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INFORMATIONAL

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        P. Eardley
Request for Comments: 7594                                            BT
Category: Informational                                        A. Morton
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                AT&T Labs
                                                              M. Bagnulo
                                                                    UC3M
                                                            T. Burbridge
                                                                      BT
                                                               P. Aitken
                                                                 Brocade
                                                               A. Akhter
                                                              Consultant
                                                          September 2015


A Framework for Large-Scale Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP)

Abstract

   Measuring broadband service on a large scale requires a description
   of the logical architecture and standardisation of the key protocols
   that coordinate interactions between the components.  This document
   presents an overall framework for large-scale measurements.  It also
   defines terminology for LMAP (Large-Scale Measurement of Broadband
   Performance).

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7594.










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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Outline of an LMAP-Based Measurement System . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.1.  The Measurement System Is Under the Direction of a Single
           Organisation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.2.  Each MA May Only Have a Single Controller at Any Point in
           Time  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   5.  Protocol Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.1.  Bootstrapping Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     5.2.  Control Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       5.2.1.  Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       5.2.2.  Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       5.2.3.  Capabilities, Failure, and Logging Information  . . .  20
     5.3.  Operation of Measurement Tasks  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       5.3.1.  Starting and Stopping Measurement Tasks . . . . . . .  22
       5.3.2.  Overlapping Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     5.4.  Report Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
       5.4.1.  Reporting of the Subscriber's Service Parameters  . .  26
     5.5.  Operation of LMAP over the Underlying Packet Transfer
           Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     5.6.  Items beyond the Scope of the Initial LMAP Work . . . . .  27
       5.6.1.  End-User-Controlled Measurement System  . . . . . . .  28
   6.  Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     6.1.  Controller and the Measurement System . . . . . . . . . .  29
     6.2.  Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       6.2.1.  Measurement Agent on a Networked Device . . . . . . .  30
       6.2.2.  Measurement Agent Embedded in a Site Gateway  . . . .  31
       6.2.3.  Measurement Agent Embedded behind a Site NAT or
               Firewall  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31




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       6.2.4.  Multihomed Measurement Agent  . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       6.2.5.  Measurement Agent Embedded in an ISP Network  . . . .  32
     6.3.  Measurement Peer  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     6.4.  Deployment Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
   8.  Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     8.1.  Categories of Entities with Information of Interest . . .  38
     8.2.  Examples of Sensitive Information . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     8.3.  Different Privacy Issues Raised by Different Sorts of
           Measurement Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
     8.4.  Privacy Analysis of the Communication Models  . . . . . .  41
       8.4.1.  MA Bootstrapping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
       8.4.2.  Controller <-> Measurement Agent  . . . . . . . . . .  42
       8.4.3.  Collector <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . .  43
       8.4.4.  Measurement Peer <-> Measurement Agent  . . . . . . .  43
       8.4.5.  Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
       8.4.6.  Storage and Reporting of Measurement Results  . . . .  46
     8.5.  Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
       8.5.1.  Surveillance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
       8.5.2.  Stored Data Compromise  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
       8.5.3.  Correlation and Identification  . . . . . . . . . . .  47
       8.5.4.  Secondary Use and Disclosure  . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
     8.6.  Mitigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
       8.6.1.  Data Minimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
       8.6.2.  Anonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       8.6.3.  Pseudonymity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
       8.6.4.  Other Mitigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
   9.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54

1.  Introduction

   There is a desire to be able to coordinate the execution of broadband
   measurements and the collection of measurement results across a large
   scale set of Measurement Agents (MAs).  These MAs could be
   software-based agents on PCs, embedded agents in consumer devices
   (such as TVs or gaming consoles), embedded in service-provider-
   controlled devices such as set-top boxes and home gateways, or simply
   dedicated probes.  MAs may also be embedded on a device that is part
   of an ISP's network, such as a DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access
   Multiplexer), router, Carrier Grade NAT (Network Address Translator),
   or ISP Gateway.  It is expected that a measurement system could
   easily encompass a few hundred thousand or even millions of such MAs.
   Such a scale presents unique problems in coordination, execution, and
   measurement result collection.  Several use cases have been proposed
   for large-scale measurements including:




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   o  Operators: to help plan their network and identify faults

   o  Regulators: to benchmark several network operators and support
      public policy development

   Further details of the use cases can be found in [RFC7536].  The LMAP
   framework should be useful for these, as well as other use cases,
   such as to help end users run diagnostic checks like a network speed
   test.

   The LMAP framework has three basic elements: Measurement Agents,
   Controllers, and Collectors.

   Measurement Agents (MAs) initiate the actual measurements, which are
   called Measurement Tasks in the LMAP terminology.  In principle,
   there are no restrictions on the type of device in which the MA
   function resides.

   The Controller instructs one or more MAs and communicates the set of
   Measurement Tasks an MA should perform and when.  For example, it may
   instruct an MA at a home gateway: "Measure the 'UDP latency' with
   www.example.org; repeat every hour at xx.05".  The Controller also
   manages an MA by instructing it on how to report the Measurement
   Results, for example: "Report results once a day in a batch at 4am".
   We refer to these as the Measurement Schedule and Report Schedule.

   The Collector accepts Reports from the MAs with the Results from
   their Measurement Tasks.  Therefore, the MA is a device that gets
   Instructions from the Controller, initiates the Measurement Tasks,
   and reports to the Collector.  The communications between these three
   LMAP functions are structured according to a Control Protocol and a
   Report Protocol.

   The design goals are the following large-scale Measurement System
   features:

   o  Standardised - in terms of the Measurement Tasks that they
      perform, the components, the data models, and the protocols for
      transferring information between the components.  Amongst other
      things, standardisation enables meaningful comparisons of
      measurements made of the same Metric at different times and
      places, and provides the operator of a Measurement System with
      criteria for evaluation of the different solutions that can be
      used for various purposes including buying decisions (such as
      buying the various components from different vendors).  Today's
      systems are proprietary in some or all of these aspects.





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   o  Large-scale - [RFC7536] envisages Measurement Agents in every home
      gateway and edge device such as set-top boxes and tablet
      computers, and located throughout the Internet as well [RFC7398].
      It is expected that a Measurement System could easily encompass a
      few hundred thousand or even millions of Measurement Agents.
      Existing systems have up to a few thousand MAs (without judging
      how much further they could scale).

   o  Diversity - a Measurement System should handle Measurement Agents
      from different vendors that are in wired and wireless networks,
      can execute different sorts of Measurement Tasks, are on devices
      with IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, and so on.

   o  Privacy Respecting - the protocols and procedures should respect
      the sensitive information of all those involved in measurements.

2.  Outline of an LMAP-Based Measurement System

   In this section, we provide an overview of the whole Measurement
   System.  New LMAP-specific terms are capitalised; Section 3 provides
   a terminology section with a compilation of all the LMAP terms and
   their definitions.  Section 4 onwards considers the LMAP components
   in more detail.

   Other LMAP specifications will define an Information Model, the
   associated Data Models, and select/extend one or more protocols for
   the secure communication: firstly, a Control Protocol, for a
   Controller to instruct Measurement Agents regarding which performance
   Metrics to measure, when to measure them, and how/when to report the
   measurement results to a Collector; secondly, a Report Protocol, for
   a Measurement Agent to report the results to the Collector.

   Figure 1 shows the main components of a Measurement System, and the
   interactions of those components.  Some of the components are outside
   the scope of initial LMAP work.

   The MA performs Measurement Tasks.  One possibility is that the MA
   observes existing traffic.  Another possibility is for the MA to
   generate (or receive) traffic specially created for the purpose and
   measure some Metric associated with its transfer.  Figure 1 includes
   both possibilities (in practice, it may be more usual for an MA to do
   one) whilst Section 6.4 shows some examples of possible arrangements
   of the components.

   The MAs are pieces of code that can be executed in specialised
   hardware (hardware probe) or on a general-purpose device (like a PC
   or mobile phone).  A device with a Measurement Agent may have
   multiple physical interfaces (Wi-Fi, Ethernet, DSL (Digital



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   Subscriber Line); and non-physical interfaces such as PPPoE
   (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) or IPsec) and the Measurement
   Tasks may specify any one of these.

   The Controller manages an MA through use of the Control Protocol,
   which transfers the Instruction to the MA.  This describes the
   Measurement Tasks the MA should perform and when.  For example the
   Controller may instruct an MA at a home gateway: "Count the number of
   TCP SYN packets observed in a 1 minute interval; repeat every hour at
   xx.05 + Unif[0,180] seconds".  The Measurement Schedule determines
   when the Measurement Tasks are executed.  The Controller also manages
   an MA by instructing it on how to report the Measurement Results, for
   example: "Report results once a day in a batch at 4am + Unif[0,180]
   seconds; if the end user is active then delay the report 5 minutes."
   The Report Schedule determines when the Reports are uploaded to the
   Collector.  The Measurement Schedule and Report Schedule can define
   one-off (non-recurring) actions (for example, "Do measurement now",
   "Report as soon as possible"), as well as recurring ones.

   The Collector accepts a Report from an MA with the Measurement
   Results from its Measurement Tasks.  It then provides the Results to
   a repository.

   A Measurement Method defines how to measure a Metric of interest.  It
   is very useful to standardise Measurement Methods, so that it is
   meaningful to compare measurements of the same Metric made at
   different times and places.  It is also useful to define a registry
   for commonly used Metrics [IPPM-REG] so that a Metric and its
   associated Measurement Method can be referred to simply by its
   identifier in the registry.  The registry will hopefully be
   referenced by other standards organisations.  The Measurement Methods
   may be defined by the IETF, locally, or by some other standards body.

   Broadly speaking there are two types of Measurement Methods.  In both
   types, a Measurement Agent measures a particular Observed Traffic
   Flow.  It may involve a single MA simply observing existing traffic
   -- for example, the Measurement Agent could count bytes or calculate
   the average loss for a particular flow.  On the other hand, a
   Measurement Method may observe traffic created specifically for the
   purpose of measurement.  This requires multiple network entities,
   which perform different roles.  For example, to measure the round
   trip delay one possible Measurement Method would consist of an MA
   sending an ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ECHO request
   ("ping") to a responder in the Internet.  In LMAP terms, the
   responder is termed a Measurement Peer (MP), meaning that it helps
   the MA but is not managed by the Controller.  Other Measurement
   Methods involve a second MA, with the Controller instructing the MAs
   in a coordinated manner.  Traffic generated specifically as part of



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   the Measurement Method is termed Measurement Traffic; in the ping
   example, it is the ICMP ECHO Requests and Replies.  The protocols
   used for the Measurement Traffic are out of the scope of initial LMAP
   work and fall within the scope of other IETF WGs such as IPPM (IP
   Performance Metrics).

   A Measurement Task is the action performed by a particular MA at a
   particular time, as the specific instance of its role in a
   Measurement Method.  LMAP is mainly concerned with Measurement Tasks,
   for instance in terms of its Information Model and Protocols.

   For Measurement Results to be truly comparable, as might be required
   by a regulator, not only do the same Measurement Methods need to be
   used to assess Metrics, but also the set of Measurement Tasks should
   follow a similar Measurement Schedule and be of similar number.  The
   details of such a characterisation plan are beyond the scope of IETF
   work, although it is certainly facilitated by the IETF's work.

   Both control and report messages are transferred over a secure
   Channel.  A Control Channel is between the Controller and an MA; the
   Control Protocol delivers Instruction Messages to the MA and
   Capabilities, Failure, and Logging Information in the reverse
   direction.  A Report Channel is between an MA and Collector, and the
   Report Protocol delivers Reports to the Collector.

