draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-10.txt   draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-11.txt 
ALTO WG W. Roome ALTO WG W. Roome
Internet-Draft S. Randriamasy Internet-Draft S. Randriamasy
Intended status: Standards Track Nokia Bell Labs Intended status: Standards Track Nokia Bell Labs
Expires: May 7, 2020 Y. Yang Expires: September 10, 2020 Y. Yang
Yale University Yale University
J. Zhang J. Zhang
Tongji University Tongji University
K. Gao K. Gao
Sichuan University Sichuan University
November 4, 2019 March 9, 2020
Unified Properties for the ALTO Protocol Unified Properties for the ALTO Protocol
draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-10 draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-11
Abstract Abstract
This document extends the Application-Layer Traffic Optimization This document extends the Application-Layer Traffic Optimization
(ALTO) Protocol [RFC7285] by generalizing the concept of "endpoint (ALTO) Protocol [RFC7285] by generalizing the concept of "endpoint
properties" to generic types of entities, and by presenting those properties" to generic types of entities, and by presenting those
properties as maps, similar to the network and cost maps in properties as maps, similar to the network and cost maps in
[RFC7285]. [RFC7285].
Requirements Language Requirements Language
skipping to change at page 1, line 46 skipping to change at page 1, line 46
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on May 7, 2020. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 10, 2020.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Basic Features of the Unified Property Extension . . . . . . 6 2. Basic Features of the Unified Property Extension . . . . . . 6
2.1. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2. Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2. Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3. Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3. Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.4. New information resource and media type: ALTO Property 2.4. New information resource and media type: ALTO Property
Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Advanced Features of the Unified Property Extension . . . . . 8 3. Advanced Features of the Unified Property Extension . . . . . 8
3.1. Entity Identifier and Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1. Entity Identifier and Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3. Resource-Specific Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3. Resource-Specific Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4. Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance . . . . . . . . 9 3.4. Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance . . . . . . . . 10
3.5. Applicable Entity Domains and Properties in the Property 3.5. Applicable Entity Domains and Properties in the Property
Map Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Map Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.6. Connection between Resource-Specific Entity Domain/Entity 3.6. Connection between Resource-Specific Entity Domain/Entity
Property Mapping and Information Resources . . . . . . . 10 Property Mapping and Information Resources . . . . . . . 11
4. Protocol Specification: Basic Data Type . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. Protocol Specification: Basic Data Type . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1. Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1. Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1.1. Entity Domain Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1.1. Entity Domain Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1.2. Entity Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1.2. Entity Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1.3. Entity Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.1.3. Entity Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.1.4. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.1.4. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2. Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2. Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2.1. Entity Property Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2.1. Entity Property Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2.2. Entity Property Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2.2. Entity Property Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5. Entity Domain Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. Entity Domain Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.1. Internet Address Domain Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1. Internet Address Domain Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.1. IPv4 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.1. IPv4 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.2. IPv6 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.2. IPv6 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains 15 5.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains 17
5.2. PID Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2. PID Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.1. Entity Domain Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2.1. Entity Domain Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains . . . . . 17 5.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains . . . . . 18
5.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties . . . . . 17 5.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties . . . . . 19
6. Entity Domains and Property Mappings in Information Resources 18 6. Entity Domains and Property Mappings in Information Resources 19
6.1. Information Resource Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.1. Information Resource Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.1.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Export . . . . . . . 18 6.1.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Export . . . . . . . 19
6.1.2. Entity Property Mapping Export . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.1.2. Entity Property Mapping Export . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.2. Network Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2. Network Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.2.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.2.2. Entity Property Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2.2. Entity Property Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.3. Endpoint Property Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.3. Endpoint Property Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.3.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.3.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.3.2. Entity Property Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.3.2. Entity Property Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.4. Property Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.4. Property Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7. Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7. Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8. Filtered Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 8. Filtered Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 8.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 8.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 8.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients . . . . . . . 25 9. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients . . . . . . . 27
9.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service . . . . . . . . . . . 25 9.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service . . . . . . . . . . . 27
9.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties . . . . . . . . . 25 9.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties . . . . . . . . . 27
9.3. Impact on Other Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 9.3. Impact on Other Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 10. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 10.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10.2. Property Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 10.2. Property Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
10.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD) . . . . . . . . . . 27 10.3. Properties for Abstract Network Elements . . . . . . . . 29
10.4. Property Map Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10.4. Information Resource Directory (IRD) . . . . . . . . . . 29
10.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10.5. Property Map Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
10.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 10.6. Filtered Property Map Example #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
10.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 10.7. Filtered Property Map Example #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
10.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 10.8. Filtered Property Map Example #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.9. Filtered Property Map Example #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 10.10. Property Map in Path Vector Example #1 . . . . . . . . . 37
12.1. application/alto-* Media Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
12.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
12.1. application/alto-* Media Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
12.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
12.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type 12.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type
Registry and ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry . . . 38 Registry and ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry . . . 42
12.2.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registration Process . . . . 39 12.2.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registration Process . . . . 43
12.3. ALTO Entity Property Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 40 12.3. ALTO Entity Property Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 44
12.4. ALTO Resource-Specific Entity Domain Registries . . . . 41 12.4. ALTO Resource-Specific Entity Domain Registries . . . . 45
12.4.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 12.4.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
12.4.2. Endpoint Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 12.4.2. Endpoint Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
12.5. ALTO Resource Entity Property Mapping Registries . . . . 41 12.5. ALTO Resource Entity Property Mapping Registries . . . . 46
12.5.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 12.5.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
13. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 13. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
14. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Appendix A. Scope of Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
A.1. Example Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Appendix A. Scope of Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
A.1. Example Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The ALTO protocol [RFC7285] introduces the concept of "properties" The ALTO protocol [RFC7285] introduces the concept of "properties"
attached to "endpoint addresses", and defines the Endpoint Property attached to "endpoint addresses", and defines the Endpoint Property
Service (EPS) to allow ALTO clients to retrieve those properties. Service (EPS) to allow ALTO clients to retrieve those properties.
While useful, the EPS, as defined in [RFC7285], has at least three While useful, the EPS, as defined in [RFC7285], has at least three
limitations. limitations.
First, the EPS allows properties to be associated with only endpoints First, the EPS allows properties to be associated with only endpoints
skipping to change at page 4, line 41 skipping to change at page 4, line 45
of network flows [RFC7011] and routing elements [RFC7921] are also of network flows [RFC7011] and routing elements [RFC7921] are also
very useful. Since the EPS cannot be extended to those generic very useful. Since the EPS cannot be extended to those generic
entities, new services, with new request and response messages, would entities, new services, with new request and response messages, would
have to be defined for them. have to be defined for them.
Second, the EPS only allows endpoints identified by global Second, the EPS only allows endpoints identified by global
communication addresses. However, an endpoint address may be a local communication addresses. However, an endpoint address may be a local
IP address or an anycast IP address which is also not globally IP address or an anycast IP address which is also not globally
unique. Additionally, a generic entity such as a PID may have an unique. Additionally, a generic entity such as a PID may have an
identifier that is not globally unique. For example, a PID identifier that is not globally unique. For example, a PID
identifier may be used in several network maps, where in each network identifier may be used in multiple network maps, where in each
map, this PID identifier points to a different set of addresses. network map, this PID identifier points to a different set of
addresses.
Third, the EPS is only defined as a POST-mode service. Clients must Third, the EPS is only defined as a POST-mode service. Clients must
request the properties for an explicit set of endpoint addresses. By request the properties for an explicit set of endpoint addresses. By
contrast, [RFC7285] defines a GET-mode cost map resource which contrast, [RFC7285] defines a GET-mode cost map resource which
returns all available costs, so a client can get a full set of costs returns all available costs, so a client can get a full set of costs
once, and then processes costs lookups without querying the ALTO once, and then process cost lookups without querying the ALTO server.
server. [RFC7285] does not define a similar service for endpoint [RFC7285] does not define a similar service for endpoint properties.
properties. At first, a map of endpoint properties might seem At first, a map of endpoint properties might seem impractical,
impractical, because it could require enumerating the property value because it could require enumerating the property value for every
for every possible endpoint. However, in practice, it is highly possible endpoint. However, in practice, it is highly unlikely that
unlikely that properties will be defined for every endpoint address. properties will be defined for every endpoint address. It is much
It is much more likely that properties may be defined for only a more likely that properties may be defined for only a subset of
subset of endpoint addresses, and the specification of properties endpoint addresses, and the specification of properties uses an
uses an aggregation representation to allow enumeration. This is aggregation representation to allow enumeration. This is
particularly true if blocks of endpoint addresses with a common particularly true if blocks of endpoint addresses with a common
prefix (e.g., a CIDR) have the same value for a property. Entities prefix (e.g., a CIDR) have the same value for a property. Entities
in other domains may very well allow aggregated representation and in other domains may very well allow aggregated representation and
hence be enumerable as well. hence be enumerable as well.
