draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-09.txt   draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-10.txt 
ALTO WG W. Roome ALTO WG W. Roome
Internet-Draft S. Randriamasy Internet-Draft S. Randriamasy
Intended status: Standards Track Nokia Bell Labs Intended status: Standards Track Nokia Bell Labs
Expires: March 7, 2020 Y. Yang Expires: May 7, 2020 Y. Yang
Yale University Yale University
J. Zhang J. Zhang
Tongji University Tongji University
K. Gao K. Gao
Sichuan University Sichuan University
September 4, 2019 November 4, 2019
Unified Properties for the ALTO Protocol Unified Properties for the ALTO Protocol
draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-09 draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-10
Abstract Abstract
This document extends the Application-Layer Traffic Optimization This document extends the Application-Layer Traffic Optimization
(ALTO) Protocol [RFC7285] by generalizing the concept of "endpoint (ALTO) Protocol [RFC7285] by generalizing the concept of "endpoint
properties" to generic types of entities, and by presenting those properties" to generic types of entities, and by presenting those
properties as maps, similar to the network and cost maps in properties as maps, similar to the network and cost maps in
[RFC7285]. [RFC7285].
Requirements Language Requirements Language
skipping to change at page 1, line 46 skipping to change at page 1, line 46
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Overview: Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Basic Features of the Unified Property Extension . . . . . . 6
2.1. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2. Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2. Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3. Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3. Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.4. Information Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.4. New information resource and media type: ALTO Property
2.5. Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Advanced Features of the Unified Property Extension . . . . . 8
2.5.2. Relationship between Entity and Entity Domain . . . . 8 3.1. Entity Identifier and Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.5.3. Aggregated Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.5.4. Resource-Specific Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3. Resource-Specific Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.6. Scope of Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4. Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance . . . . . . . . 9
2.7. Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance . . . . . . . . 10 3.5. Applicable Entity Domains and Properties in the Property
3. Protocol Specification: Basic Data Type . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Map Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.1. Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.6. Connection between Resource-Specific Entity Domain/Entity
3.1.1. Entity Domain Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Property Mapping and Information Resources . . . . . . . 10
3.1.2. Entity Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. Protocol Specification: Basic Data Type . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.1.3. Entity Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1. Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.1.4. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.1.1. Entity Domain Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2. Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.1.2. Entity Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.1. Entity Property Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.1.3. Entity Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2.2. Entity Property Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.1.4. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.3. Information Resource Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2. Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.3.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Export . . . . . . . 14 4.2.1. Entity Property Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.3.2. Entity Property Mapping Export . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2.2. Entity Property Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4. Entity Domain Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. Entity Domain Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.1. Internet Address Domain Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1. Internet Address Domain Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.1.1. IPv4 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.1. IPv4 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1.2. IPv6 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.2. IPv6 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains 15 5.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains 15
4.2. PID Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2. PID Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2.1. Entity Domain Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2.1. Entity Domain Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains . . . . . 17 5.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains . . . . . 17
4.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties . . . . . 17 5.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties . . . . . 17
5. Entity Domains and Property Mappings in Information Resources 18 6. Entity Domains and Property Mappings in Information Resources 18
5.1. Network Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.1. Information Resource Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.1.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.1.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Export . . . . . . . 18
5.1.2. Entity Property Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.1.2. Entity Property Mapping Export . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2. Endpoint Property Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2. Network Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.2.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.2.2. Entity Property Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2.2. Entity Property Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3. Property Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.3. Endpoint Property Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6. Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.3.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.3.2. Entity Property Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.4. Property Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7. Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7. Filtered Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 7.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 7.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 7.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 8. Filtered Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients . . . . . . . 25 8.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service . . . . . . . . . . . 25 8.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties . . . . . . . . . 25 8.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.3. Impact on Other Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 9. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients . . . . . . . 25
9. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 9.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 9.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties . . . . . . . . . 25
9.2. Property Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 9.3. Impact on Other Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD) . . . . . . . . . . 27 10. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9.4. Property Map Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 10.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10.2. Property Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 10.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD) . . . . . . . . . . 27
9.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 10.4. Property Map Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
9.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 10.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 10.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
11.1. application/alto-* Media Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
11.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
11.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type 12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Registry and ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry . . . 37 12.1. application/alto-* Media Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
11.2.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registration Process . . . . 38 12.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
11.3. ALTO Entity Property Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 39 12.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type
11.4. ALTO Resource-Specific Entity Domain Registries . . . . 40 Registry and ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry . . . 38
11.4.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 12.2.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registration Process . . . . 39
11.4.2. Endpoint Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 12.3. ALTO Entity Property Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 40
11.5. ALTO Resource Entity Property Mapping Registries . . . . 40 12.4. ALTO Resource-Specific Entity Domain Registries . . . . 41
11.5.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 12.4.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
12. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 12.4.2. Endpoint Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
13. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 12.5. ALTO Resource Entity Property Mapping Registries . . . . 41
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 12.5.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
13. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
14. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Appendix A. Scope of Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
A.1. Example Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The ALTO protocol [RFC7285] introduces the concept of "properties" The ALTO protocol [RFC7285] introduces the concept of "properties"
attached to "endpoint addresses", and defines the Endpoint Property attached to "endpoint addresses", and defines the Endpoint Property
Service (EPS) to allow ALTO clients to retrieve those properties. Service (EPS) to allow ALTO clients to retrieve those properties.
While useful, the EPS, as defined in [RFC7285], has at least three While useful, the EPS, as defined in [RFC7285], has at least three
limitations. limitations.
First, the EPS allows properties to be associated with only endpoints First, the EPS allows properties to be associated with only endpoints
which are identified by individual communication addresses like IPv4 which are identified by individual communication addresses like IPv4
and IPv6 addresses. It is reasonable to think that collections of and IPv6 addresses. It is reasonable to think that collections of
endpoints, as defined by CIDRs [RFC4632] or PIDs, may also have endpoints, as defined by CIDRs [RFC4632] or PIDs, may also have
properties. Furthermore, recent ALTO use cases show that properties properties. Furthermore, recent ALTO use cases show that properties
of network flows [RFC7011] and routing elements [RFC7921] are also of network flows [RFC7011] and routing elements [RFC7921] are also
very useful. Since the EPS cannot be extended to those generic very useful. Since the EPS cannot be extended to those generic
entities, new services, with new request and response messages, would entities, new services, with new request and response messages, would
have to be defined for them. have to be defined for them.
Second, the EPS only allows endpoints identified by global Second, the EPS only allows endpoints identified by global
communication addresses. However, many other generic entities like communication addresses. However, an endpoint address may be a local
PIDs may not have global identifiers. Even for Internet addresses, IP address or an anycast IP address which is also not globally
there may be some local IP addresses and anycast IP addresses which unique. Additionally, a generic entity such as a PID may have an
are also not global unique. identifier that is not globally unique. For example, a PID
identifier may be used in several network maps, where in each network
map, this PID identifier points to a different set of addresses.
Third, the EPS is only defined as a POST-mode service. Clients must Third, the EPS is only defined as a POST-mode service. Clients must
request the properties for an explicit set of endpoint addresses. By request the properties for an explicit set of endpoint addresses. By
contrast, [RFC7285] defines a GET-mode cost map resource which contrast, [RFC7285] defines a GET-mode cost map resource which
returns all available costs, so a client can get a full set of costs returns all available costs, so a client can get a full set of costs
once, and then processes costs lookups without querying the ALTO once, and then processes costs lookups without querying the ALTO
server. [RFC7285] does not define a similar service for endpoint server. [RFC7285] does not define a similar service for endpoint
properties. At first a map of endpoint properties might seem properties. At first, a map of endpoint properties might seem
impractical, because it could require enumerating the property value impractical, because it could require enumerating the property value
for every possible endpoint. But in practice, it is highly unlikely for every possible endpoint. However, in practice, it is highly
that properties will be defined for every endpoint address. It is unlikely that properties will be defined for every endpoint address.
much more likely that properties may be defined for only a subset of It is much more likely that properties may be defined for only a
endpoint addresses, and the specification of properties uses an subset of endpoint addresses, and the specification of properties
aggregation representation to allow enumeration. This is uses an aggregation representation to allow enumeration. This is
particularly true if blocks of endpoint addresses with a common particularly true if blocks of endpoint addresses with a common
prefix (e.g., a CIDR) have the same value for a property. Entities prefix (e.g., a CIDR) have the same value for a property. Entities
in other domains may very well allow aggregated representation and in other domains may very well allow aggregated representation and
hence be enumerable as well. hence be enumerable as well.
This document specifies a new approach for defining and retrieving To address the three limitations, this document specifies a protocol
ALTO properties to address the three limitations: extension for defining and retrieving ALTO properties:
o This document addresses the first limitation by introducing a o The first limitation is adressed by introducing a generic concept
generic concept called ALTO Entity which is a generalization of an called ALTO Entity, which generalizes an endpoint and may
endpoint to represent a PID, a network element, a cell in a represent a PID, a network element, a cell in a cellular network,
cellular network, or other physical or logical objects used by an abstracted network element as defined in [REF path-vector], or
ALTO. Each entity is included by a collection called ALTO Entity other physical or logical objects used by ALTO. Each entity is
Domain. And each entity domain includes only one type of included in a collection called ALTO Entity Domain. Also, each
entities. Thus, each entity domain also has a type to indicate Entity Domain includes only one type of entities. Thus, each
the type of entities in it. entity domain has a type.
o Additionally, this document addresses the second limitation by o The second limitation is addressed by using resource-specific
using resource-specific entity domains. A resource-specific entity domains. A resource-specific entity domain contains
entity domain is an entity domain exported by an existing ALTO entities defined and identified with respect to a given ALTO
information resource. And a resource-specific entity domain is information resource. For example, an entity domain containing
named by its type and the resource id of the ALTO information PIDs is identified w.r.t. the network map in which these PIDs are
resource which exports it. As each resource-specific entity defined. Likewise an entity domain containing local IP addresses
domain name is unique, an entity can be uniquely identified by the may be defined w.r.t. a local network.
name of a resource-specific entity domain and its domain-specific
identifier.
o Finally, this document addresses the third limitation by defining o Finally, the third limitation is addressed by defining two new
two new types of ALTO information resources, namely Property Map types of ALTO information resources: Property Map, detailed in
(see Section 6) and Filtered Property Map (see Section 7). The Section 7 and Filtered Property Map, detailed in Section 8. The
former is a GET-mode resource which returns the property values former is a GET-mode resource which returns the property values
for all entities in some entity domains, and is analogous to a for all entities in some entity domains, and is analogous to a
network map or a cost map in [RFC7285]. The latter is a POST-mode network map or a cost map in [RFC7285]. The latter is a POST-mode
resource which returns the values for a set of properties and resource which returns the values for a set of properties and
entities requested by the client, and is analogous to a filtered entities requested by the client, and is analogous to a filtered
network map or a filtered cost map. network map or a filtered cost map.
This approach is extensible, because new entity domain types can be This approach is extensible, because new entity domain types can be
defined without revising the protocol specification defined in this defined without revising the protocol specification defined in this
document, in the same way that new cost metrics and new endpoint document. In the same way, new cost metrics and new endpoint
properties can be defined without revising the protocol specification properties can be defined without revising the protocol specification
defined in [RFC7285]. defined in [RFC7285].
This document subsumes the Endpoint Property Service defined in This document subsumes the Endpoint Property Service defined in
[RFC7285], although that service may be retained for legacy clients [RFC7285], although that service may be retained for legacy clients
(see Section 8). (see Section 9).
2. Overview: Basic Concepts 2. Basic Features of the Unified Property Extension
Before we define the specification of unified properties, there are The purpose of this extension is to convey properties on objects that
several basic concepts which we need to introduce. extend ALTO Endpoints and are called ALTO Entities, entities for
short. This section introduces the basic features involved in ALTO
Entity Property Maps.