   Finally, we introduce several components that are outside the scope
   of initial LMAP work that will be provided through existing protocols
   or applications.  They affect how the Measurement System uses the
   Measurement Results and how it decides what set of Measurement Tasks
   to perform.  As shown in Figure 1, these components are: the
   bootstrapper, Subscriber parameter database, data analysis tools, and
   Results repository.

   The MA needs to be bootstrapped with initial details about its
   Controller, including authentication credentials.  The LMAP work
   considers the Bootstrap process, since it affects the Information
   Model.  However, LMAP does not define a Bootstrap protocol, since it
   is likely to be technology specific and could be defined by the
   Broadband Forum, CableLabs, or IEEE depending on the device.
   Possible protocols are SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol),
   NETCONF (Network Configuration Protocol), or (for Home Gateways) CPE
   WAN Management Protocol (CWMP) from the Auto Configuration Server
   (ACS) (as specified in TR-069 [TR-069]).

   A Subscriber parameter database contains information about the line,
   such as the customer's broadband contract (perhaps 2, 40, or 80
   Mb/s), the line technology (DSL or fibre), the time zone in which the
   MA is located, and the type of home gateway and MA.  These parameters



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   are already gathered and stored by existing operations systems.  They
   may affect the choice of what Measurement Tasks to run and how to
   interpret the Measurement Results.  For example, a download test
   suitable for a line with an 80 Mb/s contract may overwhelm a 2 Mb/s
   line.

   A Results repository records all Measurement Results in an equivalent
   form, for example an SQL (Structured Query Language) database, so
   that they can easily be accessed by the data analysis tools.

   The data analysis tools receive the results from the Collector or via
   the Results repository.  They might visualise the data or identify
   which component or link is likely to be the cause of a fault or
   degradation.  This information could help the Controller decide what
   follow-up Measurement Task to perform in order to diagnose a fault.
   The data analysis tools also need to understand the Subscriber's
   service information, for example, the broadband contract.


































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     +--------+      +-----------+              +-----------+      ^
     |End user|      |           |   Observed   | End user  |      |
     |        |<-----|-----------|---Traffic--->|           |      |
     |        |      |           |   Flow       |           |      |
     |        |      |           |              |           |   Non-LMAP
     |        |      |           | Measurement  |           |    Scope
     |        |      |           |<--Traffic--->|           |      |
     +--------+      |           |              +-----------+      |
     ................|...........|.................................V
        <MP>         |Measurement|                  <MP>           ^
                     |Agent:     |                                 |
                     |LMAP       |                                 |
        +----------->|interface  |                                 |
        |            +-----------+                                 |
        |                ^    |                                   LMAP
        |    Instruction |    |  Report                          Scope
        |  (over Control |    | (over Report Channel)              |
        |     Channel)   |    +-----------------------+            |
        |                |                            |            |
        |                |                            |            |
        |                |                            v            |
        |          +------------+               +------------+     |
        |          | Controller |               |  Collector |     |
        |          +------------+               +------------+     v
        |                ^      ^                     |            ^
        |                |      |                     |            |
        |                |      +--------+            |            |
        |                |               |            v            |
     +------------+   +----------+    +--------+    +----------+   |
     |Bootstrapper|   |Subscriber|--->|  data  |<---| Results  |  Non-
     +------------+   |parameter |    |analysis|    |repository|  LMAP
                      |database  |    | tools  |    +----------+ Scope
                      +----------+    +--------+                   |
                                                                   |
                                                                   v

     MP: Measurement Peer

     Figure 1: Schematic of main elements of an LMAP-based Measurement
   System (showing the elements in and out of the scope of initial LMAP
                                   work)

3.  Terminology

   This section defines terminology for LMAP.  Please note that defined
   terms are capitalised throughout.





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   Bootstrap: A process that integrates a Measurement Agent into a
   Measurement System.

   Capabilities: Information about the performance measurement
   capabilities of the MA, in particular the Measurement Method roles
   and measurement protocol roles that it can perform, and the device
   hosting the MA, for example its interface type and speed, but not
   dynamic information.

   Channel: A bidirectional logical connection that is defined by a
   specific Controller and MA, or Collector and MA, plus associated
   security.

   Collector: A function that receives a Report from an MA.

   Configuration: A process for informing the MA about its MA-ID,
   (optional) Group-ID, and Control Channel.

   Controller: A function that provides a Measurement Agent with its
   Instruction.

   Control Channel: A Channel between a Controller and an MA over which
   Instruction Messages and Capabilities, Failure, and Logging
   Information are sent.

   Control Protocol: The protocol delivering Instruction(s) from a
   Controller to a Measurement Agent.  It also delivers Capabilities,
   Failure, and Logging Information from the Measurement Agent to the
   Controller.  It can also be used to update the MA's Configuration.
   It runs over the Control Channel.

   Cycle-ID: A tag that is sent by the Controller in an Instruction and
   echoed by the MA in its Report.  The same Cycle-ID is used by several
   MAs that use the same Measurement Method for a Metric with the same
   Input Parameters.  Hence, the Cycle-ID allows the Collector to easily
   identify Measurement Results that should be comparable.

   Data Model: The implementation of an Information Model in a
   particular data modelling language [RFC3444].

   Environmental Constraint: A parameter that is measured as part of the
   Measurement Task, its value determining whether the rest of the
   Measurement Task proceeds.

   Failure Information: Information about the MA's failure to take
   action or execute an Instruction, whether concerning Measurement
   Tasks or Reporting.




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   Group-ID: An identifier of a group of MAs.

   Information Model: The protocol-neutral definition of the semantics
   of the Instructions, the Report, the status of the different elements
   of the Measurement System, as well of the events in the system
   [RFC3444].

   Input Parameter: A parameter whose value is left open by the Metric
   and its Measurement Method and is set to a specific value in a
   Measurement Task.  Altering the value of an Input Parameter does not
   change the fundamental nature of the Measurement Task.

   Instruction: The description of Measurement Tasks for an MA to
   perform and the details of the Report for it to send.  It is the
   collective description of the Measurement Task configurations, the
   configuration of the Measurement Schedules, the configuration of the
   Report Channel(s), the configuration of Report Schedule(s), and the
   details of any Suppression.

   Instruction Message: The message that carries an Instruction from a
   Controller to a Measurement Agent.

   Logging Information: Information about the operation of the
   Measurement Agent, which may be useful for debugging.

   Measurement Agent (MA): The function that receives Instruction
   Messages from a Controller and operates the Instruction by executing
   Measurement Tasks (using protocols outside the scope of the initial
   LMAP work and perhaps in concert with one or more other Measurement
   Agents or Measurement Peers) and (if part of the Instruction) by
   reporting Measurement Results to a Collector or Collectors.

   Measurement Agent Identifier (MA-ID): a Universally Unique IDentifier
   [RFC4122] that identifies a particular MA and is configured as part
   of the Bootstrapping process.

   Measurement Method: The process for assessing the value of a Metric;
   the process of measuring some performance or reliability Metric
   associated with the transfer of traffic.

   Measurement Peer (MP): The function that assists a Measurement Agent
   with Measurement Tasks and does not have an interface to the
   Controller or Collector.

   Measurement Result: The output of a single Measurement Task (the
   value obtained for the Metric).

   Measurement Schedule: The schedule for performing Measurement Tasks.



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   Measurement System: The set of LMAP-defined and related components
   that are operated by a single organisation, for the purpose of
   measuring performance aspects of the network.

   Measurement Task: The action performed by a particular Measurement
   Agent that consists of the single assessment of a Metric through
   operation of a Measurement Method role at a particular time, with all
   of the role's Input Parameters set to specific values.

   Measurement Traffic: the packet(s) generated by some types of
   Measurement Method that involve measuring some parameter associated
   with the transfer of the packet(s).

   Metric: The quantity related to the performance and reliability of
   the network that we'd like to know the value of.

   Observed Traffic Flow: In RFC 7011 [RFC7011], a Traffic Flow (or
   Flow) is defined as "a set of packets or frames passing an
   Observation Point in the network during a certain time interval.  All
   packets belonging to a particular Flow have a set of common
   properties," such as packet header fields, characteristics, and
   treatments.  A Flow measured by the LMAP system is termed an Observed
   Traffic Flow.  Its properties are summarised and tabulated in
   Measurement Results (as opposed to raw capture and export).

   Report: The set of Measurement Results and other associated
   information (as defined by the Instruction).  The Report is sent by a
   Measurement Agent to a Collector.

   Report Channel: A Channel between a Collector and an MA over which
   Report messages are sent.

   Report Protocol: The protocol delivering Report(s) from a Measurement
   Agent to a Collector.  It runs over the Report Channel.

   Report Schedule: The schedule for sending Reports to a Collector.

   Subscriber: An entity (associated with one or more users) that is
   engaged in a subscription with a service provider.

   Suppression: The temporary cessation of Measurement Tasks.

4.  Constraints

   The LMAP framework makes some important assumptions, which constrain
   the scope of the initial LMAP work.





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4.1.  The Measurement System Is Under the Direction of a Single
      Organisation

   In the LMAP framework, the Measurement System is under the direction
   of a single organisation that is responsible for any impact that its
   measurements have on a user's quality of experience and privacy.
   Clear responsibility is critical given that a misbehaving large-scale
   Measurement System could potentially harm user experience, user
   privacy, and network security.

   However, the components of an LMAP Measurement System can be deployed
   in administrative domains that are not owned by the measuring
   organisation.  Thus, the system of functions deployed by a single
   organisation constitutes a single LMAP domain, which may span
   ownership or other administrative boundaries.

4.2.  Each MA May Only Have a Single Controller at Any Point in Time

   An MA is instructed by one Controller and is in one Measurement
   System.  The constraint avoids different Controllers giving an MA
   conflicting instructions and so means that the MA does not have to
   manage contention between multiple Measurement (or Report) Schedules.
   This simplifies the design of MAs (critical for a large-scale
   infrastructure) and allows a Measurement Schedule to be tested on
   specific types of MAs before deployment to ensure that the end-user
   experience is not impacted (due to CPU, memory, or broadband-product
   constraints).  However, a Measurement System may have several
   Controllers.

5.  Protocol Model

   A protocol model [RFC4101] presents an architectural model for how
   the protocol operates and needs to answer three basic questions:

   1.  What problem is the protocol trying to address?

   2.  What messages are being transmitted and what do they mean?

   3.  What are the important, but not obvious [sic], features of the
       protocol?

   An LMAP system goes through the following phases:

   o  a Bootstrapping process before the MA can take part in the other
      three phases.

   o  a Control Protocol, which delivers Instruction Messages from a
      Controller to an MA (amongst other things).



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   o  the actual Measurement Tasks, which measure some performance or
      reliability Metric(s) associated with the transfer of packets.

   o  a Report Protocol, which delivers Reports containing the
      Measurement Results from an MA to a Collector.

   The figures show the various LMAP messages and use the following
   conventions:

   o  (optional): indicated by round brackets

   o  [potentially repeated]: indicated by square brackets

   The protocol model is closely related to the Information Model
   [LMAP-INFO], which is the abstract definition of the information
   carried by the protocol.  (If there is any difference between this
   document and the Information Model, the latter is definitive.)  The
   purpose of both is to provide a protocol and device-independent view,
   which can be implemented via specific protocols.  LMAP defines a
   specific Control Protocol and Report Protocol, but others could be
   defined by other standards bodies or be proprietary.  However, it is
   important that they all implement the same Information Model and
   protocol model, in order to ease the definition, operation, and
   interoperability of large-scale Measurement Systems.

5.1.  Bootstrapping Process

   The primary purpose of Bootstrapping is to enable an MA to be
   integrated into a Measurement System.  The MA retrieves information
   about itself (like its identity in the Measurement System) and about
   the Controller, the Controller learns information about the MA, and
   they learn about security information to communicate (such as
   certificates and credentials).

