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Versions: (draft-filsfils-spring-segment-routing-mpls) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Network Working Group                                  A. Bashandy, Ed.
Internet Draft                                                   Arrcus
Intended status: Standards Track                       C. Filsfils, Ed.
Expires: June 2019                                          S. Previdi,
                                                    Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                            B. Decraene
                                                           S. Litkowski
                                                                 Orange
                                                              R. Shakir
                                                                 Google
                                                       December 9, 2018


                   Segment Routing with MPLS data plane
                 draft-ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls-18


Abstract

   Segment Routing (SR) leverages the source routing paradigm.  A node
   steers a packet through a controlled set of instructions, called
   segments, by prepending the packet with an SR header.  In the MPLS
   dataplane, the SR header is instantiated through a label stack. This
   document specifies the forwarding behavior to allow instantiating SR
   over the MPLS dataplane.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.



   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 9, 2019.







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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents


   1. Introduction...................................................3
      1.1. Requirements Language.....................................4
   2. MPLS Instantiation of Segment Routing..........................4
      2.1. Multiple Forwarding Behaviors for the Same Prefix.........5
      2.2. SID Representation in the MPLS Forwarding Plane...........5
      2.3. Segment Routing Global Block and Local Block..............6
      2.4. Mapping a SID Index to an MPLS label......................6
      2.5. Incoming Label Collision..................................7
         2.5.1. Tie-breaking Rules..................................10
         2.5.2. Redistribution between Routing Protocol Instances...13
            2.5.2.1. Illustration...................................13
            2.5.2.2. Illustration 2.................................14
      2.6. Effect of Incoming Label Collision on Outgoing Label
      Programming...................................................14
      2.7. PUSH, CONTINUE, and NEXT.................................14
         2.7.1. PUSH................................................15
         2.7.2. CONTINUE............................................15
         2.7.3. NEXT................................................15
            2.7.3.1. Mirror SID.....................................15
      2.8. MPLS Label Downloaded to FIB for Global and Local SIDs...16
      2.9. Active Segment...........................................16
      2.10. Forwarding behavior for Global SIDs.....................16
         2.10.1. Forwarding for PUSH and CONTINUE of Global SIDs....16
         2.10.2. Forwarding for NEXT Operation for Global SIDs......18
      2.11. Forwarding Behavior for Local SIDs......................18
         2.11.1. Forwarding for PUSH Operation on Local SIDs........18
         2.11.2. Forwarding for CONTINUE Operation for Local SIDs...19
         2.11.3. Outgoing label for NEXT Operation for Local SIDs...19
   3. IANA Considerations...........................................19


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   4. Manageability Considerations..................................19
   5. Security Considerations.......................................19
   6. Contributors..................................................19
   7. Acknowledgements..............................................20
   8. References....................................................20
      8.1. Normative References.....................................20
      8.2. Informative References...................................21
   9. Authors' Addresses............................................24
   Appendix A. Examples.............................................26
      A.1. IGP Segments Example.....................................26
      A.2. Incoming Label Collision Examples........................28
         A.2.1. Example 1...........................................28
         A.2.2. Example 2...........................................29
         A.2.3. Example 3...........................................30
         A.2.4. Example 4...........................................30
         A.2.5. Example 5...........................................31
         A.2.6. Example 6...........................................31
         A.2.7. Example 7...........................................32
         A.2.8. Example 8...........................................32
         A.2.9. Example 9...........................................33
         A.2.10. Example 10.........................................33
         A.2.11. Example 11.........................................34
         A.2.12. Example 12.........................................35
         A.2.13. Example 13.........................................35
         A.2.14. Example 14.........................................36
      A.3. Examples for the Effect of Incoming Label Collision on
      Outgoing Label................................................36
         A.3.1. Example 1...........................................36
         A.3.2. Example 2...........................................37

1. Introduction

   The Segment Routing architecture RFC8402 can be directly applied to
   the MPLS architecture with no change in the MPLS forwarding plane.
   This document specifies the forwarding plane behavior to allow
   Segment Routing to operate on top of the MPLS data plane. This
   document does not address the control plane behavior. Control plane
   behavior is specified in other documents such as [I-D.ietf-isis-
   segment-routing-extensions], [I-D.ietf-ospf-segment-routing-
   extensions], and [I-D.ietf-ospf-ospfv3-segment-routing-extensions].

   The Segment Routing problem statement is described in [RFC7855].

   Co-existence of SR over MPLS forwarding plane with LDP [RFC5036] is
   specified in [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-ldp-interop].




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   Policy routing and traffic engineering using segment routing can be
   found in [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-policy]

1.1. Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2. MPLS Instantiation of Segment Routing

   MPLS instantiation of Segment Routing fits in the MPLS architecture
   as defined in [RFC3031] both from a control plane and forwarding
   plane perspective:

   o  From a control plane perspective, [RFC3031] does not mandate a
      single signaling protocol.  Segment Routing makes use of various
      control plane protocols such as link state IGPs [I-D.ietf-isis-
      segment-routing-extensions], [I-D.ietf-ospf-segment-routing-
      extensions] and [I-D.ietf-ospf-ospfv3-segment-routing-extensions].
      The flooding mechanisms of link state IGPs fits very well with
      label stacking on ingress. Future control layer protocol and/or
      policy/configuration can be used to specify the label stack.

   o  From a forwarding plane perspective, Segment Routing does not
      require any change to the forwarding plane because Segment IDs
      (SIDs) are instantiated as MPLS labels and the Segment routing
      header instantiated as a stack of MPLS labels.

   We call "MPLS Control Plane Client (MCC)" any control plane entity
   installing forwarding entries in the MPLS data plane.  IGPs with SR
   extensions [I-D.ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions], [I-D.ietf-
   ospf-segment-routing-extensions], [I-D.ietf-ospf-ospfv3-segment-
   routing-extensions] and LDP [RFC5036] are examples of MCCs. Local
   configuration and policies applied on a router are also examples of
   MCCs.

   In order to have a node segment to reach the node, a network operator
   SHOULD configure at least one node segment per routing instance,
   topology, algorithm. Otherwise, the node is not reachable within the
   routing instance, topology or along the routing algorithm, which
   restrict its ability to be used by a SR policy, including for TI-LFA.
   An implementation MAY check that an IGP node-SID is not associated
   with a prefix that is owned by more than one router within the same



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   routing domain. If so, it SHOULD NOT use this Node-SID, MAY use
   another one if available, and SHOULD log an error.

2.1. Multiple Forwarding Behaviors for the Same Prefix

   The SR architecture does not prohibit having more than one SID for
   the same prefix. In fact, by allowing multiple SIDs for the same
   prefix, it is possible to have different forwarding behaviors (such
   as different paths, different ECMP/UCMP behaviors,...,etc) for the
   same destination.

   Instantiating Segment routing over the MPLS forwarding plane fits
   seamlessly with this principle. An operator may assign multiple MPLS
   labels or indices to the same prefix and assign different forwarding
   behaviors to each label/SID. The MCC in the network downloads
   different MPLS labels/SIDs to the FIB for different forwarding
   behaviors. The MCC at the entry of an SR domain or at any point in
   the domain can choose to apply a particular forwarding behavior to a
   particular packet by applying the PUSH action to that packet using
   the corresponding SID.

