[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-cdni-f...] [Diff1] [Diff2]

INFORMATIONAL

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                       L. Peterson
Request for Comments: 7336                     Akamai Technologies, Inc.
Obsoletes: 3466                                                 B. Davie
Category: Informational                                     VMware, Inc.
ISSN: 2070-1721                                  R. van Brandenburg, Ed.
                                                                     TNO
                                                             August 2014


   Framework for Content Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI)

Abstract

   This document presents a framework for Content Distribution Network
   Interconnection (CDNI).  The purpose of the framework is to provide
   an overall picture of the problem space of CDNI and to describe the
   relationships among the various components necessary to interconnect
   CDNs.  CDNI requires the specification of interfaces and mechanisms
   to address issues such as request routing, distribution metadata
   exchange, and logging information exchange across CDNs.  The intent
   of this document is to outline what each interface needs to
   accomplish and to describe how these interfaces and mechanisms fit
   together, while leaving their detailed specification to other
   documents.  This document, in combination with RFC 6707, obsoletes
   RFC 3466.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7336.










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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.





































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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................4
      1.1. Terminology ................................................4
      1.2. Reference Model ............................................6
      1.3. Structure of This Document ................................10
   2. Building Blocks ................................................10
      2.1. Request Redirection .......................................10
           2.1.1. DNS Redirection ....................................10
           2.1.2. HTTP Redirection ...................................12
   3. Overview of CDNI Operation .....................................12
      3.1. Preliminaries .............................................14
      3.2. Iterative HTTP Redirect Example ...........................15
      3.3. Recursive HTTP Redirection Example ........................21
      3.4. Iterative DNS-Based Redirection Example ...................25
           3.4.1. Notes on Using DNSSEC ..............................28
      3.5. Dynamic Footprint Discovery Example .......................29
      3.6. Content Removal Example ...................................31
      3.7. Pre-positioned Content Acquisition Example ................32
      3.8. Asynchronous CDNI Metadata Example ........................33
      3.9. Synchronous CDNI Metadata Acquisition Example .............35
      3.10. Content and Metadata Acquisition with Multiple
            Upstream CDNs ............................................37
   4. Main Interfaces ................................................38
      4.1. In-Band versus Out-of-Band Interfaces .....................39
      4.2. Cross-Interface Concerns ..................................40
      4.3. Request Routing Interfaces ................................40
      4.4. CDNI Logging Interface ....................................41
      4.5. CDNI Control Interface ....................................43
      4.6. CDNI Metadata Interface ...................................43
      4.7. HTTP Adaptive Streaming Concerns ..........................44
      4.8. URI Rewriting .............................................46
   5. Deployment Models ..............................................47
      5.1. Meshed CDNs ...............................................47
      5.2. CSP Combined with CDN .....................................48
      5.3. CSP Using CDNI Request Routing Interface ..................49
      5.4. CDN Federations and CDN Exchanges .........................50
   6. Trust Model ....................................................53
   7. Privacy Considerations .........................................54
   8. Security Considerations ........................................55
      8.1. Security of CDNI Interfaces ...............................56
      8.2. Digital Rights Management .................................56
   9. Contributors ...................................................56
   10. Acknowledgements ..............................................57
   11. Informative References ........................................57






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1.  Introduction

   This document provides an overview of the various components
   necessary to interconnect CDNs, expanding on the problem statement
   and use cases introduced in [RFC6770] and [RFC6707].  It describes
   the necessary interfaces and mechanisms in general terms and outlines
   how they fit together to form a complete system for CDN
   Interconnection.  Detailed specifications are left to other
   documents.  This document makes extensive use of message flow
   examples to illustrate the operation of interconnected CDNs, but
   these examples should be considered illustrative rather than
   prescriptive.

   [RFC3466] uses different terminology and models for "Content
   (distribution) Internetworking (CDI)".  It is also less prescriptive
   in terms of interfaces.  To avoid confusion, this document obsoletes
   [RFC3466].

1.1.  Terminology

   This document uses the core terminology defined in [RFC6707].  It
   also introduces the following terms:

   CDN-Domain:  a hostname (Fully Qualified Domain Name -- FQDN) at the
      beginning of a URL (excluding port and scheme), representing a set
      of content that is served by a given CDN.  For example, in the URL
      http://cdn.csp.example/...rest of URL..., the CDN-Domain is
      cdn.csp.example.  A major role of CDN-Domain is to identify a
      region (subset) of the URI space relative to which various CDNI
      rules and policies apply.  For example, a record of CDNI Metadata
      might be defined for the set of resources corresponding to some
      CDN-Domain.

   Distinguished CDN-Domain:  a CDN-Domain that is allocated by a CDN
      for the purposes of communication with a peer CDN but that is not
      found in client requests.  Such CDN-Domains may be used for inter-
      CDN acquisition, or as redirection targets, and enable a CDN to
      distinguish a request from a peer CDN from an end-user request.

   Delivering CDN:  the CDN that ultimately delivers a piece of content
      to the end user.  The last in a potential sequence of Downstream
      CDNs.









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   Iterative CDNI Request Redirection:  When an Upstream CDN elects to
      redirect a request towards a Downstream CDN, the Upstream CDN can
      base its redirection purely on a local decision (and without
      attempting to take into account how the Downstream CDN may in turn
      redirect the user agent).  In that case, the Upstream CDN
      redirects the request to the Request Routing system in the
      Downstream CDN, which in turn will decide how to redirect that
      request: this approach is referred to as "Iterative" CDNI Request
      Redirection.

   Recursive CDNI Request Redirection:  When an Upstream CDN elects to
      redirect a request towards a Downstream CDN, the Upstream CDN can
      query the Downstream CDN Request Routing system via the CDNI
      Request Routing Redirection interface (or use information cached
      from earlier similar queries) to find out how the Downstream CDN
      wants the request to be redirected.  This allows the Upstream CDN
      to factor in the Downstream CDN response when redirecting the user
      agent.  This approach is referred to as "Recursive" CDNI Request
      Redirection.  Note that the Downstream CDN may elect to have the
      request redirected directly to a Surrogate inside the Downstream
      CDN, or to any other element in the Downstream CDN (or in another
      CDN), to handle the redirected request appropriately.

   Synchronous CDNI operations:  operations between CDNs that happen
      during the process of servicing a user request, i.e., between the
      time that the user agent begins its attempt to obtain content and
      the time at which that request is served.

   Asynchronous CDNI operations:  operations between CDNs that happen
      independently of any given user request, such as advertisement of
      footprint information or pre-positioning of content for later
      delivery.

   Trigger Interface:  a subset of the CDNI Control interface that
      includes operations to pre-position, revalidate, and purge both
      metadata and content.  These operations are typically called in
      response to some action (Trigger) by the Content Service Provider
      (CSP) on the Upstream CDN.

   We also sometimes use uCDN and dCDN as shorthand for Upstream CDN and
   Downstream CDN (see [RFC6707]), respectively.

   At various points in this document, the concept of a CDN footprint is
   used.  For a discussion on what constitutes a CDN footprint, the
   reader is referred to [FOOTPRINT-CAPABILITY].






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1.2.  Reference Model

   This document uses the reference model in Figure 1, which expands the
   reference model originally defined in [RFC6707].  (The difference is
   that the expanded model splits the Request Routing interface into its
   two distinct parts: the Request Routing Redirection interface and the
   Footprint & Capabilities Advertisement interface, as described
   below.)











































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      --------
     /        \
     |   CSP  |
     \        /
      --------
          *
          *
          *                         /\
          *                        /  \
      ----------------------      |CDNI|       ----------------------
     /     Upstream CDN     \     |    |      /    Downstream CDN    \
     |      +-------------+ |     | CI |      | +-------------+      |
     |*******   Control   |<======|====|=======>|   Control   *******|
     |*     +------*----*-+ |     |    |      | +-*----*------+     *|
     |*            *    *   |     |    |      |   *    *            *|
     |*     +------*------+ |     | LI |      | +------*------+     *|
     |* *****   Logging   |<======|====|=======>|   Logging   ***** *|
     |* *   +-*-----------+ |     |    |      | +-----------*-+   * *|
     |* *     *         *   |     |    |      |   *         *     * *|
   .....*...+-*---------*-+ |     | RI |      | +-*---------*-+...*.*...
   . |* *   |             |<======|====|=======>|             |   * *| .
   . |* *   | Req-Routing | |     |FCI |      | | Req-Routing |   * *| .
   . |* * ***             |<======|====|=======>|             |** * *| .
   . |* * * +-------------+.|     |    |      | +-------------+ * * *| .
   . |* * *                 .     |    |      |                 * * *| .
   . |* * * +-------------+ |.    | MI |      | +-------------+ * * *| .
   . |* * * | Distribution|<==.===|====|=======>| Distribution| * * *| .
   . |* * * |             | |  .   \  /       | |             | * * *| .
   . |* * * |+---------+  | |   .   \/        | |  +---------+| * * *| .
   . |* * ***| +---------+| |    ...Request......+---------+ |*** * *| .
   . |* *****+-|Surrogate|***********************|Surrogate|-+***** *| .
   . |*******  +---------+| |   Acquisition   | |+----------+ *******| .
   . |      +-------------+ |                 | +-------*-----+      | .
   . \                      /                 \         *            / .
   .  ----------------------                   ---------*------------  .
   .                                                    *              .
   .                                                    * Delivery     .
   .                                                    *              .
   .                                                 +--*---+          .
   ...............Request............................| User |..Request..
                                                     | Agent|
                                                     +------+

            <==> interfaces inside the scope of CDNI

   **** and .... interfaces outside the scope of CDNI

             Figure 1: CDNI Expanded Model and CDNI Interfaces



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   While some interfaces in the reference model are "out of scope" for
   the CDNI WG (in the sense that there is no need to define new
   protocols for those interfaces), we note that we still need to refer
   to them in this document to explain the overall operation of CDNI.

   We also note that, while we generally show only one Upstream CDN
   serving a given CSP, it is entirely possible that multiple uCDNs can
   serve a single CSP.  In fact, this situation effectively exists today
   in the sense that a single CSP can currently delegate its content
   delivery to more than one CDN.

   The following briefly describes the five CDNI interfaces,
   paraphrasing the definitions given in [RFC6707].  We discuss these
   interfaces in more detail in Section 4.

   o  CDNI Control interface (CI): Operations to bootstrap and
      parameterize the other CDNI interfaces, as well as operations to
      pre-position, revalidate, and purge both metadata and content.
      The latter subset of operations is sometimes collectively called
      the "Trigger interface".

   o  CDNI Request Routing interface: Operations to determine what CDN
      (and optionally what Surrogate within a CDN) is to serve end-user
      requests.  This interface is actually a logical bundling of two
      separate, but related, interfaces:

      *  CDNI Footprint & Capabilities Advertisement interface (FCI):
         Asynchronous operations to exchange routing information (e.g.,
         the network footprint and capabilities served by a given CDN)
         that enables CDN selection for subsequent user requests; and

      *  CDNI Request Routing Redirection interface (RI): Synchronous
         operations to select a delivery CDN (Surrogate) for a given
         user request.

   o  CDNI Metadata interface (MI): Operations to communicate metadata
      that governs how the content is delivered by interconnected CDNs.
      Examples of CDNI Metadata include geo-blocking directives,
      availability windows, access control mechanisms, and purge
      directives.  It may include a combination of:

      *  Asynchronous operations to exchange metadata that govern
         subsequent user requests for content; and

      *  Synchronous operations that govern behavior for a given user
         request for content.





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   o  CDNI Logging interface (LI): Operations that allow interconnected
      CDNs to exchange relevant activity logs.  It may include a
      combination of:

      *  Real-time exchanges, suitable for runtime traffic monitoring;
         and

      *  Offline exchanges, suitable for analytics and billing.

   The division between the sets of Trigger-based operations in the CDNI
   Control interface and the CDNI Metadata interface is somewhat
   arbitrary.  For both cases, the information passed from the Upstream
   CDN to the Downstream CDN can broadly be viewed as metadata that
   describes how content is to be managed by the Downstream CDN.  For
   example, the information conveyed by the CI to pre-position,
   revalidate, or purge metadata is similar to the information conveyed
   by posting updated metadata via the MI.  Even the CI operation to
   purge content could be viewed as a metadata update for that content:
   purge simply says that the availability window for the named content
   ends now.  The two interfaces share much in common, so minimally,
   there will need to be a consistent data model that spans both.

   The distinction we draw has to do with what the uCDN knows about the
   successful application of the metadata by the dCDN.  In the case of
   the CI, the Downstream CDN returning a successful status message
   guarantees that the operation has been successfully completed; for
   example, the content has been purged or pre-positioned.  This implies
   that the Downstream CDN accepts responsibility for having
   successfully completed the requested operation.  In contrast,
   metadata passed between CDNs via the MI carries no such completion
   guarantee.  Returning success implies successful receipt of the
   metadata, but nothing can be inferred about precisely when the
   metadata will take effect in the Downstream CDN, only that it will
   take effect eventually.  This is because of the challenge in globally
   synchronizing updates to metadata with end-user requests that are
   currently in progress (or indistinguishable from currently being in
   progress).  Clearly, a CDN will not be viewed as a trusted peer if
   "eventually" often becomes an indefinite period of time, but the
   acceptance of responsibility cannot be as crisply defined for the MI.