   Whilst this memo considers the Bootstrapping process, it is beyond
   the scope of initial LMAP work to define a Bootstrap mechanism, as it
   depends on the type of device and access.

   As a result of the Bootstrapping process, the MA learns the following
   information ([LMAP-INFO] defines the consequent list of information
   elements):

   o  its identifier, either its MA-ID or a device identifier such as
      one of its Media Access Control (MAC) addresses or both.

   o  (optionally) a Group-ID, shared by several MAs and could be useful
      for privacy reasons.  For instance, reporting the Group-ID and not
      the MA-ID could hinder tracking of a mobile device.



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   o  the Control Channel, which is defined by:

      *  the address that identifies the Control Channel, such as the
         Controller's FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) [RFC1035]).

      *  security information (for example, to enable the MA to decrypt
         the Instruction Message and encrypt messages sent to the
         Controller).

   The details of the Bootstrapping process are device/access specific.
   For example, the information could be in the firmware, manually
   configured, or transferred via a protocol like that described in
   TR-069 [TR-069].  There may be a multi-stage process where the MA
   contacts a 'hard-coded' address, which replies with the Bootstrapping
   information.

   The MA must learn its MA-ID before getting an Instruction, either
   during Bootstrapping or via Configuration (Section 5.2.1).

5.2.  Control Protocol

   The primary purpose of the Control Protocol is to allow the
   Controller to configure a Measurement Agent with an Instruction about
   what Measurement Tasks to do, when to do them, and how to report the
   Measurement Results (Section 5.2.2).  The Measurement Agent then acts
   on the Instruction autonomously.  The Control Protocol also enables
   the MA to inform the Controller about its Capabilities and any
   Failure and Logging Information (Section 5.2.3).  Finally, the
   Control Protocol allows the Controller to update the MA's
   Configuration.

5.2.1.  Configuration

   Configuration allows the Controller to update the MA about some or
   all of the information that it obtained during the Bootstrapping
   process: the MA-ID, the (optional) Group-ID, and the Control Channel.
   Figure 2 outlines the Configuration process.  The Measurement System
   might use Configuration for several reasons.  For example, the
   Bootstrapping process could 'hard code' the MA with details of an
   initial Controller, and then the initial Controller could configure
   the MA with details about the Controller that sends Instruction
   Messages.  (Note that an MA only has one Control Channel, so it is
   associated with only one Controller, at any moment.)

   Note that an implementation may choose to combine Configuration
   information and an Instruction Message into a single message.





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   +-----------------+                                   +-------------+
   |                 |                                   | Measurement |
   |  Controller     |===================================|  Agent      |
   +-----------------+                                   +-------------+

   Configuration information:               ->
   (MA-ID),
   (Group-ID),
   (Control Channel)
                                            <-        Response(details)

   MA: Measurement Agent

                    Figure 2: Outline of Configuration

5.2.2.  Instruction

   The Instruction is the description of the Measurement Tasks for a
   Measurement Agent to do and the details of the Measurement Reports
   for it to send.  Figure 3 outlines the Instruction process.  In order
   to update the Instruction, the Controller uses the Control Protocol
   to send an Instruction Message over the Control Channel.

   +-----------------+                                   +-------------+
   |                 |                                   | Measurement |
   |  Controller     |===================================|  Agent      |
   +-----------------+                                   +-------------+

   Instruction:                            ->
   [(Measurement Task configuration
       URI of Metric(
      [Input Parameter],
      (role)
      (interface),
      (Cycle-ID)
      (measurement point)),
    (Report Channel),
    (Schedule),
    (Suppression information)]
                                           <-         Response(details)

                     Figure 3: Outline of Instruction









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   The Instruction defines the following information ([LMAP-INFO]
   defines the consequent list of information elements):

   o  the Measurement Task configurations, each of which needs:

      *  the Metric, specified as a URI to a registry entry; it includes
         the specification of a Measurement Method.  The registry could
         be defined by a standards organisation or locally by the
         operator of the Measurement System.  Note that, at the time of
         writing, the IETF is working on such a registry specification
         [IPPM-REG].

      *  the Measurement Method role.  For some Measurement Methods,
         different parties play different roles; for example, an iperf
         sender and receiver (see Section 6.4).  Each Metric and its
         associated Measurement Method will describe all measurement
         roles involved in the process.

      *  a boolean flag (suppress or do-not-suppress) indicating if such
         a Measurement Task is impacted by a Suppression message (see
         Section 5.2.2.1).  Thus, the flag is an Input Parameter.

      *  any Input Parameters that need to be set for the Metric and the
         Measurement Method.  For example, the address of a Measurement
         Peer (or other Measurement Agent) that may be involved in a
         Measurement Task, or traffic filters associated with the
         Observed Traffic Flow.

      *  the interface to use (if not defined, then the default
         interface is used), if the device with the MA has multiple
         interfaces.

      *  optionally, a Cycle-ID.

      *  optionally, the measurement point designation [RFC7398] of the
         MA and, if applicable, of the MP or other MA.  This can be
         useful for reporting.

   o  configuration of the Schedules, each of which needs:

      *  the timing of when the Measurement Tasks are to be performed or
         the Measurement Reports are to be sent.  Possible types of
         timing are periodic, calendar-based periodic, one-off
         immediate, and one-off at a future time.







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   o  configuration of the Report Channel(s), each of which needs:

      *  the address of the Collector, for instance its URL.

      *  security for this Report Channel, for example, the X.509
         certificate.

   o  Suppression information, if any (see Section 5.2.2.1).

   A single Instruction Message may contain some or all of the above
   parts.  The finest level of granularity possible in an Instruction
   Message is determined by the implementation and operation of the
   Control Protocol.  For example, a single Instruction Message may add
   or update an individual Measurement Schedule -- or it may only update
   the complete set of Measurement Schedules; a single Instruction
   Message may update both Measurement Schedules and Measurement Task
   configurations -- or only one at a time; and so on.  However,
   Suppression information always replaces (rather than adds to) any
   previous Suppression information.

   The MA informs the Controller that it has successfully understood the
   Instruction Message, or that it cannot take action on the Instruction
   -- for example, if it doesn't include a parameter that is mandatory
   for the requested Metric and Measurement Method, or if it is missing
   details of the target Collector.

   The Instruction Message instructs the MA; the Control Protocol does
   not allow the MA to negotiate, as this would add complexity to the
   MA, Controller, and Control Protocol for little benefit.

5.2.2.1.  Suppression

   The Instruction may include Suppression information.  The main
   motivation for Suppression is to enable the Measurement System to
   eliminate Measurement Traffic, because there is some unexpected
   network issue, for example.  There may be other circumstances when
   Suppression is useful, for example, to eliminate inessential
   Reporting traffic (even if there is no Measurement Traffic).
   Figure 4 outlines the Suppression process.

   The Suppression information may include any of the following optional
   fields:

   o  a set of Measurement Tasks to suppress; the others are not
      suppressed.  For example, this could be useful if a particular
      Measurement Task is overloading a Measurement Peer with
      Measurement Traffic.




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   o  a set of Measurement Schedules to suppress; the others are not
      suppressed.  For example, suppose the Measurement System has
      defined two Schedules, one with the most critical Measurement
      Tasks and the other with less critical ones that create a lot of
      Measurement Traffic, in which case it may only want to suppress
      the second.

   o  a set of Reporting Schedules to suppress; the others are not
      suppressed.  This can be particularly useful in the case of a
      Measurement Method that doesn't generate Measurement Traffic; it
      may need to continue observing traffic flows but temporarily
      suppress Reports due to the network footprint of the Reports.

   o  if all the previous fields are included then the MA suppresses the
      union -- in other words, it suppresses the set of Measurement
      Tasks, the set of Measurement Schedules, and the set of Reporting
      Schedules.

   o  if the Suppression information includes neither a set of
      Measurement Tasks nor a set of Measurement Schedules, then the MA
      does not begin new Measurement Tasks that have the boolean flag
      set to suppress; however, the MA does begin new Measurement Tasks
      that have the flag set to do-not-suppress.

   o  a start time, at which Suppression begins.  If absent, then
      Suppression begins immediately.

   o  an end time, at which Suppression ends.  If absent, then
      Suppression continues until the MA receives an Un-suppress
      message.

   o  a demand that the MA immediately end on-going Measurement Task(s)
      that are tagged for Suppression.  (Most likely it is appropriate
      to delete the associated partial Measurement Result(s).)  This
      could be useful in the case of a network emergency so that the
      operator can eliminate all inessential traffic as rapidly as
      possible.  If absent, the MA completes on-going Measurement Tasks.

   An Un-suppress message instructs the MA to no longer suppress,
   meaning that the MA once again begins new Measurement Tasks,
   according to its Measurement Schedule.

   Note that Suppression is not intended to permanently stop a
   Measurement Task (instead, the Controller should send a new
   Measurement Schedule), nor to permanently disable an MA (instead,
   some kind of management action is suggested).





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   +-----------------+                              +-------------+
   |                 |                              | Measurement |
   |  Controller     |==============================|  Agent      |
   +-----------------+                              +-------------+

   Suppress:
   [(Measurement Task),                  ->
    (Measurement Schedule),
    (start time),
    (end time),
    (on-going suppressed?)]

   Un-suppress                           ->

                     Figure 4: Outline of Suppression

5.2.3.  Capabilities, Failure, and Logging Information

   The Control Protocol also enables the MA to inform the Controller
   about various information, such as its Capabilities and any Failures.
   Figure 5 outlines the process for Capabilities, Failure, and Logging
   Information.  It is also possible to use a device-specific mechanism,
   which is beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work.

   Capabilities are information about the MA that the Controller needs
   to know in order to correctly instruct the MA, such as:

   o  the Measurement Method (roles) that the MA supports.

   o  the measurement protocol types and roles that the MA supports.

   o  the interfaces that the MA has.

   o  the version of the MA.

   o  the version of the hardware, firmware, or software of the device
      with the MA.

   o  its Instruction (this could be useful if the Controller thinks
      something has gone wrong and wants to check what Instruction the
      MA is using).

   o  but not dynamic information like the currently unused CPU, memory,
      or battery life of the device with the MA.







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   Failure Information concerns why the MA has been unable to execute a
   Measurement Task or deliver a Report, for example:

   o  the Measurement Task failed to run properly because the MA
      (unexpectedly) has no spare CPU cycles.

   o  the MA failed to record the Measurement Results because it
      (unexpectedly) is out of spare memory.

   o  a Report failed to deliver Measurement Results because the
      Collector (unexpectedly) is not responding.

   o  but not if a Measurement Task correctly doesn't start.  For
      example, the first step of some Measurement Methods is for the MA
      to check that there is no cross-traffic.

   Logging Information concerns how the MA is operating and may help
   debugging, for example:

   o  the last time the MA ran a Measurement Task.

   o  the last time the MA sent a Measurement Report.

   o  the last time the MA received an Instruction Message.

   o  whether the MA is currently suppressing Measurement Tasks.

   Capabilities, Failure, and Logging Information are sent by the MA,
   either in response to a request from the Controller (for example, if
   the Controller forgets what the MA can do or otherwise wants to
   resynchronise what it knows about the MA), or on its own initiative
   (for example, when the MA first communicates with a Controller or if
   it becomes capable of a new Measurement Method).  Another example of
   the latter case is if the device with the MA re-boots, then the MA
   should notify its Controller in case its Instruction needs to be
   updated; to avoid a "mass calling event" after a widespread power
   restoration affecting many MAs, it is sensible for an MA to pause for
   a random delay, perhaps in the range of one minute or so.