2.1. Entity 2.1. Entity
The entity concept generalizes the concept of the endpoint defined in The concept of ALTO Entity generalizes the concept of an ALTO
Section 2.1 of [RFC7285]. An entity is an object that can be an Endpoint defined in Section 2.1 of [RFC7285]. An entity is an object
endpoint and is identified by its network address, but can also be an that can be an endpoint and is identified by its network address, but
object that has a defined mapping to a set of one or more network can also be an object that has a defined mapping to a set of one or
addresses or is even not related to any network address. more network addresses or is even not related to any network address.
Examples of eligible entities are: Examples of eligible entities are:
o a PID, defined in [RFC7285], that has a provider defined human o a PID, defined in [RFC7285], that has a provider defined human-
readable abstract identifier defined by a ALTO network map, which readable abstract identifier defined by an ALTO network map, which
maps a PID to a set of ipv4 and ipv6 addresses; maps a PID to a set of ipv4 and ipv6 addresses;
o an autonomous system (AS), that has an AS number (ASN) as its o an autonomous system (AS), that has an AS number (ASN) as its
identifier and maps to a set of ipv4 and ipv6 addresses; identifier and maps to a set of ipv4 and ipv6 addresses;
o a region representing a country, that is identified by its country o a region representing a country, that is identified by its country
code defined by ISO 3166 and maps to a set of cellular addresses; code defined by ISO 3166 and maps to a set of cellular addresses;
o a TCP/IP network flow, that has a server defined identifier o a TCP/IP network flow, that has a server defined identifier
consisting of the defining TCP/IP 5-Tuple, , which is an example consisting of the defining TCP/IP 5-Tuple, which is an example
that all endpoints are entities while not all entities are that all endpoints are entities while not all entities are
endpoints; endpoints;
o a routing element, that is specified in [RFC7921] and includes o a routing element, that is specified in [RFC7921] and includes
routing capability information; routing capability information;
o an abstract network element, that has a server defined identifier o an abstract network element, that has a server defined identifier
and represents a network node, link or their aggregation. and represents a network node, link or their aggregation.
2.2. Entity Property 2.2. Entity Domain
An entity domain defines a set of entities of same type. This type
is also called the type of the entity domain. Thus, an entity domain
type defines the type semantics and the identifier format of its
entities. An entity domain also has a name. Very often the name and
type of an entity domain are the same. Example of such entity
domains are: "ipv4", "pid", which are defined in Section 5.1 and
Section 5.2.
Using entity domains, the ALTO property map capabilities indicate on
which entity domains an ALTO client can query properties.
2.3. Entity Property
An entity property defines a property of an entity. It is similar to An entity property defines a property of an entity. It is similar to
the endpoint property defined by Section 7.1 of [RFC7285], but can be the endpoint property defined by Section 7.1 of [RFC7285]. It can be
general besides network-aware. network-aware but can also convey network-agnostic information such
as geographical location.
For example, For example:
o an "ipv4" entity may have a property whose value is an Autonomous o an entity in the "ipv4" domain may have a property whose value is
System (AS) number indicating the AS which this IPv4 address is an Autonomous System (AS) number indicating the AS that owns this
owned by; IPv4 address,
o a "pid" entity may have a property which indicates the central o an entity in the "pid" domain may have a property that indicates
geographical location of endpoints included by it. the central geographical location of endpoints it includes.
2.3. Property Map It should be noted that some objects may be both entities and
properties. For example, a PID may be both a property of an "ipv4"
entity and an entity on which a Client may query properties such as
geographical location.
An ALTO property map provides a set of properties for a set of 2.4. New information resource and media type: ALTO Property Map
entities. These entities may be in different types. For example, an
ALTO property map may define the ASN property for both "ipv4" and
"ipv6" entities.
2.4. Information Resource The Unified Property extension introduces a new ALTO information
resource named Property Map. An ALTO property map provides a set of
properties on a set of entities. These entities may be of different
types. For example, an ALTO property map may define the ASN property
for both "ipv4" and "ipv6" type of entities.
The present extension also introduces a new media type.
This document uses the same definition of the information resource as This document uses the same definition of the information resource as
defined by [RFC7285]. Each information resource usually has a JSON defined by [RFC7285]. Each information resource usually has a JSON
format representation following a specific schema defined by its format representation following a specific schema defined by its
media type. media type. In the present case, an ALTO property map resource is
represented by a JSON object of type InfoResourcePropertyMap and
For example, an ALTO network map resource is represented by a JSON defined by the media type "application/alto-propmap+json".
objectof type InfoResourceNetworkMap defined by the media type
"application/alto-networkmap+json".
2.5. Entity Domain
An entity domain defines a set of entities in the same type. This
type is also called the type of this entity domain.
Using entity domains, an ALTO property map can indicate which A Property Map can be queried as a GET-mode resource, thus conveying
entities the ALTO client can query to get their properties. values of all properties on all entities indicated in its
capabilities. It can also be queried as a POST-mode resource, thus
conveying a selection of properties on a selection of entities.
2.5.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain 3. Advanced Features of the Unified Property Extension
To define an entity domain, one naive solution is to enumerate all 3.1. Entity Identifier and Entity Domain
entities in this entity domain. But it is inefficient when the size
of the entity domain is large.
To avoid enumerating all entities, this document introduces an In [RFC7285], an endpoint has an identifier explicitly associated to
approach called "Resource-Specific Entity Domain" to define entity the "ipv4" or "ipv6" address domain. Examples are "ipv4:192.0.2.14"
domains: and "ipv6:2001:db8::12". In this extension, an entity domain
characterizes the type semantics and identifier format of its
entities and the identifier of an entity is explicitly associated to
its entity domain. For instance: an entity that is an endpoint with
an IPv4 address will have an identifier associated with domain
"ipv4", like "ipv4:192.0.2.14"; an entity which is a PID will have an
identifier associated with domain "pid", like "pid:mypid10".
Each information resource may define several types of entity domains. In this document, an entity must be owned by exactly one entity
And for each type of entity domain, an information resource can domain. And an entity identifier must point to exactly one entity.
define at most one entity domain. For example, an ALTO netowrk map If two entities in two different entity domains refer to the same
resource can define an IPv4 domain, an IPv6 domain and a pid domain. physical or logical object, they are treated as different entities,
In this document, these entity domains are called resource-specific as it is the case for an endpoint having an IPv4 and IPv6 address.
entity domains. An ALTO property map only need to indicate which
types of entity domain defined by which information resources can be
queried, the ALTO client will know which entities are effective to be
queried.
2.5.2. Relationship between Entity and Entity Domain 3.2. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Name
In this document, an entity is owned by exact one entity domain. It Some entities are defined and identified in a unique and global way.
requires that when an ALTO client or server references an entity, it This is the case for instance for entities that are endpoints
must indicate its entity domain explicitly. Even two entities in two identified by a routable IPv4 or IPv6 address. The entity domain for
different entity domains may reflect to the same physical or logical such entities can be globally defined and named "ipv4" or "ipv6".
object, we treat them as different entities. Those entity domains are also called resource-agnostic entity domains
in this document, as they are not associated to any specific ALTO
information resources.
Because of this rule, although the resource-specific entity domain Some other entities and entity types are only defined relatively to a
approach has no ambiguity, it may introduce redundancy. given information resource. This is the case for entities of domain
"pid", that can only be understood with respect to the network map
where they are defined. For example: a PID named "mypid10" may be
defined by a set S1 of IP adresses, in an information resource of
type Network Map and named "netmap1". Another Network Map "netmap2"
may use the same name "mypid10" and define it with another set S2 of
IP addresses. The identifier "pid:mypid10" may thus point to
different objects because the information on the originating
information resource is lost. The reason is that "pid" denotes an
entity domain type rather than an unambiguous identifier.
2.5.3. Aggregated Entity Domain To solve this ambiguity, the present extension introduces the concept
of resources-specific entity domain. This concept applies to domains
where entities are defined relatively to a given information
resource. It can also apply to domains of entities that are defined
locally, such as local networks of objects identified with a local
IPv4 address.
Two entities in two different resource-specific entity domains may In such cases, an entity domain name is explicitly associated with an
reflect to the same physical or logical object. For example, the identifier of the information resource where these entities are
IPv4 entity "192.0.2.34" in the IPv4 domain of the network map defined. Using a resource-specific entity domain name, an ALTO
"netmap1" and the IPv4 entity "192.0.2.34" in the IPv4 domain of the Property Map may unambiguously indicate entity domains of the same
network map "netmap2" should indicate the same Internet endpoint type, on which entity properties may be queried. Example resource-
addressed by the IPv4 address "192.0.2.34". specific entity domain names may look like: "netmap1.pid" or
"netmap2.pid". This allows to identify two distinct PID entities
such as "netmap1.pid:mypid10" or "netmap1.pid:mypid10". Resource-
specific entity domain name will be specified in Section 4.1.2.
Each entity in each resource-specific entity domain may only have 3.3. Resource-Specific Entity Property
part of properties of its associated physical or logical object. For
example, the IPv4 entity in the IPv4 domain of the network map
"netmap1" only has the PID property defined by "netmap1"; same to the
IPv4 entity in the IPv4 domain of the network map "netmap2". If the
ALTO client wants to get the complete properties, using the resource-
specific entity domain, the ALTO client has to query the IPv4 entity
"192.0.2.34" twice.
To simplify the query process of the ALTO client, this document An entity may have properties of same type, whose values are
introduces the concept "Aggregated Entity Domain". An aggregated associated to different information resources. For instance, entity
entity domain defines a union set of entities coming from multiple "192.0.2.34" defined in the "ipv4" domain may have two "pid"
resource-specific entity domains in the same type. An entity in the properties defined in two different network maps "netmap1" and
aggregated entity domain inherits all properties defined for its "netmap2". These properties will likely have different values in
associated entity in each associated resource-specific entity "netmap1" and "netmap2". To distinguish between them, this document
domains. For example, the IPv4 entity "192.0.2.34" in the aggregated uses the same approach proposed as in Section 10.8.1 of [RFC7285],
entity domain between the IPv4 domain of "netmap1" and the IPv4 which is called "Resource-Specific Entity Property". When a property
domain of "netmap2" has PID properties defined by both "netmap1" and value depends on a given information resource, the identifier of the
"netmap2". property must be explicitly associated with the information resource
that defines it.
Note that some resource-specific entity domains may not be able to be For example, the "pid" property queried on entity "ipv4:192.0.2.34"
aggregated even if they are in the same type. For example, a and defined in "netmap1" and "netmap2" respectively, may be named
property map "propmap1" may define the "asn" property on both PID "netmap1.pid" and "netmap2.pid". This allows a Client to get a
domains "netmap1.pid" and "netmap2.pid". But the PID "pid1" in property of the same type but defined in different information
"netmap1.pid" and the PID with the same name in "netmap2.pid" have resources in a single query. Specifications are provided in
different "asn" property values. It does not make sense to define an Section 4.2.
aggregated PID domain between "netmap1.pid" and "netmap2.pid" to
provide the "propmap1.asn" property because it is ambiguous.
2.5.4. Resource-Specific Entity Property 3.4. Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance
According to the example of the aggregated entity domain, an entity Enumerating all individual entities is inefficient. Some types of
may have multiple properties in the same type but associated to entities have a hierarchy format, for example CIDRs, which stand for
different information resources. To distinguish them, this document sets of individual entities. A property P may not be defined for a
uses the same approach proposed by Section 10.8.1 of [RFC7285], which specific entity E, but P may be defined for a set of entities
is called "Resource-Specific Entity Property". containing E. In which case, E inherits the value of P. For entity
domains organized in a hierarchy, this can significantly reduce the
size of Property Maps and Client query payload. To reduce the size
of the property map representation, this document introduces, when
applicable, an approach called "Property Inheritance". Individual
entities can inherit property values from their upper hierarchical
levels. This will be specified in Section 4.1.4.