To address the three limitations, this document specifies a protocol To address the three limitations, this document specifies a protocol
extension for defining and retrieving ALTO properties: extension for defining and retrieving ALTO properties:
o The first limitation is adressed by introducing a generic concept o The first limitation is addressed by introducing a generic concept
called ALTO Entity, which generalizes an endpoint and may called ALTO Entity, which generalizes an endpoint and may
represent a PID, a network element, a cell in a cellular network, represent a PID, a network element, a cell in a cellular network,
an abstracted network element as defined in [REF path-vector], or an abstracted network element as defined in [REF path-vector], or
other physical or logical objects used by ALTO. Each entity is other physical or logical objects used by ALTO. Each entity is
included in a collection called ALTO Entity Domain. Also, each included in a collection called an ALTO Entity Domain. Since each
Entity Domain includes only one type of entities. Thus, each ALTO Entity Domain includes only one type of entities, each Entity
entity domain has a type. Domain can be classified by the type of entities in it.
o The second limitation is addressed by using resource-specific o The second limitation is addressed by using resource-specific
entity domains. A resource-specific entity domain contains entity domains. A resource-specific entity domain contains
entities defined and identified with respect to a given ALTO entities that are defined and identified with respect to a given
information resource. For example, an entity domain containing ALTO information resource, which provides scoping. For example,
PIDs is identified w.r.t. the network map in which these PIDs are an entity domain containing PIDs is identified with respect to the
defined. Likewise an entity domain containing local IP addresses network map in which these PIDs are defined. Likewise an entity
may be defined w.r.t. a local network. domain containing local IP addresses may be defined with respect
to a local network map.
o Finally, the third limitation is addressed by defining two new o The third limitation is addressed by defining two new types of
types of ALTO information resources: Property Map, detailed in ALTO information resources: Property Map, detailed in Section 7
Section 7 and Filtered Property Map, detailed in Section 8. The and Filtered Property Map, detailed in Section 8. The former is a
former is a GET-mode resource which returns the property values GET-mode resource that returns the property values for all
for all entities in some entity domains, and is analogous to a entities in one or more entity domains, and is analogous to a
network map or a cost map in [RFC7285]. The latter is a POST-mode network map or a cost map in [RFC7285]. The latter is a POST-mode
resource which returns the values for a set of properties and resource that returns the values for a set of properties and
entities requested by the client, and is analogous to a filtered entities requested by the client, and is analogous to a filtered
network map or a filtered cost map. network map or a filtered cost map.
This approach is extensible, because new entity domain types can be The protocol extension defined in this document is extensible. New
defined without revising the protocol specification defined in this entity domain types can be defined without revising the specification
document. In the same way, new cost metrics and new endpoint defined in this document. Similarly, new cost metrics and new
properties can be defined without revising the protocol specification endpoint properties can be defined in other documents without
defined in [RFC7285]. revising the protocol specification defined in [RFC7285].
This document subsumes the Endpoint Property Service defined in This document subsumes the Endpoint Property Service defined in
[RFC7285], although that service may be retained for legacy clients [RFC7285], although that service may be retained for legacy clients
(see Section 9). (see Section 9).
2. Basic Features of the Unified Property Extension 2. Basic Features of the Unified Property Extension
The purpose of this extension is to convey properties on objects that The purpose of this extension is to convey properties on objects that
extend ALTO Endpoints and are called ALTO Entities, entities for extend ALTO Endpoints and are called ALTO Entities, entities for
short. This section introduces the basic features involved in ALTO short. This section introduces the basic features involved in ALTO
Entity Property Maps. Property Maps.
2.1. Entity 2.1. Entity
The concept of ALTO Entity generalizes the concept of an ALTO The concept of an ALTO Entity generalizes the concept of an ALTO
Endpoint defined in Section 2.1 of [RFC7285]. An entity is an object Endpoint defined in Section 2.1 of [RFC7285]. An entity is an object
that can be an endpoint and is identified by its network address, but that can be an endpoint that is defined by its network address, but
can also be an object that has a defined mapping to a set of one or can also be an object that has a defined mapping to a set of one or
more network addresses or is even not related to any network address. more network addresses or an object that is not even related to any
network address. Thus, where as all endpoints are entities, not all
entities are endpoints.
Examples of eligible entities are: Examples of entities are:
o an ALTO endpoint, defined in [RFC7285], that represents an
application or a host identified by a communication address (e.g.,
an IPv4 or IPv6 address) in a network.
o a PID, defined in [RFC7285], that has a provider defined human- o a PID, defined in [RFC7285], that has a provider defined human-
readable abstract identifier defined by an ALTO network map, which readable abstract identifier specified by an ALTO network map,
maps a PID to a set of ipv4 and ipv6 addresses; which maps a PID to a set of ipv4 and ipv6 addresses;
o an autonomous system (AS), that has an AS number (ASN) as its o an autonomous system (AS), that has an AS number (ASN) as its
identifier and maps to a set of ipv4 and ipv6 addresses; identifier and maps to a set of ipv4 and ipv6 addresses;
o a region representing a country, that is identified by its country o a country, identified by its country code defined by ISO 3166, to
code defined by ISO 3166 and maps to a set of cellular addresses; which applications such as CDN providers associate properties and
capabilities;
o a TCP/IP network flow, that has a server defined identifier o a TCP/IP network flow, that is identified by a TCP/IP 5-Tuple
consisting of the defining TCP/IP 5-Tuple, which is an example specifying its source and destination addresses and port numbers
that all endpoints are entities while not all entities are and the utilized protocol;
endpoints;
o a routing element, that is specified in [RFC7921] and includes o a routing element, that is specified in [RFC7921] and is
routing capability information; associated with routing capabilities information;
o an abstract network element, that has a server defined identifier o an abstract network element, that represents an abstraction of a
and represents a network node, link or their aggregation. network part such as a routable network node, one or more link, a
network domain or their aggregation.
2.2. Entity Domain 2.2. Entity Domain
An entity domain defines a set of entities of same type. This type An entity domain defines a set of entities of the same type. This
is also called the type of the entity domain. Thus, an entity domain type, also called entity domain type, defines the semantics of a type
type defines the type semantics and the identifier format of its of entity. Entity domain types could be defined in different
entities. An entity domain also has a name. Very often the name and documents. For example: the present document defines entity domain
type of an entity domain are the same. Example of such entity types "ipv4", "ipv6" and "pid" in sections Section 5.1 and
domains are: "ipv4", "pid", which are defined in Section 5.1 and Section 5.2; the entity domain type "ane", that defines Abstract
Section 5.2. Network Elements (ANEs), is introduced in
[I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector].
Using entity domains, the ALTO property map capabilities indicate on An entity domain also has a name. The name and type of an entity
which entity domains an ALTO client can query properties. domain can be the same. This is the case for the abovementionned
types "ipv4", "ipv6" and "pid". The name of an entity domain may
however be different from its type, in particular when the identifier
of its entities cannot be recognized outside this domain. For
example: an entity "mypid10" of domain type "pid" is only recognized
with respect to a given network map resource and may be undefined in
other network maps, or may even map to a different set of addresses.
This document addresses this case in Section 3.2 and related.
2.3. Entity Property 2.3. Entity Property
An entity property defines a property of an entity. It is similar to An entity property defines a property of an entity. It is similar to
the endpoint property defined by Section 7.1 of [RFC7285]. It can be the endpoint property defined by Section 7.1 of [RFC7285]. It can
network-aware but can also convey network-agnostic information such convey either network-aware or network-agnostic information.
as geographical location.
For example: For example:
o an entity in the "ipv4" domain may have a property whose value is o an entity in the "ipv4" domain may have a property whose value is
an Autonomous System (AS) number indicating the AS that owns this an Autonomous System (AS) number indicating the AS that owns this
IPv4 address, IPv4 address,
o an entity in the "pid" domain may have a property that indicates o an entity in the "pid" domain may have a property that indicates
the central geographical location of endpoints it includes. the central geographical location of endpoints it includes.
It should be noted that some objects may be both entities and It should be noted that some objects may be both entities and
properties. For example, a PID may be both a property of an "ipv4" properties. For example, a PID may be both a property of an "ipv4"
entity and an entity on which a Client may query properties such as entity and an entity on which a Client may query properties such as
geographical location. geographical location.
2.4. New information resource and media type: ALTO Property Map 2.4. New information resource and media type: ALTO Property Map
The Unified Property extension introduces a new ALTO information This document introduces a new ALTO information resource named
resource named Property Map. An ALTO property map provides a set of Property Map. An ALTO property map provides a set of properties on a
properties on a set of entities. These entities may be of different set of entities. These entities may be of different types. For
types. For example, an ALTO property map may define the ASN property example, an ALTO property map may define the ASN property for both
for both "ipv4" and "ipv6" type of entities. "ipv4" and "ipv6" type of entities.
The present extension also introduces a new media type. The present extension also introduces a new media type.
This document uses the same definition of the information resource as This document uses the same definition of the information resource as
defined by [RFC7285]. Each information resource usually has a JSON defined by [RFC7285]. Each information resource usually has a JSON
format representation following a specific schema defined by its format representation following a specific schema defined by its
media type. In the present case, an ALTO property map resource is media type. In the present case, an ALTO property map resource is
represented by a JSON object of type InfoResourcePropertyMap and represented by a JSON object of type InfoResourcePropertyMap and
defined by the media type "application/alto-propmap+json". defined by the media type "application/alto-propmap+json".
A Property Map can be queried as a GET-mode resource, thus conveying A Property Map can be queried as a GET-mode resource, thus conveying
values of all properties on all entities indicated in its values of all properties on all entities indicated in its
capabilities. It can also be queried as a POST-mode resource, thus capabilities. It can also be queried as a POST-mode resource, thus
conveying a selection of properties on a selection of entities. conveying a selection of properties on a selection of entities.
3. Advanced Features of the Unified Property Extension 3. Advanced Features of the Unified Property Extension
3.1. Entity Identifier and Entity Domain 3.1. Entity Identifier and Entity Domain
In [RFC7285], an endpoint has an identifier explicitly associated to In [RFC7285], an endpoint has an identifier explicitly associated
the "ipv4" or "ipv6" address domain. Examples are "ipv4:192.0.2.14" with the "ipv4" or "ipv6" address domain. Examples are
and "ipv6:2001:db8::12". In this extension, an entity domain "ipv4:192.0.2.14" and "ipv6:2001:db8::12". In this extension, an
characterizes the type semantics and identifier format of its entity domain characterizes the type semantics and identifier format
entities and the identifier of an entity is explicitly associated to of its entities. And the identifier of an entity is explicitly
its entity domain. For instance: an entity that is an endpoint with associated with its entity domain. For instance: an entity that is
an IPv4 address will have an identifier associated with domain an endpoint with an IPv4 address will have an identifier associated
"ipv4", like "ipv4:192.0.2.14"; an entity which is a PID will have an with the "ipv4" domain, like "ipv4:192.0.2.14"; an entity which is a
identifier associated with domain "pid", like "pid:mypid10". PID will have an identifier associated with a "pid" domain, like
"pid:mypid10".
