draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-01.txt   draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-02.txt 
ALTO WG W. Roome ALTO WG W. Roome
Internet-Draft Nokia Bell Labs Internet-Draft Nokia Bell Labs
Intended status: Standards Track S. Chen Intended status: Standards Track S. Chen
Expires: June 20, 2018 X. Wang Expires: September 2, 2018 Tongji University
Tongji University S. Randriamasy
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs
Y. Yang Y. Yang
Yale University Yale University
J. Zhang J. Zhang
Tongji University Tongji University
December 17, 2017 March 1, 2018
Extensible Property Maps for the ALTO Protocol Unified Properties for the ALTO Protocol
draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-01 draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-02
Abstract Abstract
This document extends the Application-Layer Traffic Optimization This document extends the Application-Layer Traffic Optimization
(ALTO) Protocol [RFC7285] by generalizing the concept of "endpoint (ALTO) Protocol [RFC7285] by generalizing the concept of "endpoint
properties" to other entity domains, and by presenting those properties" to other entity domains, and by presenting those
properties as maps, similar to the network and cost maps in ALTO. properties as maps, similar to the network and cost maps in ALTO.
Requirements Language Requirements Language
skipping to change at page 1, line 45 skipping to change at page 1, line 46
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on June 20, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 2, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Definitions and Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Definitions and Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2. Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3. Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3. Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.4. Entity Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.4. Entity Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.5. Property Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.5. Property Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.6. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.6. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.7. Relationship with Other ALTO Resources . . . . . . . . . 6 2.7. Relationship with Other ALTO Resources . . . . . . . . . 6
3. Entity Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Entity Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1. Internet Address Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1. Internet Address Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.1. IPv4 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1.1. IPv4 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.2. IPv6 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1.2. IPv6 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of ipv4/ipv6 Domains . . . 8 3.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of ipv4/ipv6 Domains . . . 8
3.1.4. Relationship to Network Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.4. Relationship to Network Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2. PID Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2. PID Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.1. Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2.1. Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Addresses . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Addresses . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains . . . . . 10 3.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains . . . . . 10
3.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties . . . . . 10 3.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties . . . . . 10
3.4. ANE Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4.1. Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4.2. Domain-Specific Entity Addresses . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4. Property Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. Property Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Filtered Property Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Filtered Property Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients . . . . . . . 14 6. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients . . . . . . . 14
6.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties . . . . . . . . . 15 6.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties . . . . . . . . . 14
6.3. Impact on the "pid" Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.3. Impact on the "pid" Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.4. Impact on Other Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.4. Impact on Other Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7.2. Property Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7.2. Property Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD) . . . . . . . . . . 16 7.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD) . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.4. Property Map Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 7.4. Property Map Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 7.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
9.1. application/alto-* Media Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 9.1. application/alto-* Media Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
9.2. ALTO Entity Domain Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 9.2. ALTO Entity Domain Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
9.3. ALTO Endpoint Property Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . 26 9.3. ALTO Endpoint Property Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . 26
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The ALTO protocol [RFC7285] introduced the concept of "properties" The ALTO protocol [RFC7285] introduced the concept of "properties"
attached to "endpoint addresses", and defined the Endpoint Property attached to "endpoint addresses", and defined the Endpoint Property
Service (EPS) to allow clients to retrieve those properties. While Service (EPS) to allow clients to retrieve those properties. While
useful, the EPS, as defined in RFC7285, has at least two limitations. useful, the EPS, as defined in RFC7285, has at least two limitations.
First, it only allows properties to be associated with a particular First, it only allows properties to be associated with a particular
domain of entities, namely individual IP addresses. It is reasonable domain of entities, namely individual IP addresses. It is reasonable
to think that collections of endpoints, as defined by CIDRs to think that collections of endpoints, as defined by CIDRs [RFC4632]
([RFC4632]) or PIDs, may also have properties. Furthermore, a recent or PIDs, may also have properties. The EPS cannot be extended to new
proposal ([I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector]) has suggested new classes of
entities (ANE) with properties. The EPS cannot be extended to new
entity domains. Instead, new services, with new request and response entity domains. Instead, new services, with new request and response
messages, would have to be defined for each new entity domain. messages, would have to be defined for each new entity domain.