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   +-----------------+                                  +-------------+
   |                 |                                  | Measurement |
   |  Controller     |==================================|  Agent      |
   +-----------------+                                  +-------------+

       (Request Capabilities),
       (Request Failure Information),
       (Request Logging Information),
       (Request Instruction)                ->
                                            <-           (Capabilities),
                                                  (Failure Information),
                                                  (Logging Information),
                                                          (Instruction)

    Figure 5: Outline of Capabilities, Failure, and Logging Information

5.3.  Operation of Measurement Tasks

   This LMAP framework is neutral to what the actual Measurement Task
   is.  It does not define Metrics and Measurement Methods; these are
   defined elsewhere.

   The MA carries out the Measurement Tasks as instructed, unless it
   gets an updated Instruction.  The MA acts autonomously, in terms of
   operation of the Measurement Tasks and reporting of the Results; it
   doesn't do a 'safety check' with the Controller to ask whether it
   should still continue with the requested Measurement Tasks.

   The MA may operate Measurement Tasks sequentially or in parallel (see
   Section 5.3.2).

5.3.1.  Starting and Stopping Measurement Tasks

   This LMAP framework does not define a generic start and stop process,
   since the correct approach depends on the particular Measurement
   Task; the details are defined as part of each Measurement Method.
   This section provides some general hints.  The MA does not inform the
   Controller about Measurement Tasks starting and stopping.

   Before beginning a Measurement Task, the MA may want to run a
   pre-check.  (The pre-check could be defined as a separate, preceding
   Task or as the first part of a larger Task.)

   For Measurement Tasks that observe existing traffic, action could
   include:

   o  checking that there is traffic of interest.




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   o  checking that the device with the MA has enough resources to
      execute the Measurement Task reliably.  Note that the designer of
      the Measurement System should ensure that the device's resources
      are normally sufficient to comfortably operate the Measurement
      Tasks.

   For Measurement Tasks that generate Measurement Traffic, a pre-check
   could include:

   o  the MA checking that there is no cross-traffic.  In other words, a
      check that the end-user isn't already sending traffic.

   o  the MA checking with the Measurement Peer (or other Measurement
      Agent) involved in the Measurement Task that it can handle a new
      Measurement Task.  For example, the Measurement Peer may already
      be handling many Measurement Tasks with other MAs.

   o  sending traffic that probes the path to check it isn't overloaded.

   o  checking that the device with the MA has enough resources to
      execute the Measurement Task reliably.

   Similar checks may continue during the Measurement Task, in
   particular for a Measurement Task that is long-running and/or creates
   a lot of Measurement Traffic.  If, for example, the check detects
   that the end-user has started sending traffic, then the Measurement
   Task can be abandoned.  A Measurement Task could also be abandoned in
   response to a "suppress" message (see Section 5.2.2.1).  Action could
   include:

   o  for 'upload' tests, the MA not sending traffic.

   o  for 'download' tests, the MA closing the TCP connection or sending
      a TWAMP (Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol) Stop-Sessions
      command [RFC5357].

   The Controller may want an MA to run the same Measurement Task
   indefinitely (for example, "run the 'upload speed' Measurement Task
   once an hour until further notice").  To prevent the MA continuously
   generating traffic after a Controller has permanently failed (or
   communications with the Controller have failed), the MA can be
   configured with a time limit; if the MA doesn't hear from the
   Controller for this length of time, then it stops operating
   Measurement Tasks.







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5.3.2.  Overlapping Measurement Tasks

   An MA may start a new Measurement Task before another Measurement
   Task has completed.  This may be intentional (the way that the
   Measurement System has designed the Measurement Schedules), but it
   could also be unintentional -- for instance, if a Measurement Task
   has a 'wait for X' step that pauses for an unexpectedly long time.
   This document makes no assumptions about the impact of one
   Measurement Task on another.

   The operator of the Measurement System can handle (or not)
   overlapping Measurement Tasks in any way they choose -- it is a
   policy or implementation issue and not the concern of LMAP.  Some
   possible approaches are: to configure the MA to not begin the second
   Measurement Task; to start the second Measurement Task as usual; for
   the action to be an Input Parameter of the Measurement Task; and so
   on.

   It may be important for the Measurement Report to include the fact
   that the Measurement Tasks overlapped.

5.4.  Report Protocol

   The primary purpose of the Report Protocol is to allow a Measurement
   Agent to report its Measurement Results to a Collector, along with
   the context in which they were obtained.  Figure 6 outlines the
   Report process.

   +-----------------+                                  +-------------+
   |                 |                                  | Measurement |
   |   Collector     |==================================|  Agent      |
   +-----------------+                                  +-------------+

                                     <-    Report:
                                                  [MA-ID &/or Group-ID],
                                                   [Measurement Result],
                                          [details of Measurement Task],
                                                             (Cycle-ID)
   ACK                               ->

   MA: Measurement Agent

                      Figure 6: Outline of the Report

   The Report contains:

   o  the MA-ID or a Group-ID (to anonymise results).




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   o  the actual Measurement Results, including the time they were
      measured.  In general, the time is simply the MA's best estimate
      and there is no guarantee on the accuracy or granularity of the
      information.  It is possible that some specific analysis of a
      particular Measurement Method's Results will impose timing
      requirements.

   o  the details of the Measurement Task (to avoid the Collector having
      to ask the Controller for this information later), for example,
      the interface used for the measurements.

   o  the Cycle-ID, if one was included in the Instruction.

   o  perhaps the Subscriber's service parameters (see Section 5.4.1).

   o  the measurement point designation of the MA and, if applicable,
      the MP or other MA, if the information was included in the
      Instruction.  This numbering system is defined in [RFC7398] and
      allows a Measurement Report to describe the path measured
      abstractly (for example, "from a measurement agent at a home
      gateway to a measurement peer at a DSLAM").  Also, the MA can
      anonymise results by including measurement point designations
      instead of IP addresses (Section 8.6.2).

   The MA sends Reports as defined by the Instruction.  The Instruction
   may tell the MA to report the same Results to more than one
   Collector, or to report a different subset of Results to different
   Collectors.  Also, a Measurement Task may create two (or more)
   Measurement Results, which could be reported differently (for
   example, one Result could be reported periodically, whilst the second
   Result could be an alarm that is created as soon as the measured
   value of the Metric crosses a threshold and that is reported
   immediately).

   Optionally, a Report is not sent when there are no Measurement
   Results.

   In the initial LMAP Information Model and Report Protocol, for
   simplicity we assume that all Measurement Results are reported as-is,
   but allow extensibility so that a Measurement System (or perhaps a
   second phase of LMAP) could allow an MA to:

   o  label, or perhaps not include, Measurement Results impacted by,
      for instance, cross-traffic or a Measurement Peer (or other
      Measurement Agent) being busy.

   o  label Measurement Results obtained by a Measurement Task that
      overlapped with another.



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   o  not report the Measurement Results if the MA believes that they
      are invalid.

   o  detail when Suppression started and ended.

   As discussed in Section 6.1, data analysis of the Results should
   carefully consider potential bias from any Measurement Results that
   are not reported, or from Measurement Results that are reported but
   may be invalid.

5.4.1.  Reporting of the Subscriber's Service Parameters

   The Subscriber's service parameters are information about his/her
   broadband contract, line rate and so on.  Such information is likely
   to be needed to help analyse the Measurement Results, for example to
   help decide whether the measured download speed is reasonable.

   The information could be transferred directly from the Subscriber
   parameter database to the data analysis tools.  If the Subscriber's
   service parameters are available to the MAs, they could be reported
   with the Measurement Results in the Report Protocol.  How (and if)
   the MA knows such information is likely to depend on the device type.
   The MA could either include the information in a Measurement Report
   or separately.

5.5.  Operation of LMAP over the Underlying Packet Transfer Mechanism

   The above sections have described LMAP's protocol model.  Other
   specifications will define the actual Control and Report Protocols,
   possibly operating over an existing protocol, such as REST-style
   [REST] HTTP(S).  It is also possible that a different choice is made
   for the Control and Report Protocols, for example NETCONF-YANG
   [RFC6241] and IPFIX (Internet Protocol Flow Information Export)
   [RFC7011], respectively.

   From an LMAP perspective, the Controller needs to know that the MA
   has received the Instruction Message, or at least that it needs to be
   re-sent as it may have failed to be delivered.  Similarly the MA
   needs to know about the delivery of Capabilities, Failure, and
   Logging Information to the Controller and Reports to the Collector.
   How this is done depends on the design of the Control and Report
   Protocols and the underlying packet transfer mechanism.

   For the Control Protocol, the underlying packet transfer mechanism
   could be:

   o  a 'push' protocol (that is, from the Controller to the MA).




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   o  a multicast protocol (from the Controller to a group of MAs).

   o  a 'pull' protocol.  The MA periodically checks with Controller if
      the Instruction has changed and pulls a new Instruction if
      necessary.  A pull protocol seems attractive for an MA behind a
      NAT or firewall (as is typical for an MA on an end-user's device)
      so that it can initiate the communications.  It also seems
      attractive for an MA on a mobile device, where the Controller
      might not know how to reach the MA.  A pull mechanism is likely to
      require that the MA be configured with how frequently it should
      check in with the Controller, and perhaps what it should do if the
      Controller is unreachable after a certain number of attempts.

   o  a hybrid protocol.  In addition to a pull protocol, the Controller
      can also push an alert to the MA that it should immediately pull a
      new Instruction.

   For the Report Protocol, the underlying packet transfer mechanism
   could be:

   o  a 'push' protocol (that is, from the MA to the Collector)

   o  perhaps supplemented by the ability for the Collector to 'pull'
      Measurement Results from an MA.

5.6.  Items beyond the Scope of the Initial LMAP Work

   There are several potential interactions between LMAP elements that
   are beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work, which are as follows:

   1.  It does not define a coordination process between MAs.  Whilst a
       Measurement System may define coordinated Measurement Schedules
       across its various MAs, there is no direct coordination between
       MAs.

   2.  It does not define interactions between the Collector and
       Controller.  It is quite likely that there will be such
       interactions, optionally intermediated by the data analysis
       tools.  For example, if there is an "interesting" Measurement
       Result, then the Measurement System may want to trigger extra
       Measurement Tasks that explore the potential cause in more
       detail; or if the Collector unexpectedly does not hear from an
       MA, then the Measurement System may want to trigger the
       Controller to send a fresh Instruction Message to the MA.







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   3.  It does not define coordination between different Measurement
       Systems.  For example, it does not define the interaction of an
       MA in one Measurement System with a Controller or Collector in a
       different Measurement System.  Whilst it is likely that the
       Control and Report Protocols could be re-used or adapted for this
       scenario, any form of coordination between different
       organisations involves difficult commercial and technical issues
       and so, given the novelty of large-scale measurement efforts, any
       form of inter-organisation coordination is outside the scope of
       the initial LMAP work.  Note that a single MA is instructed by a
       single Controller and is only in one Measurement System.

       *  An interesting scenario is where a home contains two
          independent MAs, for example one controlled by a regulator and
          one controlled by an ISP.  Then the Measurement Traffic of one
          MA is treated by the other MA just like any other end-user
          traffic.

   4.  It does not consider how to prevent a malicious party "gaming the
       system".  For example, where a regulator is running a Measurement
       System in order to benchmark operators, a malicious operator
       could try to identify the broadband lines that the regulator was
       measuring and prioritise that traffic.  It is assumed that this
       is a policy issue and would be dealt with through a code of
       conduct for instance.

   5.  It does not define how to analyse Measurement Results, including
       how to interpret missing Results.

   6.  It does not specifically define a end-user-controlled Measurement
       System, see Section 5.6.1.

5.6.1.  End-User-Controlled Measurement System

   This framework concentrates on the cases where an ISP or a regulator
   runs the Measurement System.  However, we expect that LMAP
   functionality will also be used in the context of an end-user-
   controlled Measurement System.  There are at least two ways this
   could happen (they have various pros and cons):

   1.  an end-user could somehow request the ISP-run (or regulator-run)
       Measurement System to test his/her line.  The ISP (or regulator)
       Controller would then send an Instruction to the MA in the usual
       LMAP way.