In this document, an entity must be owned by exactly one entity In this document, an entity must be owned by exactly one entity
domain. And an entity identifier must point to exactly one entity. domain. And an entity identifier must point to exactly one entity.
If two entities in two different entity domains refer to the same Even if two entities in two different entity domains refer to the
physical or logical object, they are treated as different entities, same physical or logical object, they are treated as different
as it is the case for an endpoint having an IPv4 and IPv6 address. entities. For example, an IPv4 and IPv6 address.
3.2. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Name 3.2. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Name
Some entities are defined and identified in a unique and global way. Some entities are defined and identified in a unique and global way.
This is the case for instance for entities that are endpoints This is the case for instance for entities that are endpoints
identified by a routable IPv4 or IPv6 address. The entity domain for identified by a routable IPv4 or IPv6 address. The entity domain for
such entities can be globally defined and named "ipv4" or "ipv6". such entities can be globally defined and named "ipv4" or "ipv6".
Those entity domains are also called resource-agnostic entity domains Those entity domains are also called resource-agnostic entity domains
in this document, as they are not associated to any specific ALTO in this document, as they are not associated to any specific ALTO
information resources. information resources.
Some other entities and entity types are only defined relatively to a Some other entities and entity types are only defined relatively to a
given information resource. This is the case for entities of domain given information resource. This is the case for entities of domain
"pid", that can only be understood with respect to the network map "pid", that can only be understood with respect to the network map
where they are defined. For example: a PID named "mypid10" may be where they are defined. For example, a PID named "mypid10" may be
defined by a set S1 of IP adresses, in an information resource of defined to represent a set S1 of IP addresses in an information
type Network Map and named "netmap1". Another Network Map "netmap2" resource of type Network Map and named "netmap1". Another Network
may use the same name "mypid10" and define it with another set S2 of Map "netmap2" may use the same name "mypid10" and define it to
IP addresses. The identifier "pid:mypid10" may thus point to represent another set S2 of IP addresses. The identifier
different objects because the information on the originating "pid:mypid10" may thus point to different objects because the
information resource is lost. The reason is that "pid" denotes an information on the originating information resource is lost. The
entity domain type rather than an unambiguous identifier. reason is that "pid" denotes an entity domain type rather than an
unambiguous identifier.
To solve this ambiguity, the present extension introduces the concept To solve this ambiguity, the present extension introduces the concept
of resources-specific entity domain. This concept applies to domains of resources-specific entity domain. This concept applies to domains
where entities are defined relatively to a given information where entities are defined relatively to a given information
resource. It can also apply to domains of entities that are defined resource. It can also apply to domains of entities that are defined
locally, such as local networks of objects identified with a local locally, such as local networks of objects identified with a local
IPv4 address. IPv4 address.
In such cases, an entity domain name is explicitly associated with an In such cases, an entity domain name is explicitly associated with an
identifier of the information resource where these entities are identifier of the information resource where these entities are
defined. Using a resource-specific entity domain name, an ALTO defined. Using a resource-specific entity domain name, an ALTO
Property Map may unambiguously indicate entity domains of the same Property Map may unambiguously indicate entity domains of the same
type, on which entity properties may be queried. Example resource- type, on which entity properties may be queried. Example resource-
specific entity domain names may look like: "netmap1.pid" or specific entity domain names may look like: "netmap1.pid" or
"netmap2.pid". This allows to identify two distinct PID entities "netmap2.pid". This allows to identify two distinct PID entities
such as "netmap1.pid:mypid10" or "netmap1.pid:mypid10". Resource- such as "netmap1.pid:mypid10" or "netmap2.pid:mypid10". Resource-
specific entity domain name will be specified in Section 4.1.2. specific entity domain name will be specified in Section 4.1.2.
3.3. Resource-Specific Entity Property 3.3. Resource-Specific Entity Property
An entity may have properties of same type, whose values are An entity may have properties of same type, whose values are
associated to different information resources. For instance, entity associated to different information resources. For instance, entity
"192.0.2.34" defined in the "ipv4" domain may have two "pid" "192.0.2.34" defined in the "ipv4" domain may have two "pid"
properties defined in two different network maps "netmap1" and properties defined in two different network maps "netmap1" and
"netmap2". These properties will likely have different values in "netmap2". These properties will likely have different values in
"netmap1" and "netmap2". To distinguish between them, this document "netmap1" and "netmap2". To distinguish between them, this document
uses the same approach proposed as in Section 10.8.1 of [RFC7285], uses the same approach proposed as in Section 10.8.1 of [RFC7285],
which is called "Resource-Specific Entity Property". When a property which is called "Resource-Specific Entity Property". When a property
value depends on a given information resource, the identifier of the value depends on a given information resource, the identifier of the
property must be explicitly associated with the information resource property must be explicitly associated with the information resource
that defines it. that defines it.
For example, the "pid" property queried on entity "ipv4:192.0.2.34" For example, the property "pid" queried on entity "ipv4:192.0.2.34"
and defined in "netmap1" and "netmap2" respectively, may be named and defined in both "netmap1" and "netmap2", may be named
"netmap1.pid" and "netmap2.pid". This allows a Client to get a "netmap1.pid" and "netmap2.pid". This allows a Client to get a
property of the same type but defined in different information property of the same type but defined in different information
resources in a single query. Specifications are provided in resources in a single query. Specifications are provided in
Section 4.2. Section 4.2.
3.4. Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance 3.4. Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance
Enumerating all individual entities is inefficient. Some types of Enumerating all individual entities is inefficient for both the
entities have a hierarchy format, for example CIDRs, which stand for Client and the Server.
sets of individual entities. A property P may not be defined for a
specific entity E, but P may be defined for a set of entities o For the Client, even if it only wants to request properties for a
containing E. In which case, E inherits the value of P. For entity "/24" ipv4 subnet, using the individual ipv4 entity, it has to
domains organized in a hierarchy, this can significantly reduce the enumerate all 256 entities.
size of Property Maps and Client query payload. To reduce the size
of the property map representation, this document introduces, when o For the Server, in some cases, most of the entities may have the
applicable, an approach called "Property Inheritance". Individual same properties. Simply enumerating all of them may introduce a
entities can inherit property values from their upper hierarchical lot of reduncency in the payload. For example, all the individual
levels. This will be specified in Section 4.1.4. ipv4 entities in a "/24" ipv4 subnet is usually owned by the same
AS. When a Client requests the ASN property for this ipv4 subnet,
using the individual ipv4 address, the Server has to repeat the
same ASN property for 256 times in the worst case.
To reduce the size of the property map request and response payloads,
this document introduces, when appicable, an approach called
"Property Inheritance". This approach consists of two parts: Entity
Hierarchy and Property Inheritance.
o Entity Hierarchy: This approach allows an entity domain to support
using a single identifier to identify a set of indivudial
entities. For example, a CIDR can be used to identify a set of
ipv4 or ipv6 entities. Such an identifier is called a
hierarchical entity identifier, as the set identified by it can be
hierarachical. For example, the CIDR "ipv4:192.0.1.0/24" covers
all the individual ipv4 entities identified the CIDR
"ipv4:192.0.1.0/26".
o Property Inheritance: This approach allows a property map to
define a property for a hierarchical entity identifier. An
undefined property of an entity may inherit the value of the
property defined for a hierarchical entity identifier. For
example, a property map only defines the ASN property for a
hierarchical ipv4 entity identifier "ipv4:192.0.1.0/24". When
receiving this property map, a Client could infer that the ipv4
entity "ipv4:192.0.1.1" inherits the same ASN property even if it
does not appear in the property map.
The detailed specification will be specified in Section 4.1.4.
3.5. Applicable Entity Domains and Properties in the Property Map 3.5. Applicable Entity Domains and Properties in the Property Map
Capabilities Capabilities
This section explains how the IRD capabilities of a Property Map A property is not necessarily applicable to any domain, or an ALTO
unambiguously expose what type of properties on what entity domains a Server may just not support it for all applicable domains. For
Client can query. A field called "mapping" enumerates the entity instance, a property reflecting link bandwidth is likely not defined
domains supported by the Property Map; For each entity domain, a list on entities of a domain of type "country-code". Therefore an ALTO
of applicable properties is provided. An example can be found in server supporting Property Maps specifies the properties that can be
Section 10.3. Using resource-agnostic or resource-specific entity queried on the different domains defined in this server.
domains and properties allows to formulate compact an unambiguous
entity property queries relating to one or more information In Section 6 and related, this document explains how the IRD
resources, in particular: capabilities of a Property Map unambiguously expose what type of
properties on what entity domains a Client can query. For short, a
field called "mapping" enumerates the entity domains supported by the
Property Map; For each entity domain, a list of applicable properties
is provided. An example can be found in Section 10.4. Using
resource-agnostic or resource-specific entity domains and properties
allows to formulate compact and unambiguous entity property queries
relating to one or more information resources, in particular:
o avoid a Client to query a property on entity domains on which P is o avoid a Client to query a property on entity domains on which P is
not defined, not defined,
o query for en entity E property values defined in different o query for en entity E property values defined in different
information resources, information resources,
o query a property P on entities E defined in different information o query a property P on entities E defined in different information
resources. resources.
skipping to change at page 11, line 40 skipping to change at page 13, line 4
of entity domains, as well as any hierarchical or inheritance rules of entity domains, as well as any hierarchical or inheritance rules
(see Section 4.1.4) for those entities, MUST be specified at the same (see Section 4.1.4) for those entities, MUST be specified at the same
time. time.