Second, the EPS is only defined as a POST-mode service. Clients must Second, the EPS is only defined as a POST-mode service. Clients must
request the properties for an explicit set of addresses. By request the properties for an explicit set of addresses. By
contrast, [RFC7285] defines a GET-mode Cost Map resource which contrast, [RFC7285] defines a GET-mode Cost Map resource which
returns all available costs, so a client can get a full set of costs returns all available costs, so a client can get a full set of costs
once, and then processes costs lookup without querying the ALTO once, and then processes costs lookup without querying the ALTO
server. RFC7285 does not define an equivalent service for endpoint server. [RFC7285] does not define an equivalent service for endpoint
properties. And it is unlikely a property will be defined for every properties. At first a map might seem impractical, because it could
possible address. It is very likely that properties will only be require enumerating the property value for every possible endpoint.
defined for a subset of addresses, and that subset would be small
enough to enumerate. This is particularly true if blocks of But in practice, it is highly unlikely that properties will be
defined for every address. It is much more likely that properties
will only be defined for a subset of addresses, and that subset would
be small enough to enumerate. This is particularly true if blocks of
addresses with a common prefix (e.g., a CIDR) have the same value for addresses with a common prefix (e.g., a CIDR) have the same value for
a property. Furthermore, entities in other domains may very well be a property. Furthermore, entities in other domains may very well be
enumerable. enumerable.
This document proposes a new approach to retrieve ALTO properties. This document proposes a new approach to retrieve ALTO properties.
Specifically, it defines two new resource types, namely Property Maps Specifically, it defines two new resource types, namely Property Maps
(see Section 4) and Filtered Property Maps (see Section 5). The (see Section 4) and Filtered Property Maps (see Section 5). The
former are GET-mode resources which return the property values for former are GET-mode resources which return the property values for
all entities in a domain, and are analogous to the ALTO's Network all entities in a domain, and are analogous to the ALTO's Network
Maps and Cost Maps. The latter are POST-mode resources which return Maps and Cost Maps. The latter are POST-mode resources which return
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2.1. Entity 2.1. Entity
An entity is an object with a (possibly empty) set of properties. An entity is an object with a (possibly empty) set of properties.
Every entity is in a domain, such as the IPv4 and IPv6 domains, and Every entity is in a domain, such as the IPv4 and IPv6 domains, and
has a unique address. has a unique address.
2.2. Domain 2.2. Domain
A domain is a family of entities. Two examples are the Internet A domain is a family of entities. Two examples are the Internet
address and PID domain (see Section 3.1 and Section 3.2) that this address and PID domain (see Section 3.1 and Section 3.2) that this
document will define. An additional example is the proposed domain document will define.
of Abstract Network Elements associated with topology and routing, as
suggested by [I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector].
2.3. Domain Name 2.3. Domain Name
Each domain has a unique name. A domain name MUST be no more than 32 Each domain has a unique name. A domain name MUST be no more than 32
characters, and MUST NOT contain characters other than US-ASCII characters, and MUST NOT contain characters other than US-ASCII
alphanumeric characters (U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A, and alphanumeric characters (U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A, and
U+0061-U+007A), hyphen ('-', U+002D), and low line ('_', U+005F). U+0061-U+007A), hyphen ('-', U+002D), and low line ('_', U+005F).
For example, the names "ipv4" and "ipv6" identify objects in the For example, the names "ipv4" and "ipv6" identify objects in the
Internet address domain (Section 3.1). Internet address domain (see Section 3.1).
The type DomainName is used in this document to denote a JSON string The type DomainName is used in this document to denote a JSON string
with a domain name in this format. with a domain name in this format.
Domain names MUST be registered with the IANA, and the format of the Domain names MUST be registered with the IANA, and the format of the
entity addresses in that domain, as well as any hierarchical or entity addresses in that domain, as well as any hierarchical or
inheritance rules for those entities, MUST be specified at the same inheritance rules for those entities, MUST be specified at the same
time. time.
2.4. Entity Address 2.4. Entity Address
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The type EntityAddr is used in this document to denote a JSON string The type EntityAddr is used in this document to denote a JSON string
with an entity address in this format. with an entity address in this format.
The format of the second part of an entity address depends on the The format of the second part of an entity address depends on the
domain, and MUST be specified when registering a new domain. domain, and MUST be specified when registering a new domain.