2.6. Scope of Property Map 3.5. Applicable Entity Domains and Properties in the Property Map
Capabilities
Using entity domains to organize entities, an ALTO property map This section explains how the IRD capabilities of a Property Map
resource actually provides a set of properties for some entity unambiguously expose what type of properties on what entity domains a
domains. If we ignore the syntax sugar of the aggregated entity Client can query. A field called "mapping" enumerates the entity
domain, we can consider an ALTO property map resource just provides a domains supported by the Property Map; For each entity domain, a list
set of (ri, di) => (ro, po) mappings, where (ri, di) means a of applicable properties is provided. An example can be found in
resource-specific entity domain of type di defined by the information Section 10.3. Using resource-agnostic or resource-specific entity
resource ri, and (ro, po) means a resource-specific entity property domains and properties allows to formulate compact an unambiguous
po defined by the information resource ro. entity property queries relating to one or more information
resources, in particular:
For each (ri, di) => (ro, po) mapping, the scope of an ALTO property o avoid a Client to query a property on entity domains on which P is
map resource must be one of cases in the following diagram: not defined,
domain.resource domain.resource o query for en entity E property values defined in different
(ri) = r (ri) = this information resources,
+-----------------|-----------------+
prop.resource | Export | Non-exist |
(ro) = r | | |
+-----------------|-----------------+
prop.resource | Extend | Define |
(ro) = this | | |
+-----------------|-----------------+
where "this" points to the resulting property map resource, "r" o query a property P on entities E defined in different information
presents an existing ALTO information resource other the resulting resources.
property map resource.
o ri = ro = r ("export" mode): the property map resource just Specifications will be provided in Section 7.4.
transforms the property mapping di => po defined by r into the
unified representation format and exports it. For example: r =
"netmap1", di = "ipv4", po = "pid". The property map resource
exports the "ipv4 => pid" mapping defined by "netmap1".
o ri = r, ro = this ("extend" mode): the property map extends 3.6. Connection between Resource-Specific Entity Domain/Entity Property
properties of entities in the entity domain (r, di) and defines a Mapping and Information Resources
new property po on them. For example: the property map resource
("this") defines a "geolocation" property on domain "netmap1.pid".
o ri = ro = this ("define" mode): the property map defines a new Although the IRD capabilities of a Property Map can expose the
intrinsic entity domain and defines property po for each entities supported mappings in this property map, it may still not be clear to
in this domain. For example: the property map resource ("this") a Client what a resource-specific entity domain is, and what an
defines a new entity domain "asn" and defines a property applicable resource-specific entity property means, as those concepts
"ipprefixes" on this domain. are not defined in other ALTO information resources. For example, a
Client should understand that:
o ri = this, ro = r: in the scope of a property map resource, it o a local IPv4 entity domain "netmap1.ipv4" includes the IPv4
does not make sense that another existing ALTO information addresses appearing in the "ipv4" field of the endpoint address
resource defines a property for this property map resource. group of each PID in the network map "netmap1";
2.7. Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance o a "netmap1.pid" property of an IPv4 entity "ipv4:192.0.1.1"
indicates the PID defined by the network map "netmap1" and
including the IPv4 address "ipv4:192.0.1.1" in its endpoint
address group.
Enumerating all individual effective entities are inefficient. Some To help the client understanding these connections, this document
types of entities have the hierarchy format, e.g., cidr, which stand requests two new IANA registries for each information resource to
for sets of individual entities. Many entities in the same define the connection to each supported resource-specific entity
hierarchical format entity sets may have the same proprety values. domain and entity property mapping respectively. Such a connection
To reduce the size of the property map representation, this document is called "Information Resource Export", to explain what is an
introduces an approach called "Property Inheritance". Individual resource-specific entity domain or an entity property mapping
entities can inherit the property from its hierarchical format entity exported by an information resource. Examples of "Information
set. Resource Exports" of existing ALTO information resources are provided
in Section 6. Specifications are provided in Section 6.1. The
details of these new IANA registries are provided in Section 12.4 and
Section 12.5.
3. Protocol Specification: Basic Data Type 4. Protocol Specification: Basic Data Type
3.1. Entity Domain 4.1. Entity Domain
3.1.1. Entity Domain Type 4.1.1. Entity Domain Type
An entity domain has a type, which is defined by a string that MUST An entity domain has a type, which is defined by a string that MUST
be no more than 64 characters, and MUST NOT contain characters other be no more than 64 characters, and MUST NOT contain characters other
than US-ASCII alphanumeric characters (U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A, than US-ASCII alphanumeric characters (U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A,
and U+0061-U+007A), hyphen ("-", U+002D), and low line ("_", U+005F). and U+0061-U+007A), hyphen ("-", U+002D), and low line ("_", U+005F).
For example, the strings "ipv4", "ipv6", and "pid" are valid entity For example, the strings "ipv4", "ipv6", and "pid" are valid entity
domain types. domain types.
The type EntityDomainType is used in this document to denote a JSON The type EntityDomainType is used in this document to denote a JSON
string confirming to the preceding requirement. string confirming to the preceding requirement.
An entity domain type defines the semantics of a type of entity An entity domain type defines the semantics of a type of entity
domains. Each entity domain type MUST be registered with the IANA. domains. Each entity domain type MUST be registered with the IANA.
The format of the entity identifiers (see Section 3.1.3) in that type The format of the entity identifiers (see Section 4.1.3) in that type
of entity domains, as well as any hierarchical or inheritance rules of entity domains, as well as any hierarchical or inheritance rules
(see Section 3.1.4) for those entities, MUST be specified at the same (see Section 4.1.4) for those entities, MUST be specified at the same
time. time.
3.1.2. Entity Domain Name 4.1.2. Entity Domain Name
Each entity domain is identified by an entity domain name, a string Each entity domain is identified by an entity domain name, a string
of the following format: of the following format:
EntityDomainName ::= [ [ ResourceID ] '.' ] EntityDomainType EntityDomainName ::= [ [ ResourceID ] '.' ] EntityDomainType
This document distinguish three types of entity domains: resource- This document distinguish three types of entity domains: resource-
specific entity domains, self-defined entity domain and aggregated specific entity domains, self-defined entity domain and resource-
entity domains. Their entity domain names are derived as follows. agnostic entity domains. Their entity domain names are derived as
follows.
Each ALTO information resource MAY define a resource-specific entity Each ALTO information resource MAY define a resource-specific entity
domain (which could be empty) in a given entity domain type. A domain (which could be empty) in a given entity domain type. A
resource-specific entity domain is identified by an entity domain resource-specific entity domain is identified by an entity domain
name derived as follows. It MUST start with a resource ID using the name derived as follows. It MUST start with a resource ID using the
ResourceID type defined in [RFC7285], followed by the "." separator ResourceID type defined in [RFC7285], followed by the "." separator
(U+002E), followed by an EntityDomainType typed string. For example, (U+002E), followed by an EntityDomainType typed string. For example,
if an ALTO server provides two network maps "netmap-1" and "netmap- if an ALTO server provides two network maps "netmap-1" and "netmap-
2", they can define two different "pid" domains identified by 2", they can define two different "pid" domains identified by
"netmap-1.pid" and "netmap-2.pid" respectively. To be simplified, in "netmap-1.pid" and "netmap-2.pid" respectively. To be simplified, in
the scope of a specific information resource, the resource-specific the scope of a specific information resource, the resource-specific
entity domain defined by itself can be identified by the "." entity domain defined by itself can be identified by the "."
EntityDomainTyep without the ResourceID. EntityDomainTyep without the ResourceID.
When the associated information resource of a resource-specific When the associated information resource of a resource-specific
entity domain is the current information resource itself, this entity domain is the current information resource itself, this
resource-specific entity domain is a self-defined entity domain, and resource-specific entity domain is a self-defined entity domain, and
its ResourceID SHOULD be ignored from its entity domain name. its ResourceID SHOULD be ignored from its entity domain name.
Given a set of ALTO information resources, there MAY be an aggregated Given a set of ALTO information resources, there MAY be a resource-
entity domain in a given entity domain type amongst them. An agnostic entity domain in a given entity domain type amongst them. A
aggregated entity domain is simply identified by its entity domain resource-agnostic entity domain is simply identified by its entity
type. For example, given two network maps "net-map-1" and "net-map- domain type. For example, given two network maps "net-map-1" and
2", "ipv4" and "ipv6" identify two aggregated Internet address entity "net-map-2", "ipv4" and "ipv6" identify two resource-agnostic
domains (see Section 4.1) between them. Internet address entity domains (see Section 5.1) between them.
Note that the "." separator is not allowed in EntityDomainType and Note that the "." separator is not allowed in EntityDomainType and
hence there is no ambiguity on whether an entity domain name refers hence there is no ambiguity on whether an entity domain name refers
to a global entity domain or a resource-specific entity domain. to a global entity domain or a resource-specific entity domain.
3.1.3. Entity Identifier 4.1.3. Entity Identifier
Entities in an entity domain are identified by entity identifiers Entities in an entity domain are identified by entity identifiers
(EntityID) of the following format: (EntityID) of the following format:
EntityID ::= EntityDomainName ':' DomainTypeSpecificEntityID EntityID ::= EntityDomainName ':' DomainTypeSpecificEntityID
Examples from the Internet address entity domains include individual Examples from the Internet address entity domains include individual
IP addresses such as "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.14" and IP addresses such as "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.14" and
"net1.ipv6:2001:db8::12", as well as address blocks such as "net1.ipv6:2001:db8::12", as well as address blocks such as
"net1.ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" and "net1.ipv6:2001:db8::1/48". "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" and "net1.ipv6:2001:db8::1/48".
The format of the second part of an entity identifier depends on the The format of the second part of an entity identifier depends on the
entity domain type, and MUST be specified when registering a new entity domain type, and MUST be specified when registering a new
entity domain type. Identifiers MAY be hierarchical, and properties entity domain type. Identifiers MAY be hierarchical, and properties
MAY be inherited based on that hierarchy. Again, the rules defining MAY be inherited based on that hierarchy. Again, the rules defining
any hierarchy or inheritance MUST be defined when the entity domain any hierarchy or inheritance MUST be defined when the entity domain
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The type EntityID is used in this document to denote a JSON string The type EntityID is used in this document to denote a JSON string
representing an entity identifier in this format. representing an entity identifier in this format.
Note that two entity identifiers with different textual Note that two entity identifiers with different textual
representations may refer to the same entity, for a given entity representations may refer to the same entity, for a given entity
domain. For example, the strings "net1.ipv6:2001:db8::1" and domain. For example, the strings "net1.ipv6:2001:db8::1" and
"net1.ipv6:2001:db8:0:0:0:0:0:1" refer to the same entity in the "net1.ipv6:2001:db8:0:0:0:0:0:1" refer to the same entity in the
"ipv6" entity domain. "ipv6" entity domain.
3.1.4. Hierarchy and Inheritance 4.1.4. Hierarchy and Inheritance
To make the representation efficient, some types of entity domains To make the representation efficient, some types of entity domains
MAY allow the ALTO client/server to use a hierarchical format entity MAY allow the ALTO client/server to use a hierarchical format entity
identifier to represent a block of individual entities. e.g., In an identifier to represent a block of individual entities. e.g., In an
IPv4 domain "net1.ipv4", a cidr "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" represents IPv4 domain "net1.ipv4", a cidr "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" represents
64 individual IPv4 entities. In this case, the corresponding 64 individual IPv4 entities. In this case, the corresponding
property inheritance rule MUST be defined for the entity domain type. property inheritance rule MUST be defined for the entity domain type.
The hierarchy and inheritance rule MUST have no ambiguity. The hierarchy and inheritance rule MUST have no ambiguity.
3.2. Entity Property 4.2. Entity Property
Each entity property has a type to indicate the encoding and the Each entity property has a type to indicate the encoding and the
semantics of the value of this entity property, and has a name to be semantics of the value of this entity property, and has a name to be
identified. One entity MAY have multiple properties in the same identified. One entity MAY have multiple properties in the same
type. type.