2.2. SID Representation in the MPLS Forwarding Plane

   When instantiating SR over the MPLS forwarding plane, a SID is
   represented by an MPLS label or an index [RFC8402].

   A global segment MUST be a label, or an index which may be mapped to
   an MPLS label within the Segment Routing Global Block (SRGB) of the
   node installing the global segment in its FIB/receiving the labeled
   packet. Section 2.4 specifies the procedure to map a global segment
   represented by an index to an MPLS label within the SRGB.

   The MCC MUST ensure that any label value corresponding to any SID it
   installs in the forwarding plane follows the following rules:

   o  The label value MUST be unique within the router on which the MCC
      is running. i.e. the label MUST only be used to represent the SID
      and MUST NOT be used to represent more than one SID or for any
      other forwarding purpose on the router.

   o  The label value MUST NOT come from the range of special purpose
      labels [RFC7274].

   Labels allocated in this document are considered per platform down-
   stream allocated labels [RFC3031].




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2.3. Segment Routing Global Block and Local Block

   The concepts of Segment Routing Global Block (SRGB) and global SID
   are explained in [RFC8402]. In general, the SRGB need not be a
   contiguous range of labels.

   For the rest of this document, the SRGB is specified by the list of
   MPLS Label ranges [Ll(1),Lh(1)], [Ll(2),Lh(2)],..., [Ll(k),Lh(k)]
   where  Ll(i) =< Lh(i).

   The following rules apply to the list of MPLS ranges representing the
   SRGB

   o  The list of ranges comprising the SRGB MUST NOT overlap.

   o  Every range in the list of ranges specifying the SRGB MUST NOT
      cover or overlap with a reserved label value or range [RFC7274],
      respectively.

   o  If the SRGB of a node does not conform to the structure specified
      in this section or to the previous two rules, then this SRGB MUST
      be completely ignored by all routers in the routing domain and the
      node MUST be treated as if it does not have an SRGB.

   o  The list of label ranges MUST only be used to instantiate global
      SIDs into the MPLS forwarding plane

   A Local segment MAY be allocated from the Segment Routing Local Block
   (SRLB) [RFC8402] or from any unused label as long as it does not use
   a special purpose label. The SRLB consists of the range of local
   labels reserved by the node for certain local segments.  In a
   controller-driven network, some controllers or applications MAY use
   the control plane to discover the available set of local SIDs on a
   particular router [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-policy]. The rules
   applicable to the SRGB are also applicable to the SRLB, except rule
   that says that the SRGB MUST only be used to instantiate global SIDs
   into the MPLS forwarding plane. The recommended, minimum, or maximum
   size of the SRGB and/or SRLB is a matter of future study

2.4. Mapping a SID Index to an MPLS label

   This sub-section specifies how the MPLS label value is calculated
   given the index of a SID. The value of the index is determined by an
   MCC such as IS-IS [I-D.ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions] or OSPF
   [I-D.ietf-ospf-segment-routing-extensions]. This section only
   specifies how to map the index to an MPLS label. The calculated MPLS



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   label is downloaded to the FIB, sent out with a forwarded packet, or
   both.

   Consider a SID represented by the index "I". Consider an SRGB as
   specified in Section 2.3. The total size of the SRGB, represented by
   the variable "Size", is calculated according to the formula:

   size = Lh(1)- Ll(1) + 1 + Lh(2)- Ll(2) + 1 + ... + Lh(k)- Ll(k) + 1

   The following rules MUST be applied by the MCC when calculating the
   MPLS label value corresponding the SID index value "I".

   o  0 =< I < size. If the index "I" does not satisfy the previous
      inequality, then the label cannot be calculated.

   o  The label value corresponding to the SID index "I" is calculated
      as follows

       o j = 1 , temp = 0

       o While temp + Lh(j)- Ll(j) < I

            . temp = temp + Lh(j)- Ll(j) + 1

            . j = j+1

       o label = I - temp + Ll(j)

   An example for how a router calculates labels and forwards traffic
   based on the procedure described in this section can be found in
   Appendix A.1.

2.5. Incoming Label Collision

   MPLS Architecture [RFC3031] defines Forwarding Equivalence Class
   (FEC) term as the set of packets with similar and / or identical
   characteristics which are forwarded the same way and are bound to the
   same MPLS incoming (local) label. In Segment-Routing MPLS, local
   label serves as the SID for given FEC.

   We define Segment Routing (SR) FEC as one of the following [RFC8402]:








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   o  (Prefix, Routing Instance, Topology, Algorithm [RFC8402]), where a
      topology identifies a set of links with metrics. For the purpose
      of incoming label collision resolution, the same Topology
      numerical value SHOULD be used on all routers to identify the same
      set of links with metrics. For MCCs where the "Topology" and/or
      "Algorithm" fields are not defined, the numerical value of zero
      MUST be used for these two fields. For the purpose of incoming
      label collision resolution, a routing instance is identified by a
      single incoming label downloader to FIB. Two MCCs running on the
      same router are considered different routing instances if the only
      way the two instances can know about the other's incoming labels
      is through redistribution. The numerical value used to identify a
      routing instance MAY be derived from other configuration or MAY be
      explicitly configured. If it is derived from other configuration,
      then the same numerical value SHOULD be derived from the same
      configuration as long as the configuration survives router reload.
      If the derived numerical value varies for the same configuration,
      then an implementation SHOULD make numerical value used to
      identify a routing instance configurable.

   o  (next-hop, outgoing interface), where the outgoing interface is
      physical or virtual.

   o  (number of adjacencies, list of next-hops, list of outgoing
      interfaces IDs in ascending numerical order). This FEC represents
      parallel adjacencies [RFC8402]

   o  (Endpoint, Color) representing an SR policy [RFC8042]

   o  (Mirrored SID) The Mirrored SID [RFC8042, Section 5.1] is the IP
      address advertised by the advertising node to identify the mirror-
      SID. The IP address is encoded as specified in Section 2.5.1.

   This section covers the RECOMMENDED procedure to handle the scenario
   where, because of an error/misconfiguration, more than one SR FEC as
   defined in this section, map to the same incoming MPLS label.
   Examples illustrating the behavior specified in this section can be
   found in Appendix A.2.

   An incoming label collision occurs if the SIDs of the set of FECs
   {FEC1, FEC2,..., FECk} maps to the same incoming SR MPLS label "L1".

   Suppose an anycast prefix is advertised with a prefix-SID by some,
   but not all, of the nodes that advertise that prefix. If the prefix-
   SID subTLVs result in mapping that anycast prefix to the same
   incoming label, then the advertisement of the prefix-SID by some, but



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   not all, of advertising nodes SHOULD NOT be treated as a label
   collision.

   An implementation MUST NOT allow the MCCs belonging to the same
   router to assign the same incoming label to more than one SR FEC. An
   implementation that allows such behavior is considered as faulty.
   Procedures defined in this document equally applies to this case,
   both for incoming label collision (Section 2.5) and the effect on
   outgoing label programming (Section 2.6).

   The objective of the following steps is to deterministically install
   in the MPLS Incoming Label Map, also known as label FIB, a single FEC
   with the incoming label "L1". Remaining FECs may be installed in the
   IP FIB without incoming label.

   The procedure in this section relies completely on the local FEC and
   label database within a given router.

