together with the
These states need to be transferred from the old anchor to Binding Acknowledgment (BA) / Proxy Binding Acknowledgment
the new anchor. (PBA) as defined in [RFC6275] / [RFC5213] respectively.
(FM:3) An anchor may act on packets on a per flow basis and perform LM-db:5 The MN may be a host or a router. When the MN is a mobile
the changes to the forwarding path upon a change of point of router (MR), the prefix information above may include the
attachment of a MN: prefixes delegated to the MR.
Additional parameters:
IP prefix or prefixes delegated to the MR.
(FM:3-1) FM filters the packets up to the granularity of a LM-svr: The LM may be a distributed database with multiple LMs
flow. servers.
Example matching parameters are the 5-tuple of a
flow.
(FM:3-2) FM makes the necessary changes to the forwarding For example:
path of a flow.
Example mechanism is through forwarding table
update activated by DHCPv6-PD.
(FM:3-3) FM reverts the previously made changes to the LM-svr:1 A LMs may join a pool of LMs servers.
forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no Parameters:
longer needed, e.g., when ongoing flows using an IP IP address of the LMs,
prefix/address requiring session continuity have IP prefixes for which the LMs will host the primary
closed. location information.
Example mechanism is through expiration of
DHCPv6-PD.
(FM:4) An anchor may discover and be discovered such as through an LM-svr:2 LMs may query a peer LMs about location information for a
anchor registration system: prefix of MN.
Parameters:
IP prefix.
(FM:4-1) FM registers and authenticates itself with a LM-svr:3 LMs may reply to a peer LMs about location information for
centralized mobility controller. a prefix of MN.
Parameters: Parameters:
IP address of DPA and its CPA; IP prefix of MN,
IP prefix anchored to the DPA. IP address of FM-DP/DPA/DPN to forward the packets of the
flow.
(FM:4-2) registration reply: acknowledge of registration and The parameters indicated above are only the minimal. In a specific
echo the input parameters. mobility protocol, additional parameters should be added as needed.
(FM:4-3) FM discovers the FM of another IP prefix by Examples of these additional parameters are those passed in the
querying the mobility controller based on the IP mobility options of the mobility header for MIPv6 [RFC6275] and for
prefix. PMIPv6 [RFC5213].
Parameters:
IP prefix of MN.
(FM:4-4) when making anchor discovery FM expects the answer 3.2.2. Forwarding Management Behaviors and Mobility Message Parameters
parameters as: IP address of DPA to which IP prefix
of MN is anchored; IP prefix of the corresponding
CPA.
(FM:5) With separation of control plane function and data plane The FM behaviors and mobility message parameters are:
function, these function must work together.
(FM:5-1) CPA/FM-CP sends forwarding table updates to DPA/FM- FM-cfg: As shown in Section 3.1:
DP.
Parameters:
new forwarding table entries to add;
expired forwarding table entries to delete.
(FM:5-2) DPA/FM-DP sends to CPA/FM-CP about its status and FM-CP may be implemented at CPA, CPN, MN depending on the
load. configuration chosen.
Parameters:
state of forwarding function being active or not;
loading percentage.
(FM:6) An anchor can buffer packets of a flow in a mobility event: FM-DP may also be implemented at CPA, CPN, MN depending on
the configuration chosen.
(FM:6-1) CPA/FM-CP informs DPA/FM-DP to buffer packets of a Specifically:
flow.
Trigger:
MN leaves DPA in a mobility event.
Parameters:
IP prefix of the flow for which packets need to be
buffered.
(FM:6-2) CPA/FM-CP on behalf of a new DPA/FM-DP informs the FM-cfg:1 FM-CP and FM-DP may be implemented at CPA and DPA
CPA/FM-CP of the prior DPA/FM-DP that it is ready respectively in a flat network with network-based mobility
to receive any buffered packets of a flow. as shown in Figure 1(a) and Figure 1(b) in Section 3.1.1.
Parameters:
destination IP prefix of the flow's packets;
IP address of the new DPA.
4. Example mobility solutions with distributed anchoring FM-cfg:2 FM-CP may be implemented at both CPA and CPN and FM-DP is
implemented at both DPA and DPN in a hierarchical network
with network-based mobility as shown in Figure 2(a) and
Figure 2(b) in Section 3.1.2.
The IP prefix/address at the MN's side of a flow may be anchored at FM-cfg:3 FM-CP and FM-DP may be implemented at CPA and DPA
the access router to which the MN is attached. For example, when an respectively and also both implemented at MN for host-based
MN attaches to a network (Net1) or moves to a new network (Net2), it mobility as shown in Figure 3(a) and Figure 3(b) in
is allocated an IP prefix from that network. It configures from this Section 3.1.3.
prefix an IP address which is typically a dynamic IP address. It
then uses this IP address when a flow is initiated. Packets to the
MN in this flow are simply forwarded according to the forwarding
table.
There may be multiple IP prefixes/addresses to choose from. They may FM-find:1 An anchor may discover and be discovered such as through
be from the same access network or different access networks. The an anchor registration system as follows:
network may advertise these prefixes with cost options
[I-D.mccann-dmm-prefixcost] so that the mobile node may choose the
one with the least cost. In addition, these IP prefixes/addresses
may be of different types regarding whether mobility support is
needed [I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]. A flow will need to choose
the appropriate one according to whether it needs IP mobility
support.
4.1. IP mobility support only when needed FM-find:2 FM registers and authenticates itself with a centralized
mobility controller.
Parameters:
IP address of DPA and its CPA;
IP prefix anchored to the DPA.
registration reply: acknowledge of registration and echo
the input parameters.
FM-find:3 FM discovers the FM of another IP prefix by querying the
mobility controller based on the IP prefix.
Parameters:
IP prefix of MN.
FM-find:4 when making anchor discovery FM expects the answer
parameters as: IP address of DPA to which IP prefix of MN
is anchored; IP prefix of the corresponding CPA.
FM-flow:1 The FM may be carried out on the packets to/from an MN up
to the granularity of a flow.
FM-flow:2 Example matching parameters are in the 5-tuple of a flow.
FM-cpdp:1 With separation of control plane function and data plane
function, FM-CP and FM-DP communicate with each other.
Such communication may be realized by the appropriate
messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]. For example:
FM-cpdp:2 CPA/FM-CP sends forwarding table updates to DPA/FM-DP.
Parameters:
new forwarding table entries to add;
expired forwarding table entries to delete.
FM-cpdp:3 DPA/FM-DP sends to CPA/FM-CP about its status and load.
Parameters:
state of forwarding function being active or not;
loading percentage.
FM-path:1 FM may change the forwarding path of a flow upon a change
of point of attachment of a MN. Prior to the changes,
packets coming from the CN to the MN would traverse from
the CN to the home network anchor of the flow for the MN
before reaching the MN. Changes are from this original
forwarding path or paths to a new forwarding path or paths
from the CN to the current AR of the MN and then the MN
itself.
FM-path:2 As an incoming packet is forwarded from the CN to the MN,
the far end where forwarding path change begins may in
general be any node in the original forwarding path from
the CN to the home network DPA. The packet is forwarded
to the MN for host-based mobility and to a node in the
network which will deliver the packets to the MN for
network-based mobility. The near-end is generally a DPN
with a hierarchical network but may also be another node
with DPA capability in a flattened network.