3.2.1. Entity Property Type 4.2.1. Entity Property Type
The type EntityPropertyType is used in this document to indicate a The type EntityPropertyType is used in this document to indicate a
string denoting an entity property type. The string MUST be no more string denoting an entity property type. The string MUST be no more
than 32 characters, and it MUST NOT contain characters other than US- than 32 characters, and it MUST NOT contain characters other than US-
ASCII alphanumeric characters (U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A, and ASCII alphanumeric characters (U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A, and
U+0061-U+007A), the hyphen ("-", U+002D), the colon (":", U+003A), or U+0061-U+007A), the hyphen ("-", U+002D), the colon (":", U+003A), or
the low line ('_', U+005F). the low line ('_', U+005F).
Each entity property type MUST be registered with the IANA. The Each entity property type MUST be registered with the IANA. The
intended semantics of the entity property type MUST be specified at intended semantics of the entity property type MUST be specified at
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To distinguish with the endpoint property type, the entity property To distinguish with the endpoint property type, the entity property
type has the following features. type has the following features.
o Some entity property types may be applicable to entities in only o Some entity property types may be applicable to entities in only
particular types of entity domains, not all. For example, the particular types of entity domains, not all. For example, the
"pid" property is not applicable to entities in a "pid" typed "pid" property is not applicable to entities in a "pid" typed
entity domain, but is applicable to entities in the "ipv4" or entity domain, but is applicable to entities in the "ipv4" or
"ipv6" domains. "ipv6" domains.
o The intended semantics of the value of a entity property may also o The intended semantics of the value of an entity property may also
depend on the the entity domain type of this entity. For example, depend on the entity domain type of this entity. For example,
suppose that the "geo-location" property is defined as the suppose that the "geo-location" property is defined as the
coordinates of a point, encoded as (say) "latitude longitude coordinates of a point, encoded as (say) "latitude longitude
[altitude]." When applied to an entity that represents a specific [altitude]." When applied to an entity that represents a specific
host computer, identified by an address in the "ipv4" or "ipv6" host computer, identified by an address in the "ipv4" or "ipv6"
entity domain, the property defines the host's location. However, entity domain, the property defines the host's location. However,
when applied to an entity in a "pid" domain, the property would when applied to an entity in a "pid" domain, the property would
indicate the location of the center of all hosts in this "pid" indicate the location of the center of all hosts in this "pid"
entity. entity.
3.2.2. Entity Property Name 4.2.2. Entity Property Name
Each entity property is identified by an entity property name, which Each entity property is identified by an entity property name, which
is a string of the following format: is a string of the following format:
EntityPropertyName ::= [ ResourceID ] '.' EntityPropertyType EntityPropertyName ::= [ ResourceID ] '.' EntityPropertyType
Similar to the endpoint property type defined in Section 10.8 of Similar to the endpoint property type defined in Section 10.8 of
[RFC7285], each entity property may be defined by either the property [RFC7285], each entity property may be defined by either the property
map itself (self-defined) or some other specific information resource map itself (self-defined) or some other specific information resource
(resource-specific). (resource-specific).
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string. For example, the "pid" properties of an "ipv4" entity string. For example, the "pid" properties of an "ipv4" entity
defined by two different maps "net-map-1" and "net-map-2" are defined by two different maps "net-map-1" and "net-map-2" are
identified by "net-map-1.pid" and "net-map-2.pid" respectively. identified by "net-map-1.pid" and "net-map-2.pid" respectively.
When the associated information resource of the entity property is When the associated information resource of the entity property is
the current information resource itself, the ResourceID in the the current information resource itself, the ResourceID in the
property name SHOULD be ignored. For example, the ".asn" property of property name SHOULD be ignored. For example, the ".asn" property of
an "ipv4" entity indicates the AS number of the AS which this IPv4 an "ipv4" entity indicates the AS number of the AS which this IPv4
address is owned by. address is owned by.
3.3. Information Resource Export 5. Entity Domain Types
Each information resource MAY export a set of entity domains and
entity property mappings.
3.3.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Export
Each type of information resource MAY export several types of entity
domains. For example, a network map resource defines a "pid" domain,
a "ipv4" domain and a "ipv6" domain (which may be empty).
When a new ALTO information resource type is registered, if this type
of information resource can export an existing type of entity domain,
the corresponding document MUST define how to export such type of
entity domain from such type of information resource.
When a new entity domain type is defined, if an existing type of
information resource can export an entity domain in this entity
domain type, the corresponding document MUST define how to export
such type of entity domain from such type of information resource.
3.3.2. Entity Property Mapping Export
For each entity domain which could be exported by an information
resource, this information resource MAY also export some mapping from
this entity domain to some entity property. For example, a network
map resource can map an "ipv4" entity to its "pid" property.
When a new ALTO information resource type is registered, if this type
of information resource can export an entity domain in an existing
entity domain type, and map entities in this entity domain to an
existing type of entity property, the corresponding document MUST
define how to export such type of an entity property.
When a new ALTO entity domain type or a new entity property type is
defined, if an existing type of resource can export an entity domain
in this entity domain type, and map entities in this entity domain to
this type of entity property, the corresponding document MUST define
how to export such type of an entity property.
4. Entity Domain Types
This document defines three entity domain types. The definition of This document defines three entity domain types. The definition of
each entity domain type below includes the following: (1) entity each entity domain type below includes the following: (1) entity
domain type name, (2) entity domain-specific entity identifiers, and domain type name, (2) entity domain-specific entity identifiers, and
(3) hierarchy and inheritance semantics. Since a global entity (3) hierarchy and inheritance semantics. Since a global entity
domain type defines a single global entity domain, we say entity domain type defines a single global entity domain, we say entity
domain instead of entity domain type. domain instead of entity domain type.
4.1. Internet Address Domain Types 5.1. Internet Address Domain Types
The document defines two entity domain types (IPv4 and IPv6) for The document defines two entity domain types (IPv4 and IPv6) for
Internet addresses. Both types are global entity domain types and Internet addresses. Both types are global entity domain types and
hence define a corresponding global entity domain as well. Since the hence define a corresponding global entity domain as well. Since the
two domains use the same hierarchy and inheritance semantics, we two domains use the same hierarchy and inheritance semantics, we
define the semantics together, instead of repeating for each. define the semantics together, instead of repeating for each.
4.1.1. IPv4 Domain 5.1.1. IPv4 Domain
4.1.1.1. Entity Domain Type 5.1.1.1. Entity Domain Type
ipv4 ipv4
4.1.1.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers 5.1.1.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers
Individual addresses are strings as specified by the IPv4Addresses Individual addresses are strings as specified by the IPv4Addresses
rule of Section 3.2.2 of [RFC3986]; blocks of addresses are prefix- rule of Section 3.2.2 of [RFC3986]; blocks of addresses are prefix-
match strings as specified in Section 3.1 of [RFC4632]. For the match strings as specified in Section 3.1 of [RFC4632]. To define
purpose of defining properties, an individual Internet address and properties, an individual Internet address and the corresponding
the corresponding full-length prefix are considered aliases for the full-length prefix are considered aliases for the same entity. Thus
same entity. Thus "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/32" are "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/32" are equivalent.
equivalent.
4.1.2. IPv6 Domain 5.1.2. IPv6 Domain
4.1.2.1. Entity Domain Type 5.1.2.1. Entity Domain Type
ipv6 ipv6
4.1.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers 5.1.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers
Individual addresses are strings as specified by Section 4 of Individual addresses are strings as specified by Section 4 of
[RFC5952]; blocks of addresses are prefix-match strings as specified [RFC5952]; blocks of addresses are prefix-match strings as specified
in Section 7 of [RFC5952]. For the purpose of defining properties, in Section 7 of [RFC5952]. To define properties, an individual
an individual Internet address and the corresponding 128-bit prefix Internet address and the corresponding 128-bit prefix are considered
are considered aliases for the same entity. That is, aliases for the same entity. That is, "ipv6:2001:db8::1" and
"ipv6:2001:db8::1" and "ipv6:2001:db8::1/128" are equivalent, and "ipv6:2001:db8::1/128" are equivalent, and have the same set of
have the same set of properties. properties.
4.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains 5.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains
Both Internet address domains allow property values to be inherited. Both Internet address domains allow property values to be inherited.
Specifically, if a property P is not defined for a specific Internet Specifically, if a property P is not defined for a specific Internet
address I, but P is defined for some block C which prefix-matches I, address I, but P is defined for some block C which prefix-matches I,
then the address I inherits the value of P defined for block C. If then the address I inherits the value of P defined for block C. If
more than one such block defines a value for P, I inherits the value more than one such block defines a value for P, I inherits the value
of P in the block with the longest prefix. It is important to notice of P in the block with the longest prefix. It is important to notice
that this longest prefix rule will ensure no multiple inheritance, that this longest prefix rule will ensure no multiple inheritances,
and hence no ambiguity. and hence no ambiguity.
Address blocks can also inherit properties: if a property P is not Address blocks can also inherit properties: if a property P is not
defined for a block C, but is defined for some block C' which covers defined for a block C, but is defined for some block C' which covers
all IP addresses in C, and C' has a shorter mask than C, then block C all IP addresses in C, and C' has a shorter mask than C, then block C
inherits the property from C'. If there are several such blocks C', inherits the property from C'. If there are several such blocks C',
C inherits from the block with the longest prefix. C inherits from the block with the longest prefix.
As an example, suppose that a server defines a property P for the As an example, suppose that a server defines a property P for the
following entities: following entities:
skipping to change at page 17, line 10 skipping to change at page 17, line 5
o If the entity would not inherit a value, then the ALTO server MAY o If the entity would not inherit a value, then the ALTO server MAY
return "null" or just omit the property. In this case, the ALTO return "null" or just omit the property. In this case, the ALTO
client cannot infer the value for this property of this entity client cannot infer the value for this property of this entity
from the Inheritance rules. So the client MUST interpret that from the Inheritance rules. So the client MUST interpret that
this property has no value. this property has no value.
If the ALTO server does not define any properties for an entity, then If the ALTO server does not define any properties for an entity, then
the server MAY omit that entity from the response. the server MAY omit that entity from the response.
4.2. PID Domain 5.2. PID Domain
The PID domain associates property values with the PIDs in a network The PID domain associates property values with the PIDs in a network
map. Accordingly, this entity domain always depends on a network map. Accordingly, this entity domain always depends on a network
map. map.
4.2.1. Entity Domain Type 5.2.1. Entity Domain Type
pid pid
4.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers 5.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers
The entity identifiers are the PID names of the associated network The entity identifiers are the PID names of the associated network
map. map.
4.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance 5.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance
There is no hierarchy or inheritance for properties associated with There is no hierarchy or inheritance for properties associated with
PIDs. PIDs.
4.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains 5.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains
The PID domain and the Internet address domains are completely The PID domain and the Internet address domains are completely
independent; the properties associated with a PID have no relation to independent; the properties associated with a PID have no relation to
the properties associated with the prefixes or endpoint addresses in the properties associated with the prefixes or endpoint addresses in
that PID. An ALTO server MAY choose to assign some or all properties that PID. An ALTO server MAY choose to assign some or all properties
of a PID to the prefixes in that PID. of a PID to the prefixes in that PID.
For example, suppose "PID1" consists of the prefix For example, suppose "PID1" consists of the prefix
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/24", and has the property "P" with value "v1". The "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24", and has the property "P" with value "v1". The
Internet address entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24", Internet address entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24",
in the IPv4 domain MAY have a value for the property "P", and if they in the IPv4 domain MAY have a value for the property "P", and if they
do, it is not necessarily "v1". do, it is not necessarily "v1".
4.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties 5.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties
Because the Internet address and PID domains are completely separate, Because the Internet address and PID domains are completely separate,
the question may arise as to which entity domain is the best for a the question may arise as to which entity domain is the best for a
property. In general, the Internet address domains are RECOMMENDED property. In general, the Internet address domains are RECOMMENDED
for properties that are closely related to the Internet address, or for properties that are closely related to the Internet address, or
are associated with, and inherited through, blocks of addresses. are associated with, and inherited through, blocks of addresses.