Addresses MAY be hierarchical, and properties MAY be inherited based Addresses MAY be hierarchical, and properties MAY be inherited based
on that hierarchy. Again, the rules defining any hierarchy or on that hierarchy. Again, the rules defining any hierarchy or
inheritance MUST be defined when the domain is registered. inheritance MUST be defined when the domain is registered.
Note that entity addresses MAY have different textual Note that an entity address MAY have different textual
representations, for a given domain. For example, the strings representations, for a given domain. For example, the strings
"ipv6:2001:db8::1" and "ipv6:2001:db8:0:0:0:0:0:1" refer to the same "ipv6:2001:db8::1" and "ipv6:2001:db8:0:0:0:0:0:1" refer to the same
entity. entity.
2.5. Property Name 2.5. Property Name
The space of property names associated with entities defined by this The space of property names associated with entities defined by this
document is the same as, and is shared with, the endpoint property document is the same as, and is shared with, the endpoint property
names defined by [RFC7285]. Thus entity property names are as names defined by [RFC7285]. Thus entity property names are as
defined in Section 10.8.2 of that document, and must be registered defined in Section 10.8.2 of that document, and must be registered
with the "ALTO Endpoint Property Type Registry" defined in with the "ALTO Endpoint Property Type Registry" defined in
Section 9.3 of that document. The type PropertyName denotes a JSON Section 9.3 of that document. The type PropertyName denotes a JSON
string with a property name in this format. string with a property name in this format.
This document defines uniform property names specified in a single This document defines uniform property names specified in a single
property name sapce rather than being scoped by a specific domain, property name space rather than being scoped by a specific domain,
although some properties may only be applicable for particular although some properties may only be applicable for particular
domains. This design decision is to enforce a design so that similar domains. This design decision is to enforce a design so that similar
properties are named similarly. The interpretation of the value of a properties are named similarly. The interpretation of the value of a
property, howerver, may depend on the domain. For example, suppose property, however, may depend on the domain. For example, suppose
the "geo-location" property is defined as the coordinates of a point, the "geo-location" property is defined as the coordinates of a point,
encoded as (say) "latitude longitude [altitude]." When applied to an encoded as (say) "latitude longitude [altitude]." When applied to an
entity that represents a specific host computer, such as an Internet entity that represents a specific host computer, such as an Internet
address, the property defines the host's location. When applied to address, the property defines the host's location. When applied to
an entity that represents a set of computers, such as a CIDR, the an entity that represents a set of computers, such as a CIDR, the
property would be the location of the center of that set. If it is property would be the location of the center of that set. If it is
necessary to represent the bounding box of a set of hosts, another necessary to represent the bounding box of a set of hosts, another
property, such as "geo-region", should be defined. property, such as "geo-region", should be defined.
2.6. Hierarchy and Inheritance 2.6. Hierarchy and Inheritance
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address. Each domain MUST define its own hierarchy and inheritance address. Each domain MUST define its own hierarchy and inheritance
rules when registered. The hierarchy and inheritance rule makes it rules when registered. The hierarchy and inheritance rule makes it
possible for an entity to inherit a property value from another possible for an entity to inherit a property value from another
entity in the same domain. If and only if the property of an entity entity in the same domain. If and only if the property of an entity
is undefined, the hierarchy and inheritance rules are applied. is undefined, the hierarchy and inheritance rules are applied.
2.7. Relationship with Other ALTO Resources 2.7. Relationship with Other ALTO Resources
[RFC7285] recognizes that some properties MAY be specific to another [RFC7285] recognizes that some properties MAY be specific to another
ALTO resource, such as a network map. Accordingly [RFC7285] defines ALTO resource, such as a network map. Accordingly [RFC7285] defines
the concept of "resource-specific endpoint properties" the concept of "resource-specific endpoint properties" (see
(Section 10.8.1), and indicates that dependency by prefixing the Section 10.8.1), and indicates that dependency by prefixing the
property name with the ID of the resource on which it depends. That property name with the ID of the resource on which it depends. That
document defines one resource-specific property, namely the "pid" document defines one resource-specific property, namely the "pid"
property, whose value is the name of the PID containing that endpoint property, whose value is the name of the PID containing that endpoint
in the associated network map. in the associated network map.