FM-path:3 The mechanisms to accomplish such changes may include
changes to the forwarding table and indirection such as
tunneling, rewriting packet header, or NAT.
Note: An emphasis in this document in distributed mobility
anchoring is to explain the use of multiple anchors to
avoid unnecessarily long route which may be encountered in
centralized mobility anchoring. It is therefore not the
emphasis of this document on which particular mechanism to
choose from.
FM-path-tbl:4 With forwarding table updates, changes to the
forwarding table are needed at each of the affected
forwarding switches in order to change the forwarding
path of the packets for the flow from that originally
between the CN and the home network anchor to that
between the CN and the new AR.
Forwarding table updates may be achieved through BGP
update, but such updates may only be practical when
its scope is confined. An alternative is through
messaging between a centralized control plane and the
distributed forwarding switches.
Forwarding table updates may be triggered using
DHCPv6-PD prefix delegation to change the role of IP
anchoring from the home network anchor (with FM-DP) to
the new anchor (with FM-DP) to which the MN is
currently attached. The new anchor will then
advertise routes for the delegated prefix.
With a distributed routing protocol, the updates
spread out from neighbors to neighbors and will affect
all the forwarding switches such that the packets sent
from "any" node to MN will go to the new AR.
Yet the scope of such updates for a given flow may be
confined to only those forwarding switches such that
the packets sent only from the "CN" to MN will go to
the new AR. Such confinement may be made when using a
centralized central plane possessing a global view of
all the forwarding switches.
FM-path-tbl:5 FM reverts the changes previously made to the
forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no
longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using
an IP prefix/address requiring session continuity have
closed. When using DHCPv6-PD, the forwarding paths
will be reverted upon expiration of DHCPv6-PD.
FM-path-ind:6 Indirection forwards the incoming packets of the flow
from the DPA at the far end to a DPA/DPN at the near
end of indirection. Both ends of the indirection
needs to know the LM information of the MN for the
flow and also needs to possess FM capability to
perform indirection.
FM-path-ind:7 The mechanism of changing the forwarding path in
[RFC6275] and [RFC5213] is tunneling. In the control
plane, the FM-CP sets up the tunnel by instructing the
FM-DP at both ends of the tunnel. In the data plane,
the FM-DP at the start of the tunnel performs packet
encapsulation, whereas the FM-DP at the end of the
tunnel decapsulates the packet.
Note that in principle the ends of the indirection
path can be any pair of network elements with the FM-
DP function.
FM-path-ind:8 FM reverts the changes previously made to the
forwarding path of a flow when such changes are no
longer needed, e.g., when all the ongoing flows using
an IP prefix/address requiring session continuity have
closed. When tunneling is used, the tunnels will be
torn down when they are no longer needed.
FM-DPA:1 Recall from above that for the incoming packets from the
CN, forwarding path change by FM is from the DPA at the far
end which may be at any forwarding switch (or even CN
itself) in the original forwarding path to the near end
DPA/DPN.
It is necessary that any incoming packet from the CN of the
flow must traverse the DPA (or at least one of the DPAs,
e.g., in the case of anycast) at the far end in order for
the packet to detour to a new forwarding path.
Therefore a convenient design is to locate the far end DPA
at a unique location which is always in the forwarding
path. This is the case in a centralized mobility design
where the DPA at the far end is the home network anchor of
the flow.
Distributed mobility however may place the far end DPA at
other locations in order to avoid unnecessarily long route.
FM-DPA:2 With multiple nodes possessing DPA capabilities, the role
of FM to begin path change for the incoming packets of a
flow at the home network DPA at the far end may be passed
to or added to that of another DPA.
In particular, this DPA role may be moved upstream from the
home network DPA in the original forwarding path from CN to
MN.
FM-DPA:3 Optimization of the new forwarding path may be achieved
when the path change for the incoming packets begins at a
DPA where the original path and the direct IPv6 path
overlaps. Then the new forwarding path will resemble the
direct IPv6 path from the CN to the MN.
FM-DPA-tbl:4 Forwarding table updates, such as that triggered using
DHCPv6-PD prefix delegation to change the role of IP
anchoring from the home network anchor (DPA with FM-DP)
to the new anchor (DPA with FM-DP), may put the near
end of the path change at the new DPA. Subsequent
forwarding table updates may propagates upstream up to
a far end where the original path and the direct IPv6
path overlaps.
When that far end is too far upstream the signaling of
forwarding table updates may become excessive. An
alternative is to use indirection (see FM-DPA-ind) from
that far end to the new DPA at the near end.
Still another alternative is to combine forwarding
table update with indirection.
FM-DPA-tbl:5 Changes made by FM to the following tables, which are
IPv6 nodes, at the ends of the path change for a flow
will be reverted when the mobility support for the flow
is no longer needed, e.g., when the flows have
terminated.
FM-DPA-ind:6 With indirection, locating or moving the FM function to
begin indirection upstream along the forwarding path
from CN to MN again may help to reduce unnecessarily
long path.
FM-DPA-ind:7 Changes made by FM to establish indirection at the DPA
and DPN, which are IPv6 nodes, at the ends of the path
change for a flow will be reverted when the mobility
support for the flow is no longer needed, e.g., when
the flows have terminated.
FM-state:1 In addition to the above, a flow/session may contain
states with the required information for QoS, charging,
etc. as needed. These states need to be transferred from
the old anchor to the new anchor.
FM-buffer:1 An anchor can buffer packets of a flow in a mobility
event:
FM-buffer:2 CPA/FM-CP informs DPA/FM-DP to buffer packets of a flow.
Trigger:
MN leaves DPA in a mobility event.
Parameters:
IP prefix of the flow for which packets need to be
buffered.
FM-buffer:3 CPA/FM-CP on behalf of a new DPA/FM-DP informs the CPA/
FM-CP of the prior DPA/FM-DP that it is ready to receive
any buffered packets of a flow.
Parameters:
destination IP prefix of the flow's packets;
IP address of the new DPA.
FM-nemo:1 When the MN is a mobile router the access router anchoring
the IP prefix of MR will also anchor the IP prefix or
prefixes delegated to the MR.
4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments -
Mobility Support Only When Needed
IP Mobility Support Only When Needed:
IP mobility support may be provided only when needed instead of being IP mobility support may be provided only when needed instead of being
provided by default. The simplest configuration in this case is provided by default. The LM and FM functions in the different
shown in Figures 1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 for which the LM and FM configurations shown in Section 3.1 are then utilized only when
functions are utilized only when needed. needed.
A straightforward choice of mobility anchoring is for a flow to use A straightforward choice of mobility anchoring is for a flow to use
the IP prefix of the network to which the MN is attached when the the IP prefix of the network to which the MN is attached when the
flow is initiated [I-D.seite-dmm-dma]. flow is initiated [I-D.seite-dmm-dma].