   Finally, there is a practical issue that impacts all of the CDNI
   interfaces, and that is whether or not to optimize CDNI for HTTP
   Adaptive Streaming (HAS).  We highlight specific issues related to
   delivering HAS content throughout this document, but for a more
   thorough treatment of the topic, see [RFC6983].






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1.3.  Structure of This Document

   The remainder of this document is organized as follows:

   o  Section 2 describes some essential building blocks for CDNI,
      notably the various options for redirecting user requests to a
      given CDN.

   o  Section 3 provides a number of illustrative examples of various
      CDNI operations.

   o  Section 4 describes the functionality of the main CDNI interfaces.

   o  Section 5 shows how various deployment models of CDNI may be
      achieved using the defined interfaces.

   o  Section 6 describes the trust model of CDNI and the issues of
      transitive trust in particular that CDNI raises.

2.  Building Blocks

2.1.  Request Redirection

   At its core, CDNI requires the redirection of requests from one CDN
   to another.  For any given request that is received by an Upstream
   CDN, it will either respond to the request directly, or somehow
   redirect the request to a Downstream CDN.  Two main mechanisms are
   available for redirecting a request to a Downstream CDN.  The first
   leverages the DNS name resolution process and the second uses
   application-layer redirection mechanisms such as the HTTP 302 or
   Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) 302 redirection responses.  While
   there exists a large variety of application-layer protocols that
   include some form of redirection mechanism, this document will use
   HTTP (and HTTPS) in its examples.  Similar mechanisms can be applied
   to other application-layer protocols.  What follows is a short
   discussion of both DNS- and HTTP-based redirection, before presenting
   some examples of their use in Section 3.

2.1.1.  DNS Redirection

   DNS redirection is based on returning different IP addresses for the
   same DNS name, for example, to balance server load or to account for
   the client's location in the network.  A DNS server, sometimes called
   the Local DNS (LDNS), resolves DNS names on behalf of an end user.
   The LDNS server in turn queries other DNS servers until it reaches
   the authoritative DNS server for the CDN-Domain.  The network
   operator typically provides the LDNS server, although the user is
   free to choose other DNS servers (e.g., OpenDNS, Google Public DNS).



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   This latter possibility is important because the authoritative DNS
   server sees only the IP address of the DNS server that queries it,
   not the IP address of the original end user.

   The advantage of DNS redirection is that it is completely transparent
   to the end user; the user sends a DNS name to the LDNS server and
   gets back an IP address.  On the other hand, DNS redirection is
   problematic because the DNS request comes from the LDNS server, not
   the end user.  This may affect the accuracy of server selection that
   is based on the user's location.  The transparency of DNS redirection
   is also a problem in that there is no opportunity to take the
   attributes of the user agent or the URI path component into account.
   We consider two main forms of DNS redirection: simple and CNAME-
   based.

   In simple DNS redirection, the authoritative DNS server for the name
   simply returns an IP address from a set of possible IP addresses.
   The answer is chosen from the set based on characteristics of the set
   (e.g., the relative loads on the servers) or characteristics of the
   client (e.g., the location of the client relative to the servers).
   Simple redirection is straightforward.  The only caveats are (1)
   there is a limit to the number of alternate IP addresses a single DNS
   server can manage; and (2) DNS responses are cached by Downstream
   servers so the Time to Live (TTL) on the response must be set to an
   appropriate value so as to preserve the freshness of the redirection.

   In CNAME-based DNS redirection, the authoritative server returns a
   CNAME response to the DNS request, telling the LDNS server to restart
   the name lookup using a new name.  A CNAME is essentially a symbolic
   link in the DNS namespace, and like a symbolic link, redirection is
   transparent to the client; the LDNS server gets the CNAME response
   and re-executes the lookup.  Only when the name has been resolved to
   an IP address does it return the result to the user.  Note that DNAME
   would be preferable to CNAME if it becomes widely supported.

   One of the advantages of DNS redirection compared to HTTP redirection
   is that it can be cached, reducing load on the redirecting CDN's DNS
   server.  However, this advantage can also be a drawback, especially
   when a given DNS resolver doesn't strictly adhere to the TTL, which
   is a known problem in some real-world environments.  In such cases,
   an end user might end up at a dCDN without first having passed
   through the uCDN, which might be an undesirable scenario from a uCDN
   point of view.








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2.1.2.  HTTP Redirection

   HTTP redirection makes use of the redirection response of the HTTP
   protocol (e.g.,"302" or "307").  This response contains a new URL
   that the application should fetch instead of the original URL.  By
   changing the URL appropriately, the server can cause the user to
   redirect to a different server.  The advantages of HTTP redirection
   are that (1) the server can change the URL fetched by the client to
   include, for example, both the DNS name of the particular server to
   use, as well as the original HTTP server that was being accessed; (2)
   the client sends the HTTP request to the server, so that its IP
   address is known and can be used in selecting the server; and (3)
   other attributes (e.g., content type, user agent type) are visible to
   the redirection mechanism.

   Just as is the case for DNS redirection, there are some potential
   disadvantages of using HTTP redirection.  For example, it may affect
   application behavior; web browsers will not send cookies if the URL
   changes to a different domain.  In addition, although this might also
   be an advantage, results of HTTP redirection are not cached so that
   all redirections must go through to the uCDN.

3.  Overview of CDNI Operation

   To provide a big-picture overview of the various components of CDNI,
   we walk through a "day in the life" of a content item that is made
   available via a pair of interconnected CDNs.  This will serve to
   illustrate many of the functions that need to be supported in a
   complete CDNI solution.  We give examples using both DNS-based and
   HTTP-based redirection.  We begin with very simple examples and then
   show how additional capabilities, such as recursive request
   redirection and content removal, might be added.

   Before walking through the specific examples, we present a high-level
   view of the operations that may take place.  This high-level overview
   is illustrated in Figure 2.  Note that most operations will involve
   only a subset of all the messages shown below, and that the order and
   number of operations may vary considerably, as the more detailed
   examples illustrate.

   The following shows Operator A as the Upstream CDN (uCDN) and
   Operator B as the Downstream CDN (dCDN), where the former has a
   relationship with a content provider and the latter is the CDN
   selected by Operator A to deliver content to the end user.  The
   interconnection relationship may be symmetric between these two CDN
   operators, but each direction can be considered as operating
   independently of the other; for simplicity, we show the interaction
   in one direction only.



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         End User                  Operator B                Operator A
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |  [Async FCI Push]       | (1)
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |  [MI pre-positioning]   | (2)
             |                         |                         |
             | CONTENT REQUEST         |                         |
             |-------------------------------------------------->| (3)
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |   [Sync RI Pull]        | (4)
             |                         |                         |
             | CONTENT REQUEST REDIRECTION                       |
             |<--------------------------------------------------| (5)
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |                         |
             | CONTENT REQUEST         |                         |
             |------------------------>|                         | (6)
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |   [Sync MI Pull]        | (7)
             |                         |                         |
             |                         | ACQUISITION REQUEST     |
             |                         X------------------------>| (8)
             |                         X                         |
             |                         X CONTENT DATA            |
             |                         X<------------------------| (9)
             |                         |                         |
             | CONTENT DATA            |                         |
             |<------------------------|                         | (10)
             |                         |                         |
             :                         :                         :
             :          [Other content requests]                 :
             :                         :                         :
             |                         |  [CI: Content Purge]    | (11)
             :                         :                         :
             |                         |  [LI: Log exchange]     | (12)
             |                         |                         |

                      Figure 2: Overview of Operation

   The operations shown in the figure are as follows:

   1.   The dCDN uses the FCI to advertise information relevant to its
        delivery footprint and capabilities prior to any content
        requests being redirected.






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   2.   Prior to any content request, the uCDN uses the MI to pre-
        position CDNI Metadata to the dCDN, thereby making that metadata
        available in readiness for later content requests.

   3.   A content request from a user agent arrives at the uCDN.

   4.   The uCDN may use the RI to synchronously request information
        from the dCDN regarding its delivery capabilities to decide if
        the dCDN is a suitable target for redirection of this request.

   5.   The uCDN redirects the request to the dCDN by sending some
        response (DNS, HTTP) to the user agent.

   6.   The user agent requests the content from the dCDN.

   7.   The dCDN may use the MI to synchronously request metadata
        related to this content from uCDN, e.g., to decide whether to
        serve it.

   8.   If the content is not already in a suitable cache in the dCDN,
        the dCDN may acquire it from the uCDN.

   9.   The content is delivered to the dCDN from the uCDN.

   10.  The content is delivered to the user agent by the dCDN.

   11.  Some time later, perhaps at the request of the CSP (not shown)
        the uCDN may use the CI to instruct the dCDN to purge the
        content, thereby ensuring it is not delivered again.

   12.  After one or more content delivery actions by the dCDN, a log of
        delivery actions may be provided to the uCDN using the LI.

   The following sections show some more specific examples of how these
   operations may be combined to perform various delivery, control, and
   logging operations across a pair of CDNs.

3.1.  Preliminaries

   Initially, we assume that there is at least one CSP that has
   contracted with an Upstream CDN (uCDN) to deliver content on its
   behalf.  We are not particularly concerned with the interface between
   the CSP and uCDN, other than to note that it is expected to be the
   same as in the "traditional" (non-interconnected) CDN case.  Existing
   mechanisms such as DNS CNAMEs or HTTP redirects (Section 2) can be
   used to direct a user request for a piece of content from the CSP
   towards the CSP's chosen Upstream CDN.




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   We assume Operator A provides an Upstream CDN that serves content on
   behalf of a CSP with CDN-Domain cdn.csp.example.  We assume that
   Operator B provides a Downstream CDN.  An end user at some point
   makes a request for URL

   http://cdn.csp.example/...rest of URL...

   It may well be the case that cdn.csp.example is just a CNAME for some
   other CDN-Domain (such as csp.op-a.example).  Nevertheless, the HTTP
   request in the examples that follow is assumed to be for the example
   URL above.

   Our goal is to enable content identified by the above URL to be
   served by the CDN of Operator B.  In the following sections, we will
   walk through some scenarios in which content is served as well as
   other CDNI operations such as the removal of content from a
   Downstream CDN.

3.2.  Iterative HTTP Redirect Example

   In this section, we walk through a simple, illustrative example using
   HTTP redirection from a uCDN to a dCDN.  The example also assumes the
   use of HTTP redirection inside the uCDN and dCDN; however, this is
   independent of the choice of redirection approach across CDNs, so an
   alternative example could be constructed still showing HTTP
   redirection from the uCDN to dCDN but using DNS for the handling of
   the request inside each CDN.

   For this example, we assume that Operators A and B have established
   an agreement to interconnect their CDNs, with A being Upstream and B
   being Downstream.

   The operators agree that a CDN-Domain peer-a.op-b.example will be
   used as the target of redirections from the uCDN to dCDN.  We assume
   the name of this domain is communicated by some means to each CDN.
   (This could be established out of band or via a CDNI interface.)  We
   refer to this domain as a "distinguished" CDN-Domain to convey the
   fact that its use is limited to the interconnection mechanism; such a
   domain is never used directly by a CSP.

   We assume the operators also agree on some distinguished CDN-Domain
   that will be used for inter-CDN acquisition of the CSP's content from
   the uCDN by the dCDN.  In this example, we'll use
   op-b-acq.op-a.example.







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   We assume the operators also exchange information regarding which
   requests the dCDN is prepared to serve.  For example, the dCDN may be
   prepared to serve requests from clients in a given geographical
   region or a set of IP address prefixes.  This information may again
   be provided out of band or via a defined CDNI interface.

   We assume DNS is configured in the following way:

   o  The content provider is configured to make Operator A the
      authoritative DNS server for cdn.csp.example (or to return a CNAME
      for cdn.csp.example for which Operator A is the authoritative DNS
      server).

   o  Operator A is configured so that a DNS request for
      op-b-acq.op-a.example returns a Request Router in Operator A.

   o  Operator B is configured so that a DNS request for
      peer-a.op-b.example/cdn.csp.example returns a Request Router in
      Operator B.

   Figure 3 illustrates how a client request for

   http://cdn.csp.example/...rest of URL...

   is handled.