This document takes a different approach. Instead of defining the This document takes a different approach. Instead of defining the
dependency by qualifying the property name, this document attaches dependency by qualifying the property name, this document attaches
the dependency to the domains. Thus all properties of a specific the dependency to the domains. Thus all properties of a specific
domain depend on the same resource, the properties of another domain domain depend on the same resource, the properties of another domain
may depend on another resource. For example, entities in the PID may depend on another resource. For example, entities in the PID
domain depends on a network map, entities in the ANE domain depends domain depend on a network map.
on a cost map or a endpoint cost map.
The "uses" field in an IRD entry defines the dependencies of a The "uses" field in an IRD entry defines the dependencies of a
property map resource, and the "dependent-vtags" field in a property property map resource, and the "dependent-vtags" field in a property
map response defines the dependencies of that map. These fields are map response defines the dependencies of that map. These fields are
defined in Sections 9.1.5 and 11.1 of [RFC7285], respectively. defined in Sections 9.1.5 and 11.1 of [RFC7285], respectively.
The "uses" field in an IRD entry MUST NOT include two dependent The "uses" field in an IRD entry MUST NOT include two dependent
resources with the same media type. This is similar to how RFC7285 resources with the same media type. This is similar to how [RFC7285]
handles dependencies between cost maps and network maps. Recall that handles dependencies between cost maps and network maps. Recall that
cost maps present the costs between PIDs, and PID names depend on a cost maps present the costs between PIDs, and PID names depend on a
network map. If an ALTO server provides the "routingcost" metric for network map. If an ALTO server provides the "routingcost" metric for
the network maps "net1" and "net2", then the server defines two the network maps "net1" and "net2", then the server defines two
separate cost maps, one for "net1" and the other for "net2". separate cost maps, one for "net1" and the other for "net2".
According to [RFC7285], a legacy ALTO server with two network maps, According to [RFC7285], a legacy ALTO server with two network maps,
with resource IDs "net1" and "net2", could offer a single Endpoint with resource IDs "net1" and "net2", could offer a single Endpoint
Property Service for the two properties "net1.pid" and "net2.pid". Property Service for the two properties "net1.pid" and "net2.pid".
An ALTO server which supports the extensions defined in this An ALTO server which supports the extensions defined in this
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Both domains allow property values to be inherited. Specifically, if Both domains allow property values to be inherited. Specifically, if
a property P is not defined for a specific Internet address I, but P a property P is not defined for a specific Internet address I, but P
is defined for some block C which prefix-matches I, then the address is defined for some block C which prefix-matches I, then the address
I inherits the value of P defined for block C. If more than one such I inherits the value of P defined for block C. If more than one such
block defines a value for P, I inherits the value of P in the block block defines a value for P, I inherits the value of P in the block
with the longest prefix. It is important to notice that this longest with the longest prefix. It is important to notice that this longest
prefix rule will ensure no multiple inheritance, and hence no prefix rule will ensure no multiple inheritance, and hence no
ambiguity. ambiguity.
Address blocks can also inherit properties: if property P is not Address blocks can also inherit properties: if property P is not
defined for a block C, but is defined for some block C' prefix- defined for a block C, but is defined for some block C' which prefix-
matches C, and C' has a shorter mask than C, then block C inherits matches C, and C' has a shorter mask than C, then block C inherits
the property from C'. If there are several such blocks C', C the property from C'. If there are several such blocks C', C
inherits from the block with the longest prefix. inherits from the block with the longest prefix.
As an example, suppose that a server defines the property P for the As an example, suppose that a server defines the property P for the
following entities: following entities:
ipv4:192.0.2.0/26: P=v1 ipv4:192.0.2.0/26: P=v1
ipv4:192.0.2.0/28: P=v2 ipv4:192.0.2.0/28: P=v2
ipv4:192.0.2.0/30: P=v3 ipv4:192.0.2.0/30: P=v3
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If the ALTO Server does not define any properties for an entity, then If the ALTO Server does not define any properties for an entity, then
the server MAY omit that entity from the response. the server MAY omit that entity from the response.