4.1.1. Not needed: Changing to the new IP prefix/address The IP prefix/address at the MN's side of a flow may be anchored at
the access router to which the MN is attached. For example, when an
MN attaches to a network (Net1) or moves to a new network (Net2), it
is allocated an IP prefix from the attached network. In addition to
configuring new link-local addresses, the MN configures from this
prefix an IP address which is typically a dynamic IP address. It
then uses this IP address when a flow is initiated. Packets to the
MN in this flow are simply forwarded according to the forwarding
table.
There may be multiple IP prefixes/addresses that an MN can select
when initiating a flow. They may be from the same access network or
different access networks. The network may advertise these prefixes
with cost options [I-D.mccann-dmm-prefixcost] so that the mobile node
may choose the one with the least cost. In addition, these IP
prefixes/addresses may be of different types regarding whether
mobility support is needed [I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]. A flow
will need to choose the appropriate one according to whether it needs
IP mobility support.
4.1. No Need of IP Mobility: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address
When IP mobility support is not needed for a flow, the LM and FM When IP mobility support is not needed for a flow, the LM and FM
functions are not utilized so that the configuration from Figures functions are not utilized so that the configurations in Section 3.1
1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 simplifies to that shown in Figure 3. are simplified as shown in Figure 4.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: |
|---------------| |---------------| |---------------| |---------------|
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2) | .MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP2,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP2,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 3. Changing to the new IP prefix/address. MN running a flow Figure 4. Changing to the new IP prefix/address. MN running a flow
using IP1 in Net1 changes to running a flow using IP2 in Net2. using IP1 in a network Net1 changes to running a flow using IP2 in
Net2.
When there is no need to provide IP mobility to a flow, the flow may When there is no need to provide IP mobility to a flow, the flow may
use a new IP address acquired from a new network as the MN moves to use a new IP address acquired from a new network as the MN moves to
the new network. the new network.
Regardless of whether IP mobility is needed, if the flow has Regardless of whether IP mobility is needed, if the flow has
terminated before the MN moves to a new network, the flow may terminated before the MN moves to a new network, the flow may
subsequently restart using the new IP address allocated from the new subsequently restart using the new IP address allocated from the new
network. network.
When session continuity is needed, even if a flow is ongoing as the When session continuity is needed, even if a flow is ongoing as the
MN moves, it may still be desirable for the flow to change to using MN moves, it may still be desirable for the flow to change to using
the new IP prefix configured in the new network. The flow may then the new IP prefix configured in the new network. The flow may then
close and then restart using a new IP address configured in the new close and then restart using a new IP address configured in the new
network. Such a change in the IP address of the flow may be enabled network. Such a change in the IP address of the flow may be enabled
using a higher layer mobility support which is not in the scope of using a higher layer mobility support which is not in the scope of
this document. this document.
In Figure 3, a flow initiated while the MN was in Net1 has terminated In Figure 4, a flow initiated while the MN was in a network Net1 has
before the MN moves to a new network Net2. After moving to Net2, the terminated before the MN moves to a new network Net2. After moving
MN uses the new IP prefix anchored in Net2 to start a new flow. The to Net2, the MN uses the new IP prefix anchored in Net2 to start a
packets may then be forwarded without requiring IP layer mobility new flow. The packets may then be forwarded without requiring IP
support. layer mobility support.
The call flow is outlined in Figure 4. An example call flow is outlined in Figure 5.
MN p-AR n-AR CN MN p-AR n-AR CN
|MN attaches to p-AR: | | | |MN attaches to p-AR: | | |
|acquire MN-ID and profile | | |acquire MN-ID and profile | |
|--RS---------------->| | | |--RS---------------->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<----------RA(HNP1)--| | | |<----------RA(HNP1)--| | |
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP1 Allocated prefix HNP1
IP1 address configuration IP1 address configuration
skipping to change at page 14, line 32 skipping to change at page 24, line 30
|--RS------------------------------>| | |--RS------------------------------>| |
| | | | | | | |
|<--------------RA(HNP2)------------| | |<--------------RA(HNP2)------------| |
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP2 Allocated prefix HNP2
IP2 address configuration IP2 address configuration
| | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Figure 4. A flow uses the IP allocated from the network at which the Figure 5. Re-starting a flow to use the IP allocated from the
MN is attached when the flow is initiated. network at which the MN is attached.
The security management function in the anchor node at a new network The security management function in the anchor node at a new network
must allow to assign a valid IP prefix/address to a mobile node. must allow to assign a valid IP prefix/address to a mobile node.
4.1.2. Needed: Providing IP mobility support 4.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Changing to New IP Prefix/Address
A network or network slice may not need IP mobility support. For
example, a network slice for stationary sensors only will never
encounter mobility.
The standard functions in IPv6 already include dropping the old IPv6
prefix/address and acquiring new IPv6 prefix/address when the node
changes its point of attachment to a new network. Therefore, a
network or network slice not providing IP mobility support at all
will not need any of the functions with the mobility behaviors and
messages described in Section 3.2.
The guidelines for the IPv6 nodes in a network or network slice
supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility
support include the following:
GL-cfg:1 A network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring mobility support may take any
of the configurations described in Section 3.1 and need to
implement in the appropriate IPv6 nodes the mobility
functions LM and FM as described respectively in LM-cfg and
FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according to the configuration
chosen.
GL-mix:1 These mobility functions possess some of the behaviors and
messages described in Section 3.2 depending on which
mobility mechanisms are used. Yet these mobility functions
must not be invoked for a flow that does not need IP
mobility support. It is necessary to be able to
distinguish the needs of a flow. The guidelines for the MN
and the AR are in the following.
GL-mix:2 Regardless of whether there are flows requiring IP mobility
support, when the MN changes its point of attachment to a
new network, it needs to configure a new global IP address
for use in the new network in addition to configuring the
new link-local addresses.
GL-mix:3 The MN needs to check whether a flow needs IP mobility
support. This can be performed when the application was
initiated. The specific method is not in the scope of this
document.
GL-mix:4 The information of whether a flow needs IP mobility support
is conveyed to the network such as by choosing an IP
address to be provided with mobility support as described
in [I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]. Then as the MN
attaches to a new network, if the MN was using an IP
address that is not supposed to be provided with mobility
support, the access router will not invoke the mobility
functions described in Section 3.2 for this IP address.
That is, the IP address from the prior network is simply
not used in the new network.
The above guidelines are only to enable distinguishing whether there
is need of IP mobility support for a flow that does not. When the
flow needs IP mobility support, the list of guidelines will continue
in Section 4.2.1.
4.2. Need of IP Mobility
When IP mobility is needed for a flow, the LM and FM functions in When IP mobility is needed for a flow, the LM and FM functions in
Figures 1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 are utilized. The mobility Section 3.1 are utilized. The mobility support may be provided by IP
support may be provided by IP prefix anchor switching to the new prefix anchor switching to the new network to be described in
network to be described in Section 4.2 or by using other mobility Section 5 or by using other mobility management methods
management methods ([Paper-Distributed.Mobility.PMIP] and ([Paper-Distributed.Mobility.PMIP] and
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility.Review]). Then the flow may continue to [Paper-Distributed.Mobility.Review]). Then the flow may continue to
use the IP prefix from the prior network. Yet some time later, the use the IP prefix from the prior network of attachment. Yet some
user application for the flow may be closed. If the application is time later, the user application for the flow may be closed. If the
started again, the new flow may not need to use the prior network's application is started again, the new flow may not need to use the
IP address to avoid having to invoke IP mobility support. This may prior network's IP address to avoid having to invoke IP mobility
be the case where a permanent IP prefix/address is not used. The support. This may be the case where a dynamic IP prefix/address
flow may then use the new IP prefix in the network where the flow is rather than a permanent one is used. The flow may then use the new
being initiated. Routing is again kept simpler without employing IP IP prefix in the network where the flow is being initiated. Routing
mobility and will remain so as long as the MN has not moved away from is again kept simpler without employing IP mobility and will remain
that network. so as long as the MN which is now in the new network has not moved
again and left to another new network.