         End User                 Operator B                Operator A
             |DNS cdn.csp.example      |                         |
             |-------------------------------------------------->|
             |                         |                         |(1)
             |IPaddr of A's Request Router                       |
             |<--------------------------------------------------|
             |HTTP cdn.csp.example     |                         |
             |-------------------------------------------------->|
             |                         |                         |(2)
             |302 peer-a.op-b.example/cdn.csp.example            |
             |<--------------------------------------------------|
             |DNS peer-a.op-b.example  |                         |
             |------------------------>|                         |
             |                         |(3)                      |
             |IPaddr of B's Request Router                       |
             |<------------------------|                         |
             |                         |                         |
             |HTTP peer-a.op-b.example/cdn.csp.example           |
             |------------------------>|                         |





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             |                         |(4)                      |
             |302 node1.peer-a.op-b.example/cdn.csp.example      |
             |<------------------------|                         |
             |DNS node1.peer-a.op-b.example                      |
             |------------------------>|                         |
             |                         |(5)                      |
             |IPaddr of B's Delivery Node                        |
             |<------------------------|                         |
             |                         |                         |
             |HTTP node1.peer-a.op-b.example/cdn.csp.example     |
             |------------------------>|                         |
             |                         |(6)                      |
             |                         |DNS op-b-acq.op-a.example|
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(7)
             |                         |IPaddr of A's Request Router
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |                         |HTTP op-b-acq.op-a.example
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(8)
             |                         |302 node2.op-b-acq.op-a.example
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |                         |DNS node2.op-b-acq.op-a.example
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(9)
             |                         |IPaddr of A's Delivery Node
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |HTTP node2.op-b-acq.op-a.example
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(10)
             |                         |Data                     |
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |Data                     |                         |
             |<------------------------|                         |

           Figure 3: Message Flow for Iterative HTTP Redirection

   The steps illustrated in the figure are as follows:

   1.   A DNS resolver for Operator A processes the DNS request for its
        customer based on CDN-Domain cdn.csp.example.  It returns the IP
        address of a Request Router in Operator A.

   2.   A Request Router for Operator A processes the HTTP request and
        recognizes that the end user is best served by another CDN,
        specifically one provided by Operator B, and so it returns a 302
        redirect message for a new URL constructed by "stacking"



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        Operator B's distinguished CDN-Domain (peer-a.op-b.example) on
        the front of the original URL.  (Note that more complex URL
        manipulations are possible, such as replacing the initial CDN-
        Domain by some opaque handle.)

   3.   The end user does a DNS lookup using Operator B's distinguished
        CDN-Domain (peer-a.op-b.example).  B's DNS resolver returns the
        IP address of a Request Router for Operator B.  Note that if
        request routing within the dCDN was performed using DNS instead
        of HTTP redirection, B's DNS resolver would also behave as the
        Request Router and directly return the IP address of a delivery
        node.

   4.   The Request Router for Operator B processes the HTTP request and
        selects a suitable delivery node to serve the end-user request,
        and it returns a 302 redirect message for a new URL constructed
        by replacing the hostname with a subdomain of the Operator B's
        distinguished CDN-Domain that points to the selected delivery
        node.

   5.   The end user does a DNS lookup using Operator B's delivery node
        subdomain (node1.peer-a.op-b.example).  B's DNS resolver returns
        the IP address of the delivery node.

   6.   The end user requests the content from B's delivery node.  In
        the case of a cache hit, steps 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 below do not
        happen, and the content data is directly returned by the
        delivery node to the end user.  In the case of a cache miss, the
        content needs to be acquired by the dCDN from the uCDN (not the
        CSP).  The distinguished CDN-Domain peer-a.op-b.example
        indicates to the dCDN that this content is to be acquired from
        the uCDN; stripping the CDN-Domain reveals the original CDN-
        Domain cdn.csp.example, and the dCDN may verify that this CDN-
        Domain belongs to a known peer (so as to avoid being tricked
        into serving as an open proxy).  It then does a DNS request for
        an inter-CDN acquisition CDN-Domain as agreed above (in this
        case, op-b-acq.op-a.example).

   7.   Operator A's DNS resolver processes the DNS request and returns
        the IP address of a Request Router in Operator A.

   8.   The Request Router for Operator A processes the HTTP request
        from Operator B's delivery node.  Operator A's Request Router
        recognizes that the request is from a peer CDN rather than an
        end user because of the dedicated inter-CDN acquisition domain
        (op-b-acq.op-a.example).  (Note that without this specially
        defined inter-CDN acquisition domain, Operator A would be at
        risk of redirecting the request back to Operator B, resulting in



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        an infinite loop).  The Request Router for Operator A selects a
        suitable delivery node in uCDN to serve the inter-CDN
        acquisition request and returns a 302 redirect message for a new
        URL constructed by replacing the hostname with a subdomain of
        the Operator A's distinguished inter-CDN acquisition domain that
        points to the selected delivery node.

   9.   Operator A's DNS resolver processes the DNS request and returns
        the IP address of the delivery node in Operator A.

   10.  Operator B requests (acquires) the content from Operator A.
        Although not shown, Operator A processes the rest of the URL: it
        extracts information identifying the origin server, validates
        that this server has been registered, and determines the content
        provider that owns the origin server.  It may also perform its
        own content acquisition steps if needed before returning the
        content to dCDN.

   The main advantage of this design is that it is simple: each CDN need
   only know the distinguished CDN-Domain for each peer, with the
   Upstream CDN "pushing" the Downstream CDN-Domain onto the URL as part
   of its redirect (step 2), and the Downstream CDN "popping" its CDN-
   Domain off the URL to expose a CDN-Domain that the Upstream CDN can
   correctly process.  Neither CDN need be aware of the internal
   structure of the other's URLs.  Moreover, the inter-CDN redirection
   is entirely supported by a single HTTP redirect; neither CDN need be
   aware of the other's internal redirection mechanism (i.e., whether it
   is DNS or HTTP based).

   One disadvantage is that the end user's browser is redirected to a
   new URL that is not in the same domain of the original URL.  This has
   implications on a number of security or validation mechanisms
   sometimes used on endpoints.  For example, it is important that any
   redirected URL be in the same domain (e.g., csp.example) if the
   browser is expected to send any cookies associated with that domain.
   As another example, some video players enforce validation of a cross-
   domain policy that needs to accommodate the domains involved in the
   CDN redirection.  These problems are generally solvable, but the
   solutions complicate the example, so we do not discuss them further
   in this document.

   We note that this example begins to illustrate some of the interfaces
   that may be required for CDNI, but it does not require all of them.
   For example, obtaining information from a dCDN regarding the set of
   client IP addresses or geographic regions it might be able to serve
   is an aspect of request routing (specifically of the CDNI Footprint &
   Capabilities Advertisement interface).  Important configuration
   information such as the distinguished names used for redirection and



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   inter-CDN acquisition could also be conveyed via a CDNI interface
   (e.g., perhaps the CDNI Control interface).  The example also shows
   how existing HTTP-based methods suffice for the acquisition
   interface.  Arguably, the absolute minimum metadata required for CDNI
   is the information required to acquire the content, and this
   information was provided "in-band" in this example by means of the
   URI handed to the client in the HTTP 302 response.  The example also
   assumes that the CSP does not require any distribution policy (e.g.,
   time window or geo-blocking) or delivery processing to be applied by
   the interconnected CDNs.  Hence, there is no explicit CDNI Metadata
   interface invoked in this example.  There is also no explicit CDNI
   Logging interface discussed in this example.

   We also note that the step of deciding when a request should be
   redirected to the dCDN rather than served by the uCDN has been
   somewhat glossed over.  It may be as simple as checking the client IP
   address against a list of prefixes, or it may be considerably more
   complex, involving a wide range of factors, such as the geographic
   location of the client (perhaps determined from a third-party
   service), CDN load, or specific business rules.

   This example uses the "iterative" CDNI request redirection approach.
   That is, a uCDN performs part of the request redirection function by
   redirecting the client to a Request Router in the dCDN, which then
   performs the rest of the redirection function by redirecting to a
   suitable Surrogate.  If request routing is performed in the dCDN
   using HTTP redirection, this translates in the end user experiencing
   two successive HTTP redirections.  By contrast, the alternative
   approach of "recursive" CDNI request redirection effectively
   coalesces these two successive HTTP redirections into a single one,
   sending the end user directly to the right delivery node in the dCDN.
   This "recursive" CDNI request routing approach is discussed in the
   next section.

   While the example above uses HTTP, the iterative HTTP redirection
   mechanism would work over HTTPS in a similar fashion.  In order to
   make sure an end user's HTTPS request is not downgraded to HTTP along
   the redirection path, it is necessary for every Request Router along
   the path from the initial uCDN Request Router to the final Surrogate
   in the dCDN to respond to an incoming HTTPS request with an HTTP
   redirect containing an HTTPS URL.  It should be noted that using
   HTTPS will have the effect of increasing the total redirection
   process time and increasing the load on the Request Routers,
   especially when the redirection path includes many redirects and thus
   many Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) sessions.
   In such cases, a recursive HTTP redirection mechanism, as described
   in an example in the next section, might help to reduce some of these
   issues.



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3.3.  Recursive HTTP Redirection Example

   The following example builds on the previous one to illustrate the
   use of the request routing interface (specifically, the CDNI Request
   Routing Redirection interface) to enable "recursive" CDNI request
   routing.  We build on the HTTP-based redirection approach because it
   illustrates the principles and benefits clearly, but it is equally
   possible to perform recursive redirection when DNS-based redirection
   is employed.

   In contrast to the prior example, the operators need not agree in
   advance on a CDN-Domain to serve as the target of redirections from
   the uCDN to dCDN.  We assume that the operators agree on some
   distinguished CDN-Domain that will be used for inter-CDN acquisition
   of the CSP's content by dCDN.  In this example, we'll use
   op-b-acq.op-a.example.

   We assume the operators also exchange information regarding which
   requests the dCDN is prepared to serve.  For example, the dCDN may be
   prepared to serve requests from clients in a given geographical
   region or a set of IP address prefixes.  This information may again
   be provided out of band or via a defined protocol.

   We assume DNS is configured in the following way:

   o  The content provider is configured to make Operator A the
      authoritative DNS server for cdn.csp.example (or to return a CNAME
      for cdn.csp.example for which Operator A is the authoritative DNS
      server).

   o  Operator A is configured so that a DNS request for
      op-b-acq.op-a.example returns a Request Router in Operator A.

   o  Operator B is configured so that a request for node1.op-b.example/
      cdn.csp.example returns the IP address of a delivery node.  Note
      that there might be a number of such delivery nodes.

   Figure 3 illustrates how a client request for

   http://cdn.csp.example/...rest of URL...

   is handled.









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         End User                 Operator B                Operator A
             |DNS cdn.csp.example      |                         |
             |-------------------------------------------------->|
             |                         |                         |(1)
             |IPaddr of A's Request Router                       |
             |<--------------------------------------------------|
             |HTTP cdn.csp.example     |                         |
             |-------------------------------------------------->|
             |                         |                         |(2)
             |                         |RR/RI REQ cdn.csp.example|
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |RR/RI RESP node1.op-b.example
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(3)
             |302 node1.op-b.example/cdn.csp.example             |
             |<--------------------------------------------------|
             |DNS node1.op-b.example   |                         |
             |------------------------>|                         |
             |                         |(4)                      |
             |IPaddr of B's Delivery Node                        |
             |<------------------------|                         |
             |HTTP node1.op-b.example/cdn.csp.example            |
             |------------------------>|                         |
             |                         |(5)                      |
             |                         |DNS op-b-acq.op-a.example|
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(6)
             |                         |IPaddr of A's Request Router
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |                         |HTTP op-b-acq.op-a.example
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(7)


















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             |                         |302 node2.op-b-acq.op-a.example
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |                         |DNS node2.op-b-acq.op-a.example
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(8)
             |                         |IPaddr of A's Delivery Node
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |HTTP node2.op-b-acq.op-a.example
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(9)
             |                         |Data                     |
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |Data                     |                         |
             |<------------------------|                         |

           Figure 4: Message Flow for Recursive HTTP Redirection

   The steps illustrated in the figure are as follows:

   1.  A DNS resolver for Operator A processes the DNS request for its
       customer based on CDN-Domain cdn.csp.example.  It returns the IP
       address of a Request Router in Operator A.

   2.  A Request Router for Operator A processes the HTTP request and
       recognizes that the end user is best served by another CDN --
       specifically one provided by Operator B -- so it queries the CDNI
       Request Routing Redirection interface of Operator B, providing a
       set of information about the request including the URL requested.
       Operator B replies with the DNS name of a delivery node.

   3.  Operator A returns a 302 redirect message for a new URL obtained
       from the RI.

   4.  The end user does a DNS lookup using the hostname of the URL just
       provided (node1.op-b.example).  B's DNS resolver returns the IP
       address of the corresponding delivery node.  Note that, since the
       name of the delivery node was already obtained from B using the
       RI, there should not be any further redirection here (in contrast
       to the iterative method described above.)