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   2.  an end-user could deploy their own Measurement System, with their
       own MA, Controller, and Collector.  For example, the user could
       implement all three functions onto the same end-user-owned end
       device, perhaps by downloading the functions from the ISP or
       regulator.  Then the LMAP Control and Report Protocols do not
       need to be used, but using LMAP's Information Model would still
       be beneficial.  A Measurement Peer (or other MA involved in a
       Measurement Task) could be in the home gateway or outside the
       home network; in the latter case, the Measurement Peer is highly
       likely to be run by a different organisation, which raises extra
       privacy considerations.

   In both cases, there will be some way for the end-user to initiate
   the Measurement Task(s).  The mechanism is outside the scope of the
   initial LMAP work, but could include the user clicking a button on a
   GUI or sending a text message.  Presumably the user will also be able
   to see the Measurement Results, perhaps summarised on a webpage.  It
   is suggested that these interfaces conform to the LMAP guidance on
   privacy in Section 8.

6.  Deployment Considerations

6.1.  Controller and the Measurement System

   The Controller should understand both the MA's LMAP Capabilities (for
   example, what Metrics and Measurement Methods it can perform) and the
   MA's other capabilities like processing power and memory.  This
   allows the Controller to ensure that the Measurement Schedule of
   Measurement Tasks and the Reporting Schedule are sensible for each MA
   that it instructs.

   An Instruction is likely to include several Measurement Tasks.
   Typically these run at different times, but it is also possible for
   them to run at the same time.  Some Tasks may be compatible in that
   they do not affect each other's Results, whilst with others great
   care would need to be taken.  Some Tasks may be complementary.  For
   example, one Task may be followed by a traceroute Task to the same
   destination address, in order to learn the network path that was
   measured.

   The Controller should ensure that the Measurement Tasks do not have
   an adverse effect on the end user.  Tasks, especially those that
   generate a substantial amount of Measurement Traffic, will often
   include a pre-check that the user isn't already sending traffic
   (Section 5.3.1).  Another consideration is whether Measurement
   Traffic will impact a Subscriber's bill or traffic cap.





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   A Measurement System may have multiple Controllers (but note the
   overriding principle that a single MA be instructed by a single
   Controller at any point in time (Section 4.2)).  For example, there
   could be different Controllers for different types of MA (for
   example, home gateways, tablets) or locations (for example, Ipswich,
   Edinburgh, Paris), for load balancing or to cope with failure of one
   Controller.

   The measurement system also needs to consider carefully how to
   interpret missing Results.  The correct interpretation depends on why
   the Results are missing (perhaps related to measurement Suppression
   or delayed Report submission) and potentially on the specifics of the
   Measurement Task and Measurement Schedule.  For example, an Observed
   Traffic Flow may be empty, but the Measurement Report may still be
   sent according to the Report Schedule.

6.2.  Measurement Agent

   The MA should be cautious about resuming Measurement Tasks if it
   reboots or has been offline for some time, as its Instruction may be
   stale.  In the former case, it also needs to ensure that its clock
   has reset correctly, so that it interprets the Schedule correctly.

   If the MA runs out of storage space for Measurement Results or can't
   contact the Controller, then the appropriate action is specific to
   the device and Measurement System.

   The Measurement Agent could take a number of forms.  For example, an
   MA could be a dedicated probe or software on a PC; it could also be
   embedded into an appliance or even embedded into a gateway.  A single
   site (for example, home, branch office, etc.) that is participating
   in a measurement could make use of one or multiple Measurement Agents
   or Measurement Peers in a single measurement.

   The Measurement Agent could be deployed in a variety of locations.
   Not all deployment locations are available to every kind of
   Measurement Agent.  There are also a variety of limitations and
   trade-offs depending on the final placement.  The next sections
   outline some of the locations a Measurement Agent may be deployed.
   This is not an exhaustive list and combinations may also apply.

6.2.1.  Measurement Agent on a Networked Device

   An MA may be embedded on a device that is directly connected to the
   network, such as an MA on a smartphone.  Other examples include an MA
   downloaded and installed on a subscriber's laptop computer or tablet
   when the network service is provided on wired or other wireless radio
   technologies, such as Wi-Fi.



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6.2.2.  Measurement Agent Embedded in a Site Gateway

   One of the better places the Measurement Agent could be deployed is
   embedded within the site gateway (for example, a home router or the
   edge router of a branch office in a managed service environment).
   All site-to-ISP traffic would traverse through the gateway.  So,
   Measurement Methods that measure user traffic could easily be
   performed.  Similarly, due to this user traffic visibility, a
   Measurement Method that generates Measurement Traffic could ensure it
   does not compete with user traffic.  Generally NAT and firewall
   services are built into the gateway, allowing the Measurement Agent
   the option to offer its Controller-facing management interface
   outside of the NAT/firewall.  This placement of the management
   interface allows the Controller to unilaterally contact the
   Measurement Agent with Instructions.  However, a Measurement Agent on
   a site gateway (whether end-user or service-provider owned) will
   generally not be directly available for over-the-top providers, the
   regulator, end users, or enterprises.

6.2.3.  Measurement Agent Embedded behind a Site NAT or Firewall

   The Measurement Agent could also be embedded behind a NAT, a
   firewall, or both.  In this case, the Controller may not be able to
   unilaterally contact the Measurement Agent unless either static port
   forwarding or firewall pin holing is configured.  Configuring port
   forwarding could use protocols such as the Port Control Protocol
   [RFC6887], the CPE WAN Management Protocol [TR-069], or Universal
   Plug and Play [UPnP].  To open a pin hole in the firewall, the
   Measurement Agent could send keepalives towards the Controller (and
   perhaps use these also as a network reachability test).

6.2.4.  Multihomed Measurement Agent

   If the device with the Measurement Agent is single homed, then there
   is no confusion about what interface to measure.  Similarly, if the
   MA is at the gateway and the gateway only has a single WAN-side and a
   single LAN-side interface, there is little confusion -- for
   Measurement Methods that generate Measurement Traffic, the location
   of the other MA or Measurement Peer determines whether the WAN or LAN
   is measured.

   However, the device with the Measurement Agent may be multihomed.
   For example, a home or campus may be connected to multiple broadband
   ISPs, such as a wired and wireless broadband provider, perhaps for
   redundancy or load sharing.  It may also be helpful to think of dual
   stack IPv4 and IPv6 broadband devices as multihomed.  More generally,
   Section 3.2 of [RFC7368] describes dual-stack and multihoming
   topologies that might be encountered in a home network, [RFC6419]



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   provides the current practices of multi-interfaces hosts, and the
   Multiple Interfaces (mif) working group covers cases where hosts are
   either directly attached (for example, physical or virtual) or
   indirectly (for example, multiple default routers, etc.) to multiple
   networks.  In these cases, there needs to be clarity on which network
   connectivity option is being measured.

   One possibility is to have a Measurement Agent per interface.  Then
   the Controller's choice of MA determines which interface is measured.
   However, if an MA can measure any of the interfaces, then the
   Controller defines in the Instruction which interface the MA should
   use for a Measurement Task.  If the choice of interface is not
   defined, then the MA uses the default one.  Explicit definition is
   preferred if the Measurement System wants to measure the performance
   of a particular network, whereas using the default is better if the
   Measurement System wants to include the impact of the MA's interface
   selection algorithm.  In any case, the Measurement Result should
   include the network that was measured.

6.2.5.  Measurement Agent Embedded in an ISP Network

   An MA may be embedded on a device that is part of an ISP's network,
   such as a router or switch.  Usually the network devices with an
   embedded MA will be strategically located, such as a Carrier-Grade
   NAT or ISP Gateway.  [RFC7398] gives many examples where an MA might
   be located within a network to provide an intermediate measurement
   point on the end-to-end path.  Other examples include a network
   device whose primary role is to host MA functions and the necessary
   measurement protocol.

6.3.  Measurement Peer

   A Measurement Peer participates in some Measurement Methods.  It may
   have specific functionality to enable it to participate in a
   particular Measurement Method.  On the other hand, other Measurement
   Methods may require no special functionality.  For example, if the
   Measurement Agent sends a ping to example.com, then the server at
   example.com plays the role of a Measurement Peer; or if the MA
   monitors existing traffic, then the existing end points are
   Measurement Peers.

   A device may participate in some Measurement Methods as a Measurement
   Agent and in others as a Measurement Peer.

   Measurement Schedules should account for limited resources in a
   Measurement Peer when instructing an MA to execute measurements with
   a Measurement Peer.  In some measurement protocols, such as [RFC4656]
   and [RFC5357], the Measurement Peer can reject a measurement session



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   or refuse a control connection prior to setting up a measurement
   session and so protect itself from resource exhaustion.  This is a
   valuable capability because the MP may be used by more than one
   organisation.

6.4.  Deployment Examples

   In this section, we describe some deployment scenarios that are
   feasible within the LMAP framework defined in this document.

   A very simple example of a Measurement Peer (MP) is a web server from
   which the MA downloads a web page (such as www.example.com) in order
   to perform a speed test.  The web server is an MP and from its
   perspective the MA is just another client; the MP doesn't have a
   specific function for assisting measurements.  This is described in
   Figure 7.

                                                              ^
      +------------------+  web traffic +----------------+ non-LMAP
      |     web client   |<------------>|   web server   |  Scope
      |                  |              +----------------+    |
   ...|..................|....................................V...
      |MA:LMAP interface |                     <MP>           ^
      +------------------+                                    |
               ^     |                                        |
   Instruction |     |  Report                                |
               |     +-----------------+                      |
               |                       |                      |
               |                       v                     LMAP
         +------------+         +------------+               Scope
         | Controller |         |  Collector |                |
         +------------+         +------------+                V

   MA: Measurement Agent
   MP: Measurement Peer

     Figure 7: LMAP deployment example, with Web server as Measurement
                                   Peer

   Another example of an MP is a TWAMP Server and TWAMP
   Session-Reflector.  This form of MP is deployed to assist the MAs
   that perform TWAMP tests, where the MA is co-located with the TWAMP
   Control-Client and Session-Sender.  Another example, which was
   described in Section 2, has a ping server as the Measurement Peer.







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   A further example is the case of a traceroute-like measurement.  In
   this case, for each packet sent, the router where the TTL expires is
   performing the MP function.  So for a given Measurement Task, there
   is one MA involved and several MPs, one per hop.

   In Figure 8, we depict the case of an OWAMP (One-Way Active
   Measurement Protocol) Server and Session-Receiver acting as an MP.
   In this case, the OWAMP Server conveys results back to the OWAMP
   Fetch-Client, thus the MP conducts both control-plane and data-plane
   communications with its OWAMP counterparts co-located with the MA.

      +------------------+    OWAMP     +-----------------+    ^
      | OWAMP            |<--control--->|                 |    |
      | control-client   |-test-traffic>| OWAMP server &  | non-LMAP
      | fetch-client &   |<----fetch----| session-receiver|  Scope
      | session-sender   |              |                 |    |
      |                  |              +-----------------+    |
   ...|..................|.....................................v...
      |MA:LMAP interface |                    <MP>             ^
      +------------------+                                     |
               ^     |                                         |
   Instruction |     |  Report                                 |
               |     +-----------------+                       |
               |                       |                       |
               |                       v                     LMAP
         +------------+         +------------+               Scope
         | Controller |         |  Collector |                 |
         +------------+         +------------+                 v

   MA: Measurement Agent
   MP: Measurement Peer

    Figure 8: LMAP deployment example, with OWAMP server as Measurement
                                   Peer

   However, it is also possible to use two Measurement Agents when
   performing one-way Measurement Tasks, as described in Figure 9.  Both
   MAs are instructed by the Controller: MA-1 to send the traffic and
   MA-2 to measure the received traffic and send Reports to the
   Collector.  Note that the Measurement Task at MA-2 can listen for
   traffic from MA-1 and respond multiple times without having to be
   rescheduled.