The PID domain is RECOMMENDED for properties that arise from the The PID domain is RECOMMENDED for properties that arise from the
definition of the PID, rather than from the Internet address prefixes definition of the PID, rather than from the Internet address prefixes
in that PID. in that PID.
For example, because Internet addresses are allocated to service For example, because Internet addresses are allocated to service
providers by blocks of prefixes, an "ISP" property would be best providers by blocks of prefixes, an "ISP" property would be best
associated with the Internet address domain. On the other hand, a associated with the Internet address domain. On the other hand, a
property that explains why a PID was formed, or how it relates a property that explains why a PID was formed, or how it relates a
provider's network, would best be associated with the PID domain. provider's network, would best be associated with the PID domain.
5. Entity Domains and Property Mappings in Information Resources 6. Entity Domains and Property Mappings in Information Resources
5.1. Network Map Resource 6.1. Information Resource Export
Each information resource MAY export a set of entity domains and
entity property mappings.
6.1.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Export
Each type of information resource MAY export several types of entity
domains. For example, a network map resource defines a "pid" domain,
a "ipv4" domain and a "ipv6" domain (which may be empty).
When a new ALTO information resource type is registered, if this type
of information resource can export an existing type of entity domain,
the corresponding document MUST define how to export such type of
entity domain from such type of information resource.
When a new entity domain type is defined, if an existing type of
information resource can export an entity domain in this entity
domain type, the corresponding document MUST define how to export
such type of entity domain from such type of information resource.
6.1.2. Entity Property Mapping Export
For each entity domain which could be exported by an information
resource, this information resource MAY also export some mapping from
this entity domain to some entity property. For example, a network
map resource can map an "ipv4" entity to its "pid" property.
When a new ALTO information resource type is registered, if this type
of information resource can export an entity domain in an existing
entity domain type, and map entities in this entity domain to an
existing type of entity property, the corresponding document MUST
define how to export such type of an entity property.
When a new ALTO entity domain type or a new entity property type is
defined, if an existing type of resource can export an entity domain
in this entity domain type, and map entities in this entity domain to
this type of entity property, the corresponding document MUST define
how to export such type of an entity property.
6.2. Network Map Resource
The ALTO network map resource defined by the media type "application/ The ALTO network map resource defined by the media type "application/
alto-networkmap+json" exports the following types of entity domains alto-networkmap+json" exports the following types of entity domains
and entity property mappings. and entity property mappings.
5.1.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain 6.2.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain
An ALTO network map resource defines a "pid" domain, an "ipv4" domain An ALTO network map resource defines a "pid" domain, an "ipv4" domain
and an "ipv6" domain by follows: and an "ipv6" domain by follows:
o The defined "pid" domain includes all PIDs in keys of the o The defined "pid" domain includes all PIDs in keys of the
"network-map" object. "network-map" object.
o The defined "ipv4" domain includes all IPv4 addresses appearing in o The defined "ipv4" domain includes all IPv4 addresses appearing in
the "ipv4" field of the endpoint address group of each PID. the "ipv4" field of the endpoint address group of each PID.
o The defined "ipv6" domain includes all IPv6 addresses appearing in o The defined "ipv6" domain includes all IPv6 addresses appearing in
the "ipv6" field of the endpoint address group of each PID. the "ipv6" field of the endpoint address group of each PID.
5.1.2. Entity Property Mapping 6.2.2. Entity Property Mapping
For each of the preceding entity domains, an ALTO network map For each of the preceding entity domains, an ALTO network map
resource provides the properties mapping as follows: resource provides the properties mapping as follows:
ipv4 -> pid: An "networkmap" typed resource can map an "ipv4" entity ipv4 -> pid: An "networkmap" typed resource can map an "ipv4" entity
to a "pid" property whose value is a PID defined by this to a "pid" property whose value is a PID defined by this
"networkmap" resource and including the IPv4 address of this "networkmap" resource and including the IPv4 address of this
entity. entity.
ipv6 -> pid: An "networkmap" typed resource can map an "ipv6" entity ipv6 -> pid: An "networkmap" typed resource can map an "ipv6" entity
to a "pid" property whose value is a PID defined by this to a "pid" property whose value is a PID defined by this
"networkmap" resource and including the IPv6 address of this "networkmap" resource and including the IPv6 address of this
entity. entity.
5.2. Endpoint Property Resource 6.3. Endpoint Property Resource
The ALTO endpoint property resource defined by the media type The ALTO endpoint property resource defined by the media type
"application/alto-endpointprop+json" exports the following types of "application/alto-endpointprop+json" exports the following types of
entity domains and entity property mappings. entity domains and entity property mappings.
5.2.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain 6.3.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain
An ALTO endpoint property resource defined an "ipv4" domain and an An ALTO endpoint property resource defined an "ipv4" domain and an
"ipv6" domain by follows: "ipv6" domain by follows:
o The defined "ipv4" domain includes all IPv4 addresses appearing in o The defined "ipv4" domain includes all IPv4 addresses appearing in
keys of the "endpoint-properties" object. keys of the "endpoint-properties" object.
o The defined "ipv6" domain includes all IPv6 addresses appearing in o The defined "ipv6" domain includes all IPv6 addresses appearing in
keys of the "endpoint-properties" object. keys of the "endpoint-properties" object.
5.2.2. Entity Property Mapping 6.3.2. Entity Property Mapping
For each of the preceding entity domains, an ALTO endpoint property For each of the preceding entity domains, an ALTO endpoint property
resource exports the properties mapping from it to each supported resource exports the properties mapping from it to each supported
global endpoint property. The property value is the corresponding global endpoint property. The property value is the corresponding
global endpoint property value in the "endpiont-properties" object. global endpoint property value in the "endpiont-properties" object.
5.3. Property Map Resource 6.4. Property Map Resource
To avoid the nested reference and its potential complexity, this To avoid the nested reference and its potential complexity, this
document does not specify the export rule of resource-specific entity document does not specify the export rule of resource-specific entity
domain and entity property mapping for the ALTO property map resource domain and entity property mapping for the ALTO property map resource
defined by the media type "application/alto-propmap+json" (see defined by the media type "application/alto-propmap+json" (see
Section 6.1). Section 7.1).
6. Property Map 7. Property Map
A property map returns the properties defined for all entities in one A property map returns the properties defined for all entities in one
or more domains, e.g., the "location" property of entities in "pid" or more domains, e.g., the "location" property of entities in "pid"
domain, and the "ASN" property of entities in "ipv4" and "ipv6" domain, and the "ASN" property of entities in "ipv4" and "ipv6"
domains. domains.
Section 9.4 gives an example of a property map request and its Section 10.4 gives an example of a property map request and its
response. response.
6.1. Media Type 7.1. Media Type
The media type of a property map is "application/alto-propmap+json". The media type of a property map is "application/alto-propmap+json".
6.2. HTTP Method 7.2. HTTP Method
The property map is requested using the HTTP GET method. The property map is requested using the HTTP GET method.
6.3. Accept Input Parameters 7.3. Accept Input Parameters
None. None.
6.4. Capabilities 7.4. Capabilities
The capabilities are defined by an object of type The capabilities are defined by an object of type
PropertyMapCapabilities: PropertyMapCapabilities:
object { object {
EntityPropertyMapping mappings; EntityPropertyMapping mappings;
} PropertyMapCapabilities; } PropertyMapCapabilities;
object-map { object-map {
EntityDomainName -> EntityPropertyName<1..*>; EntityDomainName -> EntityPropertyName<1..*>;
} EntityPropertyMapping } EntityPropertyMapping
with fields: with fields:
mappings: A JSON object whose keys are names of entity domains and mappings: A JSON object whose keys are names of entity domains and
values are the supported entity properties of the corresponding values are the supported entity properties of the corresponding
entity domains. entity domains.
6.5. Uses 7.5. Uses
The "uses" field of a property map resource in an IRD entry specifies The "uses" field of a property map resource in an IRD entry specifies
dependent resources of this property map. It is an array of the dependent resources of this property map. It is an array of the
resource ID(s) of the resource(s). resource ID(s) of the resource(s).
6.6. Response 7.6. Response
If the entity domains in this property map depend on other resources, If the entity domains in this property map depend on other resources,
the "dependent-vtags" field in the "meta" field of the response MUST the "dependent-vtags" field in the "meta" field of the response MUST
be an array that includes the version tags of those resources, and be an array that includes the version tags of those resources, and
the order MUST be consistent with the "uses" field of this property the order MUST be consistent with the "uses" field of this property
map resource. The data component of a property map response is named map resource. The data component of a property map response is named
"property-map", which is a JSON object of type PropertyMapData, "property-map", which is a JSON object of type PropertyMapData,
where: where:
object { object {
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o If the entity is in a shared entity domain, the ALTO server SHOULD o If the entity is in a shared entity domain, the ALTO server SHOULD
return self-defined properties and all resource-specific return self-defined properties and all resource-specific
properties defined for all resource-specific entities which have properties defined for all resource-specific entities which have
the same domain-specific entity identifier as this entity does. the same domain-specific entity identifier as this entity does.
For efficiency, the ALTO server SHOULD omit property values that are For efficiency, the ALTO server SHOULD omit property values that are
inherited rather than explicitly defined; if a client needs inherited inherited rather than explicitly defined; if a client needs inherited
values, the client SHOULD use the entity domain's inheritance rules values, the client SHOULD use the entity domain's inheritance rules
to deduce those values. to deduce those values.
7. Filtered Property Map 8. Filtered Property Map
A filtered property map returns the values of a set of properties for A filtered property map returns the values of a set of properties for
a set of entities selected by the client. a set of entities selected by the client.
Section 9.5, Section 9.6, Section 9.7 and Section 9.8 give examples Section 10.5, Section 10.6, Section 10.7 and Section 10.8 give
of filtered property map requests and responses. examples of filtered property map requests and responses.
7.1. Media Type 8.1. Media Type
The media type of a property map resource is "application/alto- The media type of a property map resource is "application/alto-
propmap+json". propmap+json".
7.2. HTTP Method 8.2. HTTP Method
The filtered property map is requested using the HTTP POST method. The filtered property map is requested using the HTTP POST method.
7.3. Accept Input Parameters 8.3. Accept Input Parameters
The input parameters for a filtered property map request are supplied The input parameters for a filtered property map request are supplied
in the entity body of the POST request. This document specifies the in the entity body of the POST request. This document specifies the
input parameters with a data format indicated by the media type input parameters with a data format indicated by the media type
"application/alto-propmapparams+json", which is a JSON object of type "application/alto-propmapparams+json", which is a JSON object of type
ReqFilteredPropertyMap: ReqFilteredPropertyMap:
object { object {
EntityID entities<1..*>; EntityID entities<1..*>;
EntityPropertyName properties<1..*>; EntityPropertyName properties<1..*>;
} ReqFilteredPropertyMap; } ReqFilteredPropertyMap;
with fields: with fields:
entities: List of entity identifiers for which the specified entities: List of entity identifiers for which the specified
properties are to be returned. The ALTO server MUST interpret properties are to be returned. The ALTO server MUST interpret
entries appearing multiple times as if they appeared only once. entries appearing multiple times as if they appeared only once.
The domain of each entity MUST be included in the list of entity The domain of each entity MUST be included in the list of entity
domains in this resource's "capabilities" field (see Section 7.4). domains in this resource's "capabilities" field (see Section 8.4).
properties: List of properties to be returned for each entity. Each properties: List of properties to be returned for each entity. Each
specified property MUST be included in the list of properties in specified property MUST be included in the list of properties in
this resource's "capabilities" field (see Section 7.4). The ALTO this resource's "capabilities" field (see Section 8.4). The ALTO
server MUST interpret entries appearing multiple times as if they server MUST interpret entries appearing multiple times as if they
appeared only once. appeared only once.
Note that the "entities" and "properties" fields MUST have at Note that the "entities" and "properties" fields MUST have at
least one entry each. least one entry each.