   5.  The end user requests the content from B's delivery node,
       potentially resulting in a cache miss.  In the case of a cache
       miss, the content needs to be acquired from the uCDN (not the
       CSP.)  The distinguished CDN-Domain op-b.example indicates to the
       dCDN that this content is to be acquired from another CDN;
       stripping the CDN-Domain reveals the original CDN-Domain
       cdn.csp.example.  The dCDN may verify that this CDN-Domain



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       belongs to a known peer (so as to avoid being tricked into
       serving as an open proxy).  It then does a DNS request for the
       inter-CDN Acquisition "distinguished" CDN-Domain as agreed above
       (in this case, op-b-acq.op-a.example).

   6.  Operator A's DNS resolver processes the DNS request and returns
       the IP address of a Request Router in Operator A.

   7.  The Request Router for Operator A processes the HTTP request from
       Operator B's delivery node.  Operator A's Request Router
       recognizes that the request is from a peer CDN rather than an end
       user because of the dedicated inter-CDN acquisition domain
       (op-b-acq.op-a.example).  (Note that without this specially
       defined inter-CDN acquisition domain, Operator A would be at risk
       of redirecting the request back to Operator B, resulting in an
       infinite loop).  The Request Router for Operator A selects a
       suitable delivery node in the uCDN to serve the inter-CDN
       acquisition request and returns a 302 redirect message for a new
       URL constructed by replacing the hostname with a subdomain of the
       Operator A's distinguished inter-CDN acquisition domain that
       points to the selected delivery node.

   8.  Operator A recognizes that the DNS request is from a peer CDN
       rather than an end user (due to the internal CDN-Domain) and so
       returns the address of a delivery node.  (Note that without this
       specially defined internal domain, Operator A would be at risk of
       redirecting the request back to Operator B, resulting in an
       infinite loop.)

   9.  Operator B requests (acquires) the content from Operator A.
       Operator A serves content for the requested CDN-Domain to the
       dCDN.  Although not shown, it is at this point that Operator A
       processes the rest of the URL: it extracts information
       identifying the origin server, validates that this server has
       been registered, and determines the content provider that owns
       the origin server.  It may also perform its own content
       acquisition steps if needed before returning the content to the
       dCDN.

   Recursive redirection has the advantage (over iterative redirection)
   of being more transparent from the end user's perspective but the
   disadvantage of each CDN exposing more of its internal structure (in
   particular, the addresses of edge caches) to peer CDNs.  By contrast,
   iterative redirection does not require the dCDN to expose the
   addresses of its edge caches to the uCDN.






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   This example happens to use HTTP-based redirection in both CDN A and
   CDN B, but a similar example could be constructed using DNS-based
   redirection in either CDN.  Hence, the key point to take away here is
   simply that the end user only sees a single redirection of some type,
   as opposed to the pair of redirections in the prior (iterative)
   example.

   The use of the RI requires that the request routing mechanism be
   appropriately configured and bootstrapped, which is not shown here.
   More discussion on the bootstrapping of interfaces is provided in
   Section 4

3.4.  Iterative DNS-Based Redirection Example

   In this section we walk through a simple example using DNS-based
   redirection for request redirection from the uCDN to the dCDN (as
   well as for request routing inside the dCDN and the uCDN).  As noted
   in Section 2.1, DNS-based redirection has certain advantages over
   HTTP-based redirection (notably, it is transparent to the end user)
   as well as some drawbacks (notably, the client IP address is not
   visible to the Request Router).

   As before, Operator A has to learn the set of requests that the dCDN
   is willing or able to serve (e.g., which client IP address prefixes
   or geographic regions are part of the dCDN footprint).  We assume
   Operator B has and makes known to Operator A some unique identifier
   that can be used for the construction of a distinguished CDN-Domain,
   as shown in more detail below.  (This identifier strictly needs only
   to be unique within the scope of Operator A, but a globally unique
   identifier, such as an Autonomous System (AS) number assigned to B,
   is one easy way to achieve that.)  Also, Operator A obtains the NS
   records for Operator B's externally visible redirection servers.
   Also, as before, a distinguished CDN-Domain, such as
   op-b-acq.op-a.example, must be assigned for inter-CDN acquisition.

   We assume DNS is configured in the following way:

   o  The CSP is configured to make Operator A the authoritative DNS
      server for cdn.csp.example (or to return a CNAME for
      cdn.csp.example for which Operator A is the authoritative DNS
      server).

   o  When uCDN sees a request best served by the dCDN, it returns CNAME
      and NS records for "b.cdn.csp.example", where "b" is the unique
      identifier assigned to Operator B.  (It may, for example, be an AS
      number assigned to Operator B.)





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   o  The dCDN is configured so that a request for "b.cdn.csp.example"
      returns a delivery node in the dCDN.

   o  The uCDN is configured so that a request for
      "op-b-acq.op-a.example" returns a delivery node in the uCDN.

   Figure 5 depicts the exchange of DNS and HTTP requests.  The main
   differences from Figure 3 are the lack of HTTP redirection and
   transparency to the end user.

         End User                 Operator B                Operator A
             |DNS cdn.csp.example      |                         |
             |-------------------------------------------------->|
             |                         |                         |(1)
             |CNAME b.cdn.csp.example  |                         |
             |<--------------------------------------------------|
             |                         |                         |
             |DNS b.cdn.csp.example    |                         |
             |-------------------------------------------------->|
             |                         |                         |(2)
             |NS records for b.cdn.csp.example +                 |
             |Glue AAAA/A records for b.cdn.csp.example          |
             |<--------------------------------------------------|
             |                         |                         |
             |DNS b.cdn.csp.example    |                         |
             |------------------------>|                         |
             |                         |(3)                      |
             |IPaddr of B's Delivery Node                        |
             |<------------------------|                         |
             |HTTP cdn.csp.example     |                         |
             |------------------------>|                         |
             |                         |(4)                      |
             |                         |DNS op-b-acq.op-a.example|
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(5)
             |                         |IPaddr of A's Delivery Node
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |                         |HTTP op-b-acq.op-a.example
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(6)
             |                         |Data                     |
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |Data                     |                         |
             |<------------------------|                         |

             Figure 5: Message Flow for DNS-Based Redirection





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   The steps illustrated in the figure are as follows:

   1.  The Request Router for Operator A processes the DNS request for
       CDN-Domain cdn.csp.example and recognizes that the end user is
       best served by another CDN.  (This may depend on the IP address
       of the user's LDNS resolver, or other information discussed
       below.)  The Request Router returns a DNS CNAME response by
       "stacking" the distinguished identifier for Operator B onto the
       original CDN-Domain (e.g., b.cdn.csp.example).

   2.  The end user sends a DNS query for the modified CDN-Domain (i.e.,
       b.cdn.csp.example) to Operator A's DNS server.  The Request
       Router for Operator A processes the DNS request and returns a
       delegation to b.cdn.csp.example by sending an NS record plus glue
       records pointing to Operator B's DNS server.  (This extra step is
       necessary since typical DNS implementation won't follow an NS
       record when it is sent together with a CNAME record, thereby
       necessitating a two-step approach.)

   3.  The end user sends a DNS query for the modified CDN-Domain (i.e.,
       b.cdn.csp.example) to Operator B's DNS server, using the NS and
       AAAA/A records received in step 2.  This causes B's Request
       Router to respond with a suitable delivery node.

   4.  The end user requests the content from B's delivery node.  The
       requested URL contains the name cdn.csp.example.  (Note that the
       returned CNAME does not affect the URL.)  At this point, the
       delivery node has the correct IP address of the end user and can
       do an HTTP 302 redirect if the redirections in steps 2 and 3 were
       incorrect.  Otherwise, B verifies that this CDN-Domain belongs to
       a known peer (so as to avoid being tricked into serving as an
       open proxy).  It then does a DNS request for an "internal" CDN-
       Domain as agreed above (op-b-acq.op-a.example).

   5.  Operator A recognizes that the DNS request is from a peer CDN
       rather than an end user (due to the internal CDN-Domain) and so
       returns the address of a delivery node in uCDN.

   6.  Operator A serves content to dCDN.  Although not shown, it is at
       this point that Operator A processes the rest of the URL: it
       extracts information identifying the origin server, validates
       that this server has been registered, and determines the content
       provider that owns the origin server.

   The advantages of this approach are that it is more transparent to
   the end user and requires fewer round trips than HTTP-based
   redirection (in its worst case, i.e., when none of the needed DNS
   information is cached).  A potential problem is that the Upstream CDN



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   depends on being able to learn the correct Downstream CDN that serves
   the end user from the client address in the DNS request.  In standard
   DNS operation, the uCDN will only obtain the address of the client's
   LDNS resolver, which is not guaranteed to be in the same network (or
   geographic region) as the client.  If not (e.g., the end user uses a
   global DNS service), then the Upstream CDN cannot determine the
   appropriate Downstream CDN to serve the end user.  In this case, and
   assuming the uCDN is capable of detecting that situation, one option
   is for the Upstream CDN to treat the end user as it would any user
   not connected to a peer CDN.  Another option is for the Upstream CDN
   to "fall back" to a pure HTTP-based redirection strategy in this case
   (i.e., use the first method).  Note that this problem affects
   existing CDNs that rely on DNS to determine where to redirect client
   requests, but the consequences are arguably less serious for CDNI
   since the LDNS is likely in the same network as the dCDN serves.

   As with the prior example, this example partially illustrates the
   various interfaces involved in CDNI.  Operator A could learn
   dynamically from Operator B the set of prefixes or regions that B is
   willing and able to serve via the CDNI Footprint & Capabilities
   Advertisement interface.  The distinguished name used for acquisition
   and the identifier for Operator B that is prepended to the CDN-Domain
   on redirection are examples of information elements that might also
   be conveyed by CDNI interfaces (or, alternatively, statically
   configured).  As before, minimal metadata sufficient to obtain the
   content is carried "in-band" as part of the redirection process, and
   standard HTTP is used for inter-CDN acquisition.  There is no
   explicit CDNI Logging interface discussed in this example.

3.4.1.  Notes on Using DNSSEC

   Although it is possible to use DNSSEC in combination with the
   Iterative DNS-based Redirection mechanism explained above, it is
   important to note that the uCDN might have to sign records on the
   fly, since the CNAME returned, and thus the signature provided, can
   potentially be different for each incoming query.  Although there is
   nothing preventing a uCDN from performing such on-the-fly signing,
   this might be computationally expensive.  In the case where the
   number of dCDNs, and thus the number of different CNAMEs to return,
   is relatively stable, an alternative solution would be for the uCDN
   to pre-generate signatures for all possible CNAMEs.  For each
   incoming query, the uCDN would then determine the appropriate CNAME
   and return it together with the associated pre-generated signature.
   Note: In the latter case, maintaining the serial number and signature
   of Start of Authority (SOA) might be an issue since, technically, it
   should change every time a different CNAME is used.  However, since,





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   in practice, direct SOA queries are relatively rare, a uCDN could
   defer incrementing the serial number and resigning the SOA until it
   is queried and then do it on-the-fly.

   Note also that the NS record and the glue records used in step 2 in
   the previous section should generally be identical to those of their
   authoritative zone managed by Operator B.  Even if they differ, this
   will not make the DNS resolution process fail, but the client DNS
   server will prefer the authoritative data in its cache and use it for
   subsequent queries.  Such inconsistency is a general operational
   issue of DNS, but it may be more important for this architecture
   because the uCDN (Operator A) would rely on the consistency to make
   the resulting redirection work as intended.  In general, it is the
   administrator's responsibility to make them consistent.

3.5.  Dynamic Footprint Discovery Example

   There could be situations where being able to dynamically discover
   the set of requests that a given dCDN is willing and able to serve is
   beneficial.  For example, a CDN might at one time be able to serve a
   certain set of client IP prefixes, but that set might change over
   time due to changes in the topology and routing policies of the IP
   network.  The following example illustrates this capability.  We have
   chosen the example of DNS-based redirection, but HTTP-based
   redirection could equally well use this approach.


























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         End User                 Operator B                Operator A
             |DNS cdn.csp.example      |                         |
             |-------------------------------------------------->|
             |                         |                         |(1)
             |                         |   RI REQ op-b.example   |
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |                         |                         |(2)
             |                         |    RI REPLY             |
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(3)
             |CNAME b.cdn.csp.example  |                         |
             |NS records for b.cdn.csp.example                   |
             |<--------------------------------------------------|
             |DNS b.cdn.csp.example    |                         |
             |------------------------>|                         |
             |                         |(2)                      |
             |IPaddr of B's Delivery Node                        |
             |<------------------------|                         |
             |HTTP cdn.csp.example     |                         |
             |------------------------>|                         |
             |                         |(3)                      |
             |                         |DNS op-b-acq.op-a.example|
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(4)
             |                         |IPaddr of A's Delivery Node
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |                         |HTTP op-b-acq.op-a.example
             |                         |------------------------>|
             |                         |                         |(5)
             |                         |Data                     |
             |                         |<------------------------|
             |Data                     |                         |
             |<------------------------|                         |

          Figure 6: Message Flow for Dynamic Footprint Discovery

   This example differs from the one in Figure 5 only in the addition of
   an RI request (step 2) and corresponding response (step 3).  The RI
   REQ could be a message such as "Can you serve clients from this IP
   Prefix?" or it could be "Provide the list of client IP prefixes you
   can currently serve".  In either case the response might be cached by
   Operator A to avoid repeatedly asking the same question.
   Alternatively, or in addition, Operator B may spontaneously advertise
   to Operator A information (or changes) on the set of requests it is
   willing and able to serve on behalf of Operator A; in that case,
   Operator B may spontaneously issue RR/RI REPLY messages that are not





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   in direct response to a corresponding RR/RI REQ message.  (Note that
   the issues of determining the client's subnet from DNS requests, as
   described above, are exactly the same here as in Section 3.4.)