The call flow in this case is outlined in Figure 5. An example call flow in this case is outlined in Figure 6.
MN p-AR n-AR CN MN p-AR n-AR CN
|MN attaches to p-AR: | | | |MN attaches to p-AR: | | |
|acquire MN-ID and profile | | |acquire MN-ID and profile | |
|--RS---------------->| | | |--RS---------------->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<----------RA(HNP1)--| | | |<----------RA(HNP1)--| | |
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP1 Allocated prefix HNP1
IP1 address configuration IP1 address configuration
skipping to change at page 15, line 35 skipping to change at page 27, line 30
|--RS------------------------------>| | |--RS------------------------------>| |
IP mobility support such as that described in next sub-section IP mobility support such as that described in next sub-section
|<--------------RA(HNP2,HNP1)-------| | |<--------------RA(HNP2,HNP1)-------| |
| | | | | | | |
|<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)---------------+------------------------------->| |<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)---------------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Allocated prefix HNP2 Allocated prefix HNP2
IP2 address configuration IP2 address configuration
| | | | | | | |
Flow(IP1,IPcn) teminates Flow(IP1,IPcn) terminates
| | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Figure 5. A flow uses the IP allocated from the network at which the Figure 6. A flow continues to use the IP from its home network after
MN is attached when the flow is initiated. MN has moved to a new network.
To provide IP mobility support with distributed anchoring, the 4.2.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Need of IP Mobility
distributed anchors may need to message with each other. When such
messaging is needed, the anchors may need to discover each other as
described in the FM behaviors and information elements (FM:4) in
Section 3.2.2.
Then the anchors need to properly forward the packets of the flows as The configuration guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6
described in the FM behaviors and information elements (FM:3) in nodes in a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
Section 3.2.2. requiring and not requiring distributed mobility support are as
follows:
If there are in-flight packets toward the old anchor while the MN is GL-cfg:2 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to buffer these packets providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
and then forward to the new anchor after the old anchor knows that distributed anchoring in an appropriate configuration such
the new anchor is ready. Such are described in the FM behaviors and as those in Figure 1 (Section 3.1.1) for network-based
information elements (FM:6) in Section 3.2.2. distributed mobility or in Figure 3 (Section 3.1.3) for
host-based distributed mobility.
4.2. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA, CPN, DPN) are to be
implemented the mobility functions LM and FM as described
respectively in LM-cfg and FM-cfg in Section 3.2 according
to the configuration chosen.
The guidelines of distributed mobility for the IPv6 nodes in a
network or network slice supporting a mix of flows requiring and not
requiring distributed mobility support had begun with those given as
GL-mix in Section 4.1.1 and continue as follows:
GL-mix:5 The distributed anchors may need to message with each
other. When such messaging is needed, the anchors may need
to discover each other as described in the FM behaviors and
mobility message parameters (FM-find) in Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:6 The anchors may need to provide mobility support on a per-
flow basis as described in the FM behaviors and mobility
message parameters (FM-flow) in Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:7 Then the anchors need to properly forward the packets of
the flows as described in the FM behaviors and mobility
message parameters (FM-path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA-
tbl) in Section 3.2.2.
GL-mix:8 If there are in-flight packets toward the old anchor while
the MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to
buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor
after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready.
Such are described in the FM behaviors and mobility message
parameters (FM-buffer) in Section 3.2.2.
5. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments - Anchor
Switching to the New Network
IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching to the New Network:
IP mobility is invoked to enable session continuity for an ongoing
flow as the MN moves to a new network. Here the anchoring of the IP
address of the flow is in the home network of the flow, which is not
in the current network of attachment. A centralized mobility
management mechanism may employ indirection from the anchor in the
home network to the current network of attachment. Yet it may be
difficult to avoid unnecessarily long route when the route between
the MN and the CN via the anchor in the home network is too much
longer than the direct route between them. An alternative is to
switch the IP prefix/address anchoring to the new network.
5.1. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network
The IP prefix/address anchoring may move without changing the IP The IP prefix/address anchoring may move without changing the IP
prefix/address of the flow. Here the LM and FM functions in Figures prefix/address of the flow. Here the LM and FM functions in Figures
1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 are implemented as shown in Figure 6. 1(a) and 1(b) in Section 3.1 are implemented as shown in Figure 7.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: |
|LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | |LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | |LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | |LM:IP1<-->IPa2 |
|---------------| |---------------| |---------------| |---------------|
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | move |anchors IP2,IP1| |anchors IP1 | move |anchors IP2,IP1|
|FM:DHCPv6-PD | =======> |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD | =======> |FM:DHCPv6-PD |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 6. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network. MN Figure 7. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network. MN
with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues to run the flow using IP1 as it with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues to run the flow using IP1 as it
moves to Net2. moves to Net2.
As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may
preserve session continuity by moving the anchoring of the original preserve session continuity by moving the anchoring of the original
IP prefix/address of the flow to the new network. An example is in IP prefix/address of the flow to the new network. An example is in
the use of BGP UPDATE messages to change the forwarding table entries the use of BGP UPDATE messages to change the forwarding table entries
as described in [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] and also for 3GPP Evolved as described in [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] and also for 3GPP Evolved
Packet Core (EPC) network in [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc]. Packet Core (EPC) network in [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc].
However, the response time and scalability of using a distributed However, the response time and scalability of using a distributed
skipping to change at page 17, line 4 skipping to change at page 29, line 41
moves to Net2. moves to Net2.
As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may
preserve session continuity by moving the anchoring of the original preserve session continuity by moving the anchoring of the original
IP prefix/address of the flow to the new network. An example is in IP prefix/address of the flow to the new network. An example is in
the use of BGP UPDATE messages to change the forwarding table entries the use of BGP UPDATE messages to change the forwarding table entries
as described in [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] and also for 3GPP Evolved as described in [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] and also for 3GPP Evolved
Packet Core (EPC) network in [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc]. Packet Core (EPC) network in [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc].
However, the response time and scalability of using a distributed However, the response time and scalability of using a distributed
routing protocol to update forwarding tables may be controversial. routing protocol to update forwarding tables may be controversial.
Use of a centralized routing protocol with a centralized control Use of a centralized routing protocol with a centralized control
plane as described in Section 4.2.1 will be more scalable. plane as described in Section 5.2 will be more scalable.
The location management provides information about which IP prefix 5.1.1. Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor for Flat Network
from an AR in the original network is being used by a flow in which
AR in a new network. Such information needs to be deleted or updated
when such flows have closed so that the IP prefix is no longer used
in a different network. The LM behaviors are described in
Section 3.2.1.