4.1.2. Entity Domain Name 4.1.2. Entity Domain Name
Each entity domain is identified by an entity domain name, a string Each entity domain is identified by an entity domain name, a string
of the following format: of the following format:
EntityDomainName ::= [ [ ResourceID ] '.' ] EntityDomainType EntityDomainName ::= [ [ ResourceID ] '.' ] EntityDomainType
This document distinguishes three types of entity domains: resource-
This document distinguish three types of entity domains: resource- specific entity domains, self-defined entity domains, and resource-
specific entity domains, self-defined entity domain and resource-
agnostic entity domains. Their entity domain names are derived as agnostic entity domains. Their entity domain names are derived as
follows. follows.
Each ALTO information resource MAY define a resource-specific entity Each ALTO information resource MAY define a resource-specific entity
domain (which could be empty) in a given entity domain type. A domain (which could be empty) in a given entity domain type. A
resource-specific entity domain is identified by an entity domain resource-specific entity domain is identified by an entity domain
name derived as follows. It MUST start with a resource ID using the name derived as follows. It MUST start with a resource ID using the
ResourceID type defined in [RFC7285], followed by the "." separator ResourceID type defined in [RFC7285], followed by the "." separator
(U+002E), followed by an EntityDomainType typed string. For example, (U+002E), followed by an EntityDomainType typed string. For example,
if an ALTO server provides two network maps "netmap-1" and "netmap- if an ALTO server provides two network maps "netmap-1" and "netmap-
skipping to change at page 12, line 25 skipping to change at page 13, line 36
Given a set of ALTO information resources, there MAY be a resource- Given a set of ALTO information resources, there MAY be a resource-
agnostic entity domain in a given entity domain type amongst them. A agnostic entity domain in a given entity domain type amongst them. A
resource-agnostic entity domain is simply identified by its entity resource-agnostic entity domain is simply identified by its entity
domain type. For example, given two network maps "net-map-1" and domain type. For example, given two network maps "net-map-1" and
"net-map-2", "ipv4" and "ipv6" identify two resource-agnostic "net-map-2", "ipv4" and "ipv6" identify two resource-agnostic
Internet address entity domains (see Section 5.1) between them. Internet address entity domains (see Section 5.1) between them.
Note that the "." separator is not allowed in EntityDomainType and Note that the "." separator is not allowed in EntityDomainType and
hence there is no ambiguity on whether an entity domain name refers hence there is no ambiguity on whether an entity domain name refers
to a global entity domain or a resource-specific entity domain. to a resource-agnostic entity domain or a resource-specific entity
domain.
4.1.3. Entity Identifier 4.1.3. Entity Identifier
Entities in an entity domain are identified by entity identifiers Entities in an entity domain are identified by entity identifiers
(EntityID) of the following format: (EntityID) of the following format:
EntityID ::= EntityDomainName ':' DomainTypeSpecificEntityID EntityID ::= EntityDomainName ':' DomainTypeSpecificEntityID
Examples from the Internet address entity domains include individual Examples from the Internet address entity domains include individual
IP addresses such as "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.14" and IP addresses such as "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.14" and
skipping to change at page 14, line 36 skipping to change at page 15, line 49
identified by "net-map-1.pid" and "net-map-2.pid" respectively. identified by "net-map-1.pid" and "net-map-2.pid" respectively.
When the associated information resource of the entity property is When the associated information resource of the entity property is
the current information resource itself, the ResourceID in the the current information resource itself, the ResourceID in the
property name SHOULD be ignored. For example, the ".asn" property of property name SHOULD be ignored. For example, the ".asn" property of
an "ipv4" entity indicates the AS number of the AS which this IPv4 an "ipv4" entity indicates the AS number of the AS which this IPv4
address is owned by. address is owned by.
5. Entity Domain Types 5. Entity Domain Types
This document defines three entity domain types. The definition of This document requires the definition of each entity domain type MUST
each entity domain type below includes the following: (1) entity include (1) the entity domain type name and (2) domain-specific
domain type name, (2) entity domain-specific entity identifiers, and entity identifiers, and MAY include (3) hierarchy and inheritance
(3) hierarchy and inheritance semantics. Since a global entity semantics optionally. This document defines three initial entity
domain type defines a single global entity domain, we say entity domain types as follows.
domain instead of entity domain type.
5.1. Internet Address Domain Types 5.1. Internet Address Domain Types
The document defines two entity domain types (IPv4 and IPv6) for The document defines two entity domain types (IPv4 and IPv6) for
Internet addresses. Both types are global entity domain types and Internet addresses. Both types are resource-agnostic entity domain
hence define a corresponding global entity domain as well. Since the types and hence define corresponding resource-agnostic entity domains
two domains use the same hierarchy and inheritance semantics, we as well. Since the two domains use the same hierarchy and
define the semantics together, instead of repeating for each. inheritance semantics, we define the semantics together, instead of
repeating for each.
5.1.1. IPv4 Domain 5.1.1. IPv4 Domain
5.1.1.1. Entity Domain Type 5.1.1.1. Entity Domain Type
ipv4 ipv4
5.1.1.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers 5.1.1.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers
Individual addresses are strings as specified by the IPv4Addresses Individual addresses are strings as specified by the IPv4Addresses
rule of Section 3.2.2 of [RFC3986]; blocks of addresses are prefix- rule of Section 3.2.2 of [RFC3986]; Hierarchical addresses are
match strings as specified in Section 3.1 of [RFC4632]. To define prefix-match strings as specified in Section 3.1 of [RFC4632]. To
properties, an individual Internet address and the corresponding define properties, an individual Internet address and the
full-length prefix are considered aliases for the same entity. Thus corresponding full-length prefix are considered aliases for the same
"ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/32" are equivalent. entity. Thus "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/32" are
equivalent.
5.1.2. IPv6 Domain 5.1.2. IPv6 Domain
5.1.2.1. Entity Domain Type 5.1.2.1. Entity Domain Type
ipv6 ipv6
5.1.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers 5.1.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers
Individual addresses are strings as specified by Section 4 of Individual addresses are strings as specified by Section 4 of
[RFC5952]; blocks of addresses are prefix-match strings as specified [RFC5952]; Hierarchical addresses are prefix-match strings as
in Section 7 of [RFC5952]. To define properties, an individual specified in Section 7 of [RFC5952]. To define properties, an
Internet address and the corresponding 128-bit prefix are considered individual Internet address and the corresponding 128-bit prefix are
aliases for the same entity. That is, "ipv6:2001:db8::1" and considered aliases for the same entity. That is, "ipv6:2001:db8::1"
"ipv6:2001:db8::1/128" are equivalent, and have the same set of and "ipv6:2001:db8::1/128" are equivalent, and have the same set of
properties. properties.
5.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains 5.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains
Both Internet address domains allow property values to be inherited. Both Internet address domains allow property values to be inherited.
Specifically, if a property P is not defined for a specific Internet Specifically, if a property P is not defined for a specific Internet
address I, but P is defined for some block C which prefix-matches I, address I, but P is defined for a a hierarchical Internet address C
then the address I inherits the value of P defined for block C. If which prefix-matches I, then the address I inherits the value of P
more than one such block defines a value for P, I inherits the value defined for the hierarchical address C. If more than one such
of P in the block with the longest prefix. It is important to notice hierarchical addresses define a value for P, I inherits the value of
that this longest prefix rule will ensure no multiple inheritances, P in the hierarchical address with the longest prefix. Note that
and hence no ambiguity. this longest prefix rule ensures no multiple inheritances, and hence
no ambiguity.
Address blocks can also inherit properties: if a property P is not Hierarchical addresses can also inherit properties: if a property P
defined for a block C, but is defined for some block C' which covers is not defined for the hierarchical address C, but is defined for
all IP addresses in C, and C' has a shorter mask than C, then block C another hierarchical address C' which covers all IP addresses in C,
inherits the property from C'. If there are several such blocks C', and C' has a shorter prefix length than C, then C MAY inherits the
C inherits from the block with the longest prefix. property from C'. If there are multiple such hierarchical addresses
like C', C MUST inherit from the hierarchical address having the
longest prefix length.
As an example, suppose that a server defines a property P for the As an example, suppose that a server defines a property P for the
following entities: following entities:
ipv4:192.0.2.0/26: P=v1 ipv4:192.0.2.0/26: P=v1
ipv4:192.0.2.0/28: P=v2 ipv4:192.0.2.0/28: P=v2
ipv4:192.0.2.0/30: P=v3 ipv4:192.0.2.0/30: P=v3
ipv4:192.0.2.0: P=v4 ipv4:192.0.2.0: P=v4
Figure 1: Defined Property Values. Figure 1: Defined Property Values.
skipping to change at page 17, line 35 skipping to change at page 18, line 51
5.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains 5.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains
The PID domain and the Internet address domains are completely The PID domain and the Internet address domains are completely
independent; the properties associated with a PID have no relation to independent; the properties associated with a PID have no relation to
the properties associated with the prefixes or endpoint addresses in the properties associated with the prefixes or endpoint addresses in
that PID. An ALTO server MAY choose to assign some or all properties that PID. An ALTO server MAY choose to assign some or all properties
of a PID to the prefixes in that PID. of a PID to the prefixes in that PID.