   Once Operator A obtains the RI response, it is now able to determine
   that Operator B's CDN is an appropriate dCDN for this request and
   therefore a valid candidate dCDN to consider in its redirection
   decision.  If that dCDN is selected, the redirection and serving of
   the request proceeds as before (i.e., in the absence of dynamic
   footprint discovery).

3.6.  Content Removal Example

   The following example illustrates how the CDNI Control interface may
   be used to achieve pre-positioning of an item of content in the dCDN.
   In this example, user requests for a particular content, and
   corresponding redirection of such requests from Operator A to
   Operator B CDN, may (or may not) have taken place earlier.  Then, at
   some point in time, the uCDN (for example, in response to a
   corresponding Trigger from the Content Provider) uses the CI to
   request that content identified by a particular URL be removed from
   dCDN.  The following diagram illustrates the operation.  It should be
   noted that a uCDN will typically not know whether a dCDN has cached a
   given content item; however, it may send the content removal request
   to make sure no cached versions remain to satisfy any contractual
   obligations it may have.

         End User            Operator B                Operator A
             |                    |CI purge cdn.csp.example/...
             |                    |<------------------------|
             |                    |                         |
             |                    |CI OK                    |
             |                    |------------------------>|
             |                    |                         |


                Figure 7: Message Flow for Content Removal

   The CI is used to convey the request from the uCDN to the dCDN that
   some previously acquired content should be deleted.  The URL in the
   request specifies which content to remove.  This example corresponds
   to a DNS-based redirection scenario such as Section 3.4.  If HTTP-
   based redirection had been used, the URL for removal would be of the
   form peer-a.op-b.example/cdn.csp.example/...

   The dCDN is expected to confirm to the uCDN, as illustrated by the CI
   OK message, the completion of the removal of the targeted content
   from all the caches in the dCDN.



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3.7.  Pre-positioned Content Acquisition Example

   The following example illustrates how the CI may be used to pre-
   position an item of content in the dCDN.  In this example, Operator A
   uses the CDNI Metadata interface to request that content identified
   by a particular URL be pre-positioned into Operator B CDN.

         End User            Operator B                Operator A

             |                    |CI pre-position cdn.csp.example/...
             |                    |<------------------------|
             |                    |                         |(1)
             |                    |CI OK                    |
             |                    |------------------------>|
             |                    |                         |
             |                    |DNS op-b-acq.op-a.example|
             |                    |------------------------>|
             |                    |                         |(2)
             |                    |IPaddr of A's Delivery Node
             |                    |<------------------------|
             |                    |HTTP op-b-acq.op-a.example
             |                    |------------------------>|
             |                    |                         |(3)
             |                    |Data                     |
             |                    |<------------------------|
             |DNS cdn.csp.example |                         |
             |--------------------------------------------->|
             |                    |                         |(4)
             |IPaddr of A's Request Router                  |
             |<---------------------------------------------|
             |HTTP cdn.csp.example|                         |
             |--------------------------------------------->|
             |                    |                         |(5)
             |302 peer-a.op-b.example/cdn.csp.example       |
             |<---------------------------------------------|
             |DNS peer-a.op-b.example                       |
             |------------------->|                         |
             |                    |(6)                      |
             |IPaddr of B's Delivery Node                   |
             |<-------------------|                         |
             |HTTP peer-a.op-b.example/cdn.csp.example      |
             |------------------->|                         |
             |                    |(7)                      |
             |Data                |                         |
             |<-------------------|                         |

            Figure 8: Message Flow for Content Pre-Positioning




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   The steps illustrated in the figure are as follows:

   1.  Operator A uses the CI to request that Operator B pre-position a
       particular content item identified by its URL.  Operator B
       responds by confirming that it is willing to perform this
       operation.

   Steps 2 and 3 are exactly the same as steps 5 and 6 of Figure 3, only
   this time those steps happen as the result of the Pre-positioning
   request instead of as the result of a cache miss.

   Steps 4, 5, 6, and 7 are exactly the same as steps 1, 2, 3, and 4 of
   Figure 3, only this time, Operator B's CDN can serve the end-user
   request without triggering dynamic content acquisition, since the
   content has been pre-positioned in the dCDN.  Note that, depending on
   dCDN operations and policies, the content pre-positioned in the dCDN
   may be pre-positioned to all, or a subset of, dCDN caches.  In the
   latter case, intra-CDN dynamic content acquisition may take place
   inside the dCDN serving requests from caches on which the content has
   not been pre-positioned; however, such intra-CDN dynamic acquisition
   would not involve the uCDN.

3.8.  Asynchronous CDNI Metadata Example

   In this section, we walk through a simple example illustrating a
   scenario of asynchronously exchanging CDNI Metadata, where the
   Downstream CDN obtains CDNI Metadata for content ahead of a
   corresponding content request.  The example that follows assumes that
   HTTP-based inter-CDN redirection and recursive CDNI request routing
   are used, as in Section 3.3.  However, Asynchronous exchange of CDNI
   Metadata is similarly applicable to DNS-based inter-CDN redirection
   and iterative request routing (in which cases the CDNI Metadata may
   be used at slightly different processing stages of the message
   flows).

















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         End User                 Operator B                Operator A
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |CI pre-position (Trigger)|
             |                         |<------------------------|(1)
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |CI OK                    |
             |                         |------------------------>|(2)
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |MI pull REQ              |
             |                         |------------------------>|(3)
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |MI metadata REP          |(4)
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |                         |
             | CONTENT REQUEST         |                         |
             |-------------------------------------------------->|(5)
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |   RI REQ                |
             |                         |<------------------------|(6)
             |                         |                         |
             |                         |   RI RESP               |
             |                         |------------------------>|(7)
             |                         |                         |
             | CONTENT REDIRECTION     |                         |
             |<--------------------------------------------------|(8)
             |                         |                         |
             | CONTENT REQUEST         |                         |
             |------------------------>|(9)                      |
             |                         |                         |
             :                         :                         :
             | CONTENT DATA            |                         |
             |<------------------------|                         |(10)


           Figure 9: Message Flow for Asynchronous CDNI Metadata

   The steps illustrated in the figure are as follows:

   1.   Operator A uses the CI to trigger the signaling of the
        availability of CDNI Metadata to Operator B.

   2.   Operator B acknowledges the receipt of this Trigger.

   3.   Operator B requests the latest metadata from Operator A using
        the MI.






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   4.   Operator A replies with the requested metadata.  This document
        does not constrain how the CDNI Metadata information is actually
        represented.  For the purposes of this example, we assume that
        Operator A provides CDNI Metadata to Operator B indicating that:

        *  this CDNI Metadata is applicable to any content referenced by
           some CDN-Domain.

        *  this CDNI Metadata consists of a distribution policy
           requiring enforcement by the delivery node of a specific per-
           request authorization mechanism (e.g., URI signature or token
           validation).

   5.   A Content Request occurs as usual.

   6.   A CDNI Request Routing Redirection request (RI REQ) is issued by
        Operator A's CDN, as discussed in Section 3.3.  Operator B's
        Request Router can access the CDNI Metadata that are relevant to
        the requested content and that have been pre-positioned as per
        Steps 1-4, which may or may not affect the response.

   7.   Operator B's Request Router issues a CDNI Request Routing
        Redirection response (RI RESP) as in Section 3.3.

   8.   Operator B performs content redirection as discussed in
        Section 3.3.

   9.   On receipt of the Content Request by the end user, the delivery
        node detects that previously acquired CDNI Metadata is
        applicable to the requested content.  In accordance with the
        specific CDNI metadata of this example, the delivery node will
        invoke the appropriate per-request authorization mechanism,
        before serving the content.  (Details of this authorization are
        not shown.)

   10.  Assuming successful per-request authorization, serving of
        Content Data (possibly preceded by inter-CDN acquisition)
        proceeds as in Section 3.3.

3.9.  Synchronous CDNI Metadata Acquisition Example

   In this section we walk through a simple example illustrating a
   scenario of Synchronous CDNI Metadata acquisition, in which the
   Downstream CDN obtains CDNI Metadata for content at the time of
   handling a first request for the corresponding content.  As in the
   preceding section, this example assumes that HTTP-based inter-CDN





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   redirection and recursive CDNI request routing are used (as in
   Section 3.3), but dynamic CDNI Metadata acquisition is applicable to
   other variations of request routing.

       End User                 Operator B                Operator A
           |                         |                         |
           | CONTENT REQUEST         |                         |
           |-------------------------------------------------->|(1)
           |                         |                         |
           |                         |   RI REQ                |
           |                      (2)|<------------------------|
           |                         |                         |
           |                         |   MI REQ                |
           |                      (3)|------------------------>|
           |                         |   MI RESP               |
           |                         |<------------------------|(4)
           |                         |                         |
           |                         |   RI RESP               |
           |                         |------------------------>|(5)
           |                         |                         |
           |                         |                         |
           | CONTENT REDIRECTION     |                         |
           |<--------------------------------------------------|(6)
           |                         |                         |
           | CONTENT REQUEST         |                         |
           |------------------------>|(7)                      |
           |                         |                         |
           |                         |   MI REQ                |
           |                      (8)|------------------------>|
           |                         |   MI RESP               |
           |                         |<------------------------|(9)
           |                         |                         |
           :                         :                         :
           | CONTENT DATA            |                         |
           |<------------------------|                         |(10)


     Figure 10: Message Flow for Synchronous CDNI Metadata Acquisition

   The steps illustrated in the figure are as follows:

   1.   A Content Request arrives as normal.

   2.   An RI request occurs as in the prior example.







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   3.   On receipt of the CDNI Request Routing Request, Operator B's CDN
        initiates Synchronous acquisition of CDNI Metadata that are
        needed for routing of the end-user request.  We assume the URI
        for the a metadata server is known ahead of time through some
        out-of-band means.

   4.   On receipt of a CDNI Metadata request, Operator A's CDN
        responds, making the corresponding CDNI Metadata information
        available to Operator B's CDN.  This metadata is considered by
        Operator B's CDN before responding to the Request Routing
        request.  (In a simple case, the metadata could simply be an
        allow or deny response for this particular request.)

   5.   Response to the RI request as normal.

   6.   Redirection message is sent to the end user.

   7.   A delivery node of Operator B receives the end user request.

   8.   The delivery node Triggers dynamic acquisition of additional
        CDNI Metadata that are needed to process the end-user content
        request.  Note that there may exist cases where this step need
        not happen, for example, because the metadata were already
        acquired previously.

   9.   Operator A's CDN responds to the CDNI Metadata Request and makes
        the corresponding CDNI Metadata available to Operator B.  This
        metadata influence how Operator B's CDN processes the end-user
        request.

   10.  Content is served (possibly preceded by inter-CDN acquisition)
        as in Section 3.3.

3.10.  Content and Metadata Acquisition with Multiple Upstream CDNs

   A single dCDN may receive end-user requests from multiple uCDNs.
   When a dCDN receives an end-user request, it must determine the
   identity of the uCDN from which it should acquire the requested
   content.

   Ideally, the acquisition path of an end-user request will follow the
   redirection path of the request.  The dCDN should acquire the content
   from the same uCDN that redirected the request.

   Determining the acquisition path requires the dCDN to reconstruct the
   redirection path based on information in the end-user request.  The
   method for reconstructing the redirection path differs based on the
   redirection approach: HTTP or DNS.



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   With HTTP-redirection, the rewritten URI should include sufficient
   information for the dCDN to directly or indirectly determine the uCDN
   when the end-user request is received.  The HTTP-redirection approach
   can be further broken-down based on the how the URL is rewritten
   during redirection: HTTP redirection with or without Site
   Aggregation.  HTTP redirection with Site Aggregation hides the
   identity of the original CSP.  HTTP redirection without Site
   Aggregation does not attempt to hide the identity of the original
   CSP.  With both approaches, the rewritten URI includes enough
   information to identify the immediate neighbor uCDN.