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      +----------------+              +-------------------+    ^
      |                |              |                   | non-LMAP
      | iperf -u sender|-UDP traffic->| iperf -u receiver |  Scope
      |                |              |                   |    v
   ...|................|..............|...................|........
      |  MA-1:         |              |  MA-2:            |    ^
      | LMAP interface |              | LMAP interface    |    |
      +----------------+              +-------------------+    |
               ^                        ^   |                  |
   Instruction |    Instruction{Report} |   | Report           |
   {Task,      |    +-------------------+   |                  |
    Schedule}  |    |                       |                  |
               |    |                       v                 LMAP
          +------------+             +------------+          Scope
          | Controller |             |  Collector |            |
          +------------+             +------------+            v

   MA: Measurement Agent

      Figure 9: Schematic of LMAP-based Measurement System, with two
           Measurement Agents cooperating to measure UDP traffic

   Next, we consider Measurement Methods that meter the Observed Traffic
   Flow.  Traffic generated in one point in the network is flowing
   towards a given destination and the traffic is observed in some point
   along the path.  One way to implement this is that the endpoints
   generating and receiving the traffic are not instructed by the
   Controller; hence they are MPs.  The MA is located along the path
   with a monitor function that measures the traffic.  The MA is
   instructed by the Controller to monitor that particular traffic and
   to send the Report to the Collector.  It is depicted in Figure 10.




















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   +--------+   +------------------+            +--------+      ^
   |End user|   |      monitor     | Observed   |End user|      |
   |        |<--|------------------|--Traffic-->|        |  non-LMAP
   |        |   |                  |   Flow     |        |    Scope
   +--------+   |                  |            +--------+      |
    ............|..................|............................v..
      <MP>      |MA:LMAP interface |               <MP>         ^
                +------------------+                            |
                        ^     |                                 |
            Instruction |     |  Report                         |
                        |     +-----------------+               |
                        |                       |               |
                        |                       v              LMAP
                  +------------+         +------------+        Scope
                  | Controller |         |  Collector |         |
                  +------------+         +------------+         v

   MA: Measurement Agent
   MP: Measurement Peer

       Figure 10: LMAP deployment example, with a Measurement Agent
                            monitoring traffic

7.  Security Considerations

   The security of the LMAP framework should protect the interests of
   the measurement operator(s), the network user(s), and other actors
   who could be impacted by a compromised measurement deployment.  The
   Measurement System must secure the various components of the system
   from unauthorised access or corruption.  Much of the general advice
   contained in Section 6 of [RFC4656] is applicable here.

   The process to upgrade the firmware in an MA is outside the scope of
   the initial LMAP work, just as is the protocol to Bootstrap the MAs.
   However, systems that provide remote upgrades must secure authorised
   access and integrity of the process.

   We assume that each Measurement Agent (MA) will receive its
   Instructions from a single organisation, which operates the
   Controller.  These Instructions must be authenticated (to ensure that
   they come from the trusted Controller), checked for integrity (to
   ensure no one has tampered with them), and not vulnerable to replay
   attacks.  If a malicious party can gain control of the MA, they can
   use it to launch denial-of-service (DoS) attacks at targets, create a
   platform for pervasive monitoring [RFC7258], reduce the end-user's
   quality of experience, and corrupt the Measurement Results that are
   reported to the Collector.  By altering the Measurement Tasks and/or
   the address that Results are reported to, they can also compromise



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   the confidentiality of the network user and the MA environment (such
   as information about the location of devices or their traffic).  The
   Instruction Messages also need to be encrypted to maintain
   confidentiality, as the information might be useful to an attacker.

   Reporting by the MA must be encrypted to maintain confidentiality, so
   that only the authorised Collector can decrypt the results to prevent
   the leakage of confidential or private information.  Reporting must
   also be authenticated (to ensure that it comes from a trusted MA and
   that the MA reports to a genuine Collector) and not vulnerable to
   tampering (which can be ensured through integrity and replay checks).
   It must not be possible to fool an MA into injecting falsified data
   and the results must also be held and processed securely after
   collection and analysis.  See Section 8.5.2 for additional
   considerations on stored data compromise, and Section 8.6 on
   potential mitigations for compromise.

   Since Collectors will be contacted repeatedly by MAs using the Report
   Protocol to convey their recent results, a successful attack to
   exhaust the communication resources would prevent a critical
   operation: reporting.  Therefore, all LMAP Collectors should
   implement technical mechanisms to:

   o  limit the number of reporting connections from a single MA
      (simultaneous and established in some time period).

   o  limit the transmission rate from a single MA.

   o  limit the memory/storage consumed by a single MA's reports.

   o  efficiently reject reporting connections from unknown sources.

   o  separate resources if multiple authentication strengths are used,
      where the resources should be separated according to each class of
      strength.

   A corrupted MA could report falsified information to the Collector.
   Whether this can be effectively mitigated depends on the platform on
   which the MA is deployed.  However, where the MA is deployed on a
   customer-controlled device, then the reported data is to some degree
   inherently untrustworthy.  Further, a sophisticated party could
   distort some Measurement Methods, perhaps by dropping or delaying
   packets for example.  This suggests that the network operator should
   be cautious about relying on Measurement Results for action such as
   refunding fees if a service level agreement is not met.

   As part of the protocol design, it will be decided how LMAP operates
   over the underlying protocol (Section 5.5).  The choice raises



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   various security issues, such as how to operate through a NAT and how
   to protect the Controller and Collector from DoS attacks.

   The security mechanisms described above may not be strictly necessary
   if the network's design ensures the LMAP components and their
   communications are already secured, for example potentially if they
   are all part of an ISP's dedicated management network.

   Finally, there are three other issues related to security: privacy
   (considered in Section 8), availability, and "gaming the system".
   While the loss of some MAs may not be considered critical, the
   unavailability of the Collector could mean that valuable business
   data or data critical to a regulatory process is lost.  Similarly,
   the unavailability of a Controller could mean that the MAs do not
   operate a correct Measurement Schedule.

   A malicious party could "game the system".  For example, where a
   regulator is running a Measurement System in order to benchmark
   operators, an operator could try to identify the broadband lines that
   the regulator was measuring and prioritise that traffic.  Normally,
   this potential issue is handled by a code of conduct.  It is outside
   the scope of the initial LMAP work to consider the issue.

8.  Privacy Considerations

   The LMAP work considers privacy a core requirement and will ensure
   that by default the Control and Report Protocols operate in a
   privacy-sensitive manner and that privacy features are well defined.

   This section provides a set of privacy considerations for LMAP.  This
   section benefits greatly from the publication of [RFC6973].  Privacy
   and security (Section 7) are related.  In some jurisdictions, privacy
   is called data protection.

   We begin with a set of assumptions related to protecting the
   sensitive information of individuals and organisations participating
   in LMAP-orchestrated measurement and data collection.

8.1.  Categories of Entities with Information of Interest

   LMAP protocols need to protect the sensitive information of the
   following entities, including individuals and organisations who
   participate in measurement and collection of results.

   o  Individual Internet users: Persons who utilise Internet access
      services for communications tasks, according to the terms of
      service of a service agreement.  Such persons may be a service




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      Subscriber, or have been given permission by the Subscriber to use
      the service.

   o  Internet service providers: Organisations that offer Internet
      access service subscriptions, and thus have access to sensitive
      information of individuals who choose to use the service.  These
      organisations desire to protect their Subscribers and their own
      sensitive information, which may be stored in the process of
      performing Measurement Tasks and collecting Results.

   o  Regulators: Public authorities responsible for exercising
      supervision of the electronic communications sector, and which may
      have access to sensitive information of individuals who
      participate in a measurement campaign.  Similarly, regulators
      desire to protect the participants and their own sensitive
      information.

   o  Other LMAP system operators: Organisations who operate Measurement
      Systems or participate in measurements in some way.

   Although privacy is a protection extended to individuals, we discuss
   data protection by ISPs and other LMAP system operators in this
   section.  These organisations have sensitive information involved in
   the LMAP system, and many of the same dangers and mitigations are
   applicable.  Further, the ISPs store information on their Subscribers
   beyond that used in the LMAP system (for example, billing
   information), and there should be a benefit in considering all the
   needs and potential solutions coherently.

8.2.  Examples of Sensitive Information

   This section gives examples of sensitive information that may be
   measured or stored in a Measurement System, and that is to be kept
   private by default in the LMAP core protocols.

   Examples of Subscriber or authorised Internet user sensitive
   information:

   o  Sub-IP-layer addresses and names (MAC address, base station ID,
      SSID)

   o  IP address in use

   o  Personal Identification (real name)

   o  Location (street address, city)

   o  Subscribed service parameters



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   o  Contents of traffic (activity, DNS queries, destinations,
      equipment types, account info for other services, etc.)

   o  Status as a study volunteer and Schedule of Measurement Tasks

   Examples of Internet Service Provider sensitive information:

   o  Measurement device identification (equipment ID and IP address)

   o  Measurement Instructions (choice of measurements)

   o  Measurement Results (some may be shared, others may be private)

   o  Measurement Schedule (exact times)

   o  Network topology (locations, connectivity, redundancy)

   o  Subscriber billing information, and any of the above Subscriber
      information known to the provider.

   o  Authentication credentials (such as certificates)

   Other organisations will have some combination of the lists above.
   The LMAP system would not typically expose all of the information
   above, but could expose a combination of items that could be
   correlated with other pieces collected by an attacker (as discussed
   in Section 8.5 on Threats).

8.3.  Different Privacy Issues Raised by Different Sorts of Measurement
      Methods

   Measurement Methods raise different privacy issues depending on
   whether they measure traffic created specifically for that purpose or
   whether they measure user traffic.

   Measurement Tasks conducted on user traffic store sensitive
   information, however briefly this storage may be.  We note that some
   authorities make a distinction on time of storage, and information
   that is kept only temporarily to perform a communications function is
   not subject to regulation (for example, active queue management, deep
   packet inspection).  Such Measurement Tasks could reveal all the
   websites a Subscriber visits and the applications and/or services
   they use.  This issue is not specific to LMAP.  For instance, IPFIX
   has discussed similar issues (see Section 11.8 of [RFC7011]), but
   mitigations described in the sections below were considered beyond
   their scope.





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   In contrast to Measurement Tasks conducted on user traffic, other
   Measurement Tasks use traffic which is created specifically for the
   purpose of measurement.  Even if a user host generates Measurement
   Traffic, there is limited sensitive information about the Subscriber
   present and stored in the Measurement System:

   o  IP address in use (and possibly sub-IP addresses and names)

   o  Status as a study volunteer and Schedule of Measurement Tasks

   On the other hand, for a service provider, the sensitive information
   like Measurement Results is the same for all Measurement Tasks.

   From the Subscriber perspective, both types of Measurement Tasks
   potentially expose the description of Internet access service and
   specific service parameters, such as the Subscriber rate and type of
   access.

8.4.  Privacy Analysis of the Communication Models

   This section examines each of the protocol exchanges described at a
   high level in Section 5 and some example Measurement Tasks, and it
   identifies specific sensitive information that must be secured during
   communication for each case.  With the protocol-related sensitive
   information identified, we can better consider the threats described
   in the following section.