   The collision resolution procedure is as follows

   1. Given the SIDs of the set of FECs, {FEC1, FEC2,..., FECk} map to
      the same MPLS label "L1".

   2. Within an MCC, apply tie-breaking rules to select one FEC only and
      assign the label to it. The losing FECs are handled as if no
      labels are attached to them. The losing FECs with a non-zero
      algorithm are not installed in FIB.

       a. If the same set of FECs are attached to the same label "L1",
          then the tie-breaking rules MUST always select the same FEC
          irrespective of the order in which the FECs and the label "L1"
          are received. In other words, the tie-breaking rule MUST be
          deterministic. For example, a first-come-first-serve tie-
          breaking is not allowed.

   3. If there is still collision between the FECs belonging to
      different MCCs, then re-apply the tie-breaking rules to the
      remaining FECs to select one FEC only and assign the label to that
      FEC

   4. Install into the IP FIB the selected FEC and its incoming label in
      the label FIB.







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   5. The remaining FECs with the default algorithm (see the
      specification of prefix-SID algorithm [RFC8402]) are installed in
      the FIB natively, such as pure IP entries in case of Prefix FEC,
      without any incoming labels corresponding to their SIDs. The
      remaining FECs with a non-zero algorithm are not installed in the
      FIB.

2.5.1. Tie-breaking Rules

   The default tie-breaking rules SHOULD be as follows:

   1. if FECi has the lowest FEC administrative distance among the
      competing FECs as defined in this section below, filter away all
      the competing FECs with higher administrative distance.

   2. if more than one competing FEC remains after step 1, select the
      smallest numerical FEC value

   These rules deterministically select the FEC to install in the MPLS
   forwarding plane for the given incoming label.

   This document defines the default tie breaking rules that SHOULD be
   implemented. An implementation MAY choose to implement additional
   tie-breaking rules. All routers in a routing domain SHOULD use the
   same tie-breaking rules to maximize forwarding consistency.

   Each FEC is assigned an administrative distance. The FEC
   administrative distance is encoded as an 8-bit value. The lower the
   value, the better the administrative distance.

   The default FEC administrative distance order starting from the
   lowest value SHOULD be

   o  Explicit SID assignment to a FEC that maps to a label outside the
      SRGB irrespective of the owner MCC. An explicit SID assignment is
      a static assignment of a label to a FEC such that the assignment
      survives router reboot.

       o An example of explicit SID allocation is static assignment of
         a specific label to an adj-SID.

       o An implementation of explicit SID assignment MUST guarantee
         collision freeness on the same router

   o  Dynamic SID assignment:




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       o For all FEC types except for SR policy, the FEC types are
         ordered using the default administrative distance ordering
         defined by the implementation.

       o Binding SID [RFC8402] assigned to SR Policy always has a
         higher default administrative distance than the default
         administrative distance of any other FEC type

   A user SHOULD ensure that the same administrative distance preference
   is used on all routers to maximize forwarding consistency.

   The numerical sort across FECs SHOULD be performed as follows:

   o  Each FEC is assigned a FEC type encoded in 8 bits. The following
      are the type code point for each SR FEC defined at the beginning
      of this Section:

       o 120: (Prefix, Routing Instance, Topology, Algorithm)

       o 130: (next-hop, outgoing interface)

       o 140: Parallel Adjacency [RFC8402]

       o 150: an SR policy [RFC8402].

       o 160: Mirror SID [RFC8402]

       o The numerical values above are mentioned to guide
         implementation. If other numerical values are used, then the
         numerical values must maintain the same greater-than ordering
         of the numbers mentioned here.

   o  The fields of each FEC are encoded as follows

       o Routing Instance ID represented by 16 bits. For routing
         instances that are identified by less than 16 bits, encode the
         Instance ID in the least significant bits while the most
         significant bits are set to zero

       o Address Family represented by 8 bits, where IPv4 encoded as
         100 and IPv6 is encoded as 110. These numerical values are
         mentioned to guide implementations. If other numerical values
         are used, then the numerical value of IPv4 MUST be less than
         the numerical value for IPv6

       o All addresses are represented in 128 bits as follows



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            . IPv6 address is encoded natively

            . IPv4 address is encoded in the most significant bits and
               the remaining bits are set to zero

       o All prefixes are represented by (128 + 8) bits.

            . A prefix is encoded in the most significant bits and the
               remaining bits are set to zero.

            . The prefix length is encoded before the prefix in a field
               of size 8 bits.

       o Topology ID is represented by 16 bits. For routing instances
         that identify topologies using less than 16 bits, encode the
         topology ID in the least significant bits while the most
         significant bits are set to zero

       o Algorithm is encoded in a 16 bits field.

       o The Color ID is encoded using 32 bits

   o  Choose the set of FECs of the smallest FEC type code point

   o  Out of these FECs, choose the FECs with the smallest address
      family code point

   o  Encode the remaining set of FECs as follows

       o Prefix, Routing Instance, Topology, Algorithm: (Prefix Length,
         Prefix, routing_instance_id, Topology, SR Algorithm,)

       o (next-hop, outgoing interface): (next-hop,
         outgoing_interface_id)

      o (number of adjacencies, list of next-hops in ascending
         numerical order, list of outgoing interface IDs in ascending
         numerical order). This encoding is used to encode a parallel
         adjacency [RFC8402]

       o (Endpoint, Color): (Endpoint_address, Color_id)

       o (IP address): This is the encoding for a mirror SID FEC. The IP
        address is encoded as described above in this section

   o  Select the FEC with the smallest numerical value



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   The numerical values mentioned in this section are for guidance only.
   If other numerical values are used then the other numerical values
   MUST maintain the same numerical ordering among different

2.5.2. Redistribution between Routing Protocol Instances

   The following rule SHOULD be applied when redistributing SIDs with
   prefixes between routing protocol instances:

   o  If the receiving instance's SRGB is the same as the SRGB of origin
      instance, then

       o the index is redistributed with the route

   o  Else

       o the index is not redistributed and if needed it is the duty of
         the receiving instance to allocate a fresh index relative to
         its own SRGB. Note that in that case, the receiving instance
         MUST compute its local label according to section 2.4 and
         install it in FIB.

   It is outside the scope of this document to define local node
   behaviors that would allow to map the original index into a new index
   in the receiving instance via the addition of an offset or other
   policy means.

2.5.2.1. Illustration

           A----IS-IS----B---OSPF----C-192.0.2.1/32 (20001)


   Consider the simple topology above.

   o  A and B are in the IS-IS domain with SRGB [16000-17000]

   o  B and C are in OSPF domain with SRGB [20000-21000]

   o  B redistributes 192.0.2.1/32 into IS-IS domain

   o  In that case A learns 192.0.2.1/32 as an IP leaf connected to B as
      usual for IP prefix redistribution

   o  However, according to the redistribution rule above rule, B
      decides not to advertise any index with 192.0.2.1/32 into IS-IS
      because the SRGB is not the same.



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2.5.2.2. Illustration 2

   Consider the example in the illustration described in Section
   2.5.2.1.

   When router B redistributes the prefix 192.0.2.1/32, router B decides
   to allocate and advertise the same index 1 with the prefix
   192.0.2.1/32

   Within the SRGB of the IS-IS domain, index 1 corresponds to the local
   label 16001

   o  Hence according to the redistribution rule above, router B
      programs the incoming label 16001 in its FIB to match traffic
      arriving from the IS-IS domain destined to the prefix
      192.0.2.1/32.