   With DNS-redirection, the dCDN receives the published URI (instead of
   a rewritten URI) and does not have sufficient information for the
   dCDN to identify the appropriate uCDN.  The dCDN may narrow the set
   of viable uCDNs by examining the CDNI Metadata from each to determine
   which uCDNs are hosting metadata for the requested content.  If there
   is a single uCDN hosting metadata for the requested content, the dCDN
   can assume that the request redirection is coming from this uCDN and
   can acquire content from that uCDN.  If there are multiple uCDNs
   hosting metadata for the requested content, the dCDN may be ready to
   trust any of these uCDNs to acquire the content (provided the uCDN is
   in a position to serve it).  If the dCDN is not ready to trust any of
   these uCDNs, it needs to ensure via out of band arrangements that,
   for a given content, only a single uCDN will ever redirect requests
   to the dCDN.

   Content acquisition may be preceded by content metadata acquisition.
   If possible, the acquisition path for metadata should also follow the
   redirection path.  Additionally, we assume metadata is indexed based
   on rewritten URIs in the case of HTTP redirection and is indexed
   based on published URIs in the case of DNS-redirection.  Thus, the RI
   and the MI are tightly coupled in that the result of request routing
   (a rewritten URI pointing to the dCDN) serves as an input to metadata
   lookup.  If the content metadata includes information for acquiring
   the content, then the MI is also tightly coupled with the acquisition
   interface in that the result of the metadata lookup (an acquisition
   URL likely hosted by the uCDN) should serve as input to the content
   acquisition.

4.  Main Interfaces

   Figure 1 illustrates the main interfaces that are in scope for the
   CDNI WG, along with several others.  The detailed specifications of
   these interfaces are left to other documents, but see [RFC6707] and
   [RFC7337] for some discussion of the interfaces.






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   One interface that is not shown in Figure 1 is the interface between
   the user and the CSP.  While for the purposes of CDNI that interface
   is out of scope, it is worth noting that it does exist and can
   provide useful functions, such as end-to-end performance monitoring
   and some forms of authentication and authorization.

   There is also an important interface between the user and the Request
   Routing function of both uCDN and dCDN (shown as the "Request"
   interface in Figure 1).  As we saw in some of the preceding examples,
   that interface can be used as a way of passing metadata, such as the
   minimum information that is required for dCDN to obtain the content
   from the uCDN.

   In this section we will provide an overview of the functions
   performed by each of the CDNI interfaces and discuss how they fit
   into the overall solution.  We also examine some of the design trade-
   offs, and explore several cross-interface concerns.  We begin with an
   examination of one such trade-off that affects all the interfaces --
   the use of in-band or out-of-band communication.

4.1.  In-Band versus Out-of-Band Interfaces

   Before getting to the individual interfaces, we observe that there is
   a high-level design choice for each, involving the use of existing
   in-band communication channels versus defining new out-of-band
   interfaces.

   It is possible that the information needed to carry out various
   interconnection functions can be communicated between peer CDNs using
   existing in-band protocols.  The use of HTTP 302 redirect is an
   example of how certain aspects of request routing can be implemented
   in-band (embedded in URIs).  Note that using existing in-band
   protocols does not imply that the CDNI interfaces are null; it is
   still necessary to establish the rules (conventions) by which such
   protocols are used to implement the various interface functions.

   There are other opportunities for in-band communication beyond HTTP
   redirects.  For example, many of the HTTP directives used by proxy
   servers can also be used by peer CDNs to inform each other of caching
   activity.  Of these, one that is particularly relevant is the
   If-Modified-Since directive, which is used with the GET method to
   make it conditional: if the requested object has not been modified
   since the time specified in this field, a copy of the object will not
   be returned, and instead, a 304 (not modified) response will be
   returned.






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4.2.  Cross-Interface Concerns

   Although the CDNI interfaces are largely independent, there are a set
   of conventions practiced consistently across all interfaces.  Most
   important among these is how resources are named, for example, how
   the CDNI Metadata and Control interfaces identify the set of
   resources to which a given directive applies or the CDNI Logging
   interface identifies the set of resources for which a summary record
   applies.

   While, theoretically, the CDNI interfaces could explicitly identify
   every individual resource, in practice, they name resource aggregates
   (sets of URIs) that are to be treated in a similar way.  For example,
   URI aggregates can be identified by a CDN-Domain (i.e., the FQDN at
   the beginning of a URI) or by a URI-Filter (i.e., a regular
   expression that matches a subset of URIs contained in some CDN-
   Domain).  In other words, CDN-Domains and URI-Filters provide a
   uniform means to aggregate sets (and subsets) of URIs for the purpose
   of defining the scope for some operation in one of the CDNI
   interfaces.

4.3.  Request Routing Interfaces

   The Request Routing interface comprises two parts: the Asynchronous
   interface used by a dCDN to advertise footprint and capabilities
   (denoted FCI) to a uCDN, allowing the uCDN to decide whether to
   redirect particular user requests to that dCDN; and the Synchronous
   interface used by the uCDN to redirect a user request to the dCDN
   (denoted RI).  (These are somewhat analogous to the operations of
   routing and forwarding in IP.)

   As illustrated in Section 3, the RI part of request routing may be
   implemented in part by DNS and HTTP.  Naming conventions may be
   established by which CDN peers communicate whether a request should
   be routed or content served.

   We also note that RI plays a key role in enabling recursive
   redirection, as illustrated in Section 3.3.  It enables the user to
   be redirected to the correct delivery node in dCDN with only a single
   redirection step (as seen by the user).  This may be particularly
   valuable as the chain of interconnected CDNs increases beyond two
   CDNs.  For further discussion on the RI, see [REDIRECTION].

   In support of these redirection requests, it is necessary for CDN
   peers to exchange additional information with each other, and this is
   the role of the FCI part of request routing.  Depending on the
   method(s) supported, this might include:




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   o  The operator's unique id (operator-id) or distinguished CDN-Domain
      (operator-domain);

   o  NS records for the operator's set of externally visible Request
      Routers;

   o  The set of requests the dCDN operator is prepared to serve (e.g.,
      a set of client IP prefixes or geographic regions that may be
      served by the dCDN).

   o  Additional capabilities of the dCDN, such as its ability to
      support different CDNI Metadata requests.

   Note that the set of requests that a dCDN is willing to serve could
   in some cases be relatively static (e.g., a set of IP prefixes),
   could be exchanged off-line, or might even be negotiated as part of a
   peering agreement.  However, it may also be more dynamic, in which
   case the exchange supported by FCI would be helpful.  A further
   discussion of the Footprint & Capability Advertisement interface can
   be found in [FOOTPRINT-CAPABILITY].

4.4.  CDNI Logging Interface

   It is necessary for the Upstream CDN to have visibility into the
   delivery of content that it redirected to a Downstream CDN.  This
   allows the Upstream CDN to properly bill its customers for multiple
   deliveries of content cached by the Downstream CDN, as well as to
   report accurate traffic statistics to those content providers.  This
   is one role of the LI.

   Other operational data that may be relevant to CDNI can also be
   exchanged by the LI.  For example, a dCDN may report the amount of
   content it has acquired from uCDN, and how much cache storage has
   been consumed by content cached on behalf of uCDN.

   Traffic logs are easily exchanged off-line.  For example, the
   following traffic log is a small deviation from the Apache log file
   format, where entries include the following fields:

   o  Domain - the full domain name of the origin server

   o  IP address - the IP address of the client making the request

   o  End time - the ending time of the transfer

   o  Time zone - any time zone modifier for the end time

   o  Method - the transfer command itself (e.g., GET, POST, HEAD)



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   o  URL - the requested URL

   o  Version - the protocol version, such as HTTP/1.0

   o  Response - a numeric response code indicating transfer result

   o  Bytes Sent - the number of bytes in the body sent to the client

   o  Request ID - a unique identifier for this transfer

   o  User agent - the user agent, if supplied

   o  Duration - the duration of the transfer in milliseconds

   o  Cached Bytes - the number of body bytes served from the cache

   o  Referrer - the referrer string from the client, if supplied

   Of these, only the Domain field is indirect in the Downstream CDN --
   it is set to the CDN-Domain used by the Upstream CDN rather than the
   actual origin server.  This field could then used to filter traffic
   log entries so only those entries matching the Upstream CDN are
   reported to the corresponding operator.  Further discussion of the LI
   can be found in [LOGGING].

   One open question is who does the filtering.  One option is that the
   Downstream CDN filters its own logs and passes the relevant records
   directly to each Upstream peer.  This requires that the Downstream
   CDN know the set of CDN-Domains that belong to each Upstream peer.
   If this information is already exchanged between peers as part of
   another interface, then direct peer-to-peer reporting is
   straightforward.  If it is not available, and operators do not wish
   to advertise the set of CDN-Domains they serve to their peers, then
   the second option is for each CDN to send both its non-local traffic
   records and the set of CDN-Domains it serves to an independent third
   party (i.e., a CDN Exchange), which subsequently filters, merges, and
   distributes traffic records on behalf of each participating CDN
   operator.

   A second open question is how timely traffic information should be.
   For example, in addition to offline traffic logs, accurate real-time
   traffic monitoring might also be useful, but such information
   requires that the Downstream CDN inform the Upstream CDN each time it
   serves Upstream content from its cache.  The Downstream CDN can do
   this, for example, by sending a conditional HTTP GET request
   (If-Modified-Since) to the Upstream CDN each time it receives an HTTP
   GET request from one of its end users.  This allows the Upstream CDN




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   to record that a request has been issued for the purpose of real-time
   traffic monitoring.  The Upstream CDN can also use this information
   to validate the traffic logs received later from the Downstream CDN.

   There is obviously a trade-off between accuracy of such monitoring
   and the overhead of the Downstream CDN having to go back to the
   Upstream CDN for every request.

   Another design trade-off in the LI is the degree of aggregation or
   summarization of data.  One situation that lends itself to
   summarization is the delivery of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS), since
   the large number of individual chunk requests potentially results in
   large volumes of logging information.  This case is discussed below,
   but other forms of aggregation may also be useful.  For example,
   there may be situations where bulk metrics such as bytes delivered
   per hour may suffice rather than the detailed per-request logs
   outlined above.  It seems likely that a range of granularities of
   logging will be needed along with ways to specify the type and degree
   of aggregation required.

4.5.  CDNI Control Interface

   The CDNI Control interface is initially used to bootstrap the other
   interfaces.  As a simple example, it could be used to provide the
   address of the logging server in the dCDN to the uCDN in order to
   bootstrap the CDNI Logging interface.  It may also be used, for
   example, to establish security associations for the other interfaces.

   The other role the CI plays is to allow the uCDN to pre-position,
   revalidate, or purge metadata and content on a dCDN.  These
   operations, sometimes collectively called the "Trigger interface",
   are discussed further in [CONTROL-TRIGGERS].

4.6.  CDNI Metadata Interface

   The role of the CDNI Metadata interface is to enable CDNI
   distribution metadata to be conveyed to the Downstream CDN by the
   Upstream CDN.  Such metadata includes geo-blocking restrictions,
   availability windows, access-control policies, and so on.  It may
   also include information to facilitate acquisition of content by a
   dCDN (e.g., alternate sources for the content, authorization
   information needed to acquire the content from the source).  For a
   full discussion of the CDNI Metadata interface, see [METADATA]

   Some distribution metadata may be partially emulated using in-band
   mechanisms.  For example, in case of any geo-blocking restrictions or
   availability windows, the Upstream CDN can elect to redirect a
   request to the Downstream CDN only if that CDN's advertised delivery



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   footprint is acceptable for the requested URL.  Similarly, the
   request could be forwarded only if the current time is within the
   availability window.  However, such approaches typically come with
   shortcomings such as inability to prevent from replay outside the
   time window or inability to make use of a Downstream CDN that covers
   a broader footprint than the geo-blocking restrictions.

   Similarly, some forms of access control may also be performed on a
   per-request basis using HTTP directives.  For example, being able to
   respond to a conditional GET request gives the Upstream CDN an
   opportunity to influence how the Downstream CDN delivers its content.
   Minimally, the Upstream CDN can invalidate (purge) content previously
   cached by the Downstream CDN.

   All of these in-band techniques serve to illustrate that uCDNs have
   the option of enforcing some of their access control policies
   themselves (at the expense of increased inter-CDN signaling load),
   rather than delegating enforcement to dCDNs using the MI.  As a
   consequence, the MI could provide a means for the uCDN to express its
   desire to retain enforcement for itself.  For example, this might be
   done by including a "check with me" flag in the metadata associated
   with certain content.  The realization of such in-band techniques
   over the various inter-CDN acquisition protocols (e.g., HTTP)
   requires further investigation and may require small extensions or
   semantic changes to the acquisition protocol.

4.7.  HTTP Adaptive Streaming Concerns

   We consider HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) and the impact it has on
   the CDNI interfaces because large objects (e.g., videos) are broken
   into a sequence of small, independent chunks.  For each of the
   following, a more thorough discussion, including an overview of the
   trade-offs involved in alternative designs, can be found in RFC 6983.