   From the privacy perspective, all entities participating in LMAP
   protocols can be considered "observers" according to the definition
   in [RFC6973].  Their stored information potentially poses a threat to
   privacy, especially if one or more of these functional entities has
   been compromised.  Likewise, all devices on the paths used for
   control, reporting, and measurement are also observers.

8.4.1.  MA Bootstrapping

   Section 5.1 provides the communication model for the Bootstrapping
   process.

   Although the specification of mechanisms for Bootstrapping the MA are
   beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work, designers should recognise
   that the Bootstrapping process is extremely powerful and could cause
   an MA to join a new or different LMAP system with a different
   Controller and Collector, or simply install new Metrics with
   associated Measurement Methods (for example, to record DNS queries).
   A Bootstrap attack could result in a breach of the LMAP system with
   significant sensitive information exposure depending on the




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   capabilities of the MA, so sufficient security protections are
   warranted.

   The Bootstrapping process provides sensitive information about the
   LMAP system and the organisation that operates it, such as

   o  the MA's identifier (MA-ID)

   o  the address that identifies the Control Channel, such as the
      Controller's FQDN

   o  Security information for the Control Channel

   During the Bootstrap process for an MA located at a single
   Subscriber's service demarcation point, the MA receives an MA-ID,
   which is a persistent pseudonym for the Subscriber.  Thus, the MA-ID
   is considered sensitive information because it could provide the link
   between Subscriber identification and Measurements Results.

   Also, the Bootstrap process could assign a Group-ID to the MA.  The
   specific definition of information represented in a Group-ID is to be
   determined, but several examples are envisaged including use as a
   pseudonym for a set of Subscribers, a class of service, an access
   technology, or other important categories.  Assignment of a Group-ID
   enables anonymisation sets to be formed on the basis of service
   type/grade/rates.  Thus, the mapping between Group-ID and MA-ID is
   considered sensitive information.

8.4.2.  Controller <-> Measurement Agent

   The high-level communication model for interactions between the LMAP
   Controller and Measurement Agent is illustrated in Section 5.2.  The
   primary purpose of this exchange is to authenticate and task a
   Measurement Agent with Measurement Instructions, which the
   Measurement Agent then acts on autonomously.

   Primarily, IP addresses and pseudonyms (MA-ID, Group-ID) are
   exchanged with a capability request, then measurement-related
   information of interest such as the parameters, schedule, metrics,
   and IP addresses of measurement devices.  Thus, the measurement
   Instruction contains sensitive information that must be secured.  For
   example, the fact that an ISP is running additional measurements
   beyond the set reported externally is sensitive information, as are
   the additional Measurements Tasks themselves.  The Measurement
   Schedule is also sensitive, because an attacker intending to bias the
   results without being detected can use this information to great
   advantage.




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   An organisation operating the Controller having no service
   relationship with a user who hosts the Measurement Agent *could* gain
   real-name mapping to a public IP address through user participation
   in an LMAP system (this applies to the Measurement Collection
   protocol, as well).

8.4.3.  Collector <-> Measurement Agent

   The high-level communication model for interactions between the
   Measurement Agent and Collector is illustrated in Section 5.4.  The
   primary purpose of this exchange is to authenticate and collect
   Measurement Results from an MA, which the MA has measured
   autonomously and stored.

   The Measurement Results are the additional sensitive information
   included in the Collector-MA exchange.  Organisations collecting LMAP
   measurements have responsibility for data control.  Thus, the Results
   and other information communicated in the Collector protocol must be
   secured.

8.4.4.  Measurement Peer <-> Measurement Agent

   A Measurement Method involving Measurement Traffic raises potential
   privacy issues, although the specification of the mechanisms is
   beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work.  The high-level
   communications model below illustrates the various exchanges to
   execute such a Measurement Method and store the Results.

   We note the potential for additional observers in the figures below
   by indicating the possible presence of a NAT, which has additional
   significance to the protocols and direction of initiation.

   The various messages are optional, depending on the nature of the
   Measurement Method.  It may involve sending Measurement Traffic from
   the Measurement Peer to MA, MA to Measurement Peer, or both.
   Similarly, a second (or more) MAs may be involved.  (Note: For
   simplicity, Figure 11 and the description don't show the non-LMAP
   functionality that is associated with the transfer of the Measurement
   Traffic and is located at the devices with the MA and MP.)












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    _________________                              _________________
   |                 |                            |                 |
   |Measurement Peer |=========== NAT ? ==========|Measurement Agent|
   |_________________|                            |_________________|

                                  <-              (Key Negotiation &
                                                   Encryption Setup)
   (Encrypted Channel             ->
   Established)
   (Announce capabilities         ->
   & status)
                                  <-             (Select capabilities)
   ACK                            ->
                                  <-              (Measurement Request
                                                 (MA+MP IPAddrs,set of
                                                   Metrics, Schedule))
   ACK                            ->

   Measurement Traffic            <>              Measurement Traffic
   (may/may not be encrypted)               (may/may not be encrypted)

                                  <-           (Stop Measurement Task)

   Measurement Results            ->
   (if applicable)
                                  <-                       ACK, Close

     Figure 11: Interactions between Measurement Peer and Measurement
                                   Agent

   This exchange primarily exposes the IP addresses of measurement
   devices and the inference of measurement participation from such
   traffic.  There may be sensitive information on key points in a
   service provider's network included.  There may also be access to
   measurement-related information of interest such as the Metrics,
   Schedule, and intermediate results carried in the Measurement Traffic
   (usually a set of timestamps).

   The Measurement Peer may be able to use traffic analysis (perhaps
   combined with traffic injection) to obtain interesting insights about
   the Subscriber.  As a simple example, if the Measurement Task
   includes a pre-check that the end user isn't already sending traffic,
   the Measurement Peer may be able to deduce when the Subscriber is
   away on holiday.

   If the Measurement Traffic is unencrypted, as found in many systems
   today, then both timing and limited results are open to on-path
   observers.



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8.4.5.  Measurement Agent

   Some Measurement Methods only involve a single Measurement Agent
   observing existing traffic.  They raise potential privacy issues,
   although the specification of the mechanisms is beyond the scope of
   the initial LMAP work.

   The high-level communications model shown in Figure 12 illustrates
   the collection of user information of interest with the Measurement
   Agent performing the monitoring and storage of the Results.  This
   particular exchange is for measurement of DNS Response Time, which
   most frequently uses UDP transport.  (Note: For simplicity, Figure 12
   and its description do not show the non-LMAP functionality that is
   associated with the transfer (export) of the observed Measurement
   Traffic beyond the measurement devices located with the MA.)

  _________________                                      ____________
 |                 |                                    |            |
 |  DNS Server     |=========== NAT ? ==========*=======| User client|
 |_________________|                            ^       |____________|
                                          ______|_______
                                         |              |
                                         |  Measurement |
                                         |    Agent     |
                                         |______________|

                                <-              Name Resolution Required
                                               (MA+MP IPAddrs,
                                                Desired Domain Name)
 Return Record                  ->

 MA: Measurement Agent
 MP: Measurement Peer

   Figure 12: LMAP deployment example, with Measurement Agent monitoring
                             DNS response time

   In this particular example, the MA monitors DNS messages in order to
   measure the DNS response time.  The Measurement Agent may be embedded
   in the user host, or it may be located in another device capable of
   observing user traffic.  The MA learns the IP addresses of
   measurement devices and the intent to communicate with or access the
   services of a particular domain name, and perhaps also information on
   key points in a service provider's network, such as the address of
   one of its DNS servers.






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   In principle, any of the user sensitive information of interest
   (listed above) can be collected and stored in the monitoring scenario
   and so must be secured.

   It would also be possible for a Measurement Agent to source the DNS
   query itself, and then there are not many privacy concerns.

8.4.6.  Storage and Reporting of Measurement Results

   Although the mechanisms for communicating results (beyond the initial
   Collector) are beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work, there are
   potential privacy issues related to a single organisation's storage
   and reporting of Measurement Results.  Both storage and reporting
   functions can help to preserve privacy by implementing the
   mitigations described below.

8.5.  Threats

   This section indicates how each of the threats described in [RFC6973]
   apply to the LMAP entities and their communication and storage of
   "information of interest".  DoS and other attacks described in the
   Security section represent threats as well, and these attacks are
   more effective when sensitive information protections have been
   compromised.

8.5.1.  Surveillance

   Section 5.1.1 of [RFC6973] describes surveillance as the "observation
   or monitoring of an individual's communications or activities."
   Hence, all Measurement Methods that measure user traffic are a form
   of surveillance, with inherent risks.

   Measurement Methods that avoid periods of user transmission
   indirectly produce a record of times when a subscriber or authorised
   user has used their network access service.

   Measurement Methods may also utilise and store a Subscriber's
   currently assigned IP address when conducting measurements that are
   relevant to a specific Subscriber.  Since the Measurement Results are
   timestamped, they could provide a record of IP address assignments
   over time.

   Either of the above pieces of information could be useful in
   correlation and identification, as described below.







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8.5.2.  Stored Data Compromise

   Section 5.1.2 of [RFC6973] describes Stored Data Compromise as
   resulting from inadequate measures to secure stored data from
   unauthorised or inappropriate access.  For LMAP systems, this
   includes deleting or modifying collected measurement records, as well
   as data theft.

   The primary LMAP entity subject to compromise is the repository,
   which stores the Measurement Results; extensive security and privacy
   threat mitigations are warranted.  The Collector and MA also store
   sensitive information temporarily and need protection.  The
   communications between the local storage of the Collector and the
   repository is beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work, though this
   communications channel will certainly need protection as will the
   mass storage itself.

   The LMAP Controller may have direct access to storage of Subscriber
   information (for example, location, billing, service parameters,
   etc.) and other information that the controlling organisation
   considers private and again needs protection.

   Note that there is tension between the desire to store all raw
   results in the LMAP Collector (for reproduction and custom analysis)
   and the need to protect the privacy of measurement participants.
   Many of the mitigations described in Section 8.6 are most efficient
   when deployed at the MA, therefore minimising the risks associated
   with stored results.

8.5.3.  Correlation and Identification

   Sections 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 of [RFC6973] describe correlation as
   combining various pieces of information to obtain desired
   characteristics of an individual, and identification as using this
   combination to infer identity.

   The main risk is that the LMAP system could unwittingly provide a key
   piece of the correlation chain, starting with an unknown Subscriber's
   IP address and another piece of information.  For example, a
   Subscriber utilised Internet access from 2000 to 2310 UTC, because
   the Measurement Tasks were deferred or sent a name resolution for
   www.example.com at 2300 UTC.

   If a user's access with another system already gave away sensitive
   information, correlation is clearly easier and can result in
   re-identification, even when an LMAP system conserves sensitive
   information to great extent.




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8.5.4.  Secondary Use and Disclosure

   Sections 5.2.3 and 5.2.4 of [RFC6973] describe secondary use as
   unauthorised utilisation of an individual's information for a purpose
   the individual did not intend, and disclosure as when such
   information is revealed causing another's notions of the individual
   to change or confidentiality to be violated.

   Measurement Methods that measure user traffic are a form of secondary
   use, and the Subscribers' permission should be obtained beforehand.
   It may be necessary to obtain the measured ISP's permission to
   conduct measurements (for example, when required by the terms and
   conditions of the service agreement) and notification is considered
   good measurement practice.

   For Measurement Methods that measure Measurement Traffic the
   Measurement Results provide some limited information about the
   Subscriber or ISP and could result in secondary uses.  For example,
   the use of the Results in unauthorised marketing campaigns would
   qualify as secondary use.  Secondary use may break national laws and
   regulations, and may violate an individual's expectations or desires.

8.6.  Mitigations

   This section examines the mitigations listed in Section 6 of
   [RFC6973] and their applicability to LMAP systems.  Note that each
   section in [RFC6973] identifies the threat categories that each
   technique mitigates.