2.6. Effect of Incoming Label Collision on Outgoing Label Programming

   For the determination of the outgoing label to use, the ingress node
   pushing new segments, and hence a stack of MPLS labels, MUST use, for
   a given FEC, the same label that has been selected by the node
   receiving the packet with that label exposed as top label. So in case
   of incoming label collision on this receiving node, the ingress node
   MUST resolve this collision using this same "Incoming Label Collision
   resolution procedure", using the data of the receiving node.

   In the general case, the ingress node may not have exactly the same
   data of the receiving node, so the result may be different. This is
   under the responsibility of the network operator. But in typical
   case, e.g. where a centralized node or a distributed link state IGP
   is used, all nodes would have the same database. However to minimize
   the chance of misforwarding, a FEC that loses its incoming label to
   the tie-breaking rules specified in Section 2.5 MUST NOT be
   installed in FIB with an outgoing segment routing label based on the
   SID corresponding to the lost incoming label.

   Examples for the behavior specified in this section can be found in
   Appendix A.3.

2.7. PUSH, CONTINUE, and NEXT

   PUSH, NEXT, and CONTINUE are operations applied by the forwarding
   plane. The specifications of these operations can be found in
   [RFC8402]. This sub-section specifies how to implement each of these
   operations in the MPLS forwarding plane.


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2.7.1. PUSH

   PUSH corresponds to pushing one or more labels on top of an incoming
   packet then sending it out of a particular physical interface or
   virtual interface, such as UDP tunnel [RFC7510] or L2TPv3 tunnel
   [RFC4817], towards a particular next-hop. When pushing labels onto a
   packet's label stack, the Time-to-Live (TTL) field ([RFC3032],
   [RFC3443]) and the Traffic Class (TC) field ([RFC3032], [RFC5462]) of
   each label stack entry must, of course, be set.  This document does
   not specify any set of rules for setting these fields; that is a
   matter of local policy. Sections 2.10 and 2.11 specify additional
   details about forwarding behavior.

2.7.2. CONTINUE

   In the MPLS forwarding plane, the CONTINUE operation corresponds to
   swapping the incoming label with an outgoing label. The value of the
   outgoing label is calculated as specified in Sections 2.10 and 2.11.

2.7.3. NEXT

   In the MPLS forwarding plane, NEXT corresponds to popping the topmost
   label. The action before and/or after the popping depends on the
   instruction associated with the active SID on the received packet
   prior to the popping. For example suppose the active SID in the
   received packet was an Adj-SID [RFC8402], then on receiving the
   packet, the node applies NEXT operation, which corresponds to popping
   the top most label, and then sends the packet out of the physical or
   virtual interface (e.g. UDP tunnel [RFC7510] or L2TPv3 tunnel
   [RFC4817]) towards the next-hop corresponding to the adj-SID.

2.7.3.1. Mirror SID

   If the active SID in the received packet was a Mirror SID [RFC8402,
   Section 5.1] allocated by the receiving router, then the receiving
   router applies NEXT operation, which corresponds to popping the top
   most label, then performs a lookup using the contents of the packet
   after popping the outer most label in the mirrored forwarding table.
   The method by which the lookup is made, and/or the actions applied to
   the packet after the lookup in the mirror table depends on the
   contents of the packet and the mirror table. Note that the packet
   exposed after popping the top most label may or may not be an MPLS
   packet. A mirror SID can be viewed as a generalization of the context
   label in [RFC5331] because a mirror SID does not make any
   assumptions about the packet underneath the top label.




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2.8. MPLS Label Downloaded to FIB for Global and Local SIDs

   The label corresponding to the global SID "Si" represented by the
   global index "I" downloaded to FIB is used to match packets whose
   active segment (and hence topmost label) is "Si". The value of this
   label is calculated as specified in Section 2.4.

   For Local SIDs, the MCC is responsible for downloading the correct
   label value to FIB. For example, an IGP with SR extensions [I-D.ietf-
   isis-segment-routing-extensions, I-D.ietf-ospf-segment-routing-
   extensions] allocates and downloads the MPLS label corresponding to
   an Adj-SID [RFC8402].

2.9. Active Segment

   When instantiated in the MPLS domain, the active segment on a packet
   corresponds to the topmost label on the packet that is calculated
   according to the procedure specified in Sections 2.10 and 2.11. When
   arriving at a node, the topmost label corresponding to the active SID
   matches the MPLS label downloaded to FIB as specified in Section 2.4.

2.10. Forwarding behavior for Global SIDs

   This section specifies forwarding behavior, including the calculation
   of outgoing labels, that corresponds to a global SID when applying
   PUSH, CONTINUE, and NEXT operations in the MPLS forwarding plane.

   This document covers the calculation of the outgoing label for the
   top label only. The case where the outgoing label is not the top
   label and is part of a stack of labels that instantiates a routing
   policy or a traffic engineering tunnel is outside the scope of this
   document and may be covered in other documents such as [I-D.ietf-
   spring-segment-routing-policy].

2.10.1. Forwarding for PUSH and CONTINUE of Global SIDs

   Suppose an MCC on a router "R0" determines that PUSH or CONTINUE
   operation is to be applied to an incoming packet related to the
   global SID "Si" represented by the global index "I" and owned by the
   router Ri before sending the packet towards a neighbor "N" directly
   connected to "R0" through a physical or virtual interface such as UDP
   tunnel [RFC7510] or L2TPv3 tunnel [RFC4817].

   The method by which the MCC on router "R0" determines that PUSH or
   CONTINUE operation must be applied using the SID "Si" is beyond the
   scope of this document. An example of a method to determine the SID
   "Si" for PUSH operation is the case where IS-IS [I-D.ietf-isis-


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   segment-routing-extensions] receives the prefix-SID "Si" sub-TLV
   advertised with prefix "P/m" in TLV 135 and the destination address
   of the incoming IPv4 packet is covered by the prefix "P/m".

   For CONTINUE operation, an example of a method to determine the SID
   "Si" is the case where IS-IS [I-D.ietf-isis-segment-routing-
   extensions] receives the prefix-SID "Si" sub-TLV advertised with
   prefix "P" in TLV 135 and the top label of the incoming packet
   matches the MPLS label in FIB corresponding to the SID "Si" on the
   router "R0".

   The forwarding behavior for PUSH and CONTINUE corresponding to the
   SID "Si"

   o  If the neighbor "N" does not support SR or advertises an invalid
      SRGB or a SRGB that is too small for the SID "Si"

       o If it is possible to send the packet towards the neighbor "N"
         using standard MPLS forwarding behavior as specified in
         [RFC3031] and [RFC3032], then forward the packet. The method
         by which a router decides whether it is possible to send the
         packet to "N" or not is beyond the scope of this document. For
         example, the router "R0" can use the downstream label
         determined by another MCC, such as LDP [RFC5036], to send the
         packet.

       o Else if there are other useable next-hops, then use other next-
         hops to forward the incoming packet. The method by which the
         router "R0" decides on the possibility of using other next-
         hops is beyond the scope of this document. For example, the
         MCC on "R0" may chose the send an IPv4 packet without pushing
         any label to another next-hop.

       o Otherwise drop the packet.

   o  Else

      o Calculate the outgoing label as specified in Section 2.4 using
        the SRGB of the neighbor "N"

       o If the operation is PUSH

           .  Push the calculated label according the MPLS label
              pushing rules specified in [RFC3032]

       o Else



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           .  swap the incoming label with the calculated label
              according to the label swapping rules in [RFC3032]

       o Send the packet towards the neighbor "N"



2.10.2. Forwarding for NEXT Operation for Global SIDs

   As specified in Section 2.7.3 NEXT operation corresponds to popping
   the top most label. The forwarding behavior is as follows

   o  Pop the topmost label

   o  Apply the instruction associated with the incoming label that has
      been popped

   The action on the packet after popping the topmost label depends on
   the instruction associated with the incoming label as well as the
   contents of the packet right underneath the top label that got
   popped. Examples of NEXT operation are described in Appendix A.1.