   First, with respect to Content Acquisition and File Management, which
   are out of scope for the CDNI interfaces but, nonetheless, relevant
   to the overall operation, we assume no additional measures are
   required to deal with large numbers of chunks.  This means that the
   dCDN is not explicitly made aware of any relationship between
   different chunks, and the dCDN handles each chunk as if it were an
   individual and independent content item.  The result is that content
   acquisition between uCDN and dCDN also happens on a per-chunk basis.
   This approach is in line with the recommendations made in RFC 6983,
   which also identifies potential improvements in this area that might
   be considered in the future.






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   Second, with respect to request routing, we note that HAS manifest
   files have the potential to interfere with request routing since
   manifest files contain URLs pointing to the location of content
   chunks.  To make sure that a manifest file does not hinder CDNI
   request routing and does not place excessive load on CDNI resources,
   either the use of manifest files could be limited to those containing
   relative URLs or the uCDN could modify the URLs in the manifest.  Our
   approach for dealing with these issues is twofold.  As a mandatory
   requirement, CDNs should be able to handle unmodified manifest files
   containing either relative or absolute URLs.  To limit the number of
   redirects, and thus the load placed on the CDNI interfaces, as an
   optional feature uCDNs can use the information obtained through the
   CDNI Request Routing Redirection interface to modify the URLs in the
   manifest file.  Since the modification of the manifest file is an
   optional uCDN-internal process, this does not require any
   standardization effort beyond being able to communicate chunk
   locations in the CDNI Request Routing Redirection interface.

   Third, with respect to the CDNI Logging interface, there are several
   potential issues, including the large number of individual chunk
   requests potentially resulting in large volumes of logging
   information, and the desire to correlate logging information for
   chunk requests that correspond to the same HAS session.  For the
   initial CDNI specification, our approach is to expect participating
   CDNs to support per-chunk logging (e.g., logging each chunk request
   as if it were an independent content request) over the CDNI Logging
   interface.  Optionally, the LI may include a Content Collection
   IDentifier (CCID) and/or a Session IDentifier (SID) as part of the
   logging fields, thereby facilitating correlation of per-chunk logs
   into per-session logs for applications benefiting from such session
   level information (e.g., session-based analytics).  This approach is
   in line with the recommendations made in RFC 6983, which also
   identifies potential improvements in this area that might be
   considered in the future.

   Fourth, with respect to the CDNI Control interface, and in particular
   purging HAS chunks from a given CDN, our approach is to expect each
   CDN supports per-chunk content purge (e.g., purging of chunks as if
   they were individual content items).  Optionally, a CDN may support
   content purge on the basis of a "Purge IDentifier (Purge-ID)"
   allowing the removal of all chunks related to a given Content
   Collection with a single reference.  It is possible that this Purge-
   ID could be merged with the CCID discussed above for HAS Logging, or
   alternatively, they may remain distinct.







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4.8.  URI Rewriting

   When using HTTP redirection, content URIs may be rewritten when
   redirection takes place within a uCDN, from a uCDN to a dCDN, and
   within the dCDN.  In the case of cascaded CDNs, content URIs may be
   rewritten at every CDN hop (e.g., between the uCDN and the dCDN
   acting as the transit CDN, and between the transit CDN and the dCDN
   serving the request).  The content URI used between any uCDN/dCDN
   pair becomes a common handle that can be referred to without
   ambiguity by both CDNs in all their inter-CDN communications.  This
   handle allows the uCDN and dCDN to correlate information exchanged
   using other CDNI interfaces in both the Downstream direction (e.g.,
   when using the MI) and the Upstream direction (e.g., when using the
   LI).

   Consider the simple case of a single uCDN/dCDN pair using HTTP
   redirection.  We introduce the following terminology for content URIs
   to simplify the discussion:

      "u-URI" represents a content URI in a request presented to the
      uCDN;

      "ud-URI" is a content URI acting as the common handle across uCDN
      and dCDN for requests redirected by the uCDN to a specific dCDN;

      "d-URI" represents a content URI in a request made within the
      delegate dCDN.

   In our simple pair-wise example, the "ud-URI" effectively becomes the
   handle that the uCDN/dCDN pair use to correlate all CDNI information.
   In particular, for a given pair of CDNs executing the HTTP
   redirection, the uCDN needs to map the u-URI to the ud-URI handle for
   all MI message exchanges, while the dCDN needs to map the d-URI to
   the ud-URI handle for all LI message exchanges.

   In the case of cascaded CDNs, the transit CDN will rewrite the
   content URI when redirecting to the dCDN, thereby establishing a new
   handle between the transit CDN and the dCDN, that is different from
   the handle between the uCDN and transit CDN.  It is the
   responsibility of the transit CDN to manage its mapping across
   handles so the right handle for all pairs of CDNs is always used in
   its CDNI communication.

   In summary, all CDNI interfaces between a given pair of CDNs need to
   always use the "ud-URI" handle for that specific CDN pair as their
   content URI reference.





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5.  Deployment Models

   In this section, we describe a number of possible deployment models
   that may be achieved using the CDNI interfaces described above.  We
   note that these models are by no means exhaustive and that many other
   models may be possible.

   Although the reference model of Figure 1 shows all CDN functions on
   each side of the CDNI interface, deployments can rely on entities
   that are involved in any subset of these functions, and therefore
   only support the relevant subset of CDNI interfaces.  As already
   noted in Section 3, effective CDNI deployments can be built without
   necessarily implementing all the interfaces.  Some examples of such
   deployments are shown below.

   Note that, while we refer to Upstream and Downstream CDNs, this
   distinction applies to specific content items and transactions.  That
   is, a given CDN may be Upstream for some transactions and Downstream
   for others, depending on many factors such as location of the
   requesting client and the particular piece of content requested.

5.1.  Meshed CDNs

   Although the reference model illustrated in Figure 1 shows a
   unidirectional CDN interconnection with a single uCDN and a single
   dCDN, any arbitrary CDNI meshing can be built from this, such as the
   example meshing illustrated in Figure 11.  (Support for arbitrary
   meshing may or may not be in the initial scope for the working group,
   but the model allows for it.)






















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         -------------             -----------
        /    CDN A    \<==CDNI===>/   CDN B   \
        \             /           \           /
         -------------             -----------
              /\      \\                 /\
              ||       \\                ||
             CDNI       \==CDNI===\\    CDNI
              ||                   \\    ||
              \/                   \/    \/
         -------------             -----------
        /    CDN C    \===CDNI===>/   CDN D   \
        \             /           \           /
         -------------             -----------
              /\
              ||
             CDNI
              ||
              \/
         -------------
        /    CDN E    \
        \             /
         -------------

      ===>  CDNI interfaces, with right-hand side CDN acting as dCDN
            to left-hand side CDN
      <==>  CDNI interfaces, with right-hand side CDN acting as dCDN
            to left-hand side CDN and with left-hand side CDN acting
            as dCDN to right-hand side CDN

           Figure 11: CDNI Deployment Model: CDN Meshing Example

5.2.  CSP Combined with CDN

   Note that our terminology refers to functional roles and not economic
   or business roles.  That is, a given organization may be operating as
   both a CSP and a fully fledged uCDN when we consider the functions
   performed, as illustrated in Figure 12.














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    #####################################       ##################
    #                                   #       #                #
    #       Organization A              #       # Organization B #
    #                                   #       #                #
    #     --------       -------------  #       #  -----------   #
    #    /   CSP  \     /   uCDN      \ #       # /   dCDN    \  #
    #    |        |     |  +----+     | #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |     |  | C  |     | #       # |  | C  |   |  #
    #    |        |     |  +----+     | #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |     |  +----+     | #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |     |  | L  |     | #       # |  | L  |   |  #
    #    |        |*****|  +----+     |===CDNI===>|  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |     |  +----+     | #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |     |  | RR |     | #       # |  | RR |   |  #
    #    |        |     |  +----+     | #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |     |  +----+     | #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |     |  | D  |     | #       # |  | D  |   |  #
    #    |        |     |  +----+     | #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    \        /     \             / #       # \           /  #
    #     --------       -------------  #       #  -----------   #
    #                                   #       #                #
    #####################################       ##################

    ===>  CDNI interfaces, with right-hand side CDN acting as dCDN
          to left-hand side CDN
    ****  interfaces outside the scope of CDNI
    C     Control component of the CDN
    L     Logging component of the CDN
    RR    Request Routing component of the CDN
    D     Distribution component of the CDN

    Figure 12: CDNI Deployment Model: Organization Combining CSP & uCDN

5.3.  CSP Using CDNI Request Routing Interface

   As another example, a content provider organization may choose to run
   its own Request Routing function as a way to select among multiple
   candidate CDN providers; in this case, the content provider may be
   modeled as the combination of a CSP and of a special, restricted case
   of a CDN.  In that case, as illustrated in Figure 13, the CDNI
   Request Routing interfaces can be used between the restricted CDN
   operated by the content provider Organization and the CDN operated by
   the full CDN organization acting as a dCDN in the request routing
   control plane.  Interfaces outside the scope of the CDNI work can be
   used between the CSP functional entities of the content provider
   organization and the CDN operated by the full CDN organization acting
   as a uCDN) in the CDNI control planes other than the request routing
   plane (i.e., Control, Distribution, Logging).



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    #####################################       ##################
    #                                   #       #                #
    #       Organization A              #       # Organization B #
    #                                   #       #                #
    #     --------       -------------  #       #  -----------   #
    #    /   CSP  \     /  uCDN(RR)   \ #       # /  dCDN(RR) \  #
    #    |        |     |  +----+     | #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |*****|  | RR |==========CDNI=====>| RR |   |  #
    #    |        |     |  +----+     | #   RR  # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |     \             / #       # |           |  #
    #    |        |      -------------  #       # |uCDN(C,L,D)|  #
    #    |        |                     #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |                     #       # |  | C  |   |  #
    #    |        |*******************************|  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |                     #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |                     #       # |  | L  |   |  #
    #    |        |                     #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |                     #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    |        |                     #       # |  | D  |   |  #
    #    |        |                     #       # |  +----+   |  #
    #    \        /                     #       # \           /  #
    #     --------                      #       #  -----------   #
    #                                   #       #                #
    #####################################       ##################

    ===>  CDNI Request Routing Interface
    ****  interfaces outside the scope of CDNI

         Figure 13: CDNI Deployment Model: Organization Combining
                            CSP and Partial CDN

5.4.  CDN Federations and CDN Exchanges

   There are two additional concepts related to, but distinct from,
   CDNI.  The first is CDN Federation.  Our view is that CDNI is the
   more general concept, involving two or more CDNs serving content to
   each other's users, while federation implies a multi-lateral
   interconnection arrangement, but other CDNI agreements are also
   possible (e.g., symmetric bilateral, asymmetric bilateral).  An
   important conclusion is that CDNI technology should not presume (or
   bake in) a particular interconnection agreement, but should instead
   be general enough to permit alternative interconnection arrangements
   to evolve.

   The second concept often used in the context of CDN Federation is CDN
   Exchange -- a third-party broker or exchange that is used to
   facilitate a CDN federation.  Our view is that a CDN exchange offers
   valuable machinery to scale the number of CDN operators involved in a



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   multi-lateral (federated) agreement, but that this machinery is built
   on top of the core CDNI mechanisms.  For example, as illustrated in
   Figure 14, the exchange might aggregate and redistribute information
   about each CDN footprint and capacity, as well as collect, filter,
   and redistribute traffic logs that each participant needs for
   interconnection settlement, but inter-CDN Request Routing, inter-CDN
   content distribution (including inter-CDN acquisition), and inter-CDN
   control, which fundamentally involve a direct interaction between an
   Upstream CDN and a Downstream CDN -- operate exactly as in a pair-
   wise peering arrangement.  Turning to Figure 14, we observe that in
   this example:

   o  each CDN supports a direct CDNI Control interface to every other
      CDN

   o  each CDN supports a direct CDNI Metadata interface to every other
      CDN

   o  each CDN supports a CDNI Logging interface with the CDN Exchange

   o  each CDN supports both a CDNI Request Routing interface with the
      CDN Exchange (for aggregation and redistribution of dynamic CDN
      footprint discovery information) and a direct RI to every other
      CDN (for actual request redirection).



