For example, suppose "PID1" consists of the prefix For example, suppose "PID1" consists of the prefix
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/24", and has the property "P" with value "v1". The "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24", and has the property "P" with value "v1". The
Internet address entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24", Internet address entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24" in
in the IPv4 domain MAY have a value for the property "P", and if they the IPv4 domain MAY have a value for the property "P", and if they
do, it is not necessarily "v1". do, it is not necessarily "v1".
5.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties 5.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties
Because the Internet address and PID domains are completely separate, Because the Internet address and PID domains are completely separate,
the question may arise as to which entity domain is the best for a the question may arise as to which entity domain is the best for a
property. In general, the Internet address domains are RECOMMENDED property. In general, the Internet address domains are RECOMMENDED
for properties that are closely related to the Internet address, or for properties that are closely related to the Internet address, or
are associated with, and inherited through, blocks of addresses. are associated with, and inherited through, hierarchical addresses.
The PID domain is RECOMMENDED for properties that arise from the The PID domain is RECOMMENDED for properties that arise from the
definition of the PID, rather than from the Internet address prefixes definition of the PID, rather than from the Internet address prefixes
in that PID. in that PID.
For example, because Internet addresses are allocated to service For example, because Internet addresses are allocated to service
providers by blocks of prefixes, an "ISP" property would be best providers by blocks of prefixes, an "ISP" property would be best
associated with the Internet address domain. On the other hand, a associated with the Internet address domain. On the other hand, a
property that explains why a PID was formed, or how it relates a property that explains why a PID was formed, or how it relates to a
provider's network, would best be associated with the PID domain. provider's network, would best be associated with the PID domain.
6. Entity Domains and Property Mappings in Information Resources 6. Entity Domains and Property Mappings in Information Resources
6.1. Information Resource Export 6.1. Information Resource Export
Each information resource MAY export a set of entity domains and Each information resource MUST export a set of entity domains and
entity property mappings. entity property mappings (which can be empty).
6.1.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Export 6.1.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Export
Each type of information resource MAY export several types of entity Each type of information resource MAY export different types of
domains. For example, a network map resource defines a "pid" domain, entity domains. For example, a network map resource MUST export a
a "ipv4" domain and a "ipv6" domain (which may be empty). "pid" domain, an "ipv4" domain and an "ipv6" domain (which may be
empty); if a facilitated endpoint type "ecgi" and its corresponding
entity domain type defined for cellular network addresses are
supported in a future ALTO extension, a network map supporting the
"ecgi" endpoint type MUST also export an "ecgi" domain.
When a new ALTO information resource type is registered, if this type When a new ALTO information resource type is registered, if this type
of information resource can export an existing type of entity domain, of information resource MAY export an existing type of entity domain,
the corresponding document MUST define how to export such type of the corresponding document MUST define how to export such type of
entity domain from such type of information resource. entity domain from such type of information resource.
When a new entity domain type is defined, if an existing type of When a new entity domain type is registered, if an existing type of
information resource can export an entity domain in this entity information resource MAY export an entity domain in this entity
domain type, the corresponding document MUST define how to export domain type, the corresponding document MUST define how to export
such type of entity domain from such type of information resource. such type of entity domain from such type of information resource.
6.1.2. Entity Property Mapping Export 6.1.2. Entity Property Mapping Export
For each entity domain which could be exported by an information For each entity domain which MAY be exported by an information
resource, this information resource MAY also export some mapping from resource, this information resource MAY also export mappings from
this entity domain to some entity property. For example, a network this entity domain to some entity property. For example, a network
map resource can map an "ipv4" entity to its "pid" property. map resource MUST map an "ipv4" entity to its "pid" property; if a
facilitated ALTO CDNI FCI information resource including
"capabilities with footprint restrictions" [RFC8008] supporting ALTO
PIDs as a new footprint type, this information ressource MUST map a
"pid" entity to its corresponding "cdni-fci-capabilities" property.
When a new ALTO information resource type is registered, if this type When a new ALTO information resource type is registered, if this type
of information resource can export an entity domain in an existing of information resource MAY export an entity domain in an existing
entity domain type, and map entities in this entity domain to an entity domain type, and map entities in this entity domain to an
existing type of entity property, the corresponding document MUST existing type of entity property, the corresponding document MUST
define how to export such type of an entity property. define how to export such type of an entity property.
When a new ALTO entity domain type or a new entity property type is When a new ALTO entity domain type or a new entity property type is
defined, if an existing type of resource can export an entity domain defined, if an existing type of resource MAY export an entity domain
in this entity domain type, and map entities in this entity domain to in this entity domain type, and map entities in this entity domain to
this type of entity property, the corresponding document MUST define this type of entity property, the corresponding document MUST define
how to export such type of an entity property. how to export such type of an entity property.
6.2. Network Map Resource 6.2. Network Map Resource
The ALTO network map resource defined by the media type "application/ The ALTO network map resource defined by the media type "application/
alto-networkmap+json" exports the following types of entity domains alto-networkmap+json" exports the following types of entity domains
and entity property mappings. and entity property mappings.
skipping to change at page 20, line 30 skipping to change at page 22, line 5
defined by the media type "application/alto-propmap+json" (see defined by the media type "application/alto-propmap+json" (see
Section 7.1). Section 7.1).
7. Property Map 7. Property Map
A property map returns the properties defined for all entities in one A property map returns the properties defined for all entities in one
or more domains, e.g., the "location" property of entities in "pid" or more domains, e.g., the "location" property of entities in "pid"
domain, and the "ASN" property of entities in "ipv4" and "ipv6" domain, and the "ASN" property of entities in "ipv4" and "ipv6"
domains. domains.
Section 10.4 gives an example of a property map request and its Section 10.5 gives an example of a property map request and its
response. response.
7.1. Media Type 7.1. Media Type
The media type of a property map is "application/alto-propmap+json". The media type of a property map is "application/alto-propmap+json".
7.2. HTTP Method 7.2. HTTP Method
The property map is requested using the HTTP GET method. The property map is requested using the HTTP GET method.
skipping to change at page 22, line 35 skipping to change at page 24, line 10
For efficiency, the ALTO server SHOULD omit property values that are For efficiency, the ALTO server SHOULD omit property values that are
inherited rather than explicitly defined; if a client needs inherited inherited rather than explicitly defined; if a client needs inherited
values, the client SHOULD use the entity domain's inheritance rules values, the client SHOULD use the entity domain's inheritance rules
to deduce those values. to deduce those values.
8. Filtered Property Map 8. Filtered Property Map
A filtered property map returns the values of a set of properties for A filtered property map returns the values of a set of properties for
a set of entities selected by the client. a set of entities selected by the client.
Section 10.5, Section 10.6, Section 10.7 and Section 10.8 give Section 10.6, Section 10.7, Section 10.8 and Section 10.9 give
examples of filtered property map requests and responses. examples of filtered property map requests and responses.
8.1. Media Type 8.1. Media Type
The media type of a property map resource is "application/alto- The media type of a property map resource is "application/alto-
propmap+json". propmap+json".
8.2. HTTP Method 8.2. HTTP Method
The filtered property map is requested using the HTTP POST method. The filtered property map is requested using the HTTP POST method.
skipping to change at page 24, line 46 skipping to change at page 26, line 21
"uses" field. "uses" field.
o If the requested entities only include entities in resource- o If the requested entities only include entities in resource-
specific entity domains, the "dependent-vtags" field in its "meta" specific entity domains, the "dependent-vtags" field in its "meta"
field MUST include version tags of resources which requested field MUST include version tags of resources which requested
resource-specific entity domains and requested resource-specific resource-specific entity domains and requested resource-specific
properties are dependent on. properties are dependent on.
o The response only includes the entities and properties requested o The response only includes the entities and properties requested
by the client. If an entity in the request is identified by a by the client. If an entity in the request is identified by a
hierarchical identifier (e.g., an "ipv4" or "ipv6" address block), hierarchical identifier (e.g., a "ipv4" or "ipv6" prefix), the
the response MUST cover properties for all identifiers in this response MUST cover properties for all identifiers in this
hierarchical identifier. hierarchical identifier.
It is important that the filtered property map response MUST include It is important that the filtered property map response MUST include
all inherited property values for the requested entities and all the all inherited property values for the requested entities and all the
entities which are able to inherit property values from them. To entities which are able to inherit property values from them. To
achieve this goal, the ALTO server MAY follow three rules: achieve this goal, the ALTO server MAY follow three rules:
o If a property for a requested entity is inherited from another o If a property for a requested entity is inherited from another
entity not included in the request, the response SHOULD include entity not included in the request, the response SHOULD include
this property for the requested entity. For example, A full this property for the requested entity. For example, A full
skipping to change at page 26, line 12 skipping to change at page 27, line 35
map and the filtered property map defined in this document defines map and the filtered property map defined in this document defines
the similar categories for entity properties. The difference is that the similar categories for entity properties. The difference is that
there is no "global" entity properties but the "self-defined" entity there is no "global" entity properties but the "self-defined" entity
properties as the special case of the "resource-specific" entity properties as the special case of the "resource-specific" entity
properties instead. properties instead.
9.3. Impact on Other Properties 9.3. Impact on Other Properties
In general, there should be little or no impact on other previously In general, there should be little or no impact on other previously
defined properties. The only consideration is that properties can defined properties. The only consideration is that properties can
now be defined on blocks of entity identifiers, rather than just now be defined on hierarchical entity identifiers, rather than just
individual entity identifiers, which might change the semantics of a individual entity identifiers, which might change the semantics of a
property. property.