7.4. Capabilities 8.4. Capabilities
The capabilities are defined by an object of type The capabilities are defined by an object of type
PropertyMapCapabilities, as defined in Section 6.4. PropertyMapCapabilities, as defined in Section 7.4.
7.5. Uses 8.5. Uses
Same to the "uses" field of the Property Map resource (see Same to the "uses" field of the Property Map resource (see
Section 6.5). Section 7.5).
7.6. Response 8.6. Response
The response MUST indicate an error, using ALTO protocol error The response MUST indicate an error, using ALTO protocol error
handling, as defined in Section 8.5 of [RFC7285], if the request is handling, as defined in Section 8.5 of [RFC7285], if the request is
invalid. invalid.
Specifically, a filtered property map request can be invalid as Specifically, a filtered property map request can be invalid as
follows: follows:
o An entity identifier in "entities" in the request is invalid if: o An entity identifier in "entities" in the request is invalid if:
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define a requested property's value for a particular entity. In define a requested property's value for a particular entity. In
this case, the ALTO server MUST omit that property from the this case, the ALTO server MUST omit that property from the
response for that endpoint. response for that endpoint.
If a property name in "properties" in the request is invalid, the If a property name in "properties" in the request is invalid, the
ALTO server MUST return an "E_INVALID_FIELD_VALUE" error defined ALTO server MUST return an "E_INVALID_FIELD_VALUE" error defined
in Section 8.5.2 of [RFC7285]. The "value" field of the error in Section 8.5.2 of [RFC7285]. The "value" field of the error
message SHOULD indicate the property name. message SHOULD indicate the property name.
The response to a valid request is the same as for the Property Map The response to a valid request is the same as for the Property Map
(see Section 6.6), except that: (see Section 7.6), except that:
o If the requested entities include entities in the shared entity o If the requested entities include entities in the shared entity
domain, the "dependent-vtags" field in its "meta" field MUST domain, the "dependent-vtags" field in its "meta" field MUST
include version tags of all dependent resources appearing in the include version tags of all dependent resources appearing in the
"uses" field. "uses" field.
o If the requested entities only include entities in resource- o If the requested entities only include entities in resource-
specific entity domains, the "dependent-vtags" field in its "meta" specific entity domains, the "dependent-vtags" field in its "meta"
field MUST include version tags of resources which requested field MUST include version tags of resources which requested
resource-specific entity domains and requested resource-specific resource-specific entity domains and requested resource-specific
skipping to change at page 25, line 8 skipping to change at page 25, line 33
o If an entity in the response is already covered by some other o If an entity in the response is already covered by some other
entities in the same response, it SHOULD be removed from the entities in the same response, it SHOULD be removed from the
response for compactness. For example, in the previous example, response for compactness. For example, in the previous example,
the entity A=ipv4:192.0.2.0/31 SHOULD be removed because A1 and A2 the entity A=ipv4:192.0.2.0/31 SHOULD be removed because A1 and A2
cover all the addresses in A. cover all the addresses in A.
An ALTO client should be aware that the entities in the response MAY An ALTO client should be aware that the entities in the response MAY
be different from the entities in its request. be different from the entities in its request.
8. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients 9. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients
8.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service 9.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service
Since the property map and the filtered property map defined in this Since the property map and the filtered property map defined in this
document provide the functionality of the Endpoint Property Service document provide the functionality of the Endpoint Property Service
(EPS) defined in Section 11.4 of [RFC7285], it is RECOMMENDED that (EPS) defined in Section 11.4 of [RFC7285], it is RECOMMENDED that
the EPS be deprecated in favor of Property Map and Filtered Property the EPS be deprecated in favor of Property Map and Filtered Property
Map. However, ALTO servers MAY provide an EPS for the benefit of Map. However, ALTO servers MAY provide an EPS for the benefit of
legacy clients. legacy clients.
8.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties 9.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties
Section 10.8 of [RFC7285] defines two categories of endpoint Section 10.8 of [RFC7285] defines two categories of endpoint
properties: "resource-specific" and "global". Resource-specific properties: "resource-specific" and "global". Resource-specific
property names are prefixed with the ID of the resource they depend property names are prefixed with the ID of the resource they depend
upon, while global property names have no such prefix. The property upon, while global property names have no such prefix. The property
map and the filtered property map defined in this document defines map and the filtered property map defined in this document defines
the similar categories for entity properties. The difference is that the similar categories for entity properties. The difference is that
there is no "global" entity properties but the "self-defined" entity there is no "global" entity properties but the "self-defined" entity
properties as the special case of the "resource-specific" entity properties as the special case of the "resource-specific" entity
properties instead. properties instead.
8.3. Impact on Other Properties 9.3. Impact on Other Properties
In general, there should be little or no impact on other previously In general, there should be little or no impact on other previously
defined properties. The only consideration is that properties can defined properties. The only consideration is that properties can
now be defined on blocks of entity identifiers, rather than just now be defined on blocks of entity identifiers, rather than just
individual entity identifiers, which might change the semantics of a individual entity identifiers, which might change the semantics of a
property. property.
9. Examples 10. Examples
9.1. Network Map 10.1. Network Map
The examples in this section use a very simple default network map: The examples in this section use a very simple default network map:
defaultpid: ipv4:0.0.0.0/0 ipv6:::0/0 defaultpid: ipv4:0.0.0.0/0 ipv6:::0/0
pid1: ipv4:192.0.2.0/25 pid1: ipv4:192.0.2.0/25
pid2: ipv4:192.0.2.0/28 ipv4:192.0.2.16/28 pid2: ipv4:192.0.2.0/28 ipv4:192.0.2.16/28
pid3: ipv4:192.0.3.0/28 pid3: ipv4:192.0.3.0/28
pid4: ipv4:192.0.3.16/28 pid4: ipv4:192.0.3.16/28
Figure 3: Example Default Network Map Figure 3: Example Default Network Map
And another simple alternative network map: And another simple alternative network map:
defaultpid: ipv4:0.0.0.0/0 ipv6:::0/0 defaultpid: ipv4:0.0.0.0/0 ipv6:::0/0
pid1: ipv4:192.0.2.0/28 ipv4:192.0.2.16/28 pid1: ipv4:192.0.2.0/28 ipv4:192.0.2.16/28
pid2: ipv4:192.0.3.0/28 ipv4:192.0.3.16/28 pid2: ipv4:192.0.3.0/28 ipv4:192.0.3.16/28
Figure 4: Example Alternative Network Map Figure 4: Example Alternative Network Map
9.2. Property Definitions 10.2. Property Definitions
Beyond "pid", the examples in this section use four additional Beyond "pid", the examples in this section use four additional
properties for Internet address domains, "ISP", "ASN", "country" and properties for Internet address domains, "ISP", "ASN", "country" and
"state", with the following values: "state", with the following values:
ISP ASN country state ISP ASN country state
ipv4:192.0.2.0/23: BitsRus - us - ipv4:192.0.2.0/23: BitsRus - us -
ipv4:192.0.2.0/28: - 12345 - NJ ipv4:192.0.2.0/28: - 12345 - NJ
ipv4:192.0.2.16/28: - 12345 - CT ipv4:192.0.2.16/28: - 12345 - CT
ipv4:192.0.2.0: - - - PA ipv4:192.0.2.1: - - - PA
ipv4:192.0.3.0/28: - 12346 - TX ipv4:192.0.3.0/28: - 12346 - TX
ipv4:192.0.3.16/28: - 12346 - MN ipv4:192.0.3.16/28: - 12346 - MN
Figure 5: Example Property Values for Internet Address Domains Figure 5: Example Property Values for Internet Address Domains
And the examples in this section use the property "region" for the And the examples in this section use the property "region" for the
PID domain of the default network map with the following values: PID domain of the default network map with the following values:
region region
pid:defaultpid: - pid:defaultpid: -
skipping to change at page 26, line 45 skipping to change at page 27, line 31
pid:pid2: us-east pid:pid2: us-east
pid:pid3: us-south pid:pid3: us-south
pid:pid4: us-north pid:pid4: us-north
Figure 6: Example Property Values for Default Network Map's PID Figure 6: Example Property Values for Default Network Map's PID
Domain Domain
Note that "-" means the value of the property for the entity is Note that "-" means the value of the property for the entity is
"undefined". So the entity would inherit a value for this property "undefined". So the entity would inherit a value for this property
by the inheritance rule if possible. For example, the value of the by the inheritance rule if possible. For example, the value of the
"ISP" property for "ipv4:192.0.2.0" is "BitsRus" because of "ISP" property for "ipv4:192.0.2.1" is "BitsRus" because of
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/24". But the "region" property for "pid:defaultpid" "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24". But the "region" property for "pid:defaultpid"
has no value because no entity from which it can inherit. has no value because no entity from which it can inherit.
Similar to the PID domain of the default network map, the examples in Similar to the PID domain of the default network map, the examples in
this section use the property "ASN" for the PID domain of the this section use the property "ASN" for the PID domain of the
alternative network map with the following values: alternative network map with the following values:
ASN ASN
pid:defaultpid: - pid:defaultpid: -
pid:pid1: 12345 pid:pid1: 12345
pid:pid2: 12346 pid:pid2: 12346
Figure 7: Example Property Values for Alternative Network Map's PID Figure 7: Example Property Values for Alternative Network Map's PID
Domain Domain
9.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD) 10.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD)
The following IRD defines the relevant resources of the ALTO server. The following IRD defines the relevant resources of the ALTO server.
It provides two property maps, one for the "ISP" and "ASN" It provides two property maps, one for the "ISP" and "ASN"
properties, and another for the "country" and "state" properties. properties, and another for the "country" and "state" properties.
The server could have provided a single property map for all four The server could have provided a single property map for all four
properties, but did not, presumably because the organization that properties, but did not, presumably because the organization that
runs the ALTO server believes any given client is not interested in runs the ALTO server believes any given client is not interested in
all four properties. all four properties.
The server provides two filtered property maps. The first returns The server provides two filtered property maps. The first returns
skipping to change at page 29, line 17 skipping to change at page 30, line 5
"accepts" : "application/alto-endpointpropparams+json", "accepts" : "application/alto-endpointpropparams+json",
"capabilities" : { "capabilities" : {
"properties" : [ "default-network-map.pid", "properties" : [ "default-network-map.pid",
"alt-network-map.pid" ] "alt-network-map.pid" ]
} }
} }
} }
Figure 8: Example IRD Figure 8: Example IRD
9.4. Property Map Example 10.4. Property Map Example
The following example uses the properties and IRD defined above to The following example uses the properties and IRD defined above to
retrieve a Property Map for entities with the "ISP" and "ASN" retrieve a Property Map for entities with the "ISP" and "ASN"
properties. properties.
Note that, to be compact, the response does not includes the entity Note that, to be compact, the response does not include the entity
"ipv4:192.0.2.0", because values of all those properties for this "ipv4:192.0.2.0", because values of all those properties for this
entity are inherited from other entities. entity are inherited from other entities.
Also note that the entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and Also note that the entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and
"ipv4:192.0.2.16/28" are merged into "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27", because "ipv4:192.0.2.16/28" are merged into "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27", because
they have the same value of the "ASN" property. The same rule they have the same value of the "ASN" property. The same rule
applies to the entities "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28" and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28". applies to the entities "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28" and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28".
Both of "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27" and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" omit the value Both of "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27" and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" omit the value
for the "ISP" property, because it is inherited from for the "ISP" property, because it is inherited from
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/23". "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23".
skipping to change at page 30, line 24 skipping to change at page 30, line 47
"tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"} "tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"}
] ]
}, },
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/23": {".ISP": "BitsRus"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23": {".ISP": "BitsRus"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {".ASN": "12345"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {".ASN": "12345"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/27": {".ASN": "12346"} "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27": {".ASN": "12346"}
} }
} }
9.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1 10.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "ISP", "ASN" and "state" properties for several IPv4 request the "ISP", "ASN" and "state" properties for several IPv4
addresses. addresses.