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             ----------                            ---------
            /    CDN A \                          /   CDN B  \
            | +----+   |                         |  +----+   |
   //========>| C  |<==============CDNI============>| C  |<==========\\
   ||       | +----+   |            C            |  +----+   |       ||
   ||       | +----+   |                         |  +----+   |       ||
   || //=====>| D  |<==============CDNI============>| D  |<=======\\ ||
   || ||    | +----+   |            M            |  +----+   |    || ||
   || ||    |          |     /------------\      |           |    || ||
   || ||    | +----+   |     | +--+ CDN Ex|      |  +----+   |    || ||
   || || //==>| RR |<===CDNI==>|RR|<=======CDNI====>| RR |<====\\ || ||
   || || || | +----+   | RR  | +--+       | RR   |  +----+   | || || ||
   || || || |          |     |  /\        |      |           | || || ||
   || || || | +----+   |     |  ||  +---+ |      |  +----+   | || || ||
   || || || | | L  |<===CDNI=======>| L |<=CDNI====>| L  |   | || || ||
   || || || | +----+   |  L  |  ||  +---+ |  L   |  +----+   | || || ||
   || || || \          /     \  ||    /\  /      \           / || || ||
   || || || -----------       --||----||--        -----------  || || ||
   || || ||                     ||    ||                       || || ||
   || || ||                  CDNI RR  ||                       || || ||
   || || ||                     ||   CDNI L                    || || ||
   || || ||                     ||    ||                       || || ||
   || || ||                  ---||----||----                   || || ||
   || || ||                 /   \/    ||    \                  || || ||
   || || ||                 |  +----+ ||    |                  || || ||
   || || \\=====CDNI==========>| RR |<=============CDNI========// || ||
   || ||         RR         |  +----+ \/    |       RR            || ||
   || ||                    |        +----+ |                     || ||
   || ||                    |        | L  | |                     || ||
   || ||                    |        +----+ |                     || ||
   || ||                    |  +----+       |                     || ||
   || \\=======CDNI===========>| D  |<=============CDNI===========// ||
   ||           M           |  +----+       |       M                ||
   ||                       |  +----+       |                        ||
   \\==========CDNI===========>| C  |<=============CDNI==============//
                C           |  +----+       |       C
                            \        CDN C  /
                             --------------

   <=CDNI RR=>     CDNI Request Routing Interface
   <=CDNI M==>     CDNI Metadata Interface
   <=CDNI C==>     CDNI Control Interface
   <=CDNI L==>     CDNI Logging Interface

              Figure 14: CDNI Deployment Model: CDN Exchange






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   Note that a CDN exchange may alternatively support a different set of
   functionality (e.g., Logging only, or Logging and full request
   routing, or all the functionality of a CDN including content
   distribution).  All these options are expected to be allowed by the
   IETF CDNI specifications.

6.  Trust Model

   There are a number of trust issues that need to be addressed by a
   CDNI solution.  Many of them are in fact similar or identical to
   those in a simple CDN without interconnection.  In a standard CDN
   environment (without CDNI), the CSP places a degree of trust in a
   single CDN operator to perform many functions.  The CDN is trusted to
   deliver content with appropriate quality of experience for the end
   user.  The CSP trusts the CDN operator not to corrupt or modify the
   content.  The CSP often relies on the CDN operator to provide
   reliable accounting information regarding the volume of delivered
   content.  The CSP may also trust the CDN operator to perform actions
   such as timely invalidation of content and restriction of access to
   content based on certain criteria such as location of the user and
   time of day, and to enforce per-request authorization performed by
   the CSP using techniques such as URI signing.

   A CSP also places trust in the CDN not to distribute any information
   that is confidential to the CSP (e.g., how popular a given piece of
   content is) or confidential to the end user (e.g., which content has
   been watched by which user).

   A CSP does not necessarily have to place complete trust in a CDN.  A
   CSP will in some cases take steps to protect its content from
   improper distribution by a CDN, e.g., by encrypting it and
   distributing keys in some out of band way.  A CSP also depends on
   monitoring (possibly by third parties) and reporting to verify that
   the CDN has performed adequately.  A CSP may use techniques such as
   client-based metering to verify that accounting information provided
   by the CDN is reliable.  HTTP conditional requests may be used to
   provide the CSP with some checks on CDN operation.  In other words,
   while a CSP may trust a CDN to perform some functions in the short
   term, the CSP is able, in most cases, to verify whether these actions
   have been performed correctly and to take action (such as moving the
   content to a different CDN) if the CDN does not live up to
   expectations.

   One of the trust issues raised by CDNI is transitive trust.  A CDN
   that has a direct relationship with a CSP can now "outsource" the
   delivery of content to another (Downstream) CDN.  That CDN may in
   term outsource delivery to yet another Downstream CDN, and so on.




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   The top-level CDN in such a chain of delegation is responsible for
   ensuring that the requirements of the CSP are met.  Failure to do so
   is presumably just as serious as in the traditional single CDN case.
   Hence, an Upstream CDN is essentially trusting a Downstream CDN to
   perform functions on its behalf in just the same way as a CSP trusts
   a single CDN.  Monitoring and reporting can similarly be used to
   verify that the Downstream CDN has performed appropriately.  However,
   the introduction of multiple CDNs in the path between CSP and end
   user complicates the picture.  For example, third-party monitoring of
   CDN performance (or other aspects of operation, such as timely
   invalidation) might be able to identify the fact that a problem
   occurred somewhere in the chain but not point to the particular CDN
   at fault.

   In summary, we assume that an Upstream CDN will invest a certain
   amount of trust in a Downstream CDN, but that it will verify that the
   Downstream CDN is performing correctly, and take corrective action
   (including potentially breaking off its relationship with that CDN)
   if behavior is not correct.  We do not expect that the trust
   relationship between a CSP and its "top level" CDN will differ
   significantly from that found today in single CDN situations.
   However, it does appear that more sophisticated tools and techniques
   for monitoring CDN performance and behavior will be required to
   enable the identification of the CDN at fault in a particular
   delivery chain.

   We expect that the detailed designs for the specific interfaces for
   CDNI will need to take the transitive trust issues into account.  For
   example, explicit confirmation that some action (such as content
   removal) has taken place in a Downstream CDN may help to mitigate
   some issues of transitive trust.

7.  Privacy Considerations

   In general, a CDN has the opportunity to collect detailed information
   about the behavior of end users, e.g., by logging which files are
   being downloaded.  While the concept of interconnected CDNs as
   described in this document doesn't necessarily allow any given CDN to
   gather more information on any specific user, it potentially
   facilitates sharing of this data by a CDN with more parties.  As an
   example, the purpose of the CDNI Logging interface is to allow a dCDN
   to share some of its log records with a uCDN, both for billing
   purposes as well as for sharing traffic statistics with the Content
   Provider on whose behalf the content was delivered.  The fact that
   the CDNI interfaces provide mechanisms for sharing such potentially
   sensitive user data, shows that it is necessary to include in these





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   interface appropriate privacy and confidentiality mechanisms.  The
   definition of such mechanisms is dealt with in the respective CDN
   interface documents.

8.  Security Considerations

   While there are a variety of security issues introduced by a single
   CDN, we are concerned here specifically with the additional issues
   that arise when CDNs are interconnected.  For example, when a single
   CDN has the ability to distribute content on behalf of a CSP, there
   may be concerns that such content could be distributed to parties who
   are not authorized to receive it, and there are mechanisms to deal
   with such concerns.  Our focus in this section is on how CDNI
   introduces new security issues not found in the single CDN case.  For
   a more detailed analysis of the security requirements of CDNI, see
   Section 9 of [RFC7337].

   Many of the security issues that arise in CDNI are related to the
   transitivity of trust (or lack thereof) described in Section 6.  As
   noted above, the design of the various interfaces for CDNI must take
   account of the additional risks posed by the fact that a CDN with
   whom a CSP has no direct relationship is now potentially distributing
   content for that CSP.  The mechanisms used to mitigate these risks
   may be similar to those used in the single CDN case, but their
   suitability in this more complex environment must be validated.

   CDNs today offer a variety of means to control access to content,
   such as time-of-day restrictions, geo-blocking, and URI signing.
   These mechanisms must continue to function in CDNI environments, and
   this consideration is likely to affect the design of certain CDNI
   interfaces (e.g., metadata, request routing).  For more information
   on URI signing in CDNI, see [URI-SIGNING].

   Just as with a single CDN, each peer CDN must ensure that it is not
   used as an "open proxy" to deliver content on behalf of a malicious
   CSP.  Whereas a single CDN typically addresses this problem by having
   CSPs explicitly register content (or origin servers) that are to be
   served, simply propagating this information to peer Downstream CDNs
   may be problematic because it reveals more information than the
   Upstream CDN is willing to specify.  (To this end, the content
   acquisition step in the earlier examples force the dCDN to retrieve
   content from the uCDN rather than go directly to the origin server.)

   There are several approaches to this problem.  One is for the uCDN to
   encode a signed token generated from a shared secret in each URL
   routed to a dCDN, and for the dCDN to validate the request based on
   this token.  Another one is to have each Upstream CDN advertise the
   set of CDN-Domains they serve, where the Downstream CDN checks each



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   request against this set before caching and delivering the associated
   object.  Although straightforward, this approach requires operators
   to reveal additional information, which may or may not be an issue.

8.1.  Security of CDNI Interfaces

   It is noted in [RFC7337] that all CDNI interfaces must be able to
   operate securely over insecure IP networks.  Since it is expected
   that the CDNI interfaces will be implemented using existing
   application protocols such as HTTP or Extensible Messaging and
   Presence Protocol (XMPP), we also expect that the security mechanisms
   available to those protocols may be used by the CDNI interfaces.
   Details of how these interfaces are secured will be specified in the
   relevant interface documents.

8.2.  Digital Rights Management

   Digital Rights Management (DRM), also sometimes called digital
   restrictions management, is often employed for content distributed
   via CDNs.  In general, DRM relies on the CDN to distribute encrypted
   content, with decryption keys distributed to users by some other
   means (e.g., directly from the CSP to the end user).  For this
   reason, DRM is considered out of scope [RFC6707] and does not
   introduce additional security issues for CDNI.

9.  Contributors

   The following individuals contributed to this document:

   o  Matt Caulfield

   o  Francois Le Faucheur

   o  Aaron Falk

   o  David Ferguson

   o  John Hartman

   o  Ben Niven-Jenkins

   o  Kent Leung









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10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Huw Jones and Jinmei Tatuya for their
   helpful input to this document.  In addition, the authors would like
   to thank Stephen Farrell, Ted Lemon, and Alissa Cooper for their
   reviews, which have helped to improve this document.

11.  Informative References

   [CONTROL-TRIGGERS]
              Murray, R. and B. Niven-Jenkins, "CDNI Control Interface /
              Triggers", Work in Progress, July 2014.

   [FOOTPRINT-CAPABILITY]
              Seedorf, J., Peterson, J., Previdi, S., Brandenburg, R.,
              and K. Ma, "CDNI Request Routing: Footprint and
              Capabilities Semantics", Work in Progress, July 2014.

   [LOGGING]  Faucheur, F., Ed., Bertrand, G., Ed., Oprescu, I., Ed.,
              and R. Peterkofsky, "CDNI Logging Interface", Work in
              Progress, July 2014.

   [METADATA]
              Niven-Jenkins, B., Murray, R., Caulfield, M., Leung, K.,
              and K. Ma, "CDN Interconnection Metadata", Work in
              Progress, July 2014.

   [REDIRECTION]
              Niven-Jenkins, B., Ed. and R. Brandenburg, Ed., "Request
              Routing Redirection Interface for CDN Interconnection",
              Work in Progress, April 2014.

   [RFC3466]  Day, M., Cain, B., Tomlinson, G., and P. Rzewski, "A Model
              for Content Internetworking (CDI)", RFC 3466, February
              2003.

   [RFC6707]  Niven-Jenkins, B., Le Faucheur, F., and N. Bitar, "Content
              Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Problem
              Statement", RFC 6707, September 2012.

   [RFC6770]  Bertrand, G., Stephan, E., Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Ma,
              K., and G. Watson, "Use Cases for Content Delivery Network
              Interconnection", RFC 6770, November 2012.

   [RFC6983]  van Brandenburg, R., van Deventer, O., Le Faucheur, F.,
              and K. Leung, "Models for HTTP-Adaptive-Streaming-Aware
              Content Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI)", RFC
              6983, July 2013.



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   [RFC7337]  Leung, K., Ed. and Y. Lee, Ed., "Content Distribution
              Network Interconnection (CDNI) Requirements", RFC 7337,
              August 2014.

   [URI-SIGNING]
              Leung, K., Faucheur, F., Downey, B., Brandenburg, R., and
              S. Leibrand, "URI Signing for CDN Interconnection (CDNI)",
              Work in Progress, March 2014.

Authors' Addresses

   Larry Peterson
   Akamai Technologies, Inc.
   8 Cambridge Center
   Cambridge, MA  02142
   USA

   EMail: lapeters@akamai.com


   Bruce Davie
   VMware, Inc.
   3401 Hillview Ave.
   Palo Alto, CA  94304
   USA

   EMail: bdavie@vmware.com


   Ray van Brandenburg (editor)
   TNO
   Brassersplein 2
   Delft  2612CT
   the Netherlands

   Phone: +31-88-866-7000
   EMail: ray.vanbrandenburg@tno.nl














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