2.11. Forwarding Behavior for Local SIDs

   This section specifies the forwarding behavior for local SIDs when SR
   is instantiated over the MPLS forwarding plane.

2.11.1. Forwarding for PUSH Operation on Local SIDs

   Suppose an MCC on a router "R0" determines that PUSH operation is to
   be applied to an incoming packet using the local SID "Si" before
   sending the packet towards a neighbor "N" directly connected to R0
   through a physical or virtual interface such as UDP tunnel [RFC7510]
   or L2TPv3 tunnel [RFC4817].

   An example of such local SID is an Adj-SID allocated and advertised
   by IS-IS [I-D.ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions]. The method by
   which the MCC on "R0" determines that PUSH operation is to be applied
   to the incoming packet is beyond the scope of this document. An
   example of such method is backup path used to protect against a
   failure using TI-LFA [I-D.bashandy-rtgwg-segment-routing-ti-lfa].

   As mentioned in [RFC8402], a local SID is specified by an MPLS label.
   Hence the PUSH operation for a local SID is identical to label push
   operation [RFC3032] using any MPLS label. The forwarding action after
   pushing the MPLS label corresponding to the local SID is also
   determined by the MCC. For example, if the PUSH operation was done to


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   forward a packet over a backup path calculated using TI-LFA, then the
   forwarding action may be sending the packet to a certain neighbor
   that will in turn continue to forward the packet along the backup
   path

2.11.2. Forwarding for CONTINUE Operation for Local SIDs

   A local SID on a router "R0" corresponds to a local label. In such
   scenario, the outgoing label towards a next-hop "N" is determined by
   the MCC running on the router "R0"and the forwarding behavior for
   CONTINUE operation is identical to swap operation [RFC3032] on an
   MPLS label.

2.11.3. Outgoing label for NEXT Operation for Local SIDs

   NEXT operation for Local SIDs is identical to NEXT operation for
   global SIDs specified in Section 2.10.2.



3. IANA Considerations

   This document does not make any request to IANA.

4. Manageability Considerations

   This document describes the applicability of Segment Routing over the
   MPLS data plane.  Segment Routing does not introduce any change in
   the MPLS data plane.  Manageability considerations described in
   [RFC8402] applies to the MPLS data plane when used with Segment
   Routing. SR OAM use cases for the MPLS data plane are defined in
   [RFC8403].  SR OAM procedures for the MPLS data plane are defined in
   [RFC8287].

5. Security Considerations

   This document does not introduce additional security requirements and
   mechanisms other than the ones described in [RFC8402].

6. Contributors

   The following contributors have substantially helped the definition
   and editing of the content of this document:






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   Martin Horneffer
   Deutsche Telekom
   Email: Martin.Horneffer@telekom.de

   Wim Henderickx
   Nokia
   Email: wim.henderickx@nokia.com

   Jeff Tantsura
   Email: jefftant@gmail.com
   Edward Crabbe
   Email: edward.crabbe@gmail.com

   Igor Milojevic
   Email: milojevicigor@gmail.com

   Saku Ytti
   Email: saku@ytti.fi


7. Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Les Ginsberg, Chris Bowers, Himanshu
   Shah, Adrian Farrel, Alexander Vainshtein, Przemyslaw Krol, Darren
   Dukes, and Zafar Ali for their valuable comments on this document.

   This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.

8. References

8.1. Normative References

   [RFC8402] Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., and
             R. Shakir, "Segment Routing Architecture", RFC 8402, DOI
             10.17487/RFC8402 July 2018, <http://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc8402>.

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI
             0.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <http://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3031] Rosen, E., Viswanathan, A., and R. Callon, "Multiprotocol
             Label Switching Architecture", RFC 3031, DOI
             10.17487/RFC3031, January 2001, <http://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc3031>.



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   [RFC3032] Rosen, E., Tappan, D., Fedorkow, G., Rekhter, Y.,
             Farinacci, D., Li, T., and A. Conta, "MPLS Label Stack
             Encoding", RFC 3032, DOI 10.17487/RFC3032, January 2001,
             <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3032>.

   [RFC3443] P. Agarwal, P. and Akyol, B. "Time To Live (TTL) Processing
             in Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) Networks", RFC
             3443, DOI 10.17487/RFC3443, January 2003, <http://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc3443>.

   [RFC5462] Andersson, L., and Asati, R., " Multiprotocol Label
             Switching (MPLS) Label Stack Entry: "EXP" Field Renamed to
             "Traffic Class" Field", RFC 5462, DOI 10.17487/RFC5462,
             February 2009, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5462>.

   [RFC7274] K. Kompella, L. Andersson, and A. Farrel, "Allocating and
             Retiring Special-Purpose MPLS Labels", RFC7274 DOI
             10.17487/RFC7274, May 2014 <http://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc7274>

   [RFC8174] B. Leiba, " Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119
             Key Words", RFC7274 DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, May 2017
             <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>



8.2. Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions] Previdi, S., Filsfils, C.,
             Bashandy, A., Gredler, H., Litkowski, S., Decraene, B., and
             j. jefftant@gmail.com, "IS-IS Extensions for Segment
             Routing", draft-ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions-13
             (work in progress), June 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-ospf-ospfv3-segment-routing-extensions] Psenak, P.,
             Previdi, S., Filsfils, C., Gredler, H., Shakir, R.,
             Henderickx, W., and J. Tantsura, "OSPFv3 Extensions for
             Segment Routing", draft-ietf-ospf-ospfv3-segment-routing-
             extensions-09 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-ospf-segment-routing-extensions] Psenak, P., Previdi, S.,
             Filsfils, C., Gredler, H., Shakir, R., Henderickx, W., and
             J. Tantsura, "OSPF Extensions for Segment Routing", draft-
             ietf-ospf-segment-routing-extensions-16 (work in progress),
             May 2017.




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   [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-ldp-interop] Filsfils, C., Previdi,
             S., Bashandy, A., Decraene, B., and S. Litkowski, "Segment
             Routing interworking with LDP", draft-ietf-spring-segment-
             routing-ldp-interop-08 (work in progress), June 2017.

   [I-D.bashandy-rtgwg-segment-routing-ti-lfa], Bashandy, A., Filsfils,
             C., Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., Francois, P., Voyer, P.
             Clad, F., and Camarillo, P.,   "Topology Independent Fast
             Reroute using Segment Routing", draft-bashandy-rtgwg-
             segment-routing-ti-lfa-05 (work in progress), October 2018,

   [RFC7855]  Previdi, S., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Decraene, B.,
             Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., and R. Shakir, "Source Packet
             Routing in Networking (SPRING) Problem Statement and
             Requirements", RFC 7855, DOI 10.17487/RFC7855, May 2016,
             <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7855>.