The FM functions are implemented through the DHCPv6-PD protocol. The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice
Here the anchor behavior to properly forward the packets for a flow supporting a mix of flows requiring and not requiring IP mobility
as described in the FM behaviors and information elements FM:3 in support is:
Section 3.2.2 is realized by changing the anchor with DHCPv6-PD and
also by reverting such changes later after the application has
already closed and when the DHCPv6-PD timer expires. If there are
in-flight packets toward the old anchor while the MN is moving to the
new anchor, it may be necessary to buffer these packets and then
forward to the new anchor after the old anchor knows that the new
anchor is ready. Such are described in the FM behaviors and
information elements FM:6 in Section 3.2.2. The anchors may also
need to discover each other as described in the FM behaviors and
information elements FM:4.
The security management function in the anchor node at a new network GL-cfg:3 Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
must allow to assign the original IP prefix/address used by the providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
mobile node at the previous (original) network. As the assigned distributed anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or
original IP prefix/address is to be used in the new network, the Figure 1(b)in Section 3.1 for a flat network.
security management function in the anchor node must allow to
advertise the prefix of the original IP address and also allow the
mobile node to send and receive data packets with the original IP
address.
The security management function in the mobile node must allow to The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented
configure the original IP prefix/address used at the previous the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively
(original) network when the original IP prefix/address is assigned by in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2.
the anchor node in the new network. The security management function
in the mobile node also allows to use the original IP address for the
previous flow in the new network.
4.2.1. Centralized control plane The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. In
addition, the following are required.
GL-switch:1 The location management provides information about which
IP prefix from an AR in the original network is being
used by a flow in which AR in a new network. Such
information needs to be deleted or updated when such
flows have closed so that the IP prefix is no longer
used in a different network. The LM behaviors are
described in Section 3.2.1.
GL-switch:2 The FM functions are implemented through the DHCPv6-PD
protocol. Here the anchor behaviors to properly forward
the packets for a flow as described in the FM behaviors
and mobility message parameters in Section 3.2.2 FM-
path, FM-path-tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA-tbl are realized by
changing the anchor with DHCPv6-PD and also by reverting
such changes later after the application has already
closed and when the DHCPv6-PD timer expires. If there
are in-flight packets toward the old anchor while the MN
is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to
buffer these packets and then forward to the new anchor
after the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready.
Such are described in the FM behaviors and mobility
message parameters in Section 3.2.2 FM-buffer. The
anchors may also need to discover each other as
described also in the FM behaviors and mobility message
parameters (FM-find).
GL-switch:3 The security management function in the anchor node at a
new network must allow to assign the original IP prefix/
address used by the mobile node at the previous
(original) network. As the assigned original IP prefix/
address is to be used in the new network, the security
management function in the anchor node must allow to
advertise the prefix of the original IP address and also
allow the mobile node to send and receive data packets
with the original IP address.
GL-switch:4 The security management function in the mobile node must
allow to configure the original IP prefix/address used
at the previous (original) network when the original IP
prefix/address is assigned by the anchor node in the new
network. The security management function in the mobile
node also allows to use the original IP address for the
previous flow in the new network.
5.2. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Flat Network with
Centralized Control Plane
An example of IP prefix anchor switching is in the case where Net1 An example of IP prefix anchor switching is in the case where Net1
and Net2 both belong to the same operator network with separation of and Net2 both belong to the same operator network with separation of
control and data planes ([I-D.liu-dmm-deployment-scenario] and control and data planes ([I-D.liu-dmm-deployment-scenario] and
[I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc]), where the controller may [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc]), where the controller may
send to the switches/routers the updated information of the send to the switches/routers the updated information of the
forwarding tables with the IP address anchoring of the original IP forwarding tables with the IP address anchoring of the original IP
prefix/address at AR1 moved to AR2 in the new network. That is, the prefix/address at AR1 moved to AR2 in the new network. That is, the
IP address anchoring in the original network which was advertising IP address anchoring in the original network which was advertising
the prefix will need to move to the new network. As the anchoring in the prefix will need to move to the new network. As the anchoring in
the new network advertises the prefix of the original IP address in the new network advertises the prefix of the original IP address in
the new network, the forwarding tables will be updated so that the new network, the forwarding tables will be updated so that
packets of the flow will be forwarded according to the updated packets of the flow will be forwarded according to the updated
forwarding tables. The configuration in Figures 1(a) and 1(b) in forwarding tables. The configurations in Figures 1(a) and 1(b) in
Section 3.1 for which FM-CP and LM are centralized and FM-DP's are Section 3.1 for which FM-CP and LM are centralized and FM-DP's are
distributed. applies here. Figure 7 shows its implementation where distributed apply here. Figure 8 shows its implementation where LM
LM is a binding between the original IP prefix/address of the flow is a binding between the original IP prefix/address of the flow and
and the IP address of the new DPA, whereas FM uses the DHCPv6-PD the IP address of the new DPA, whereas FM uses the DHCPv6-PD
protocol. protocol.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CPA: | | CPA: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPa2 | | LM:IP1<-->IPa2 |
| FM-CP | | FM-CP |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
skipping to change at page 18, line 37 skipping to change at page 32, line 25
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | move |anchors IP2,IP1| |anchors IP1 | move |anchors IP2,IP1|
|FM:DHCPv6-PD | =======> |FM:DHCPv6-PD | |FM:DHCPv6-PD | =======> |FM:DHCPv6-PD |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 7. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network with Figure 8. IP prefix/address anchor switching to the new network with
with LM and FM-CP in a centralized control plane whereas the FM-DP's with LM and FM-CP in a centralized control plane whereas the FM-DP's
are distributed. are distributed.
The call flow in Figure 8 shows that MN is allocated HNP1 when it The example call flow in Figure 9 shows that MN is allocated HNP1
attaches to the p-AR. A flow running in MN may or may not need IP when it attaches to the p-AR. A flow running in MN and needing IP
mobility. If it does, it may continue to use the previous IP prefix. mobility may continue to use the previous IP prefix by moving the
If it does not, it may use a new IP prefix allocated from the new anchoring of the IP prefix to the new network. Yet a new flow to be
network. initiated in the new network may simply use a new IP prefix allocated
from the new network.
MN p-AR n-AR DHCP Servers CN MN p-AR n-AR DHCP Servers CN
|MN attaches to p-AR: | | | | |MN attaches to p-AR: | | | |
|acquire MN-ID and profile | | | |acquire MN-ID and profile | | |
|--RS---------------->| | | | |--RS---------------->| | | |
|<----------RA(HNP1)--| | | | |<----------RA(HNP1)--| | | |
| | | Allocate MN-HNP1 | | | | Allocate MN-HNP1 |
IP addr config | | | | IP addr config | | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
|<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-+--------------------------------------------->| |<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-+--------------------------------------------->|
skipping to change at page 19, line 43 skipping to change at page 33, line 43
| Flow(IP1,IPcn,...) terminates | | | | Flow(IP1,IPcn,...) terminates | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | DHCPv6-PD timeout | | | | DHCPv6-PD timeout | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| forwarding table updates | | | forwarding table updates | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+------------------------------->|
| | | | | | | | | |
Figure 8. DMM solution. MN with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues to Figure 9. DMM solution. MN with flow using IP1 in Net1 continues to
run the flow using IP1 as it moves to Net2. run the flow using IP1 as it moves to Net2.