10. Examples 10. Examples
10.1. Network Map 10.1. Network Map
The examples in this section use a very simple default network map: The examples in this section use a very simple default network map:
defaultpid: ipv4:0.0.0.0/0 ipv6:::0/0 defaultpid: ipv4:0.0.0.0/0 ipv6:::0/0
pid1: ipv4:192.0.2.0/25 pid1: ipv4:192.0.2.0/25
pid2: ipv4:192.0.2.0/28 ipv4:192.0.2.16/28 pid2: ipv4:192.0.2.0/27
pid3: ipv4:192.0.3.0/28 pid3: ipv4:192.0.3.0/28
pid4: ipv4:192.0.3.16/28 pid4: ipv4:192.0.3.16/28
Figure 3: Example Default Network Map Figure 3: Example Default Network Map
And another simple alternative network map: And another simple alternative network map:
defaultpid: ipv4:0.0.0.0/0 ipv6:::0/0 defaultpid: ipv4:0.0.0.0/0 ipv6:::0/0
pid1: ipv4:192.0.2.0/28 ipv4:192.0.2.16/28 pid1: ipv4:192.0.2.0/27
pid2: ipv4:192.0.3.0/28 ipv4:192.0.3.16/28 pid2: ipv4:192.0.3.0/27
Figure 4: Example Alternative Network Map Figure 4: Example Alternative Network Map
10.2. Property Definitions 10.2. Property Definitions
Beyond "pid", the examples in this section use four additional Beyond "pid", the examples in this section use four additional
properties for Internet address domains, "ISP", "ASN", "country" and properties for Internet address domains, "ISP", "ASN", "country" and
"state", with the following values: "state", with the following values:
ISP ASN country state ISP ASN country state
skipping to change at page 27, line 47 skipping to change at page 29, line 13
alternative network map with the following values: alternative network map with the following values:
ASN ASN
pid:defaultpid: - pid:defaultpid: -
pid:pid1: 12345 pid:pid1: 12345
pid:pid2: 12346 pid:pid2: 12346
Figure 7: Example Property Values for Alternative Network Map's PID Figure 7: Example Property Values for Alternative Network Map's PID
Domain Domain
10.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD) 10.3. Properties for Abstract Network Elements
Additionally, the examples in this section consider a facilitated
entity domain: "ane" (Abstract Network Element). Abstract network
elements allow ALTO clients to discover information beyond the end-
to-end routing costs. Examples of abstract network elements include:
Forwarding elements: Forwarding elements include optical wires,
physical layer links, IP tunnels, etc. Forwarding elements share
the common property "maxresbw".
Value-added services: Value-added services include HTTP caches, 5G
UPF nodes, mobile edge computing, etc. Value-added services share
the common property "persistent-entities", which contains
information that points to the entry point of the service.
Different value-added services may have specific properties, e.g.,
an abstract network element of a mobile edge may provide a list of
flavors to the client.
maxresbw persistent-entities mec-flavors
ane:L001 100 Mbps
ane:L002 100 Mbps
ane:CACHE1 http-proxy:192.0.2.1
ane:MEC01 mec:192.0.2.1 {gpu:2G, ssd:128G}
ane:MEC02 mec:192.0.2.2 {gpu:1G, ssd:128G}
The "ane" entities are usually not used alone, but associated with
other ALTO resources, e.g., cost maps. It means that the ALTO server
may not define a property map resource to provide properties of "ane"
entities. The property map payload for "ane" entities may be
provided in the response of other ALTO resources in some way.
10.4. Information Resource Directory (IRD)
The following IRD defines the relevant resources of the ALTO server. The following IRD defines the relevant resources of the ALTO server.
It provides two property maps, one for the "ISP" and "ASN" It provides two property maps, one for the "ISP" and "ASN"
properties, and another for the "country" and "state" properties. properties, and another for the "country" and "state" properties.
The server could have provided a single property map for all four The server could have provided a single property map for all four
properties, but did not, presumably because the organization that properties, but did not, presumably because the organization that
runs the ALTO server believes any given client is not interested in runs the ALTO server believes any given client is not interested in
all four properties. all four properties.
The server provides two filtered property maps. The first returns The server provides two filtered property maps. The first returns
skipping to change at page 28, line 23 skipping to change at page 30, line 22
"state" properties do not depend on the default network map (it does "state" properties do not depend on the default network map (it does
not have a "uses" capability), because the definitions of those not have a "uses" capability), because the definitions of those
properties do not depend on the default network map. The Filtered properties do not depend on the default network map. The Filtered
Property Map for the "pid" property does have a "uses" capability for Property Map for the "pid" property does have a "uses" capability for
the default network map, because that defines the values of the "pid" the default network map, because that defines the values of the "pid"
property. property.
Note that for legacy clients, the ALTO server provides an Endpoint Note that for legacy clients, the ALTO server provides an Endpoint
Property Service for the "pid" property for the default network map. Property Service for the "pid" property for the default network map.
The server also provides a facilitated ALTO resource which accepts
the filtered cost map request but returns a multipart message
including a cost map and an associated property map for "ane"
entities.
"meta" : { "meta" : {
... ...
"default-alto-network-map" : "default-network-map" "default-alto-network-map" : "default-network-map"
}, },
"resources" : { "resources" : {
"default-network-map" : { "default-network-map" : {
"uri" : "http://alto.example.com/networkmap/default", "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/networkmap/default",
"media-type" : "application/alto-networkmap+json" "media-type" : "application/alto-networkmap+json"
}, },
"alt-network-map" : { "alt-network-map" : {
skipping to change at page 29, line 39 skipping to change at page 31, line 43
"capabilities" : { "capabilities" : {
"mappings": { "mappings": {
"ipv4": [ "default-network-map.pid", "ipv4": [ "default-network-map.pid",
"alt-network-map.pid" ], "alt-network-map.pid" ],
"ipv6": [ "default-network-map.pid", "ipv6": [ "default-network-map.pid",
"alt-network-map.pid" ] "alt-network-map.pid" ]
} }
} }
}, },
"legacy-endpoint-property" : { "legacy-endpoint-property" : {
"uri" : "http://alto.example.com/legacy/eps-pid", "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/legacy/eps-pid",
"media-type" : "application/alto-endpointprop+json", "media-type" : "application/alto-endpointprop+json",
"accepts" : "application/alto-endpointpropparams+json", "accepts" : "application/alto-endpointpropparams+json",
"capabilities" : { "capabilities" : {
"properties" : [ "default-network-map.pid", "properties" : [ "default-network-map.pid",
"alt-network-map.pid" ] "alt-network-map.pid" ]
} }
},
"path-vector-map": {
"uri": "http://alto.example.com/costmap/pv",
"media-type":
"multipart/related;type=applicatoin/alto-costmap+json",
"accepts": "applicatoin/alto-costmapfilter+json",
"capabilities": {
"cost-type-names": ["path-vector"],
"ane-properties": ["maxresbw", "persistent-entities",
"mec-flavors"]
},
"uses": [ "default-network-map" ]
} }
} }
Figure 8: Example IRD Figure 8: Example IRD
10.4. Property Map Example 10.5. Property Map Example
The following example uses the properties and IRD defined above to The following example uses the properties and IRD defined above to
retrieve a Property Map for entities with the "ISP" and "ASN" retrieve a Property Map for entities with the "ISP" and "ASN"
properties. properties.
Note that, to be compact, the response does not include the entity Note that, to be compact, the response does not include the entity
"ipv4:192.0.2.0", because values of all those properties for this "ipv4:192.0.2.0", because values of all those properties for this
entity are inherited from other entities. entity are inherited from other entities.
Also note that the entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and Also note that the entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and
skipping to change at page 30, line 47 skipping to change at page 33, line 24
"tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"} "tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"}
] ]
}, },
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/23": {".ISP": "BitsRus"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23": {".ISP": "BitsRus"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {".ASN": "12345"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {".ASN": "12345"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/27": {".ASN": "12346"} "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27": {".ASN": "12346"}
} }
} }
10.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1 10.6. Filtered Property Map Example #1
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "ISP", "ASN" and "state" properties for several IPv4 request the "ISP", "ASN" and "state" properties for several IPv4
addresses. addresses.
Note that the value of "state" for "ipv4:192.0.2.0" is the only Note that the value of "state" for "ipv4:192.0.2.0" is the only
explicitly defined property; the other values are all derived by the explicitly defined property; the other values are all derived by the
inheritance rules for Internet address entities. inheritance rules for Internet address entities.
POST /propmap/lookup/inet-iacs HTTP/1.1 POST /propmap/lookup/inet-iacs HTTP/1.1
skipping to change at page 31, line 45 skipping to change at page 34, line 27
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"ipv4:192.0.2.0": "ipv4:192.0.2.0":
{".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "PA"}, {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "PA"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.1": "ipv4:192.0.2.1":
{".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "NJ"}, {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "NJ"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.17": "ipv4:192.0.2.17":
{".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "CT"} {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "CT"}
} }
} }
10.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2 10.7. Filtered Property Map Example #2
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "ASN", "country" and "state" properties for several IPv4 request the "ASN", "country" and "state" properties for several IPv4
prefixes. prefixes.
Note that the property values for both entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" Note that the property values for both entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26"
and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26" are not explicitly defined. They are and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26" are not explicitly defined. They are
inherited from the entity "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23". inherited from the entity "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23".
Also note that some entities like "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and Also note that some entities like "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and
skipping to change at page 33, line 29 skipping to change at page 35, line 43
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/28": {".ASN": "12345", "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28": {".ASN": "12345",
".state": "NJ"}, ".state": "NJ"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.16/28": {".ASN": "12345", "ipv4:192.0.2.16/28": {".ASN": "12345",
".state": "CT"}, ".state": "CT"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.0": {".state": "PA"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0": {".state": "PA"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/26": {".country": "us"}, "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26": {".country": "us"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {".ASN": "12345", "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {".ASN": "12345",
".state": "TX"}, ".state": "TX"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {".ASN": "12345", "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {".ASN": "12345",
".state": "MN"} ".state": "MN"}
} }
} }
10.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3 10.8. Filtered Property Map Example #3
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "pid" property for several IPv4 addresses and prefixes. request the "default-network-map.pid" property and the "alt-network-
map.pid" property for a set of IPv4 addresses and prefixes.