   [RFC5036] Andersson, L., Acreo, AB, Minei, I., Thomas, B., " LDP
             Specification", RFC5036, DOI 10.17487/RFC5036, October
             2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5036>

   [RFC5331] Aggarwal, R., Rekhter, Y., Rosen, E., " MPLS Upstream Label
             Assignment and Context-Specific Label Space", RFC5331 DOI
             10.17487/RFC5331, August 2008, <http://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc5331>.

   [RFC7510]  Xu, X., Sheth, N., Yong, L., Callon, R., and D. Black,
             "Encapsulating MPLS in UDP", RFC 7510, DOI
             10.17487/RFC7510, April 2015, <https://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc7510>.

   [RFC4817] Townsley, M., Pignataro, C., Wainner, S., Seely, T., Young,
             T., "Encapsulation of MPLS over Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
             Version 3", RFC4817, DOI 10.17487/RFC4817, March 2007,
             <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4817>

   [RFC8287] N. Kumar, C. Pignataro, G. Swallow, N. Akiya, S. Kini, and
             M. Chen " Label Switched Path (LSP) Ping/Traceroute for
             Segment Routing (SR) IGP-Prefix and IGP-Adjacency Segment
             Identifiers (SIDs) with MPLS Data Planes" RFC8287, DOI
             10.17487/RFC8287, December 2017, https://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc8287

   [RFC8403] R. Geib, C. Filsfils, C. Pignataro, N. Kumar, "A Scalable
             and Topology-Aware MPLS Data-Plane Monitoring System",
             RFC8403, DOI 10.17487/RFC8403, July 2018, <https://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc8403>


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   [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-policy] Filsfils, C.,  Sivabalan,
   S., Raza, K., Liste,  J. , Clad, F., Voyer,  D., Bogdanov, A.,
   Mattes, P., " Segment Routing Policy for Traffic Engineering",
   draft-ietf-spring-segment-routing-policy-01 (work in progress), June
   2018












































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9. Authors' Addresses


     Ahmed Bashandy (editor)
     Arrcus

     Email: abashandy.ietf@gmail.com


     Clarence Filsfils (editor)
     Cisco Systems, Inc.
     Brussels
     BE

     Email: cfilsfil@cisco.com


     Stefano Previdi
     Cisco Systems, Inc.
     Italy

     Email: stefano@previdi.net


     Bruno Decraene
     Orange
     FR

     Email: bruno.decraene@orange.com




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     Stephane Litkowski
     Orange
     FR

     Email: stephane.litkowski@orange.com


     Rob Shakir
     Google
     US

     Email: robjs@google.com































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Appendix A. Examples


A.1. IGP Segments Example

   Consider the network diagram of Figure 1 and the IP address and IGP
   Segment allocation of Figure 2. Assume that the network is running
   IS-IS with SR extensions [I-D.ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions]
   and all links have the same metric. The following examples can be
   constructed.

                                +--------+
                               /          \
                R0-----R1-----R2----------R3-----R8
                              | \        / |
                              |  +--R4--+  |
                              |            |
                              +-----R5-----+

                   Figure 1: IGP Segments - Illustration





























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       +-----------------------------------------------------------+
       | IP address allocated by the operator:                     |
       |                      192.0.2.1/32 as a loopback of R1     |
       |                      192.0.2.2/32 as a loopback of R2     |
       |                      192.0.2.3/32 as a loopback of R3     |
       |                      192.0.2.4/32 as a loopback of R4     |
       |                      192.0.2.5/32 as a loopback of R5     |
       |                      192.0.2.8/32 as a loopback of R8     |
       |              198.51.100.9/32 as an anycast loopback of R4 |
       |              198.51.100.9/32 as an anycast loopback of R5 |
       |                                                           |
       | SRGB defined by the operator as 1000-5000                 |
       |                                                           |
       | Global IGP SID indices allocated by the operator:         |
       |                      1 allocated to 192.0.2.1/32          |
       |                      2 allocated to 192.0.2.2/32          |
       |                      3 allocated to 192.0.2.3/32          |
       |                      4 allocated to 192.0.2.4/32          |
       |                      8 allocated to 192.0.2.8/32          |
       |                   1009 allocated to 198.51.100.9/32       |
       |                                                           |
       | Local IGP SID allocated dynamically by R2                 |
       |                     for its "north" adjacency to R3: 9001 |
       |                     for its "north" adjacency to R3: 9003 |
       |                     for its "south" adjacency to R3: 9002 |
       |                     for its "south" adjacency to R3: 9003 |
       +-----------------------------------------------------------+

        Figure 2: IGP Address and Segment Allocation - Illustration


   Suppose R1 wants to send an IPv4 packet P1 to R8. In this case, R1
   needs to apply PUSH operation to the IPv4 packet.

   Remember that the SID index "8" is a global IGP segment attached to
   the IP prefix 192.0.2.8/32. Its semantic is global within the IGP
   domain: any router forwards a packet received with active segment 8
   to the next-hop along the ECMP-aware shortest-path to the related
   prefix.

   R2 is the next-hop along the shortest path towards R8. By applying
   the steps in Section 2.8 the outgoing label downloaded to R1's FIB
   corresponding to the global SID index 8 is 1008 because the SRGB of
   R2 is [1000,5000] as shown in Figure 2.

   Because the packet is IPv4, R1 applies the PUSH operation using the
   label value 1008 as specified in Section 2.10.1. The resulting MPLS


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   header will have the "S" bit [RFC3032] set because it is followed
   directly by an IPv4 packet.

   The packet arrives at router R2. Because the top label 1008
   corresponds to the IGP SID "8", which is the prefix-SID attached to
   the prefix 192.0.2.8/32 owned by the node R8, then the instruction
   associated with the SID is "forward the packet using all ECMP/UCMP
   interfaces and all ECMP/UCMP next-hop(s) along the shortest/useable
   path(s) towards R8". Because R2 is not the penultimate hop, R2
   applies the CONTINUE operation to the packet and sends it to R3 using
   one of the two links connected to R3 with top label 1008 as specified
   in Section 2.10.1.

   R3 receives the packet with top label 1008. Because the top label
   1008 corresponds to the IGP SID "8", which is the prefix-SID attached
   to the prefix 192.0.2.8/32 owned by the node R8, then the instruction
   associated with the SID is "send the packet using all ECMP interfaces
   and all next-hop(s) along the shortest path towards R8". Because R3
   is the penultimate hop, we assume that R3 performs penumtimate hop
   popping, which corresponds to the NEXT operation, then sends the
   packet to R8. The NEXT operation results in popping the outer label
   and sending the packet as a pure IPv4 packet to R8.

   In conclusion, the path followed by P1 is R1-R2--R3-R8.  The ECMP-
   awareness ensures that the traffic be load-shared between any ECMP
   path, in this case the two links between R2 and R3.

A.2. Incoming Label Collision Examples

   This section describes few examples to illustrate the handling of
   label collision described in Section 2.5.

   For the examples in this section, we assume that Node A has the
   following:

   o  OSPF default admin distance for implementation=50

   o  ISIS default admin distance for implementation=60



A.2.1. Example 1

   Illustration of incoming label collision resolution for the same FEC
   type using MCC administrative distance.