As the MN moves from p-AR to n-AR, the p-AR as a DHCP client may send As the MN moves from p-AR to n-AR, the p-AR as a DHCP client may send
a DHCP release message to release the HNP1. It is now necessary for a DHCP release message to release the HNP1. It is now necessary for
n-AR to learn the IP prefix of the MN from the previous network so n-AR to learn the IP prefix of the MN from the previous network so
that it will be possible for Net2 to allocate both the previous that it will be possible for Net2 to allocate both the previous
network prefix and the new network prefix. The network may learn the network prefix and the new network prefix. The network may learn the
previous prefix in different methods. For example, the MN may previous prefix in different methods. For example, the MN may
provide its previous network prefix information by including it to provide its previous network prefix information by including it to
the RS message [I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp]. the RS message [I-D.jhlee-dmm-dnpp].
Knowing that MN is using HNP1, the n-AR sends to a DHCP server a Knowing that MN is using HNP1, the n-AR sends to a DHCP server a
DHCPv6-PD request to move the HNP1 to n-AR. The server sends to n-AR DHCPv6-PD request to move the HNP1 to n-AR. The server sends to n-AR
a DHCPv6-PD reply to move the HNP1. Then BGP route updates will take a DHCPv6-PD reply to move the HNP1. Then forwarding tables updates
place here. will take place here.
In addition, the MN also needs a new HNP in the new network. The In addition, the MN also needs a new HNP in the new network. The
n-AR may now send RA to n-AR, with prefix information that includes n-AR may now send RA to n-AR, with prefix information that includes
HNP1 and HNP2. The MN may then continue to use IP1. In addition, HNP1 and HNP2. The MN may then continue to use IP1. In addition,
the MN is allocated the prefix HNP2 with which it may configure its the MN is allocated the prefix HNP2 with which it may configure its
IP addresses. Now for flows using IP1, packets destined to IP1 will IP addresses. Now for flows using IP1, packets destined to IP1 will
be forwarded to the MN via n-AR. be forwarded to the MN via n-AR.
As such flows have terminated and DHCP-PD has timed out, HNP1 goes As such flows have terminated and DHCP-PD has timed out, HNP1 goes
back to Net1. MN will then be left with HNP2 only, which it will use back to Net1. MN will then be left with HNP2 only, which it will use
when it now starts a new flow. when it now starts a new flow.
The anchor behavior to properly forward the packets for a flow as 5.2.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with
described in the FM behaviors and information elements (FM:3) in Centralized CP
Section 3.2.2 is realized by changing the anchor with DHCPv6-PD and
undoing such changes later when its timer expires and the application
has already closed. With the anchors being separated in control and
data planes with LMs and FM-CP centralized in the same control plane,
messaging between anchors and the discovery of anchors become
internal to the control plane. However, the centralized FM-CP needs
to communicate with the distributed FM-DP as described as described
in the FM behaviors and information elements (FM:5). Such may be
realized by the appropriate messages in [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
Again, if there are in-flight packets toward the old anchor while the
MN is moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to buffer these
packets and then forward to the new anchor after the old anchor knows
that the new anchor is ready. The corresponding FM behaviors and
information elements (FM:6) are however realized by the internal
behavior in the control plane together with signaling between the
control plane and distributed data plane.
4.2.2. Hierarchical network The configuration guideline for a flat network or network slice with
centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows requiring and
not requiring IP mobility support is:
GL-cfg:4 Multipel instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
distributed anchoring according to Figure 1(a) or
Figure 1(b)in Section 3.1 with centralized control plane
for a flat network.
The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented
the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively
in LM-cfg:1 or LM-cfg:2 and FM-cfg:1 in Section 3.2.
The guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. The
guidelines (GL-mix) in Section 5.1.1 also apply here. In addition,
the following are required.
GL-switch:5 The anchor behavior to properly forward the packets for
a flow as described in the FM behaviors and mobility
message parameters in Section 3.2.2 FM-path, FM-path-
tbl, FM-DPA, FM-DPA-tbl is realized by changing the
anchoring with DHCPv6-PD and undoing such changes later
when its timer expires and the application has already
closed. With the anchors being separated in control and
data planes with LMs and FM-CP centralized in the same
control plane, messaging between anchors and the
discovery of anchors become internal to the control
plane as described in Section 3.2.2 FM-cpdp. However,
the centralized FM-CP needs to communicate with the
distributed FM-DP as described as described in the FM
behaviors and mobility message parameters (FM-find).
Such may be realized by the appropriate messages in
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
GL-switch:6 It was already mentioned before that, if there are in-
flight packets toward the old anchor while the MN is
moving to the new anchor, it may be necessary to buffer
these packets and then forward to the new anchor after
the old anchor knows that the new anchor is ready Here,
however, the corresponding FM behaviors and mobility
message parameters as described in Section 3.2.2 (FM-
buffer) can be realized by the internal behavior in the
control plane together with signaling between the
control plane and distributed data plane. These
signaling may be realized by the appropriate messages in
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp].
5.3. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Hierarchical Network
The configuration for a hierarchical network is shown in Figures 1(c) The configuration for a hierarchical network is shown in Figures 1(c)
and 1(d) in Section 3.1. With centralized control and with a and 1(d) in Section 3.1. With centralized control plane, CPA and
centralized anchor, LM, CPA, CPN are co-located at the centralized CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all co-located. There are
control, and there is an AR with the DPA function supporting multiple multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed mobility anchoring.
forwarding switches (FW's) each with a DPN function. A mobility In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each with FM-DP)
event in this configuration involving change of FW but not of AR is hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR supports
shown in Figure 9. forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding switches
(FW's). A mobility event in this configuration belonging to
distributed mobility management will be deferred to Section 5.4.
Here the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored at the access In this distributed mobility configuration, a mobility event
router (AR) supporting the old FW to which the MN was originally involving change of FW only but not of AR as shown in Figure 10 may
attached as well as the new FW to which the MN has moved. still belong to centralized mobility management and may be supported
using PMIPv6. This configuration of network-based mobility is also
applicable to host-based mobility with the modification for the MN
directly taking the role of DPN and CPN, and the corresponding
centralized mobility event may be supported using MIPv6.
In Figure 10, the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored at the
access router (AR) supporting indirection to the old FW to which the
MN was originally attached as well as to the new FW to which the MN
has moved.