3.1.4. Relationship to Network Maps 3.1.4. Relationship to Network Maps
An Internet address domain MAY be associated with an ALTO network map An Internet address domain MAY be associated with an ALTO network map
resource. Logically, there is a map of Internet address entities to resource. Logically, there is a map of Internet address entities to
property values for each network map defined by the ALTO server, plus property values for each network map defined by the ALTO server, plus
an additional property map for Internet address entities which are an additional property map for Internet address entities which are
not associated with a network map. So, if there is n network maps, not associated with a network map. So, if there are n network maps,
the server can provide n+1 maps of Internet address entities to the server can provide n+1 maps of Internet address entities to
property values. These maps are separate from each other. The property values. These maps are separate from each other. The
prefixes in the property map do not have to correspond to the prefixes in the property map do not have to correspond to the
prefixes defining the network map's PIDs. For example, the property prefixes defining the network map's PIDs. For example, the property
map for a network map MAY assign properties to "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24" map for a network map MAY assign properties to "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24"
even if that prefix is not associated with any PID in the network even if that prefix is not associated with any PID in the network
map. map.
3.2. PID Domain 3.2. PID Domain
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that are closely related to the Internet address, or are associated that are closely related to the Internet address, or are associated
with, and inherited through, blocks of addresses. with, and inherited through, blocks of addresses.
The PID domain is RECOMMENDED for properties that arise from the The PID domain is RECOMMENDED for properties that arise from the
definition of the PID, rather than from the Internet address prefixes definition of the PID, rather than from the Internet address prefixes
in that PID. in that PID.
For example, because Internet addresses are allocated to service For example, because Internet addresses are allocated to service
providers by blocks of prefixes, an "ISP" property would be best providers by blocks of prefixes, an "ISP" property would be best
associated with the Internet address domain. On the other hand, a associated with the Internet address domain. On the other hand, a
property that explains why a PID was formed, or how it relates the a property that explains why a PID was formed, or how it relates a
provider's network, would best be associated with the PID domain. provider's network, would best be associated with the PID domain.
3.4. ANE Domain
3.4.1. Domain Name
ane
3.4.2. Domain-Specific Entity Addresses
The entity address of ane domain is encoded as a JSON string. The
string MUST be no more than 64 characters, and it MUST NOT contain
characters other than US-ASCII alphanumeric characters
(U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A, and U+0061-U+007A), the hyphen ('-',
U+002D), the colon (':', U+003A), the at sign ('@', code point
U+0040), the low line ('_', U+005F), or the '.' separator (U+002E).
The '.' separator is reserved for future use and MUST NOT be used
unless specifically indicated in this document, or an extension
document.
3.4.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance
There is no hierarchy or inheritance for properties associated with
ANEs.
4. Property Map Resource 4. Property Map Resource
A Property Map returns the properties defined for all entities in one A Property Map returns the properties defined for all entities in one
or more domains. or more domains.
Section 7.4 gives an example of a property map request and its Section 7.4 gives an example of a property map request and its
response. response.
4.1. Media Type 4.1. Media Type
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EntityAddr entities<1..*>; EntityAddr entities<1..*>;
PropertyName properties<1..*>; PropertyName properties<1..*>;
} ReqFilteredPropertyMap; } ReqFilteredPropertyMap;
with fields: with fields:
entities: List of entity addresses for which the specified entities: List of entity addresses for which the specified
properties are to be returned. The ALTO server MUST interpret properties are to be returned. The ALTO server MUST interpret
entries appearing multiple times as if they appeared only once. entries appearing multiple times as if they appeared only once.
The domain of each entity MUST be included in the list of domains The domain of each entity MUST be included in the list of domains
in this resource's "capabilities" field (Section 5.4). in this resource's "capabilities" field (see Section 5.4).
properties: List of properties to be returned for each entity. Each properties: List of properties to be returned for each entity. Each
specified property MUST be included in the list of properties in specified property MUST be included in the list of properties in
this resource's "capabilities" field (Section 5.4). The ALTO this resource's "capabilities" field (see Section 5.4). The ALTO
server MUST interpret entries appearing multiple times as if they server MUST interpret entries appearing multiple times as if they
appeared only once. appeared only once.
Note that the "entities" and "properties" fields MUST have at Note that the "entities" and "properties" fields MUST have at
least one entry each. least one entry each.
5.4. Capabilities 5.4. Capabilities
The capabilities are defined by an object of type The capabilities are defined by an object of type
PropertyMapCapabilities, as defined in Section 4.4. PropertyMapCapabilities, as defined in Section 4.4.
5.5. Uses 5.5. Uses
An array with the resource ID(s) of resource(s) with which the An array with the resource ID(s) of resource(s) with which the
domains in this map are associated. In most cases, this array will domains in this map are associated. In most cases, this array will
have at most one ID, and it will be for a network map resource. have at most one ID, and it will be for a network map resource.