Note that the entity "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" is redundant in the Note that the entity "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" is decomposed into two
response. Although it can inherit a value of "defaultpid" for the entities "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28" and "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28", as they have
"pid" property from the entity "ipv4:0.0.0.0/0", none of addresses in different "default-network-map.pid" property values.
it is in "defaultpid". Because blocks "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28" and
"ipv4:192.0.3.16/28" have already covered all addresses in that
block. So an ALTO server who wants a compact response can omit this
entity.
POST /propmap/lookup/pid HTTP/1.1 POST /propmap/lookup/pid HTTP/1.1
Host: alto.example.com Host: alto.example.com
Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json
{ {
"entities" : [ "entities" : [
"ipv4:192.0.2.128", "ipv4:192.0.2.128",
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/27",
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" ], "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" ],
"properties" : [ "default-network-map.pid" ] "properties" : [ "default-network-map.pid",
"alt-network-map.pid ]
} }
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json
{ {
"meta": { "meta": {
"dependent-vtags": [ "dependent-vtags": [
{"resource-id": "default-network-map", {"resource-id": "default-network-map",
"tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"}, "tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"},
{"resource-id": "alt-network-map", {"resource-id": "alt-network-map",
"tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"} "tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"}
] ]
}, },
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"ipv4:192.0.2.128": {"default-network-map.pid": "defaultpid"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.128": {"default-network-map.pid": "defaultpid",
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {"default-network-map.pid": "defaultpid"}, "alt-network-map.pid": "defaultpid"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid3"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid2",
"ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid4"} "alt-network-map.pid": "pid1"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid3",
"alt-network-map.pid": "pid2"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid4",
"alt-network-map.pid": "pid2"}
} }
} }
10.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4 10.9. Filtered Property Map Example #4
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "region" property for several PIDs defined in "default- request the "region" property for several PIDs defined in "default-
network-map". The value of the "region" property for each PID is not network-map". The value of the "region" property for each PID is not
defined by "default-network-map", but the reason why the PID is defined by "default-network-map", but the reason why the PID is
defined by the network operator. defined by the network operator.
POST /propmap/lookup/region HTTP/1.1 POST /propmap/lookup/region HTTP/1.1
Host: alto.example.com Host: alto.example.com
Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
skipping to change at page 35, line 38 skipping to change at page 37, line 46
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"default-network-map.pid:pid1": { "default-network-map.pid:pid1": {
".region": "us-west" ".region": "us-west"
}, },
"default-network-map.pid:pid2": { "default-network-map.pid:pid2": {
".region": "us-east" ".region": "us-east"
} }
} }
} }
10.10. Property Map in Path Vector Example #1
The following example requests the "maxresbw", "persistent-entities"
and "mec-flavors" properties for abstract network elements between
"pid1" and "pid3" in "default-network-map".
POST /costmap/pv HTTP/1.1
Host: alto.example.com
Accept: multipart/related;type=application/alto-costmap+json,
application/alto-error+json
Content-Length: [TBD]
Content-Type: application/alto-costmapfilter+json
{
"cost-type": {
"cost-mode": "array",
"cost-metric": "ane-path"
},
"pids": {
"srcs": [ "pid1" ],
"dsts": [ "pid3" ]
},
"ane-properties": ["maxresbw", "persistent-entities", "mec-flavors"]
}
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: [TBD]
Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary=example-1;
type=application/alto-costmap+json
--example-1
Content-Id: costmap
Content-Type: application/alto-costmap+json
{
"meta": {
"vtag": {
"resource-id": "cost-map-pv.costmap",
"tag": "d827f484cb66ce6df6b5077cb8562b0a"
},
"dependent-vtags": [
{
"resource-id": "my-default-networkmap",
"tag": "75ed013b3cb58f896e839582504f6228"
}
],
"cost-type": {
"cost-mode": "array",
"cost-metric": "ane-path"
}
},
"cost-map": {
"pid1": {
"pid3": [ "ane:L001", "ane:L002", "ane:MEC01", "ane:MEC02" ],
}
}
}
--example-1
Content-Id: propmap
Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json
{
"meta": {
"dependent-vtags": [
{
"resource-id": "cost-map-pv.costmap",
"tag": "d827f484cb66ce6df6b5077cb8562b0a"
}
]
},
"property-map": {
"ane:L001": { "maxresbw": 100000000 },
"ane:L002": { "maxresbw": 100000000 },
"ane:MEC01": { "persistent-entities": "mec:192.0.2.1",
"mec-flavors": [ {"gpu": "2G", "ssd": "128G"}]},
"ane:MEC02": { "persistent-entities": "mec:192.0.2.2",
"mec-flavors": [ {"gpu": "1G", "ssd": "128G"}]}
}
}
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
Both Property Map and Filtered Property Map defined in this document Both Property Map and Filtered Property Map defined in this document
fit into the architecture of the ALTO base protocol, and hence the fit into the architecture of the ALTO base protocol, and hence the
Security Considerations (Section 15 of [RFC7285]) of the base Security Considerations (Section 15 of [RFC7285]) of the base
protocol fully apply: authenticity and integrity of ALTO information protocol fully apply: authenticity and integrity of ALTO information
(i.e., authenticity and integrity of Property Maps), potential (i.e., authenticity and integrity of Property Maps), potential
undesirable guidance from authenticated ALTO information (e.g., undesirable guidance from authenticated ALTO information (e.g.,
potentially imprecise or even wrong value of a property such as geo- potentially imprecise or even wrong value of a property such as geo-
location), confidentiality of ALTO information (e.g., exposure of a location), confidentiality of ALTO information (e.g., exposure of a
skipping to change at page 36, line 27 skipping to change at page 40, line 19
12. IANA Considerations 12. IANA Considerations
This document defines additional application/alto-* media types, and This document defines additional application/alto-* media types, and
extends the ALTO endpoint property registry. extends the ALTO endpoint property registry.
12.1. application/alto-* Media Types 12.1. application/alto-* Media Types
This document registers two additional ALTO media types, listed in This document registers two additional ALTO media types, listed in
Table 1. Table 1.
+--------------+--------------------------+-----------------------+ +----------------+-------------------------+------------------------+
| Type | Subtype | Specification | | Type | Subtype | Specification |
+--------------+--------------------------+-----------------------+ +----------------+-------------------------+------------------------+
| application | alto-propmap+json | Section 7.1 | | application | alto- | Section 7.1 |
| application | alto-propmapparams+json | Section 8.3 | | | propmap+json | |
+--------------+--------------------------+-----------------------+ | application | alto- | Section 8.3 |
| | propmapparams+json | |
+----------------+-------------------------+------------------------+
Table 1: Additional ALTO Media Types. Table 1: Additional ALTO Media Types.
Type name: application Type name: application
Subtype name: This document registers multiple subtypes, as listed Subtype name: This document registers multiple subtypes, as listed
in Table 1. in Table 1.
Required parameters: n/a Required parameters: n/a
skipping to change at page 37, line 24 skipping to change at page 41, line 21
Additional information: Additional information:
Magic number(s): n/a Magic number(s): n/a
File extension(s): This document uses the mime type to refer to File extension(s): This document uses the mime type to refer to
protocol messages and thus does not require a file extension. protocol messages and thus does not require a file extension.
Macintosh file type code(s): n/a Macintosh file type code(s): n/a
Person & email address to contact for further information: See Person & email address to contact for further information:
Authors' Addresses section. See Authors' Addresses section.
Intended usage: COMMON Intended usage: COMMON
Restrictions on usage: n/a Restrictions on usage: n/a
Author: See Authors' Addresses section. Author: See Authors' Addresses section.
Change controller: Internet Engineering Task Force Change controller: Internet Engineering Task Force
(mailto:iesg@ietf.org). (mailto:iesg@ietf.org).
12.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry 12.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry
This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity
Domain Type Registry", listed in Table 2. Domain Type Registry", listed in Table 2.
+-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+ +---------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+
| Identifier | Entity Identifier | Hierarchy & Inheritance | | Identifier | Entity | Hierarchy & Inheritance |
| | Encoding | | | | Identifier Encoding | |
+-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+ +---------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+
| ipv4 | See Section 5.1.1 | See Section 5.1.3 | | ipv4 | See | See |
| ipv6 | See Section 5.1.2 | See Section 5.1.3 | | | Section 5.1.1 | Section 5.1.3 |
| pid | See Section 5.2 | None | | ipv6 | See | See |
+-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+ | | Section 5.1.2 | Section 5.1.3 |
| pid | See | None |
| | Section 5.2 | |
+---------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+
Table 2: ALTO Entity Domains. Table 2: ALTO Entity Domains.
This registry serves two purposes. First, it ensures uniqueness of This registry serves two purposes. First, it ensures uniqueness of
identifiers referring to ALTO entity domains. Second, it states the identifiers referring to ALTO entity domains. Second, it states the
requirements for allocated entity domains. requirements for allocated entity domains.
12.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type Registry and 12.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type Registry and
ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry
skipping to change at page 40, line 41 skipping to change at page 44, line 41
To distinguish with the "ALTO Endpoint Property Type Registry", each To distinguish with the "ALTO Endpoint Property Type Registry", each
entry in this registry is an ALTO entity property type defined in entry in this registry is an ALTO entity property type defined in
Section 4.2.1. Thus, registered ALTO entity property type identifier Section 4.2.1. Thus, registered ALTO entity property type identifier
MUST conform to the syntactical requirements specified in that MUST conform to the syntactical requirements specified in that
section. section.