The realization of LM may be the binding between the IP prefix/ The realization of LM may be the binding between the IP prefix/
address of the flow used by the MN and the IP address of the DPN to address of the flow used by the MN and the IP address of the DPN to
which MN has moved. The implementation of FM to enable change of FW which MN has moved. The implementation of FM to enable change of FW
without changing AR may be accomplished using tunneling between the without changing AR may be accomplished using tunneling between the
AR and the FW as described in [I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix] and in AR and the FW as described in [I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix] and in
[I-D.templin-aerolink] or using some other L2 mobility mechanism. [I-D.templin-aerolink] or using some other L2 mobility mechanism.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
skipping to change at page 21, line 42 skipping to change at page 36, line 43
|FW1 | |FW2 | |FW1 | |FW2 |
+---------------+ move +---------------+ +---------------+ move +---------------+
|DPN(IPn1): | =======> |DPN(IPn2): | |DPN(IPn1): | =======> |DPN(IPn2): |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2) | .MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 9. Mobility without involving change of IP anchoring in a Figure 10. Mobility without involving change of IP anchoring in a
network with hierarchy in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is network in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored at an
anchored at an Edge Router supporting multiple access routers to AR which is hierarchically above multiple FWs to which the MN may
which the MN may connect. connect.
Here, the LM behaviors and information elements described in 5.3.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: No Anchoring Change with
Section 3.2.1 provides information of which IP prefix from its FW Hierarchical Network
needs to be used by a flow using which new FW. The anchor behaviors
to properly forward the packets of a flow described in the FM
behaviors and information elements (FM:3) may be realized with PMIPv6
protocol ([I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix]) or with AERO protocol
([I-D.templin-aerolink]) to tunnel between the AR and the FW.
4.2.3. Hierarchical network with anchoring change The configuration guideline ( ) for a hierarchical network or network
slice with centralized control plane and supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support is:
The configuration for a hierarchical network is still shown in GL-cfg:5 Multipel instances of DPAs (at access routers) which are
Figures 1(c) and 1(d) in Section 3.1. Again, with centralized providing IP prefix to the MNs are needed to provide
control and with a centralized anchor, LM, CPA, CPN are co-located at distributed anchoring according to Figure 2(a) or
the centralized control, and there is an AR with the DPA function Figure 2(b)in Section 3.1.2 with centralized control plane
supporting multiple forwarding switches (FW's) each with a DPN for a hierarchical network.
function. However, the mobility event involving change of FW may
also involve a change of AR. Such configuration is shown in
Figure 10.
This deployment case involves both a change of anchor from AR1 to AR2 The appropriate IPv6 nodes (CPA, DPA) are to be implemented
and a network hierarchy AR-FW. It can be realized by a combination the mobility functions LM and FM as described respectively
of changing the IP prefix/address anchoring from AR1 to AR2 with the in LM-cfg:3 or LM-cfg:4 and FM-cfg:2 in Section 3.2.
mechanism as described in Section 4.2.1 and then forwarding the
packets with network hierarchy AR-FW as described in Section 4.2.2.
To change AR, AR1 acting as a DHCP-PD client may exchange message Even when the mobility event does not involve change of anchor, it is
with the DHCP server to release the prefix IP1. Meanwhile, AR2 still necessary to distinguish whether a flow needs IP mobility
acting as a DHCP-PD client may exchange message with the DHCP server support.
to delegate the prefix IP1 to AR2.
The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here. The
guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 and in Section 5.2.1 also
apply here. In addition, the following are required.
GL-switch:7 Here, the LM behaviors and mobility message parameters
described in Section 3.2.1 provides information of which
IP prefix from its FW needs to be used by a flow using
which new FW. The anchor behaviors to properly forward
the packets of a flow described in the FM behaviors and
mobility message parameters (FM-path, FM-path-ind, FM-
cpdp in Section 3.2.2) may be realized with PMIPv6
protocol ([I-D.korhonen-dmm-local-prefix]) or with AERO
protocol ([I-D.templin-aerolink]) to tunnel between the
AR and the FW.
5.4. IP Prefix/Address Anchor Switching for Hierarchical Network
The configuration for the hierarchical network is again shown in
Figures 1(c) and 1(d) in Section 3.1. Again, with centralized
control plane, CPA and CPN, with the associated LM and FM-CP are all
co-located. There are multiple DPAs (each with FM-DP) in distributed
mobility anchoring. In the data plane, there are multiple DPNs (each
with FM-DP) hierarchically below each DPA. The DPA at each AR
supports forwarding to the DPN at each of a number of forwarding
switches (FW's).
A distributed mobility event in this configuration involves change
from a previous DPN which is hierarchically under the previous DPA to
a new DPN which is hierarchically under a new DPA. Such an event
involving change of both DPA and DPN is shown in Figure 11.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CPA,CPN: | | CPA,CPN: |
| LM:IP1<-->IPa2,IPn2 | | LM:IP1<-->IPa2,IPn2 |
| FM-CP | | FM-CP |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+---------------+ +---------------+
|Aggregate Point| |Aggregate Point|
skipping to change at page 23, line 37 skipping to change at page 38, line 45
|FW1 | |FW2 | |FW1 | |FW2 |
+---------------+ move +---------------+ +---------------+ move +---------------+
|DPN(IPn1): | =======> |DPN(IPn2): | |DPN(IPn1): | =======> |DPN(IPn2): |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . move |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 10. Mobility involving change of IP anchoring in a network Figure 11. Mobility involving change of IP anchoring in a network
with hierarchy in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored with hierarchy in which the IP prefix allocated to the MN is anchored
at an Edge Router supporting multiple access routers to which the MN at an Edge Router supporting multiple access routers to which the MN
may connect. may connect.
5. Security Considerations This deployment case involves both a change of anchor from AR1 to AR2
and a network hierarchy AR-FW. It can be realized by a combination
of changing the IP prefix/address anchoring from AR1 to AR2 with the
mechanism as described in Section 5.2 and then forwarding the packets
with network hierarchy AR-FW as described in Section 5.3.
To change AR, AR1 acting as a DHCP-PD client may exchange message
with the DHCP server to release the prefix IP1. Meanwhile, AR2
acting as a DHCP-PD client may exchange message with the DHCP server
to delegate the prefix IP1 to AR2.
5.4.1. Additional Guidelines for IPv6 Nodes: Switching Anchor with
Hierarchical Network
The configuration guideline (GL-cfg) for a hierarchical network or
network slice with centralized control plane described in
Section 5.3.1 apply here.
The GL-mix guidelines in Section 4.1.1 and in Section 4.2.1 for the
IPv6 nodes for a network or network slice supporting a mix of flows
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support apply here.
The guidelines (GL-switch) in Section 5.1.1 and in Section 5.2.1 also
apply here to change the anchoring of the IP prefix/address with a
centralized control plane.
In addition, the guideline for indirection between the new DPA and
the new DPN as described in Section 5.3.1 apply here.
6. Security Considerations
TBD TBD
6. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
This document presents no IANA considerations. This document presents no IANA considerations.
7. Contributors 8. Contributors
This document has benefited from other work on mobility solutions This document has benefited from other work on mobility solutions
using BGP update, on mobility support in SDN network, on providing using BGP update, on mobility support in SDN network, on providing
mobility support only when needed, and on mobility support in mobility support only when needed, and on mobility support in
enterprise network. These work have been referenced. While some of enterprise network. These work have been referenced. While some of
these authors have taken the work to jointly write this document, these authors have taken the work to jointly write this document,
others have contributed at least indirectly by writing these drafts. others have contributed at least indirectly by writing these drafts.
The latter include Philippe Bertin, Dapeng Liu, Satoru Matushima, The latter include Philippe Bertin, Dapeng Liu, Satoru Matushima,
Peter McCann, Pierrick Seite, Jouni Korhonen, and Sri Gundavelli. Peter McCann, Pierrick Seite, Jouni Korhonen, and Sri Gundavelli.