5.6. Response 5.6. Response
The response is the same as for the property map (Section 4.6), The response is the same as for the property map (see Section 4.6),
except that it only includes the entities and properties requested by except that it only includes the entities and properties requested by
the client. the client.
Also, the Filtered Property Map response MUST include all inherited Also, the Filtered Property Map response MUST include all inherited
property values for the specified entities (unlike the Full Property property values for the specified entities (unlike the Full Property
Map, the Filtered Property Map response does not include enough Map, the Filtered Property Map response does not include enough
information for the client to calculate the inherited values). information for the client to calculate the inherited values).
If the ALTO server does not define a requested property's value for a
particular entity, then it MUST omit that property from the response
for only that endpoint.
If the ALTO server does not support a requested entity's domain, then
it MUST return an E_INVALID_FIELD_VALUE error defined in
Section 8.5.2 of [RFC7285].
6. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients 6. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients
6.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service 6.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service
The Property Maps defined in this document provide the same The Property Maps defined in this document provide the same
functionality as the Endpoint Property Service (EPS) defined in functionality as the Endpoint Property Service (EPS) defined in
Section 11.4 of [RFC7285]. Accordingly, it is RECOMMENDED that the Section 11.4 of [RFC7285]. Accordingly, it is RECOMMENDED that the
EPS be deprecated in favor of Property Maps. However, ALTO servers EPS be deprecated in favor of Property Maps. However, ALTO servers
MAY provide an EPS for the benefit of legacy clients. MAY provide an EPS for the benefit of legacy clients.
skipping to change at page 19, line 15 skipping to change at page 18, line 36
GET /propmap/full/inet-ia HTTP/1.1 GET /propmap/full/inet-ia HTTP/1.1
Host: alto.example.com Host: alto.example.com
Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json
{ {
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/24": {"ISP: "BitsRus"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24": {"ISP": "BitsRus"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/28": {"ASN": "12345"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28": {"ASN": "12345"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.16/28": {"ASN": "12345"} "ipv4:192.0.2.16/28": {"ASN": "12345"}
} }
} }
7.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1 7.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1
The following example uses the Filtered Property Map resource to The following example uses the Filtered Property Map resource to
request the "ISP", "ASN" and "state" properties for several IPv4 request the "ISP", "ASN" and "state" properties for several IPv4
addresses. Note that the value of "state" for "ipv4:192.0.2.0" is addresses. Note that the value of "state" for "ipv4:192.0.2.0" is
skipping to change at page 25, line 30 skipping to change at page 24, line 30
This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity
Domain Registry", listed in Table 2. Domain Registry", listed in Table 2.
+-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ +-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
| Identifier | Entity Address Encoding | Hierarchy & Inheritance | | Identifier | Entity Address Encoding | Hierarchy & Inheritance |
+-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ +-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
| ipv4 | See Section 3.1.1 | See Section 3.1.3 | | ipv4 | See Section 3.1.1 | See Section 3.1.3 |
| ipv6 | See Section 3.1.2 | See Section 3.1.3 | | ipv6 | See Section 3.1.2 | See Section 3.1.3 |
| pid | See Section 3.2 | None | | pid | See Section 3.2 | None |
| ane | See Section 3.4 | None |
+-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+ +-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------+
Table 2: ALTO Entity Domain Names. Table 2: ALTO Entity Domain Names.
This registry serves two purposes. First, it ensures uniqueness of This registry serves two purposes. First, it ensures uniqueness of
identifiers referring to ALTO entity domains. Second, it states the identifiers referring to ALTO entity domains. Second, it states the
requirements for allocated domain names. requirements for allocated domain names.
This registry is considered as an extension of the "ALTO Address Type
Registry" defined in Section 14.4 of [RFC7285]. In particularly,
o An entity MAY or MAY NOT be an endpoint. For example, "pid" is
registered as an entity domain in Table 2, but it is not an
endpoint address type.
o An endpoint MUST be an entity. For example, "ipv4" and "ipv6" are
already registered in "ALTO Address Type Registry" in [RFC7285],
so they MUST be registered as entity domains.