   FEC1:


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   o  OSPF prefix SID advertisement from node B for 198.51.100.5/32 with
      index=5

   o  OSPF SRGB on node A = [1000,1999]

   o  Incoming label=1005



   FEC2:
   o  ISIS prefix SID advertisement from node C for 203.0.113.105/32
      with index=5

   o  ISIS SRGB on node A = [1000,1999]

   o  Incoming label=1005

   FEC1 and FEC2 both use dynamic SID assignment.  Since neither ofthe
   FEC types is SR Policy, we use the default admin distances of 50 and
   60 to break the tie.  So FEC1 wins.

A.2.2. Example 2

   Illustration of incoming label collision resolution for different FEC
   types using the MCC administrative distance.

   FEC1:
   o  Node A receives an OSPF prefix sid advertisement from node B for
      198.51.100.6/32 with index=6

   o  OSPF SRGB on node A = [1000,1999]

   o  Hence the incoming label on node A corresponding to
      198.51.100.6/32 is 1006

   FEC2:
   ISIS on node A assigns the label 1006 to the globally significant
   adj-SID (I.e. when advertised the "L" flag is clear in the adj-SID
   sub-TLV as described in [I-D.ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions])
   towards one of its neighbors. Hence the incoming label corresponding
   to this adj-SID 1006. Assume Node A allocates this adj-SID
   dynamically, and it may differ across router reboots.





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   FEC1 and FEC2 both use dynamic SID assignment.  Since neither of the
   FEC types is SR Policy, we use the default admin distances of 50 and
   60 to break the tie.  So FEC1 wins.

A.2.3. Example 3

   Illustration of incoming label collision resolution based on
   preferring static over dynamic SID assignment

   FEC1:
   OSPF on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node B for
   198.51.100.7/32 with index=7. Assuming that the OSPF SRGB on node A
   is [1000,1999], then incoming label corresponding to 198.51.100.7/32
   is 1007

   FEC2:
   The operator on node A configures ISIS on node A to assign the label
   1007 to the globally significant adj-SID (I.e. when advertised the
   "L" flag is clear in the adj-SID sub-TLV as described in [I-D.ietf-
   isis-segment-routing-extensions]) towards one of its neighbor
   advertisement from node A with label=1007

   Node A assigns this adj-SID explicitly via configuration, so the adj-
   SID survives router reboots.



   FEC1 uses dynamic SID assignment, while FEC2 uses explicit SID
   assignment. So FEC2 wins.

A.2.4. Example 4

   Illustration of incoming label collision resolution using FEC type
   default administrative distance

   FEC1:
   OSPF on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node B for
   198.51.100.8/32 with index=8. Assuming that OSPF SRGB on node A =
   [1000,1999], the incoming label corresponding to 198.51.100.8/32  is
   1008.

   FEC2:
   Suppose the SR Policy advertisement from controller to node A for the
   policy identified by (Endpoint = 192.0.2.208, color = 100) and



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   consisting of SID-List = <S1, S2> assigns the globally significant
   Binding-SID label 1008

   From the point of view of node A, FEC1 and FEC2 both use dynamic SID
   assignment. Based on the default administrative distance outlined in
   Section 2.5.1, the binding SID has a higher administrative distance
   than the prefix-SID and hence FEC1 wins.

A.2.5. Example 5

   Illustration of incoming label collision resolution based on FEC type
   preference

   FEC1:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node B for
   203.0.113.110/32 with index=10. Assuming that the ISIS SRGB on node A
   is [1000,1999], then incoming label corresponding to 203.0.113.110/32
   is 1010.

   FEC2:
   ISIS on node A assigns the label 1010 to the globally significant
   adj-SID (I.e. when advertised the "L" flag is clear in the adj-SID
   sub-TLV as described in [I-D.ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions])
   towards one of its neighbors).

   Node A allocates this adj-SID dynamically, and it may differ across
   router reboots. Hence both FEC1 and FEC2 both use dynamic SID
   assignment.

   Since both FECs are from the same MCC, they have the same default
   admin distance. So we compare FEC type code-point. FEC1 has FEC type
   code-point=120, while FEC2 has FEC type code-point=130. Therefore,
   FEC1 wins.

A.2.6. Example 6

   Illustration of incoming label collision resolution based on address
   family preference.

   FEC1:
   ISIS on node A receives prefix SID advertisement from node B for
   203.0.113.111/32 with index 11. Assuming that the ISIS SRGB on node A
   is [1000,1999], the incoming label on node A for 203.0.113.111/32 is
   1011.



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   FEC2:
   ISIS on node A prefix SID advertisement from node C for
   2001:DB8:1000::11/128 with index=11. Assuming that the ISIS SRGB on
   node A is [1000,1999], the incoming label on node A for
   2001:DB8:1000::11/128 is 1011

   FEC1 and FEC2 both use dynamic SID assignment. Since both FECs are
   from the same MCC, they have the same default admin distance. So we
   compare FEC type code-point. Both FECs have FEC type code-point=120.
   So we compare address family. Since IPv4 is preferred over IPv6, FEC1
   wins.

A.2.7. Example 7

   Illustration incoming label collision resolution based on prefix
   length.

   FEC1:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node B for
   203.0.113.112/32 with index 12. Assuming that ISIS SRGB on node A is
   [1000,1999], the incoming label for 203.0.113.112/32 on node A is
   1012.

   FEC2:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node C for
   203.0.113.128/30 with index 12. Assuming that the ISIS SRGB on node A
   is [1000,1999], then incoming label for 203.0.113.128/30 on node A is
   1012

   FEC1 and FEC2 both use dynamic SID assignment. Since both FECs are
   from the same MCC, they have the same default admin distance. So we
   compare FEC type code-point.  Both FECs have FEC type code-point=120.
   So we compare address family.  Both are IPv4 address family, so we
   compare prefix length.  FEC1 has prefix length=32, and FEC2 has
   prefix length=30, so FEC2 wins.

A.2.8. Example 8

   Illustration of incoming label collision resolution based on the
   numerical value of the FECs.

   FEC1:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node B for
   203.0.113.113/32 with index 13. Assuming that ISIS SRGB on node A is



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   [1000,1999], then the incoming label for 203.0.113.113/32 on node A
   is 1013

   FEC2:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node C for
   203.0.113.213/32 with index 13. Assuming that ISIS SRGB on node A is
   [1000,1999], then the incoming label for 203.0.113.213/32 on node A
   is 1013

   FEC1 and FEC2 both use dynamic SID assignment. Since both FECs are
   from the same MCC, they have the same default admin distance. So we
   compare FEC type code-point.  Both FECs have FEC type code-point=120.
   So we compare address family.  Both are IPv4 address family, so we
   compare prefix length.  Prefix lengths are the same, so we compare
   prefix. FEC1 has the lower prefix, so FEC1 wins.

A.2.9. Example 9

   Illustration of incoming label collision resolution based on routing
   instance ID.

   FEC1:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node B for
   203.0.113.114/32 with index 14. Assume that this ISIS instance on
   node A has the Routing Instance ID 1000 and SRGB [1000,1999]. Hence
   the incoming label for 203.0.113.114/32 on node A is 1014

   FEC2:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node C for
   203.0.113.114/32 with index=14. Assume that this is another instance
   of ISIS on node A with a different routing Instance ID 2000 but the
   same SRGB [1000,1999]. Hence incoming label for 203.0.113.114/32 on
   node A 1014

   These two FECs match all the way through the prefix length and
   prefix. So Routing Instance ID breaks the tie, with FEC1 winning.