Valuable comments have also been received from John Kaippallimil, Valuable comments have also been received from John Kaippallimalil,
ChunShan Xiong, and Dapeng Liu. ChunShan Xiong, and Dapeng Liu.
8. References 9. References
8.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models]
Gundavelli, S. and S. Jeon, "DMM Deployment Models and
Architectural Considerations", draft-ietf-dmm-deployment-
models-00 (work in progress), August 2016.
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp] [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]
Liebsch, M., Matsushima, S., Gundavelli, S., Moses, D., Liebsch, M., Matsushima, S., Gundavelli, S., Moses, D.,
and L. Bertz, "Protocol for Forwarding Policy and L. Bertz, "Protocol for Forwarding Policy
Configuration (FPC) in DMM", draft-ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp-03 Configuration (FPC) in DMM", draft-ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp-03
(work in progress), March 2016. (work in progress), March 2016.
[I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility] [I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]
Yegin, A., Moses, D., Kweon, K., Lee, J., and J. Park, "On Yegin, A., Moses, D., Kweon, K., Lee, J., and J. Park, "On
Demand Mobility Management", draft-ietf-dmm-ondemand- Demand Mobility Management", draft-ietf-dmm-ondemand-
skipping to change at page 25, line 33 skipping to change at page 41, line 27
Anchoring", draft-seite-dmm-dma-07 (work in progress), Anchoring", draft-seite-dmm-dma-07 (work in progress),
February 2014. February 2014.
[I-D.sijeon-dmm-deployment-models] [I-D.sijeon-dmm-deployment-models]
Jeon, S. and Y. Kim, "Deployment Models for Distributed Jeon, S. and Y. Kim, "Deployment Models for Distributed
Mobility Management", draft-sijeon-dmm-deployment- Mobility Management", draft-sijeon-dmm-deployment-
models-03 (work in progress), July 2016. models-03 (work in progress), July 2016.
[I-D.templin-aerolink] [I-D.templin-aerolink]
Templin, F., "Asymmetric Extended Route Optimization Templin, F., "Asymmetric Extended Route Optimization
(AERO)", draft-templin-aerolink-70 (work in progress), (AERO)", draft-templin-aerolink-71 (work in progress),
July 2016. September 2016.
[I-D.wt-dmm-deployment-models]
Gundavelli, S., "DMM Deployment Models and Architectural
Considerations", draft-wt-dmm-deployment-models-00 (work
in progress), April 2016.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3753] Manner, J., Ed. and M. Kojo, Ed., "Mobility Related
Terminology", RFC 3753, DOI 10.17487/RFC3753, June 2004,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3753>.
[RFC5213] Gundavelli, S., Ed., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V., [RFC5213] Gundavelli, S., Ed., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V.,
Chowdhury, K., and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6", Chowdhury, K., and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6",
RFC 5213, DOI 10.17487/RFC5213, August 2008, RFC 5213, DOI 10.17487/RFC5213, August 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5213>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5213>.
[RFC6275] Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility [RFC6275] Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility
Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, DOI 10.17487/RFC6275, July Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, DOI 10.17487/RFC6275, July
2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6275>. 2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6275>.
[RFC7077] Krishnan, S., Gundavelli, S., Liebsch, M., Yokota, H., and
J. Korhonen, "Update Notifications for Proxy Mobile IPv6",
RFC 7077, DOI 10.17487/RFC7077, November 2013,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7077>.
[RFC7333] Chan, H., Ed., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J. [RFC7333] Chan, H., Ed., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J.
Korhonen, "Requirements for Distributed Mobility Korhonen, "Requirements for Distributed Mobility
Management", RFC 7333, DOI 10.17487/RFC7333, August 2014, Management", RFC 7333, DOI 10.17487/RFC7333, August 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7333>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7333>.
[RFC7429] Liu, D., Ed., Zuniga, JC., Ed., Seite, P., Chan, H., and [RFC7429] Liu, D., Ed., Zuniga, JC., Ed., Seite, P., Chan, H., and
CJ. Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current CJ. Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current
Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429, Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7429, January 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7429, January 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7429>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7429>.
8.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility] [Paper-Distributed.Mobility]
Lee, J., Bonnin, J., Seite, P., and H. Chan, "Distributed Lee, J., Bonnin, J., Seite, P., and H. Chan, "Distributed
IP Mobility Management from the Perspective of the IETF: IP Mobility Management from the Perspective of the IETF:
Motivations, Requirements, Approaches, Comparison, and Motivations, Requirements, Approaches, Comparison, and
Challenges", IEEE Wireless Communications, October 2013. Challenges", IEEE Wireless Communications, October 2013.
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility.PMIP] [Paper-Distributed.Mobility.PMIP]
Chan, H., "Proxy Mobile IP with Distributed Mobility Chan, H., "Proxy Mobile IP with Distributed Mobility
Anchors", Proceedings of GlobeCom Workshop on Seamless Anchors", Proceedings of GlobeCom Workshop on Seamless
Wireless Mobility, December 2010. Wireless Mobility, December 2010.
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility.Review] [Paper-Distributed.Mobility.Review]
Chan, H., Yokota, H., Xie, J., Seite, P., and D. Liu, Chan, H., Yokota, H., Xie, J., Seite, P., and D. Liu,
"Distributed and Dynamic Mobility Management in Mobile "Distributed and Dynamic Mobility Management in Mobile
Internet: Current Approaches and Issues", February 2011. Internet: Current Approaches and Issues", February 2011.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
H Anthony Chan H Anthony Chan (editor)
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
5340 Legacy Dr. Building 3 5340 Legacy Dr. Building 3
Plano, TX 75024 Plano, TX 75024
USA USA
Email: h.a.chan@ieee.org Email: h.a.chan@ieee.org
Xinpeng Wei Xinpeng Wei
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
Xin-Xi Rd. No. 3, Haidian District Xin-Xi Rd. No. 3, Haidian District
Beijing, 100095 Beijing, 100095
P. R. China P. R. China
Email: weixinpeng@huawei.com Email: weixinpeng@huawei.com
Jong-Hyouk Lee Jong-Hyouk Lee
Sangmyung University Sangmyung University
708 Hannuri Building 31, Sangmyeongdae-gil, Dongnam-gu
Cheonan 330-720 Cheonan 31066
Korea Republic of Korea
Email: jonghyouk@smu.ac.kr Email: jonghyouk@smu.ac.kr
Seil Jeon Seil Jeon
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-do Suwon, Gyeonggi-do
Korea Republic of Korea
Email: seiljeon@gmail.com Email: seiljeon@skku.edu
Alexandre Petrescu
CEA, LIST
CEA Saclay
Gif-sur-Yvette, Ile-de-France 91190
France
Phone: +33169089223
Email: Alexandre.Petrescu@cea.fr
Fred L. Templin Fred L. Templin
Boeing Research and Technology Boeing Research and Technology
P.O. Box 3707 P.O. Box 3707
Seattle, WA 98124 Seattle, WA 98124
USA USA
Email: fltemplin@acm.org Email: fltemplin@acm.org
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