New ALTO entity domains are assigned after IETF Review [RFC5226] to New ALTO entity domains are assigned after IETF Review [RFC5226] to
ensure that proper documentation regarding the new ALTO entity ensure that proper documentation regarding the new ALTO entity
domains and their security considerations has been provided. RFCs domains and their security considerations has been provided. RFCs
defining new entity domains SHOULD indicate how an entity in a defining new entity domains SHOULD indicate how an entity in a
registered domain is encoded as an EntityName, and, if applicable, registered domain is encoded as an EntityName, and, if applicable,
the rules defining the entity hierarchy and property inheritance. the rules defining the entity hierarchy and property inheritance.
Updates and deletions of ALTO entity domains follow the same Updates and deletions of ALTO entity domains follow the same
procedure. procedure.
Registered ALTO entity domain identifiers MUST conform to the Registered ALTO entity domain identifiers MUST conform to the
syntactical requirements specified in Section 2.3. Identifiers are syntactical requirements specified in Section 2.3. Identifiers are
to be recorded and displayed as strings. to be recorded and displayed as strings.
It is RECOMMANDED that a new ALTO entity domain be registered when When a new address type is registered in the ALTO Address Type
the corresponding address type is registered based on ALTO Address Registry [RFC7285], the same identifier MUST be also registered in
Type Registry [RFC7285]. the ALTO Entity Domain Registry. And the Entity Address Encoding of
this entity domain identifier MUST include both Address Encoding and
Prefix Encoding of the same identifier registered in the ALTO Address
Type Registry [RFC7285]. For the purpose of defining properties, an
individual entity address and the corresponding full-length prefix
MUST be considered aliases for the same entity.
Requests to add a new value to the registry MUST include the Requests to add a new value to the registry MUST include the
following information: following information:
o Identifier: The name of the desired ALTO entity domain. o Identifier: The name of the desired ALTO entity domain.
o Entity Address Encoding: The procedure for encoding the address of o Entity Address Encoding: The procedure for encoding the address of
an entity of the registered type as an EntityAddr (see an entity of the registered type as an EntityAddr (see
Section 2.4). Section 2.4).
skipping to change at page 27, line 35 skipping to change at page 27, line 5
[RFC7159] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data [RFC7159] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March
2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>. 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>.
[RFC7285] Alimi, R., Ed., Penno, R., Ed., Yang, Y., Ed., Kiesel, S., [RFC7285] Alimi, R., Ed., Penno, R., Ed., Yang, Y., Ed., Kiesel, S.,
Previdi, S., Roome, W., Shalunov, S., and R. Woundy, Previdi, S., Roome, W., Shalunov, S., and R. Woundy,
"Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol", "Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol",
RFC 7285, DOI 10.17487/RFC7285, September 2014, RFC 7285, DOI 10.17487/RFC7285, September 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7285>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7285>.
[I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector]
Bernstein, G., Chen, S., Gao, K., Lee, Y., Roome, W.,
Scharf, M., Yang, Y., and J. Zhang, "ALTO Extension: Path
Vector Cost Mode", draft-ietf-alto-path-vector-00 (work in
progress), May 2017.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Wendy Roome Wendy Roome
Nokia Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (Retired)
600 Mountain Ave, Rm 3B-324 124 Burlington Rd
Murray Hill, NJ 07974 Murray Hill, NJ 07974
USA USA
Phone: +1-908-582-7974 Phone: +1-908-464-6975
Email: wendy@roome.com Email: wendy@wdroome.com
Shiwei Dawn Chen Shiwei Dawn Chen
Tongji University Tongji University
4800 Caoan Road 4800 Caoan Road
Shanghai 201804 Shanghai 201804
China China
Email: dawn_chen_f@hotmail.com Email: dawn_chen_f@hotmail.com
Xin (Tony) Wang Sabine Randriamasy
Tongji University Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs
4800 CaoAn Road Route de Villejust
Shanghai 210000 NOZAY 91460
China FRANCE
Email: xinwang2014@hotmail.com Email: Sabine.Randriamasy@alcatel-lucent.com
Y. Richard Yang Y. Richard Yang
Yale University Yale University
51 Prospect Street 51 Prospect Street
New Haven, CT 06511 New Haven, CT 06511
USA USA
Phone: +1-203-432-6400 Phone: +1-203-432-6400
Email: yry@cs.yale.edu Email: yry@cs.yale.edu
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