8.6.1.  Data Minimisation

   Section 6.1 of [RFC6973] encourages collecting and storing the
   minimal information needed to perform a task.

   LMAP Results can be useful for general reporting about performance
   and for specific troubleshooting.  They need different levels of
   information detail, as explained in the paragraphs below.

   For general reporting, the results can be aggregated into large
   categories (for example, the month of March, all US subscribers West
   of the Mississippi River).  In this case, all individual
   identifications (including IP address of the MA) can be excluded, and
   only relevant results are provided.  However, this implies a
   filtering process to reduce the information fields, because greater
   detail was needed to conduct the Measurement Tasks in the first
   place.





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   For troubleshooting, so that a network operator or end user can
   identify a performance issue or failure, potentially all the network
   information (for example, IP addresses, equipment IDs, location),
   Measurement Schedules, service configurations, Measurement Results,
   and other information may assist in the process.  This includes the
   information needed to conduct the Measurements Tasks, and represents
   a need where the maximum relevant information is desirable;
   therefore, the greatest protections should be applied.  This level of
   detail is greater than needed for general performance monitoring.

   As regards Measurement Methods that measure user traffic, we note
   that a user may give temporary permission (to enable detailed
   troubleshooting), but withhold permission for them in general.  Here
   the greatest breadth of sensitive information is potentially exposed,
   and the maximum privacy protection must be provided.  The Collector
   may perform pre-storage minimisation and other mitigations
   (Section 8.6.4) to help preserve privacy.

   For MAs with access to the sensitive information of users (for
   example, within a home or a personal host/handset), it is desirable
   for the Results collection to minimise the data reported, but also to
   balance this desire with the needs of troubleshooting when a service
   subscription exists between the user and organisation operating the
   measurements.

8.6.2.  Anonymity

   Section 6.1.1 of [RFC6973] describes an "anonymity set" as a way in
   which anonymity is achieved: "there must exist a set of individuals
   that appear to have the same attribute(s) as the individual."

   Experimental methods for anonymisation of user-identifiable data (and
   so particularly applicable to Measurement Methods that measure user
   traffic) have been identified in [RFC6235].  However, the findings of
   several of the same authors is that "there is increasing evidence
   that anonymization applied to network trace or flow data on its own
   is insufficient for many data protection applications as in [Bur10]."
   Essentially, the details of such Measurement Methods can only be
   accessed by closed organisations, and unknown injection attacks are
   always less expensive than the protections from them.  However, some
   forms of summary may protect the user's sensitive information
   sufficiently well, and so each Metric must be evaluated in the light
   of privacy.

   The techniques in [RFC6235] could be applied more successfully in
   Measurement Methods that generate Measurement Traffic, where there
   are protections from injection attack.  The successful attack would
   require breaking the integrity protection of the LMAP Reporting



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   Protocol and injecting Measurement Results (known fingerprint, see
   Section 3.2 of [RFC6973]) for inclusion with the shared and
   anonymised results, then fingerprinting those records to ascertain
   the anonymisation process.

   Beside anonymisation of measured Results for a specific user or
   provider, the value of sensitive information can be further diluted
   by summarising the Results over many individuals or areas served by
   the provider.  There is an opportunity enabled by forming anonymity
   sets [RFC6973] based on the reference path measurement points in
   [RFC7398].  For example, all measurements from a Subscriber device
   can be identified as "mp000", instead of using the IP address or
   other device information.  The same anonymisation applies to the
   Internet Service Provider, where their Internet gateway would be
   referred to as "mp190".

   Another anonymisation technique is for the MA to include its Group-ID
   instead of its MA-ID in its Measurement Reports, with several MAs
   sharing the same Group-ID.

8.6.3.  Pseudonymity

   Section 6.1.2 of [RFC6973] indicates that pseudonyms, or nicknames,
   are a possible mitigation to revealing one's true identity, since
   there is no requirement to use real names in almost all protocols.

   A pseudonym for a measurement device's IP address could be an
   LMAP-unique equipment ID.  However, this would likely be a permanent
   handle for the device, and long-term use weakens a pseudonym's power
   to obscure identity.

8.6.4.  Other Mitigations

   Data can be depersonalised by blurring it, for example by adding
   synthetic data, data-swapping, or perturbing the values in ways that
   can be reversed or corrected.

   Sections 6.2 and 6.3 of [RFC6973] describe user participation and
   security, respectively.

   Where LMAP measurements involve devices on the subscriber's premises
   or Subscriber-owned equipment, it is essential to secure the
   Subscriber's permission with regard to the specific information that
   will be collected.  The informed consent of the Subscriber (and, if
   different, the end user) may be needed, including the specific
   purpose of the measurements.  The approval process could involve
   showing the Subscriber their measured information and results before
   instituting periodic collection, or before all instances of



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   collection, with the option to cancel collection temporarily or
   permanently.

   It should also be clear who is legally responsible for data
   protection (privacy); in some jurisdictions, this role is called the
   'data controller'.  It is always good practice to limit the time that
   personal information is stored.

   Although the details of verification would be impenetrable to most
   subscribers, the MA could be architected as an "app" with open source
   code, pre-download and embedded terms of use and agreement on
   measurements, and protection from code modifications usually provided
   by the app stores.  Further, the app itself could provide data
   reduction and temporary storage mitigations as appropriate and
   certified through code review.

   LMAP protocols, devices, and the information they store clearly need
   to be secure from unauthorised access.  This is the hand-off between
   privacy and security considerations (Section 7).  The data controller
   is responsible (legally) for maintaining data protections described
   in the Subscriber's agreement and agreements with other
   organisations.

   Finally, it is recommended that each entity described in Section 8.1,
   (for example, individuals, ISPs, regulators, others) assess the risks
   of LMAP data collection by conducting audits of their data protection
   methods.

9.  Informative References

   [Bur10]    Burkhart, M., Schatzmann, D., Trammell, B., and E. Boschi,
              "The Role of Network Trace anonymisation Under Attack",
              January 2010.

   [IPPM-REG] Bagnulo, M., Claise, B., Eardley, P., Morton, A., and A.
              Akhter, "Registry for Performance Metrics", Work in
              Progress, draft-ietf-ippm-metric-registry-04, July 2015.

   [LMAP-INFO]
              Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Bagnulo, M., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, "Information Model for Large-Scale
              Measurement Platforms (LMAP)", Work in Progress,
              draft-ietf-lmap-information-model-06, July 2015.

   [REST]     Wikipedia, "Representational state transfer", July 2015,
              <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
              title=Representational_state_transfer&oldid=673799183>.




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   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
              November 1987, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>.

   [RFC3444]  Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
              Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3444, January 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3444>.

   [RFC4101]  Rescorla, E. and IAB, "Writing Protocol Models", RFC 4101,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4101, June 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4101>.

   [RFC4122]  Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
              Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4122, July 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4122>.

   [RFC4656]  Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B., Karp, A., Boote, J., and M.
              Zekauskas, "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol
              (OWAMP)", RFC 4656, DOI 10.17487/RFC4656, September 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4656>.

   [RFC5357]  Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J.
              Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)",
              RFC 5357, DOI 10.17487/RFC5357, October 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5357>.

   [RFC6235]  Boschi, E. and B. Trammell, "IP Flow Anonymization
              Support", RFC 6235, DOI 10.17487/RFC6235, May 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6235>.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC6419]  Wasserman, M. and P. Seite, "Current Practices for
              Multiple-Interface Hosts", RFC 6419, DOI 10.17487/RFC6419,
              November 2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6419>.

   [RFC6887]  Wing, D., Ed., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and
              P. Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6887, April 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6887>.






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   [RFC6973]  Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J.,
              Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy
              Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6973, July 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6973>.

   [RFC7011]  Claise, B., Ed., Trammell, B., Ed., and P. Aitken,
              "Specification of the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
              Protocol for the Exchange of Flow Information", STD 77,
              RFC 7011, DOI 10.17487/RFC7011, September 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7011>.

   [RFC7258]  Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
              Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, DOI 10.17487/RFC7258,
              May 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7258>.

   [RFC7368]  Chown, T., Ed., Arkko, J., Brandt, A., Troan, O., and J.
              Weil, "IPv6 Home Networking Architecture Principles",
              RFC 7368, DOI 10.17487/RFC7368, October 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7368>.

   [RFC7398]  Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T., Crawford, S., Eardley, P., and
              A. Morton, "A Reference Path and Measurement Points for
              Large-Scale Measurement of Broadband Performance",
              RFC 7398, DOI 10.17487/RFC7398, February 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7398>.

   [RFC7536]  Linsner, M., Eardley, P., Burbridge, T., and F. Sorensen,
              "Large-Scale Broadband Measurement Use Cases", RFC 7536,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7536, May 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7536>.

   [TR-069]   The Broadband Forum, "CPE WAN Management Protocol", TR-069
              Amendment 5, November 2013,
              <https://www.broadband-forum.org/technical/download/
              TR-069_Amendment-5.pdf>.

   [UPnP]     UPnP Forum, "UPnP Device Architecture 2.0", February 2015,
              <http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_ics/
              catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=57195>.











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Acknowledgments

   This document originated as a merger of three individual drafts:
   "Terminology for Large MeAsurement Platforms (LMAP)" (July 2013), "A
   Framework and Inventory for a Large Scale Measurement System" (July
   2013), and "A framework for large-scale measurements" (July 2013).

   Thanks to Juergen Schoenwaelder for his detailed review of the
   terminology.  Thanks to Charles Cook for a very detailed review of an
   early draft of this document.  Thanks to Barbara Stark and Ken Ko for
   many helpful comments about later draft versions.

   Thanks to numerous people for much discussion, directly and on the
   LMAP list (apologies to those unintentionally omitted): Alan Clark,
   Alissa Cooper, Andrea Soppera, Barbara Stark, Benoit Claise, Brian
   Trammell, Charles Cook, Dan Romascanu, Dave Thorne, Frode Soerensen,
   Greg Mirsky, Guangqing Deng, Jason Weil, Jean-Francois Tremblay,
   Jerome Benoit, Joachim Fabini, Juergen Schoenwaelder, Jukka Manner,
   Ken Ko, Lingli Deng, Mach Chen, Matt Mathis, Marc Ibrahim, Michael
   Bugenhagen, Michael Faath, Nalini Elkins, Radia Perlman, Rolf Winter,
   Sam Crawford, Sharam Hakimi, Steve Miller, Ted Lemon, Timothy Carey,
   Vaibhav Bajpai, Vero Zheng, and William Lupton.

   Philip Eardley, Trevor Burbridge and Marcelo Bagnulo worked in part
   on the Leone research project, which received funding from the
   European Union Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement
   number 317647.

Authors' Addresses

   Philip Eardley
   BT
   Adastral Park, Martlesham Heath
   Ipswich
   England

   Email: philip.eardley@bt.com


   Al Morton
   AT&T Labs
   200 Laurel Avenue South
   Middletown, NJ
   United States

   Email: acmorton@att.com





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   Marcelo Bagnulo
   Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
   Av. Universidad 30
   Leganes, Madrid  28911
   Spain

   Phone: 34 91 6249500
   Email: marcelo@it.uc3m.es
   URI:   http://www.it.uc3m.es


   Trevor Burbridge
   BT
   Adastral Park, Martlesham Heath
   Ipswich
   England

   Email: trevor.burbridge@bt.com


   Paul Aitken
   Brocade Communications Systems, Inc.
   19a Canning Street, Level 3
   Edinburgh, Scotland  EH3 8EG
   United Kingdom

   Email: paitken@brocade.com


   Aamer Akhter
   Consultant
   118 Timber Hitch
   Cary, NC
   United States

   Email: aakhter@gmail.com















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