A.2.10. Example 10

   Illustration of incoming label collision resolution based on topology
   ID.

   FEC1:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node B for
   203.0.113.115/32 with index=15. Assume that this ISIS instance on


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   node A has Routing Instance ID 1000. Assume that the prefix
   advertisement of 203.0.113.115/32 was received in ISIS Multi-topology
   advertisement with ID = 50. If the ISIS SRGB for this routing
   instance on node A is [1000,1999], then incoming label of
   203.0.113.115/32 for topology 50 on node A is 1015



   FEC2:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node C for
   203.0.113.115/32 with index 15. Assume that it is the same routing
   Instance ID = 1000 but 203.0.113.115/32 was advertised with a
   different ISIS Multi-topology ID = 40. If the ISIS SRGB on node A is
   [1000,1999], then incoming label of 203.0.113.115/32 for topology 40
   on node A is also 1015

   These two FECs match all the way through the prefix length, prefix,
   and Routing Instance ID.  We compare ISIS Multi-topology ID, so FEC2
   wins.

A.2.11. Example 11

   Illustration of incoming label collision for resolution based on
   algorithm ID.

   FEC1:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node B for
   203.0.113.116/32 with index=16 Assume that ISIS on node A has Routing
   Instance ID = 1000. Assume that node B advertised 203.0.113.116/32
   with ISIS Multi-topology ID = 50 and SR algorithm = 0. Assume that
   the ISIS SRGB on node A = [1000,1999]. Hence the incoming label
   corresponding to this advertisement of 203.0.113.116/32 is 1016.

   FEC2:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node C for
   203.0.113.116/32 with index=16. Assume that it is the same ISIS
   instance on node A with Routing Instance ID = 1000. Also assume that
   node C advertised 203.0.113.116/32 with ISIS Multi-topology ID = 50
   but with SR algorithm = 22. Since it is the same routing instance,
   the SRGB on node A = [1000,1999]. Hence the incoming label
   corresponding to this advertisement of 203.0.113.116/32 by node C is
   also 1016.





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   These two FECs match all the way through the prefix length, prefix,
   and Routing Instance ID, and Multi-topology ID. We compare SR
   algorithm ID, so FEC1 wins.

A.2.12. Example 12

   Illustration of incoming label collision resolution based on FEC
   numerical value and independent of how the SID assigned to the
   colliding FECs.

   FEC1:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node B for
   203.0.113.117/32 with index 17. Assume that the ISIS SRGB on node A
   is [1000,1999], then the incoming label is 1017

   FEC2:
   Suppose there is an ISIS mapping server advertisement (SID/Label
   Binding TLV) from node D has Range 100 and Prefix = 203.0.113.1/32.
   Suppose this mapping server advertisement generates 100 mappings, one
   of which maps 203.0.113.17/32 to index 17. Assuming that it is the
   same ISIS instance, then the SRGB is [1000,1999] and hence the
   incoming label for 1017.

   The fact that FEC1 comes from a normal prefix SID advertisement and
   FEC2 is generated from a mapping server advertisement is not used as
   a tie-breaking parameter. Both FECs use dynamic SID assignment, are
   from the same MCC, have the same FEC type code-point=120. Their
   prefix lengths are the same as well.  FEC2 wins based on lower
   numerical prefix value, since 203.0.113.17 is less than
   203.0.113.117.

A.2.13. Example 13

   Illustration of incoming label collision resolution based on address
   family preference

   FEC1:
   SR Policy advertisement from controller to node A. Endpoint
   address=2001:DB8:3000::100, color=100, SID-List=<S1, S2> and the
   Binding-SID label=1020

   FEC2:
   SR Policy advertisement from controller to node A. Endpoint
   address=192.0.2.60, color=100, SID-List=<S3, S4> and the Binding-SID
   label=1020


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   The FECs match through the tie-breaks up to and including having the
   same FEC type code-point=140. FEC2 wins based on IPv4 address family
   being preferred over IPv6.

A.2.14. Example 14

   Illustration of incoming label resolution based on numerical value of
   the policy endpoint.

   FEC1:
   SR Policy advertisement from controller to node A. Endpoint
   address=192.0.2.70, color=100, SID-List=<S1, S2> and Binding-SID
   label=1021

   FEC2:
   SR Policy advertisement from controller to node A Endpoint
   address=192.0.2.71, color=100, SID-List=<S3, S4> and Binding-SID
   label=1021

   The FECs match through the tie-breaks up to and including having the
   same address family. FEC1 wins by having the lower numerical endpoint
   address value.

A.3. Examples for the Effect of Incoming Label Collision on Outgoing
Label

   This section presents examples to illustrate the effect of incoming
   label collision on the selection of the outgoing label described in
   Section 2.6.

A.3.1. Example 1

   Illustration of the effect of incoming label resolution on the
   outgoing label

   FEC1:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node B for
   203.0.113.122/32 with index 22. Assuming that the ISIS SRGB on node A
   is [1000,1999] the corresponding incoming label is 1022.

   FEC2:
   ISIS on node A receives a prefix SID advertisement from node C for
   203.0.113.222/32 with index=22 Assuming that the ISIS SRGB on node A
   is [1000,1999] the corresponding incoming label is 1022.



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   FEC1 wins based on lowest numerical prefix value.  This means that
   node A installs a transit MPLS forwarding entry to SWAP incoming
   label 1022, with outgoing label N and use outgoing interface I. N is
   determined by the index associated with FEC1 (index 22) and the SRGB
   advertised by the next-hop node on the shortest path to reach
   203.0.113.122/32.

   Node A will generally also install an imposition MPLS forwarding
   entry corresponding to FEC1 for incoming prefix=203.0.113.122/32
   pushing outgoing label N, and using outgoing interface I.

   The rule in Section 2.6 means node A MUST NOT install an ingress
   MPLS forwarding entry corresponding to FEC2 (the losing FEC, which
   would be for prefix 203.0.113.222/32).

A.3.2. Example 2

   Illustration of the effect of incoming label collision resolution on
   outgoing label programming on node A

   FEC1:
   o  SR Policy advertisement from controller to node A

   o  Endpoint address=192.0.2.80, color=100, SID-List=<S1, S2>

   o  Binding-SID label=1023

   FEC2:
   o  SR Policy advertisement from controller to node A

   o  Endpoint address=192.0.2.81, color=100, SID-List=<S3, S4>

   o  Binding-SID label=1023

   FEC1 wins by having the lower numerical endpoint address value. This
   means that node A installs a transit MPLS forwarding entry to SWAP
   incoming label=1023, with outgoing labels and outgoing interface
   determined by the SID-List for FEC1.

   In this example, we assume that node A receives two BGP/VPN routes:

   o  R1 with VPN label=V1, BGP next-hop = 192.0.2.80, and color=100,

   o  R2 with VPN label=V2, BGP next-hop = 192.0.2.81, and color=100,




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   We also assume that A has a BGP policy which matches on color=100
   that allows that its usage as SLA steering information. In this case,
   node A will install a VPN route with label stack = <S1,S2,V1>
   (corresponding to FEC1).

   The rule described in section 2.6 means that node A MUST NOT install
   a VPN route with label stack = <S3,S4,V1> (corresponding to FEC2.)










































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