The initial registered ALTO entity property types are listed in The initial registered ALTO entity property types are listed in
Table 3. Table 3.
+-------------+---------------------------------+ +---------------------------+---------------------------------------+
| Identifier | Intended Semantics | | Identifier | Intended Semantics |
+-------------+---------------------------------+ +---------------------------+---------------------------------------+
| pid | See Section 7.1.1 of [RFC7285] | | pid | See Section 7.1.1 of |
+-------------+---------------------------------+ | | [RFC7285] |
+---------------------------+---------------------------------------+
Table 3: ALTO Entity Property Types. Table 3: ALTO Entity Property Types.
Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the registry MUST include Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the registry MUST include
the following information: the following information:
o Identifier: The unique id for the desired ALTO entity property o Identifier: The unique id for the desired ALTO entity property
type. The format MUST be as defined in Section 4.2.1 of this type. The format MUST be as defined in Section 4.2.1 of this
document. It includes the information of the applied ALTO entity document. It includes the information of the applied ALTO entity
domain and the property name. domain and the property name.
skipping to change at page 41, line 25 skipping to change at page 45, line 25
This document requests registration of the identifier "pid", as shown This document requests registration of the identifier "pid", as shown
in Table 3. in Table 3.
12.4. ALTO Resource-Specific Entity Domain Registries 12.4. ALTO Resource-Specific Entity Domain Registries
12.4.1. Network Map 12.4.1. Network Map
Media-type: application/alto-networkmap+json Media-type: application/alto-networkmap+json
+---------------------+---------------------+ +---------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| Entity Domain Type | Intended Semantics | | Entity Domain | Intended |
+---------------------+---------------------+ | Type | Semantics |
| ipv4 | See Section 6.2.1 | +---------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| ipv6 | See Section 6.2.1 | | ipv4 | See |
| pid | See Section 6.2.1 | | | Section 6.2.1 |
+---------------------+---------------------+ | ipv6 | See |
| | Section 6.2.1 |
| pid | See |
| | Section 6.2.1 |
+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+
Table 4: ALTO Network Map Resource-Specific Entity Domain. Table 4: ALTO Network Map Resource-Specific Entity Domain.
12.4.2. Endpoint Property 12.4.2. Endpoint Property
Media-type: application/alto-endpointprop+json Media-type: application/alto-endpointprop+json
+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+
+---------------------+---------------------+ | Entity Domain | Intended |
| Entity Domain Type | Intended Semantics | | Type | Semantics |
+---------------------+---------------------+ +---------------------------------+---------------------------------+
| ipv4 | See Section 6.3.1 | | ipv4 | See |
| ipv6 | See Section 6.3.1 | | | Section 6.3.1 |
+---------------------+---------------------+ | ipv6 | See |
| | Section 6.3.1 |
+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+
Table 5: ALTO Endpoint Property Resource-Specific Entity Domain. Table 5: ALTO Endpoint Property Resource-Specific Entity Domain.
12.5. ALTO Resource Entity Property Mapping Registries 12.5. ALTO Resource Entity Property Mapping Registries
12.5.1. Network Map 12.5.1. Network Map
Media-type: application/alto-networkmap+json Media-type: application/alto-networkmap+json
+-----------------+-----------------+-------------+-----------------+ +----------------+-----------------+-------------+------------------+
| Mapping | Entity Domain | Property | Intended | | Mapping | Entity Domain | Property | Intended |
| Descriptor | Type | Type | Semantics | | Descriptor | Type | Type | Semantics |
+-----------------+-----------------+-------------+-----------------+ +----------------+-----------------+-------------+------------------+
| ipv4 -> pid | ipv4 | pid | See Section | | ipv4 -> pid | ipv4 | pid | See |
| | | | 6.2.2 | | | | | Section 6.2.2 |
| ipv6 -> pid | ipv6 | pid | See Section | | ipv6 -> pid | ipv6 | pid | See |
| | | | 6.2.2 | | | | | Section 6.2.2 |
+-----------------+-----------------+-------------+-----------------+ +----------------+-----------------+-------------+------------------+
Table 6: ALTO Network Map Entity Property Mapping. Table 6: ALTO Network Map Entity Property Mapping.
13. Acknowledgments 13. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank discussions with Kai Gao, Qiao Xiang, The authors would like to thank discussions with Kai Gao, Qiao Xiang,
Shawn Lin, Xin Wang, Danny Perez, and Vijay Gurbani. The authors Shawn Lin, Xin Wang, Danny Perez, and Vijay Gurbani. The authors
thank Dawn Chen (Tongji University), and Shenshen Chen (Tongji/Yale thank Dawn Chen (Tongji University), and Shenshen Chen (Tongji/Yale
University) for their contributions to earlier drafts. University) for their contributions to earlier drafts.
14. Normative References 14. References
14.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005, RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.
skipping to change at page 43, line 31 skipping to change at page 47, line 46
Previdi, S., Roome, W., Shalunov, S., and R. Woundy, Previdi, S., Roome, W., Shalunov, S., and R. Woundy,
"Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol", "Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol",
RFC 7285, DOI 10.17487/RFC7285, September 2014, RFC 7285, DOI 10.17487/RFC7285, September 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7285>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7285>.
[RFC7921] Atlas, A., Halpern, J., Hares, S., Ward, D., and T. [RFC7921] Atlas, A., Halpern, J., Hares, S., Ward, D., and T.
Nadeau, "An Architecture for the Interface to the Routing Nadeau, "An Architecture for the Interface to the Routing
System", RFC 7921, DOI 10.17487/RFC7921, June 2016, System", RFC 7921, DOI 10.17487/RFC7921, June 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7921>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7921>.
[RFC8008] Seedorf, J., Peterson, J., Previdi, S., van Brandenburg,
R., and K. Ma, "Content Delivery Network Interconnection
(CDNI) Request Routing: Footprint and Capabilities
Semantics", RFC 8008, DOI 10.17487/RFC8008, December 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8008>.
14.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector]
Gao, K., Lee, Y., Randriamasy, S., Yang, Y., and J. Zhang,
"ALTO Extension: Path Vector", draft-ietf-alto-path-
vector-09 (work in progress), November 2019,
<http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-alto-path-
vector-09.txt>.
Appendix A. Scope of Property Map Appendix A. Scope of Property Map
Using entity domains to organize entities, an ALTO property map Using entity domains to organize entities, an ALTO property map
resource can be regarded as given sets of properties for given entity resource can be regarded as given sets of properties for given entity
domains. If we ignore the resource-agnostic entity domains, we can domains. If we ignore the resource-agnostic entity domains, we can
regard an ALTO property map resource as a set of (ri, di) => (ro, po) regard an ALTO property map resource as a set of (ri, di) => (ro, po)
mappings, where (ri, di) means a resource-specific entity domain of mappings, where (ri, di) means a resource-specific entity domain of
type di defined by the information resource ri, and (ro, po) means a type di defined by the information resource ri, and (ro, po) means a
resource-specific entity property po defined by the information resource-specific entity property po defined by the information
resource ro. resource ro.
skipping to change at page 45, line 5 skipping to change at page 49, line 29
mappings by mappings by
o exporting a mapping from ipv4 entities to PIDs defined by two o exporting a mapping from ipv4 entities to PIDs defined by two
different network maps, different network maps,
o extending geo-location properties to ipv4 entities defined by o extending geo-location properties to ipv4 entities defined by
Network Map 1, Network Map 1,
o and defining a new mapping from ASNs to traffic load properties. o and defining a new mapping from ASNs to traffic load properties.
(Define) (Define)
+----------+ +-------------+ +----------+ +-------------+
->| Property |<-----------------------------|--------| asn | load | ->| Property |<---------------------------+--------| asn | load |
/ | Map 1 | | |-------------| / | Map 1 | | |-------------|
/ +----------+ | | 1234 | 95% | / +----------+ | | 1234 | 95% |
| ^ | | 5678 | 70% | | ^ | | 5678 | 70% |
| | \ +-------------+ | | \ +-------------+
| | (Export) \ (Extend) | | (Export) \ (Extend)
| +---------+ +------------------------+ \ +--------------+ | +---------+ +------------------------+ \ +--------------+
| | Network |----| ipv4 | pid | -----| geo-location | | | Network |----| ipv4 | pid | -----| geo-location |
| | Map 1 | |------------------------| +--------------+ | | Map 1 | |------------------------| +--------------+
| +---------+ | 192.168.0.0/24 | pid1 | - - - -> | New York | | +---------+ | 192.168.0.0/24 | pid1 | - - -> | New York |
| | 192.168.1.0/24 | pid2 | - - - -> | Shanghai | | | 192.168.1.0/24 | pid2 | - - -> | Shanghai |
| +------------------------+ +--------------+ | +------------------------+ +--------------+
| (Export) | (Export)
\ +---------+ +------------------------+ \ +---------+ +------------------------+
---| Network |----| ipv4 | pid | ---| Network |----| ipv4 | pid |
| Map 2 | |------------------------| | Map 2 | |------------------------|
+---------+ | 192.168.0.0/24 | Paris | +---------+ | 192.168.0.0/24 | Paris |
| ... | ... | | ... | ... |
+------------------------+ +------------------------+
More detailed examples are shown in Section 10. More detailed examples are shown in Section 10.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Wendy Roome Wendy Roome
Nokia Bell Labs (Retired) Nokia Bell Labs (Retired)
124 Burlington Rd 124 Burlington Rd
Murray Hill, NJ 07974 Murray Hill, NJ 07974
USA USA
 End of changes. 91 change blocks. 
351 lines changed or deleted 584 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.47. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/