Note that the value of "state" for "ipv4:192.0.2.0" is the only Note that the value of "state" for "ipv4:192.0.2.0" is the only
explicitly defined property; the other values are all derived by the explicitly defined property; the other values are all derived by the
inheritance rules for Internet address entities. inheritance rules for Internet address entities.
POST /propmap/lookup/inet-iacs HTTP/1.1 POST /propmap/lookup/inet-iacs HTTP/1.1
skipping to change at page 31, line 27 skipping to change at page 31, line 45
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"ipv4:192.0.2.0": "ipv4:192.0.2.0":
{".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "PA"}, {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "PA"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.1": "ipv4:192.0.2.1":
{".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "NJ"}, {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "NJ"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.17": "ipv4:192.0.2.17":
{".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "CT"} {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "CT"}
} }
} }
9.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2 10.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "ASN", "country" and "state" properties for several IPv4 request the "ASN", "country" and "state" properties for several IPv4
prefixes. prefixes.
Note that the property values for both entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" Note that the property values for both entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26"
and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26" are not explicitly defined. They are and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26" are not explicitly defined. They are
inherited from the entity "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23". inherited from the entity "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23".
Also note that some entities like "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and Also note that some entities like "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and
skipping to change at page 32, line 46 skipping to change at page 33, line 32
".state": "CT"}, ".state": "CT"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.0": {".state": "PA"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0": {".state": "PA"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/26": {".country": "us"}, "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26": {".country": "us"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {".ASN": "12345", "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {".ASN": "12345",
".state": "TX"}, ".state": "TX"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {".ASN": "12345", "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {".ASN": "12345",
".state": "MN"} ".state": "MN"}
} }
} }
9.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3 10.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "pid" property for several IPv4 addresses and prefixes. request the "pid" property for several IPv4 addresses and prefixes.
Note that the entity "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" is redundant in the Note that the entity "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" is redundant in the
response. Although it can inherit a value of "defaultpid" for the response. Although it can inherit a value of "defaultpid" for the
"pid" property from the entity "ipv4:0.0.0.0/0", none of addresses in "pid" property from the entity "ipv4:0.0.0.0/0", none of addresses in
it is in "defaultpid". Because blocks "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28" and it is in "defaultpid". Because blocks "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28" and
"ipv4:192.0.3.16/28" have already cover all addresses in that block. "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28" have already covered all addresses in that
So an ALTO server who wants a compact response can omit this entity. block. So an ALTO server who wants a compact response can omit this
entity.
POST /propmap/lookup/pid HTTP/1.1 POST /propmap/lookup/pid HTTP/1.1
Host: alto.example.com Host: alto.example.com
Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json
{ {
"entities" : [ "entities" : [
"ipv4:192.0.2.128", "ipv4:192.0.2.128",
skipping to change at page 33, line 43 skipping to change at page 34, line 39
] ]
}, },
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"ipv4:192.0.2.128": {"default-network-map.pid": "defaultpid"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.128": {"default-network-map.pid": "defaultpid"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {"default-network-map.pid": "defaultpid"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {"default-network-map.pid": "defaultpid"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid3"}, "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid3"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid4"} "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid4"}
} }
} }
9.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4 10.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "region" property for several PIDs defined in "default- request the "region" property for several PIDs defined in "default-
network-map". The value of the "region" property for each PID is not network-map". The value of the "region" property for each PID is not
defined by "default-network-map", but the reason why the PID is defined by "default-network-map", but the reason why the PID is
defined by the network operator. defined by the network operator.
POST /propmap/lookup/region HTTP/1.1 POST /propmap/lookup/region HTTP/1.1
Host: alto.example.com Host: alto.example.com
Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
skipping to change at page 34, line 38 skipping to change at page 35, line 38
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"default-network-map.pid:pid1": { "default-network-map.pid:pid1": {
".region": "us-west" ".region": "us-west"
}, },
"default-network-map.pid:pid2": { "default-network-map.pid:pid2": {
".region": "us-east" ".region": "us-east"
} }
} }
} }
10. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
Both Property Map and Filtered Property Map defined in this document Both Property Map and Filtered Property Map defined in this document
fit into the architecture of the ALTO base protocol, and hence the fit into the architecture of the ALTO base protocol, and hence the
Security Considerations (Section 15 of [RFC7285]) of the base Security Considerations (Section 15 of [RFC7285]) of the base
protocol fully apply: authenticity and integrity of ALTO information protocol fully apply: authenticity and integrity of ALTO information
(i.e., authenticity and integrity of Property Maps), potential (i.e., authenticity and integrity of Property Maps), potential
undesirable guidance from authenticated ALTO information (e.g., undesirable guidance from authenticated ALTO information (e.g.,
potentially imprecise or even wrong value of a property such as geo- potentially imprecise or even wrong value of a property such as geo-
location), confidentiality of ALTO information (e.g., exposure of a location), confidentiality of ALTO information (e.g., exposure of a
potentially sensitive entity property such as geo-location), privacy potentially sensitive entity property such as geo-location), privacy
skipping to change at page 35, line 17 skipping to change at page 36, line 17
can access what properties for which entities. Security mechanisms can access what properties for which entities. Security mechanisms
such as authentication and confidentiality mechanisms then should be such as authentication and confidentiality mechanisms then should be
applied to enforce the policy. For example, a policy can be that a applied to enforce the policy. For example, a policy can be that a
property P can be accessed only by its owner (e.g., the customer who property P can be accessed only by its owner (e.g., the customer who
is allocated a given IP address). Then, the ALTO server will need to is allocated a given IP address). Then, the ALTO server will need to
deploy corresponding mechanisms to realize the policy. The policy deploy corresponding mechanisms to realize the policy. The policy
may allow non-owners to access a coarse-grained value of the property may allow non-owners to access a coarse-grained value of the property
P. In such a case, the ALTO server may provide a different URI to P. In such a case, the ALTO server may provide a different URI to
provide the information. provide the information.
11. IANA Considerations 12. IANA Considerations
This document defines additional application/alto-* media types, and This document defines additional application/alto-* media types, and
extends the ALTO endpoint property registry. extends the ALTO endpoint property registry.
11.1. application/alto-* Media Types 12.1. application/alto-* Media Types
This document registers two additional ALTO media types, listed in This document registers two additional ALTO media types, listed in
Table 1. Table 1.
+--------------+--------------------------+------------------------+ +--------------+--------------------------+-----------------------+
| Type | Subtype | Specification | | Type | Subtype | Specification |
+--------------+--------------------------+------------------------+ +--------------+--------------------------+-----------------------+
| application | alto-propmap+json | Section 6.1 | | application | alto-propmap+json | Section 7.1 |
| application | alto-propmapparams+json | Section 7.3 | | application | alto-propmapparams+json | Section 8.3 |
+--------------+--------------------------+------------------------+ +--------------+--------------------------+-----------------------+
Table 1: Additional ALTO Media Types. Table 1: Additional ALTO Media Types.
Type name: application Type name: application
Subtype name: This document registers multiple subtypes, as listed Subtype name: This document registers multiple subtypes, as listed
in Table 1. in Table 1.
Required parameters: n/a Required parameters: n/a
skipping to change at page 36, line 36 skipping to change at page 37, line 36
Intended usage: COMMON Intended usage: COMMON
Restrictions on usage: n/a Restrictions on usage: n/a
Author: See Authors' Addresses section. Author: See Authors' Addresses section.
Change controller: Internet Engineering Task Force Change controller: Internet Engineering Task Force
(mailto:iesg@ietf.org). (mailto:iesg@ietf.org).
11.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry 12.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry
This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity
Domain Type Registry", listed in Table 2. Domain Type Registry", listed in Table 2.
+-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+ +-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+
| Identifier | Entity Identifier | Hierarchy & Inheritance | | Identifier | Entity Identifier | Hierarchy & Inheritance |
| | Encoding | | | | Encoding | |
+-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+ +-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+
| ipv4 | See Section 4.1.1 | See Section 4.1.3 | | ipv4 | See Section 5.1.1 | See Section 5.1.3 |
| ipv6 | See Section 4.1.2 | See Section 4.1.3 | | ipv6 | See Section 5.1.2 | See Section 5.1.3 |
| pid | See Section 4.2 | None | | pid | See Section 5.2 | None |
+-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+ +-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+
Table 2: ALTO Entity Domains. Table 2: ALTO Entity Domains.
This registry serves two purposes. First, it ensures uniqueness of This registry serves two purposes. First, it ensures uniqueness of
identifiers referring to ALTO entity domains. Second, it states the identifiers referring to ALTO entity domains. Second, it states the
requirements for allocated entity domains. requirements for allocated entity domains.
11.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type Registry and 12.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type Registry and
ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry
One potential issue of introducing the "ALTO Entity Domain Type One potential issue of introducing the "ALTO Entity Domain Type
Registry" is its relationship with the "ALTO Address Types Registry" Registry" is its relationship with the "ALTO Address Types Registry"
already defined in Section 14.4 of [RFC7285]. In particular, the already defined in Section 14.4 of [RFC7285]. In particular, the
entity identifier of a type of an entity domain registered in the entity identifier of a type of an entity domain registered in the
"ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry" MAY match an address type defined "ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry" MAY match an address type defined
in "ALTO Address Type Registry". It is necessary to precisely define in "ALTO Address Type Registry". It is necessary to precisely define
and guarantee the consistency between "ALTO Address Type Registry" and guarantee the consistency between "ALTO Address Type Registry"
and "ALTO Entity Domain Registry". and "ALTO Entity Domain Registry".
skipping to change at page 38, line 18 skipping to change at page 39, line 18
- If yes: Set the new ALTO entity domain type identifier to - If yes: Set the new ALTO entity domain type identifier to
be the found ALTO address type identifier. be the found ALTO address type identifier.
- If no: Define a new ALTO entity domain type identifier - If no: Define a new ALTO entity domain type identifier
and use it to register a new address type in the ALTO and use it to register a new address type in the ALTO
Address Type Registry following Section 14.4 of Address Type Registry following Section 14.4 of
[RFC7285]. [RFC7285].
+ Use the new ALTO entity domain type identifier to register a + Use the new ALTO entity domain type identifier to register a
new ALTO entity domain type in the ALTO Entity Domain Type new ALTO entity domain type in the ALTO Entity Domain Type
Registry following Section 11.2.2 of this document. Registry following Section 12.2.2 of this document.
* If no (e.g., pid name, ane name or country code): Proceed with * If no (e.g., pid name, ane name or country code): Proceed with
the ALTO Entity Domain Type registration as described in the ALTO Entity Domain Type registration as described in
Section 11.2.2. Section 12.2.2.
11.2.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registration Process 12.2.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registration Process
New ALTO entity domain types are assigned after IETF Review [RFC5226] New ALTO entity domain types are assigned after IETF Review [RFC5226]
to ensure that proper documentation regarding the new ALTO entity to ensure that proper documentation regarding the new ALTO entity
domain types and their security considerations has been provided. domain types and their security considerations has been provided.
RFCs defining new entity domain types SHOULD indicate how an entity RFCs defining new entity domain types SHOULD indicate how an entity
in a registered type of domain is encoded as an EntityID, and, if in a registered type of domain is encoded as an EntityID, and, if
applicable, the rules defining the entity hierarchy and property applicable, the rules defining the entity hierarchy and property
inheritance. Updates and deletions of ALTO entity domains follow the inheritance. Updates and deletions of ALTO entity domains follow the
same procedure. same procedure.
Registered ALTO entity domain type identifiers MUST conform to the Registered ALTO entity domain type identifiers MUST conform to the
syntactical requirements specified in Section 3.1.2. Identifiers are syntactical requirements specified in Section 4.1.2. Identifiers are
to be recorded and displayed as strings. to be recorded and displayed as strings.
Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the registry MUST include Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the registry MUST include
the following information: the following information:
o Identifier: The name of the desired ALTO entity domain type. o Identifier: The name of the desired ALTO entity domain type.
o Entity Identifier Encoding: The procedure for encoding the o Entity Identifier Encoding: The procedure for encoding the
identifier of an entity of the registered type as an EntityID (see identifier of an entity of the registered type as an EntityID (see
Section 3.1.3). If corresponding entity identifiers of an entity Section 4.1.3). If corresponding entity identifiers of an entity
domain match a known "network" address type, the Entity Identifier domain match a known "network" address type, the Entity Identifier
Encoding of this domain identifier MUST include both Address Encoding of this domain identifier MUST include both Address
Encoding and Prefix Encoding of the same identifier registered in Encoding and Prefix Encoding of the same identifier registered in
the ALTO Address Type Registry [RFC7285]. For the purpose of the ALTO Address Type Registry [RFC7285]. For the purpose of
defining properties, an individual entity identifier and the defining properties, an individual entity identifier and the
corresponding full-length prefix MUST be considered aliases for corresponding full-length prefix MUST be considered aliases for
the same entity. the same entity.
o Hierarchy: If the entities form a hierarchy, the procedure for o Hierarchy: If the entities form a hierarchy, the procedure for
determining that hierarchy. determining that hierarchy.
skipping to change at page 39, line 27 skipping to change at page 40, line 27
o Security Considerations: In some usage scenarios, entity o Security Considerations: In some usage scenarios, entity
identifiers carried in ALTO Protocol messages may reveal identifiers carried in ALTO Protocol messages may reveal
information about an ALTO client or an ALTO service provider. information about an ALTO client or an ALTO service provider.
Applications and ALTO service providers using addresses of the Applications and ALTO service providers using addresses of the
registered type should be made aware of how (or if) the addressing registered type should be made aware of how (or if) the addressing
scheme relates to private information and network proximity. scheme relates to private information and network proximity.
This specification requests registration of the identifiers "ipv4", This specification requests registration of the identifiers "ipv4",
"ipv6" and "pid", as shown in Table 2. "ipv6" and "pid", as shown in Table 2.
11.3. ALTO Entity Property Type Registry 12.3. ALTO Entity Property Type Registry
This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity
Property Type Registry", listed in Table 3. Property Type Registry", listed in Table 3.
To distinguish with the "ALTO Endpoint Property Type Registry", each To distinguish with the "ALTO Endpoint Property Type Registry", each
entry in this registry is an ALTO entity property type defined in entry in this registry is an ALTO entity property type defined in
Section 3.2.1. Thus, registered ALTO entity property type identifier Section 4.2.1. Thus, registered ALTO entity property type identifier
MUST conform to the syntactical requirements specified in that MUST conform to the syntactical requirements specified in that
section. section.
The initial registered ALTO entity property types are listed in The initial registered ALTO entity property types are listed in
Table 3. Table 3.
+-------------+---------------------------------+ +-------------+---------------------------------+
| Identifier | Intended Semantics | | Identifier | Intended Semantics |
+-------------+---------------------------------+ +-------------+---------------------------------+
| pid | See Section 7.1.1 of [RFC7285] | | pid | See Section 7.1.1 of [RFC7285] |
+-------------+---------------------------------+ +-------------+---------------------------------+
Table 3: ALTO Entity Property Types. Table 3: ALTO Entity Property Types.
Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the registry MUST include Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the registry MUST include
the following information: the following information:
o Identifier: The unique id for the desired ALTO entity property o Identifier: The unique id for the desired ALTO entity property
type. The format MUST be as defined in Section 3.2.1 of this type. The format MUST be as defined in Section 4.2.1 of this
document. It includes the information of the applied ALTO entity document. It includes the information of the applied ALTO entity
domain and the property name. domain and the property name.
o Intended Semantics: ALTO entity properties carry with them o Intended Semantics: ALTO entity properties carry with them
semantics to guide their usage by ALTO clients. Hence, a document semantics to guide their usage by ALTO clients. Hence, a document
defining a new type SHOULD provide guidance to both ALTO service defining a new type SHOULD provide guidance to both ALTO service
providers and applications utilizing ALTO clients as to how values providers and applications utilizing ALTO clients as to how values
of the registered ALTO entity property should be interpreted. of the registered ALTO entity property should be interpreted.
This document requests registration of the identifier "pid", as shown This document requests registration of the identifier "pid", as shown
in Table 3. in Table 3.
11.4. ALTO Resource-Specific Entity Domain Registries 12.4. ALTO Resource-Specific Entity Domain Registries
11.4.1. Network Map 12.4.1. Network Map
Media-type: application/alto-networkmap+json Media-type: application/alto-networkmap+json
+---------------------+---------------------+ +---------------------+---------------------+
| Entity Domain Type | Intended Semantics | | Entity Domain Type | Intended Semantics |
+---------------------+---------------------+ +---------------------+---------------------+
| ipv4 | See Section 5.1.1 | | ipv4 | See Section 6.2.1 |
| ipv6 | See Section 5.1.1 | | ipv6 | See Section 6.2.1 |
| pid | See Section 5.1.1 | | pid | See Section 6.2.1 |
+---------------------+---------------------+ +---------------------+---------------------+
Table 4: ALTO Network Map Resource-Specific Entity Domain. Table 4: ALTO Network Map Resource-Specific Entity Domain.
11.4.2. Endpoint Property 12.4.2. Endpoint Property
Media-type: application/alto-endpointprop+json Media-type: application/alto-endpointprop+json
+---------------------+---------------------+ +---------------------+---------------------+
| Entity Domain Type | Intended Semantics | | Entity Domain Type | Intended Semantics |
+---------------------+---------------------+ +---------------------+---------------------+
| ipv4 | See Section 5.2.1 | | ipv4 | See Section 6.3.1 |
| ipv6 | See Section 5.2.1 | | ipv6 | See Section 6.3.1 |
+---------------------+---------------------+ +---------------------+---------------------+
Table 5: ALTO Endpoint Property Resource-Specific Entity Domain. Table 5: ALTO Endpoint Property Resource-Specific Entity Domain.
11.5. ALTO Resource Entity Property Mapping Registries 12.5. ALTO Resource Entity Property Mapping Registries
11.5.1. Network Map 12.5.1. Network Map
Media-type: application/alto-networkmap+json Media-type: application/alto-networkmap+json
+----------------+-----------------+-------------+------------------+ +-----------------+-----------------+-------------+-----------------+
| Mapping | Entity Domain | Property | Intended | | Mapping | Entity Domain | Property | Intended |
| Descriptor | Type | Type | Semantics | | Descriptor | Type | Type | Semantics |
+----------------+-----------------+-------------+------------------+ +-----------------+-----------------+-------------+-----------------+
| ipv4 -> pid | ipv4 | pid | See | | ipv4 -> pid | ipv4 | pid | See Section |
| | | | Section 5.1.2 | | | | | 6.2.2 |
| ipv6 -> pid | ipv6 | pid | See | | ipv6 -> pid | ipv6 | pid | See Section |
| | | | Section 5.1.2 | | | | | 6.2.2 |
+----------------+-----------------+-------------+------------------+ +-----------------+-----------------+-------------+-----------------+
Table 6: ALTO Network Map Entity Property Mapping. Table 6: ALTO Network Map Entity Property Mapping.
12. Acknowledgments 13. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank discussions with Kai Gao, Qiao Xiang, The authors would like to thank discussions with Kai Gao, Qiao Xiang,
Shawn Lin, Xin Wang, Danny Perez, and Vijay Gurbani. The authors Shawn Lin, Xin Wang, Danny Perez, and Vijay Gurbani. The authors
thank Dawn Chen (Tongji University), and Shenshen Chen (Tongji/Yale thank Dawn Chen (Tongji University), and Shenshen Chen (Tongji/Yale
University) for their contributions to earlier drafts. University) for their contributions to earlier drafts.
13. Normative References 14. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005, RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.
skipping to change at page 42, line 31 skipping to change at page 43, line 31
Previdi, S., Roome, W., Shalunov, S., and R. Woundy, Previdi, S., Roome, W., Shalunov, S., and R. Woundy,
"Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol", "Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol",
RFC 7285, DOI 10.17487/RFC7285, September 2014, RFC 7285, DOI 10.17487/RFC7285, September 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7285>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7285>.
[RFC7921] Atlas, A., Halpern, J., Hares, S., Ward, D., and T. [RFC7921] Atlas, A., Halpern, J., Hares, S., Ward, D., and T.
Nadeau, "An Architecture for the Interface to the Routing Nadeau, "An Architecture for the Interface to the Routing
System", RFC 7921, DOI 10.17487/RFC7921, June 2016, System", RFC 7921, DOI 10.17487/RFC7921, June 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7921>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7921>.
Appendix A. Scope of Property Map
Using entity domains to organize entities, an ALTO property map
resource can be regarded as given sets of properties for given entity
domains. If we ignore the resource-agnostic entity domains, we can
regard an ALTO property map resource as a set of (ri, di) => (ro, po)
mappings, where (ri, di) means a resource-specific entity domain of
type di defined by the information resource ri, and (ro, po) means a
resource-specific entity property po defined by the information
resource ro.
For each (ri, di) => (ro, po) mapping, the scope of an ALTO property
map resource must be one of the cases in the following diagram:
domain.resource domain.resource
(ri) = r (ri) = this
+-----------------|-----------------+
prop.resource | Export | Non-exist |
(ro) = r | | |
+-----------------|-----------------+
prop.resource | Extend | Define |
(ro) = this | | |
+-----------------|-----------------+
where "this" represents the resulting property map resource, and "r"
represents an existing ALTO information resource other the resulting
property map resource.
o ri = ro = r ("export" mode): the property map resource just
transforms the property mapping di => po defined by r into the
unified representation format and exports it. For example: r =
"netmap1", di = "ipv4", po = "pid". The property map resource
exports the "ipv4 => pid" mapping defined by "netmap1".
o ri = r, ro = this ("extend" mode): the property map extends
properties of entities in the entity domain (r, di) and defines a
new property po on them. For example: the property map resource
("this") defines a "geolocation" property on domain "netmap1.pid".
o ri = ro = this ("define" mode): the property map defines a new
intrinsic entity domain and defines property po for each entity in
this domain. For example: the property map resource ("this")
defines a new entity domain "asn" and defines a property
"ipprefixes" on this domain.
o ri = this, ro = r: in the scope of a property map resource, it
does not make sense that another existing ALTO information
resource defines a property for this property map resource.
A.1. Example Property Map
The following figure shows an example property map called Property
Map 1, which depends on two network maps and provides three sets of
mappings by
o exporting a mapping from ipv4 entities to PIDs defined by two
different network maps,
o extending geo-location properties to ipv4 entities defined by
Network Map 1,
o and defining a new mapping from ASNs to traffic load properties.
(Define)
+----------+ +-------------+
->| Property |<-----------------------------|--------| asn | load |
/ | Map 1 | | |-------------|
/ +----------+ | | 1234 | 95% |
| ^ | | 5678 | 70% |
| | \ +-------------+
| | (Export) \ (Extend)
| +---------+ +------------------------+ \ +--------------+
| | Network |----| ipv4 | pid | -----| geo-location |
| | Map 1 | |------------------------| +--------------+
| +---------+ | 192.168.0.0/24 | pid1 | - - - -> | New York |
| | 192.168.1.0/24 | pid2 | - - - -> | Shanghai |
| +------------------------+ +--------------+
| (Export)
\ +---------+ +------------------------+
---| Network |----| ipv4 | pid |
| Map 2 | |------------------------|
+---------+ | 192.168.0.0/24 | Paris |
| ... | ... |
+------------------------+
More detailed examples are shown in Section 10.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Wendy Roome Wendy Roome
Nokia Bell Labs (Retired) Nokia Bell Labs (Retired)
124 Burlington Rd 124 Burlington Rd
Murray Hill, NJ 07974 Murray Hill, NJ 07974
USA USA
Phone: +1-908-464-6975 Phone: +1-908-464-6975
Email: wendy@wdroome.com Email: wendy@wdroome.com
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